On this Day in History ... 22 May

22 May is in May.

1306 Feast of the Swans

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1538 Execution of Friar John Forest

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1611 May 1611 Creation of Baronets

1685 Argyll's Rising

On 22 May 1070 Amaury Montfort Count Évreux was born to Simon Montfort (age 45) and Agnès of Normandy (age 40).

Feast of the Swans

On 22 May 1306 the Feast of the Swans was a collective knighting of two hundred and sixty seven men at Westminster Abbey [Map].

At the feast following the knightings two swans were brought in. King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 66) swore before God and the swans to avenge the death of John Comyn 3rd Lord Baddenoch - see Robert "The Bruce" murders John "Red" Comyn.

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 66) first knighted his son King Edward II of England (age 22).

King Edward II of England (age 22) then knighted the remaining two-hundred and sixty six including ...

Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 20)

Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl Arundel (age 21)

John le Blund, Mayor of London

William Brabazon

Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer of Chirk (age 50)

Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 22) - this may have been the first time Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 22) and King Edward II of England (age 22) met?

John Harrington 1st Baron Harington (age 25)

John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers (age 16)

Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 19)

William Montagu 2nd Baron Montagu (age 31)

John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray (age 19)

Thomas Multon 1st Baron Multon (age 30)

Roger Scales 2nd Baron Scales

John Warenne 7th Earl Surrey (age 19)

Letters. 22 May 1441. Letter XXXVI. Constance Baroness Hussey to King Henry IV.

To the king our sovereign lord,.

Beseecheth meekly your humble and continual oratrice Dame Constance, the wife of Henry Husee, knight, the which was menial servant with the most worthy and Christian king your father, whose soul God assoil, and continued in his service as well beyond the sea as on this side the sea all the times of his noble reign, without any fee or reward; that whereas your said oratrice continued in the service of the noble princess your grandame, whose soul God assoil, as well in the time of your full noble father and ayeul (grandfather) as in yours, unto the time of his dying, in recompense of which service it liked the queen your said grandame, of her grace special, for the term of her life, to grant by her gracious letters patent unto your said oratrice 20/. yearly, to be taken of the issues and profits of the manor of Kingsthorp, in the county of Northampton; and also in likewise 100^. yearly, to be taken of the issues and profits of the manor of Odiham, in the county of Southampton, as in the said letters patent openly appeareth; that it please you of your especial grace tenderly to consider the long service of the said Sir Henry and Dame Constance, that they never had other fee nor reward than the said 25/., the which is now ceased by the death of your said grandame, and thereupon to grant unto your said oratrice, by your several letters patents, the said 25/. in like form as she had it, term of her life, yearly to be taken of the issues and profits of the manors abovesaid. And your said oratrice shall pray God continually for you. Beneath is written - "The Chamberlain of England. My lord hath granted this bill; notwithstanding that it was signed with his ow^n hand, yet he commanded me to endorse it.".


First Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 22 May 1455. Ande that yere there was a batayle at Synt Albonys by-twyne Kyng Harry the VI (age 33). and the Duke of Yorke (age 43), and thys batayle was the weke be-fore Whytte Sonday. And Kyng Harry (age 33) was in harnys hys owne propyr person, and was hurte with the shotte of an arowe in the necke. And the Duke of Yorke (age 43) brought hym unto London as kynge and not as a presener. The Erle of Wyltschyre (age 34) bare the kyngys baner that day in the batayle, for he was at that tyme namyd but Syr Jamys Urmon;b and thys sayde Jamys (age 34) sette the kyngys baner agayne an howse ende and fought manly with the helys, for he was a feryd of lesynge of beute, for he was namyd the fayryd knyght of thys londe. And with yn a lytyl whyle aftyr was made the Erle of Wyltschyre.

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26), Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 40) and Walter Strickland (age 44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset 2C 1448, 5th Earl Somerset 2C 1397. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland 1C 1377, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick 1C 1299, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland (age 33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (age 41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 20) succeeded 9th Baron de Clifford 1C 1299, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford (age 21) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

William Cotton (age 45) and Richard Fortescue (age 41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 54) and Edmund Dudley (age 30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke Somerset (age 19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware (age 51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire (age 27) were killed.

On 22 May 1490 Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 73) died. His son George Grey 2nd Earl Kent (age 36) succeeded 2nd Earl Kent 8C 1465, 5th Baron Grey of Ruthyn 1324. Katherine Herbert Countess Kent (age 26) by marriage Countess Kent.

Execution of Friar John Forest

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 22 May 1538. Also the 22th daie of Maie, being Wednesdaie this same yeare, the said Friar Forrest was drawen from Newgate to the place of execution in Smythfielde, where was a noble sermon made by the Bishopp of Worcestre (age 51), afore writton, to have drawen the said Friar Forrest from his opinions; but he, obstinatlie standing still and stiffe in his opininons, and beinge asked by the said bishopp in what state he would die, he openlie declaring their with a lowde voyce to the Bishopp as followeth: That if an angell should come downe from heaven and shew him any other thing then that he had beleeved all his liffe tyme past he would not beleeve him, and that if his bodie should be cutt joynt after joynt or membre after membre, brent, hanged, or what paine soever might de donne to his bodie, he wold neaver turne from his old sect of this Bishopp of Rome; and also seaven yeare agone hea durst not have made such a sermon for his lief. And then after this, being a false traitor to his Praynce, an hereticke, and a seditious person to the Kinges leighe people, was had to the place of executionb and their hanged about the middle in chains of iron on a paire of gallowes alive, a great fire made under him and about him, and so was burned for his said heresie and treason.

Also their was brent with him an idollc that was brought out of Gidarne was North Wales, which idoll was of woode like a man of armes in his armes in his harneies having a litle speare in his hande and a caskett of iron about his necke hanging with a ribond, the which people of North Walles honored as a sainct. The name of the idoll was called in Walch Darvell Gadarn.d Present at this execution were the Duke of Norfolke (age 65), the Duke of Suffolke (age 54), the Erle of Sussex (age 31), the Earle of Hartford (age 38) being Vicount Beawchampe, the Bishoppe of London, with other of the Kinges Counsell, the Major (age 53)e of London, with the most part of the aldermen and shrives, and, as I thinke, tenne thousand persons and more; also the place of execution where the gallowes and fire was made was railed round about; and their was a skaffold made to sett the pulpitt on where the preacher stoode, and an other against itt where the friar stoode all the sermon tyme, and a long skaffold next to Sainct Bartholomewes spittell gate, where the Lordes of the Privie Counsell sate with the major and aldermen and other gentlemen and commons of the cittie.NOTEXT

Note a. Bishop Latimer (age 51).

Note b. Compare this with the account of the burning of Friar Forest in Harleian MS. 530, f. 120.

Note c. The Welshmen had a prophesy that this image should set a whole forest a fire, which prophesie now toke effect, for it set this Frier Forest on fyre, and consumed him to nothing. Hall, p 826.

Note d. Usually written Darvell or David Gatheren.

Note e. Sir Richard Gresham (age 53).

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

On 22 May 1554 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20) was imprisoned at Woodstock Palace [Map].

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On 22 May 1570 Johann Wettin II Duke Saxe Weimar was born to Johann Wilhelm Wettin Duke Saxe Weimar (age 40) and Dorothea Susanne Palatine Duchess Saxe Weimar.

On 22 May 1582 Edward Hoby (age 22) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 48).

May 1611 Creation of Baronets

On 22 May 1611 the first Baronets were created by James I (age 44)

Walter Aston 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Aston of Tixall.

Nicolas Bacon (age 71) was created 1st Baronet Bacon of Redgrave in Suffolk. The Premier Baronet being the first creation.

Henry Belasyse 1st Baronet (age 55) was created 1st Baronet Belasyse of Newborough.

George Booth (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Booth of Dunham Massey. Katherine Anderson Lady Dunham Massey (age 43) by marriage Lady Booth of Dunham Massey.

Edward Carr (age 68) was created 1st Baronet Carr of Sleaford in Lincolnshire. Anne Dyer Lady Carr by marriage Lady Carr of Sleaford in Lincolnshire.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Clifton of Clifton in Nottinghamshire.

Moyle Finch 1st Baronet (age 61) was created 1st Baronet Finch of Eastwell in Kent. Elizabeth Heneage 1st Countess Winchelsea (age 54) by marriage Lady Finch of Eastwell in Kent.

Thomas Gerard 1st Baronet (age 51) was created 1st Baronet Gerard of Bryn in Lancashire.

Henry Hobart 1st Baronet (age 51) was created 1st Baronet Hobart of Intwood in Norfolk. Dorothy Bell Lady Hobart by marriage Lady Hobart of Intwood in Norfolk.

Richard Hoghton 1st Baronet (age 40) was created 1st Baronet Hoghton of Hoghton Tower in Lancashire.

Phillip Knyvet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Knyvet of Buckenham in Norfolk.

Thomas Mansel 1st Baronet (age 55) was created 1st Baronet Mansel of Margam 1611.

Thomas Pelham 1st Baronet (age 71) was created 1st Baronet Pelham of Laughton. Mary Walsingham Baroness Pelham Laughton (age 47) by marriage Lady Pelham of Laughton.

John Peyton 1st Baronet (age 50) was created 1st Baronet Peyton of Isleham.

George Savile 1st Baronet (age 61) was created 1st Baronet Savile of Thornhill.

John Shelley of Mitchelgrove 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Shelley of Mitchelgrove in Sussex.

George Shirley 1st Baronet (age 52) was created 1st Baronet Shirley of Staunton Harold in Leicestershire. Dorothy Wroughton Lady Shirley (age 41) by marriage Lady Shirley of Staunton Harold in Leicestershire.

John St John (age 25) was created 1st Baronet St John Lydiard Tregoze in Wiltshire.

John Stradling 1st Baronet (age 48) was created 1st Baronet Stradling of St Donats in Glamorganshire.

Thomas Temple 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Temple of Stowe.

Lionel Tollemache 1st Baronet (age 48) was created 1st Baronet Talmash of Helmingham in Suffolk.

After 22 May 1648. St Vincent's Church, Caythorpe [Map]. Memorial to Edward Hussey 1st Baronet and his second wife Elizabeth de Vic.

Elizabeth de Vic: She was born to Charles de Vic 2nd Baronet. Before 1702 Edward Hussey 1st Baronet and she were married.

On 22 May 1653 unamed child was born to Charles Paulet 1st Duke Bolton (age 23) and Christian Freschville (age 19). She died in childbirth. The child died seven days later on 29 May 1653. Both were buried at the St John the Baptist's Church, Staveley [Map]. Monument erected by her husband Charles Paulet 1st Duke Bolton (age 23) the future Duke Bolton. Reclining figure with Chrisom Child.


Top Middle Paulet Arms differenced with a label argent three points impaled Freschville Arms.

Top Left: His Arms, in sixths 1 Paulet Arms 2 Possibly Seymour Arms although wings should be Or 3 Unknown Arms 4 Unknown Arms 5 Unknown Arms 6 St John Arms with a label argent three points to reflect his status as son of the current owner of the Arms.

Top Right: Her Arms, in sixths 1 Freschville Arms 2 Unknown Arms 3 Unknown Arms 4 Unknown Arms 5 Unknown Arms 6 Harrington Arms.

Christian Freschville: On 13 Dec 1633 she was born to John Freschville 1st Baron Frescheville (age 26) and Sarah Harrington. On 28 Feb 1652 Charles Paulet 1st Duke Bolton (age 22) and Christian Freschville (age 18) were married. He the son of John Paulet 5th Marquess Winchester (age 54) and Jane Savage Marchioness Winchester.


Before 22 May 1673 Horatio Townshend 1st Viscount Townsend (age 42) and Mary Lewkenor (age 38) were married.


On 22 May 1678 Charles Granville 2nd Earl Bath (age 16) and Martha Osborne (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds (age 46) and Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds (age 49). He the son of John Granville 1st Earl Bath (age 49) and Jane Wyche.

Argyll's Rising

Evelyn's Diary. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (age 26) and Princesse of Denmark (age 20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (age 51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect: "That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction". At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (age 56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.

On 22 May 1699 James Bertie 1st Earl Abingdon (age 45) died. His son Montagu Venables Bertie 2nd Earl Abingdon (age 26) succeeded 2nd Earl Abingdon.


On 22 May 1701 Henry St John 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (age 22) and Frances Winchcombe Viscountess Bolingbroke (age 20) were married at St Dunstan's in the East Parish.

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On 22 May 1724 Elizabeth Scroggs died. Memorial at Lincoln Cathedral [Map] commissioned by her only surviving son William Gylby (age 55).

Elizabeth Scroggs: Before 1669 Anthony Gilby and she were married. Before Jan 1708 Charles Hatton (age 72) and she were married.

William Gylby: In 1669 he was born to Anthony Gilby and Elizabeth Scroggs. On 10 May 1744 William Gylby (age 75) died.

On 22 May 1725 Robert Molesworth 1st Viscount Molesworth (age 68) died. His son John Molesworth 2nd Viscount Molesworth (age 46) succeeded 2nd Viscount Molesworth of Swords.

On 22 May 1733 Jane Dymoke died. She was buried at the Church of St John the Baptist, Great Hale [Map].

Jane Dymoke: She was born to Charles Dymoke. On 28 Oct 1686 Robert Cawdron and she were married.

On 22 May 1755 Robert King 1st Baron Kingsborough (age 31) died unmarried. Baron Kingsborough extinct. His brother Edward King 1st Earl Kingston (age 29) succeeded 5th Baronet King of Boyle Abbot.

On 22 May 1762 Henry Bathurst 3rd Earl Bathurst was born to Henry Bathurst 2nd Earl Bathurst (age 48) and Tryphena Scawen Countess Bathurst Sussex (age 31).

On 22 May 1781 Garrett Wellesley 1st Earl Mornington (age 45) died at Kensington. He was buried at Grosvenor Chapel. On 22 May 1781 His son Richard Wellesley 1st Marquess Wellesley (age 20) succeeded 2nd Earl Mornington 1C 1760, 2nd Viscount Wellesley of Dangan Castle.


Archaeologia Volume 9 Appendix. 22 May 1788. Owen Salusbury Brereton (age 73), Esq. V. P. exhibited a beautiful coloured drawing of a window in the parish-church of Brereton [Map], one of the oldest in the county-palatine of Chester; but the date of it is not exactly known1. In the lower compartments are four figures representing the four persons who slew Thomas Becket at the high altar in Canterbury cathedral, 1170. They are in complete armour, with drawn swords in their hands, and on pendant scrolls are inscribed their names; William Tracy, Richard Britton, Reginald Fitzurse, and Hugh Morrel. A fifth figure, exactly correiponding with these, in the centre compartments, bears, on the like scroll, these words, Martyrum Thomam. In three compartments of the Upper division of the window are two priests [Note. In the original the word priests is crossed out, and the word "saints" written in the margin.] , and between them a figure episcopally habited, most probably intended for Becket himself. Under the five lower figures, after their names are these words tended for two hexameter lines:

Martyrum Thomam fieri fecere beatum

Anno milleno centeno septuageno.

[Note. The above two lines in Gothic script]

Under these the following inscription represented in the opposite page:

"Left this monument in Glase being in the upper window of the North syde the chauncell of Brereton churche shoulde be broken, I Sir Will’m Brereton, knight, to the end hyt may remayne in memorie to the posteritie, have caused the same to be heare purtred, the 25th of Marche, 1608. W. Brereton."

Note 1. See Pl. XXIII.

On 22 May 1803 William Willoughby Cole 1st Earl Enniskillen (age 67) died. His son John Cole 2nd Earl Enniskillen (age 35) succeeded 2nd Earl Enniskillen.


On 22 May 1810 John Loftus 2nd Marquess Ely (age 40) and Anna Maria Dashwood Marchioness Ely (age 20) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square. He the son of Charles Tottenham aka Loftus 1st Marquess Ely and Jane Myhill Marchioness Ely.

On 22 May 1820 James Dutton 1st Baron Sherborne (age 75) died. His son John Dutton 2nd Baron Sherborne (age 40) succeeded 2nd Baron Sherborne. He was buried in the Saint Mary Magdalene's Church, Sherborne [Map]. Monument sculpted by William "The Younger" Theed (age 16). Trefoil-headed niche containing full figure of a woman holding a cross.

John Dutton 2nd Baron Sherborne: On 24 Jun 1779 he was born to James Dutton 1st Baron Sherborne (age 34) and Elizabeth Coke Baroness Sherborne (age 26). Before 1804 John Dutton 2nd Baron Sherborne (age 24) and Mary Bilson Legge Baroness Sherborne were married. She by marriage Baroness Sherborne.

On 22 May 1858 Margaret Compton (age 28) died from childbirth. Monument at Church of St Mary Magdalen, Castle Ashby [Map] erected by her husband Edward Frederick Leveson-Gower (age 39). Sculpted by Baron Pietro Marochetti (age 53).

Margaret Compton: On 14 Mar 1830 she was born to Spencer Compton 2nd Marquess Northampton (age 40) and Margaret Douglas-Maclean-Clephane Marchioness Northampton (age 38) in Rome. On 01 Jun 1851 Edward Frederick Leveson-Gower (age 32) and Margaret Compton (age 21) were married at St Margaret's Church, Westminster. She the daughter of Spencer Compton 2nd Marquess Northampton and Margaret Douglas-Maclean-Clephane Marchioness Northampton. He the son of Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Earl Granville and Harriet Cavendish Countess Granville (age 65).

On 22 May 1906 Victor Montagu 10th Earl Sandwich was born to George Charles Montagu 9th Earl Sandwich (age 31) and Alberta Sturges Countess Sandwich (age 28).

On 22 May 1935 Herbert Gibbs 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 81) died. His son Walter Gibbs 2nd Baron Hunsdon 4th Baron Aldenham (age 46) succeeded 2nd Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon of Briggens Hertfordshire. Beatrix Elinor Paul Baroness Aldenham and Hunsdon (age 44) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon of Hunsdon of Briggens Hertfordshire.

On 22 May 1938 Anthony Ashley-Cooper 10th Earl of Shaftesbury was born to Major Anthony Ashley-Cooper (age 37) and Françoise Soulier.