On this Day in History ... 23rd December

23 Dec is in December.

619 Boniface V Elected Pope

1069 Murder of Robert de Comines Earl Northumbria

1230 Death of Berengaria of Navarre

1392 Death of Isabella of Castile

1543 Parr Family Ennobled

1588 "Day of the Dagger" Assassination of Henry 1st Duke Guise

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1644 Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

1664 Comet

1683 Frost Fair

1688 Abdication of James II

1815 "Emma" published by Jane Austen

1861 Funeral of Prince Albert

1888 Vincent Van Gogh Cuts his Ear Off

1947 Transistor First Demonstrated

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 23rd December

On 23 Dec 619 Boniface V Pope was elected Pope.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1069. This year died Aldred, Archbishop of York; and he is there buried, at his see [Map]. He died on the day of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with much dignity ten years wanting only fifteen weeks. Soon after this came from Denmark three of the sons of King Sweyne (age 50) with two hundred and forty ships, together with Earl Esborn and Earl Thurkill, into the Humber; where they were met by the child Edgar (age 18), and Earl Waltheof, and Merle-Sweyne, and Earl Gospatric with the Northumbrians, and all the landsmen; riding and marching full merrily with an immense army: and so all unanimously advanced to York; where they stormed and demolished the castle, and won innumerable treasures therein; slew there many hundreds of Frenchmen, and led many with them to the ships; but, ere that the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had burned the city, and also the holy minster of St. Peter [Map] had they entirely plundered, and destroyed with fire. When the king heard this, then went he northward with all the force that he could collect, despoiling and laying waste the shire withal; whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Humber, where the king could not come at them. The king was in York on Christmas Day, and so all the winter on land, and came to Winchester at Easter. Bishop Egelric, who was at Peterborough, was this year betrayed, and led to Westminster; and his brother Egelwine was outlawed. This year also died Brand, Abbot of Peterborough, on the fifth before the calends of December.

On 23 Dec 1230 Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 65) died. She the widow of King Richard "Lionheart" I of England who she had married in 1191 in Cyprus whilst he was on Crusade. She had been brought to Cyprus by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England who was near seventy at the time. Their marriage started with his taking Jerusalem then being captured and held hostage for three years. There were no children of the marriage. She is believed to have never set foot in England. She didn't marry again.

On 23 Dec 1392 Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 37) died. She the wife of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 40) who may have been the father of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 7) progenitor of the House of York.

On 23 Dec 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) enobled his new wife's (age 31) brother (age 31) and uncle (age 60) at ceremony in the Presence Chamber, Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 26) and Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 34) were present. Christopher Barker read the Patents.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 60) was created 1st Baron Parr of Horton. William was sixty with five daughters. He died four years later at which time the Barony became extinct.

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31) was created 1st Earl Essex. His estranged wife Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 26) was daughter of the last Earl of Essex of the Fifth Creation. A somewhat curious choice given his wife had eloped the year previous year with John Lyngfield, the prior of Tandbridge, Surrey [Map], by whom she had an illegitimate child.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1552. The xxiij day of Desember the Kynges (age 15) grace removyd from Westmynster unto Grenwyche [Map] to kepe ys Crystymas, and so he begane to kepe Halle, and ys grasse had a lord of myss-rulle, keepyng goodly pastyme, for ys grace('s) plesur, and with alle passtyme as have bene sene.

Note. The king's lord of misrule. This important officer was "a gentleman, wise and learned, named George Ferrers." (Holinshed, 1st edit. p. 1709.) He was a member of Lincoln's Inn. (Stowe's Chronicle, p. 608.) Many curious documents respecting his revels in this and subsequent years are printed in Kempe's Loseley Manuscripts, 8vo. 1835, pp. 24, et seq. George Ferrers was probably the same person who, being member of Parliament for Plymouth in 1542, was arrested for debt in the city of London, and committed to the counter: whereupon he was reclaimed by the house of commons, and the sheriffs committed to the Tower: see a long narrative in the histories of London.

The procession of the lord of misrule, or "lord of merry disports" (as he was also called), into London, which occurs subsequently in this page, is also described in Stowe's Chronicle, p. 608: "hee was received by sergeant Vawce, lord of misrule to John Mainard one of the sheriffes of London."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1558. The xxiij day of Desember was the obseque at Westmynster[with the] sam herse that was for quen Mare (deceased), was for Charles the V., Emporowre of Rome, was durge, and the morow masse with .. mornars and (blank) was the cheyff morner.

Note. P. 184. Obsequies of the emperor. The emperor's ambassador was present as chief mourner. The ceremonial is in the College of Arms, I. 14, f. 3, and I. 15, f. 284.

On 23 Dec 1588 Henry 1st Duke Guise (age 37), leader of the Catholic League, was assassinated at the Château de Blois by the King's bodyguard whilst Henry III King France (age 37) looked on.

On 23 Dec 1600 the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace [Map]. He was created Duke Albany.

On 23 Dec 1621 Heneage Finch 1st Earl Nottingham was born to Heneage Finch (age 41) and Frances Bell. He was educated at Westminster School [Map] and Christ Church College, Oxford University.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1643. The Earl of Norwich (age 58) came as Ambassador extraordinary: I went to meet him in a coach and six horses, at the palace of Monsieur de Bassompière, where I saw that gallant person, his gardens, terraces, and rare prospects. My lord was waited on by the master of the ceremonies, and a very great cavalcade of men of quality, to the Palais Cardinal, where on the 23d he had audience of the French king (age 5), and the queen Regent his mother (age 42), in the golden chamber of presence. From thence, I conducted him to his lodgings in Rue St. Denis, and so took my leave.

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall [Map].

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet (age 9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

On 23 Dec 1658 Ferdinand Thomas Charles Habsburg Spain was born to Philip IV King Spain (age 53) and Mariana of Austria Queen Consort Spain (age 24). He died ten months later. Coefficient of inbreeding 25.39%.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1661. I heard an Italian play and sing to the guitar with extraordinary skill before the Duke (age 28).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1664. This day Sir W. Batten (age 63) sent and afterwards spoke to me, to have me and my wife come and dine with them on Monday next: which is a mighty condescension in them, and for some great reason I am sure, or else it pleases God by my late care of business to make me more considerable even with them than I am sure they would willingly owne me to be. God make me thankfull and carefull to preserve myself so, for I am sure they hate me and it is hope or fear that makes them flatter me. It being a bright night, which it has not been a great while, I purpose to endeavour to be called in the morning to see the Comet, though I fear we shall not see it, because it rises in the east but 16 degrees, and then the houses will hinder us.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1667. Thence meeting there with Creed, he and I to the Exchange [Map], and there I saw Carr stand in the pillory for the business of my Lord Gerard (age 49), which is supposed will make a hot business in the House of Commons, when they shall come to sit again, the Lords having ordered this with great injustice, as all people think, his only fault being the printing his petition before, by accident, his petition be read in the House. Here walked up and down the Exchange [Map] with Creed, and then home to dinner, and there hear by Creed that the Bishops of Winchester and of Rochester, Kent [Map], and the Dean of the Chapel, and some other great prelates, are suspended: and a cloud upon the Archbishop ever since the late business in the House of Lords; and I believe it will be a heavy blow to the Clergy. This noon I bought a sermon of Dr. Floyd's, which Creed read a great part of to me and Mr. Hollier (age 58), who dined with me, but as well writ and as good, against the Church of Rome, as ever I read; but, Lord! how Hollier (age 58), poor man, was taken with it. They gone I to the office, and there very late with Mr. Willson and my people about the making of a new contract for the victualler, which do and will require a great deal of pains of me, and so to supper and to bed, my wife being pretty well all this day by reason of her imposthume being broke in her cheek into her mouth. This day, at the 'Change [Map], Creed shewed me Mr. Coleman, of whom my wife hath so good an opinion, and says that he is as very a rogue for women as any in the world; which did disquiet me, like a fool, and run in my mind a great while.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames frozen.

23 Dec 1739. John Vanderbank (age 45). Portrait of Elizabeth Davenport (age 31) in Montacute House.

Elizabeth Davenport: In 1708 she was born to Henry Davenport in India. Before 15 Sep 1740 John Mytton and she were married. On 15 Sep 1740 she died.

On 23 Dec 1739 John Vanderbank (age 45) died of tuberculosis in Holies Street. He was buried in St Marylebone Church.

On 23 Dec 1765 George Paulett 12th Marquess Winchester (age 43) was appointed Groom Porter to King George III (age 27) which office he held until it was abolished on 14 November 1782.

On 23 Dec 1769 Martin Archer Shee was born in Dublin [Map].

On 23 Dec 1778 Catherine Pollok was born at Grittleton, Wiltshire.

On 23 Dec 1815 the book "Emma" by Jane Austen (age 40) was first published (Note. the title page stated 1816).

On 23 Dec 1853 George Perfect Harding (age 72) died.

On 23 Dec 1854 Adrian Scott Stokes was born at Southport, Lancashire.

The Times. 24 Dec 1861. Yesterday, with little of the pomp and pageantry of a State ceremonial, but with every outward mark of respect, and with all the solemnity which befitted his high station and his public virties, the mortal remains of the husband (deceased) of our Queen (age 42) were interred in the last resting-place of England's Sovereigns-the Chapel Royal of St. George's, Windsor [Map]. By the express desire of his Royal Highness the funeral was of the plainest and most private character; but in the Chapel, to do honour to his obsequies, were assembled all the chiefest men of the State, and throughout England, by every sign of sorrow and imourning, the nation manifested its sense of the loss wlhich it has sustaiined. Windsor itself wore an aspect of the most profound gloom. Every shop was closed and every blind drawn down. The streets were silent and almost deserted, and all wvho appeared abroad were dressed in the deepest mourning. The great bell of Windsor Castle [Map] clanged out: its doleful sound at intervals from an early hour, and minute bells were tolled also at St. John's Church. At the parish church of Cleover and at St. John's there were services in the morning and: aternoon, and the day was observed throughout the Royal borough in the strictest manner. The weather was in character with the occasion, a chill, damp air, with a dull leaden sky above, increased the gloom which hung over all. There were but few visitors in the town, for the procession did not pass beyond the immediate precincts of the Chapel and Castle, and none were admitted except those connected with the Castle andi their friends. At 11 o'clock a strong force of the A division took possession of the avenues leading to the Chapel Royal, and from that time only the guests specially invited and those who were to take part in the ceremonial were allowed to pass. Shortly afterwards a of honour of the Grenadier Guards, of which regiment his Royal Highness was Colonel, with the colonrs of the regiment shrouded in crape, marched in and took up its position before the principal entrance to the Chapel Royal. Another guard of honour from the same regiment was also on duty in the Quadrangle at the entrance to the State apartments. They were speedily followed by a squadron of the 2nd Life Guards dismounted, and by two companies of the Fusileer Guards, who were drawn uip in single file along each side of the road by which the procession was to pass, from the Norman gateway to the Chapel door. The officers wore the deepest military mourning-scarves, sword-knots, and rosettes of crape. In the Rome Park was stationed a troop of Horse Artillery, which commenced firing minute guns at the end of the Long Walk, advancing slowly until it reached the Castle gates just at the close of the ceremony. The Ministers, the officers of the Queen's Household, and other distinguished personages who had been honoured with an invitation to attend the ceremonial, reached Windsor a special train from Paddington. They were met by carriages provided for them at the station, and began to arrive at the Chapel Royal soon after 11 o'clock. The Earl of Derby (age 62), the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 81), Earl Russell (age 69), and the Duke of Buccleuch were among the first to make their appearance, and as they alighted at the door of the Chapel they were received by the proper officials and conducted to the seats appointed for them in the Choir. In the Great Quadrangle were drawn up the hearse and the mourning coaches, and, all the preparations having been completed within the Castle, the procession began to be formed shortly before 12 o'clock. It had been originally intended that it should leave the Castle by the St. George's gate, and, proceeding down Castle-hill, approach the Chapel through Henry VII.'s gateway, but at a late hour this arrangement was changed, and the shorter route by the Norman gatewvay was chosen.

The crowd which had gradually collected at the foot of Castle-hill, owing to this change, saw nothing of the procession but the empty carriages as they returned to the Castle after setting down at the Chapel. The few spectators who were fortunate enough to gain admission to the Lower Ward stood in a narrow fringe along the edge of the flags in front of the houses of the Poor Knights, and their presence was the only exception to the strict privacy of the ceremonial. The Prince of Wales (age 20) and the other Royal mourners assembled in the Oak Room, but did not form part of the procession. They were conveyed to the Chapel in private carriages before the coffin was placed in the hearse, passing through St. George's gatewayinto the Lower Ward. In the first carriage were the Prince of Wales (age 20), Prince Arthur (age 11), and the Duke of Saxe Coburg (age 8). The Crown Prince of Prussia (age 30), the Duke of Brabant (age 26), and the Count of Flanders (age 24) followed in the next; and in the others were the Duke de Nemours (age 47), Prince Louis of Hesse (age 24), Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar (age 38), and the Maharajah Dhuleep Singh, with the gentlemen of their respective suites. Scarcely had they alighted at the door of Wolsey's Chapel, from which they were conducted through the Chapter Room to the door of the Chapel Royal to be in readiness to meet the coffin, when the first minute gun fired in tlhe distance, and the rattle of the troops reversing arms announced that the procession had started, and exactly at 12 o'clock the first mourning coach moved from under the Norman gateway. First came nine mourning coaches, each drawn by four horses, conveying the Physicians, Equerries, and other members of the household of the late Prince. In the last were the Lord Steward (age 63) (Earl St. Germans), the Lord Chamberlain (age 56) (Viscount Sidney), and the Master of the Horse (age 57) (the Marquis of Ailesbury). The carriages and trappings were of the plainest description; the horses had black velvet housings and feathers, but on the carriages there, were no feathers or ornaments of any kind. The mourning coaches were followed by one of the Queen's carriages, drawn by six horses, and attended by servants in State liveries, in which was the Groom of the Stole (age 26), Earl Spencer, carrying the crown, and a Lord of the Bedchamber, Lord George Lennox, carrying the baton, sword, and hat of his late Royal Highness. Next escorted by a troop of the 2nd Life Guards, came the hearse, drawn by six black horses, which, like the carriages, was quite plain and unornamented. On the housings of the horses and on the sides of the hearse were emblazoned the scutcheons of Her Majesty and of the Prince, each surmounted by a, crown, the Prince's arms being in black and Her Majesty's in white. The procession was closed by four State carriages.

On 23 Dec 1877 Thomas Wright (age 67) died.

After 23 Dec 1882. Memorial at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map] to Henry Bourchier Wrey 9th Baronet (deceased). In loving memory of the Revd Sir Henry Bourchier Wrey, 9th Baronet, 40 years Rector of Tawstock, Born 5th June 1797, Died 23rd December 1882. Married first, Ellen Maria Toke, Daughter of Nicholas Roundell Toke Esqre of Godinton, Kent; Married secondly, Jane 3rd daughter of H. Lamb Esqre, of Ryton Hall, Durham. Throughout his honored life, he ever was benevolent, just and courteous, deservedly loved and respected. He hath made Him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in Him. Lord, I believe, help thou mine unbelief. Also in loving memory of the above Ellen Maria Wrey, who died March 1st 1864, and the above Jane Wrey, who died July 26th 1889.

Henry Bourchier Wrey 9th Baronet: On 05 Jun 1797 he was born to Bourchier Wrey 7th Baronet and Anne Osborn Lady Wrey. On 27 Sep 1827 Henry Bourchier Wrey 9th Baronet and Ellen Maria Toke were married at St James' Church, Piccadilly. They were first cousins. On 11 Sep 1879 Bourchier Wrey 8th Baronet died. His half brother Henry Bourchier Wrey 9th Baronet succeeded 9th Baronet Wrey of Trebitch in Cornwall. On 23 Dec 1882 Henry Bourchier Wrey 9th Baronet died. His son Henry Bourchier Toke Wrey 10th Baronet succeeded 10th Baronet Wrey of Trebitch in Cornwall.

On 23 Dec 1886 Edmund Antrobus was born to Edmund Antrobus 4th Baronet (age 37) and Florence Caroline Mathilde Sartoris Lady Antrobus (age 30).

On 23 Dec 1888 Vincent van Gogh severed his left ear with a razor. He bandaged the wound, wrapped the ear in paper, and delivered the package to a woman at a brothel he and Gauguin both frequented.

On 23 Dec 1901 Edward Onslow Ford (age 49) died.

Memorials to the Mack family at St Margaret's Church, Paston [Map].

On 18 May 1933 Hugh Paston Mack died.

On 23 Dec 1917 Lieutenant Commander Ralph Michael Mack (age 34) was killed in action when his destoyer Tornado was mined.

On 29 Apr 1943 Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack (age 50) died in a plane crash.

Hugh Paston Mack: On 22 Mar 1828 he was born to John Mack of Paston Hall.

Lieutenant Commander Ralph Michael Mack: On 11 Oct 1883 he was born to Hugh Paston Mack.

Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack: On 06 Oct 1892 he was born to Major Philip Paston Mack. On 15 Sep 1905 Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack joined the Royal Navy as a naval cadet at the Osborne and Britannia Royal Naval Colleges. On 09 Aug 1910 Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack was posted to the battlecruiser Indomitable as a midshipman, transferring to the cruiser Amethyst on 15 Jul 1913 having been promoted to sub-lieutenant on 15 Jun 1913.

On 23 Dec 1947 Walter Brattain and H. R. Moore demonstrated the first working transistor; the commencement of the Computer Age.

Births on the 23rd December

On 23 Dec 1173 Louis Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria was born to Otto Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria (age 56) and Agnes Loon Duchess Bavaria (age 23) at Kelheim.

On 23 Dec 1513 Thomas Smith was born to John Smith of Walden and Agnes Charnock.

On 23 Dec 1513 Unknown Smith was born at Saffron Walden [Map].

On 23 Dec 1544 Anna of Saxony was born to Maurice Elector of Saxony (age 23) and Agnes of Hesse (age 17). Coefficient of inbreeding 1.82%.

On 23 Dec 1573 Anne Shirley was born to Thomas Shirley (age 31) and Anne Kempe (age 28).

Around 23 Dec 1600 Mary Petre was born to William Petre 2nd Baron Petre (age 25) and Katherine Somerset Baroness Petre (age 25).

On 23 Dec 1621 Heneage Finch 1st Earl Nottingham was born to Heneage Finch (age 41) and Frances Bell. He was educated at Westminster School [Map] and Christ Church College, Oxford University.

On 23 Dec 1621 Edmund Berry Godfrey was born to Thomas Godfrey (age 35).

On 23 Dec 1642 John Holt was born to Thomas Holt (age 26) and Susan Peacock.

On 23 Dec 1657 Josiah Franklin was born to Thomas Franklin (age 59) at Ecton, Northamptonshire.

On 23 Dec 1658 Ferdinand Thomas Charles Habsburg Spain was born to Philip IV King Spain (age 53) and Mariana of Austria Queen Consort Spain (age 24). He died ten months later. Coefficient of inbreeding 25.39%.

On 23 Dec 1691 Arthur van Sittart was born.

On 23 Dec 1695 John Alleyne was born to Reynold Alleyne (age 23) in St James Barbados.

On 23 Dec 1724 Archbishop Robert Fowler was born.

On 23 Dec 1737 Thomas Vereker was born.

On 23 Dec 1741 William Twisden was born to Roger Twisden 5th Baronet (age 36).

On 23 Dec 1759 Richard Thomas Streatfield was born to Henry Streatfield (age 53) and Anne Sidney (age 30).

On 23 Dec 1769 Martin Archer Shee was born in Dublin [Map].

On 23 Dec 1777 Henry Pelham-Clinton was born to Henry Fiennes Pelham-Clinton (age 27) and Frances Seymour-Conway. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 23 Dec 1777 Alexander Holstein Gottorp Romanov was born to Paul Emperor of Russia (age 23) and Empress Sophie Dorothea of Russia (age 18). He a great x 3 grandson of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 23 Dec 1778 Catherine Pollok was born at Grittleton, Wiltshire.

On 23 Dec 1789 George Sholto Douglas 17th Earl Morton was born to John Douglas (age 33) and Frances Lascelles (age 27).

On 23 Dec 1798 William Twisden was born to Captain John Twisden (age 31).

On 23 Dec 1801 Edward Hoare 4th Baronet was born to Joseph Wallis Hoare 3rd Baronet (age 26) and Harriet O'Brien (age 26).

On 23 Dec 1814 Alexander Hood was born.

On 23 Dec 1815 Francis Payne Seymour was born to Francis Edward Seymour (age 27) and Elizabeth Cooke (age 27).

On 23 Dec 1823 John Yarde-Buller was born to John Yarde-Buller 1st Baron Churston (age 24).

On 23 Dec 1833 Patrick Wilson Bannerman was born to Patrick Wilson Bannerman (age 39).

On 23 Dec 1851 Carl Ferdinand Meyer 1st Baronet was born at Hamburg.

On 23 Dec 1854 Adrian Scott Stokes was born at Southport, Lancashire.

On 23 Dec 1854 Edward William Dolman Scott 3rd and 4th Baronet was born to Francis Edward Scott 2nd and 3rd Baronet (age 30).

On 23 Dec 1860 Florence Anita Coote Countess Northbrook was born to Eyre Coote.

On 23 Dec 1871 Mary Carolyn Campbell Cuyler Lady Egerton was born.

On 23 Dec 1886 Edmund Antrobus was born to Edmund Antrobus 4th Baronet (age 37) and Florence Caroline Mathilde Sartoris Lady Antrobus (age 30).

On 23 Dec 1890 Major Hugh Charles Pechell was born to Edmund Donald Pechell (age 36).

On 23 Dec 1891 Charles Samuel Rowley 6th Baronet was born to Joshua Thellusson Rowley 5th Baronet (age 53) and Louisa Brownlow Lady Rowley (age 30).

On 23 Dec 1894 William Grosvenor 3rd Duke Westminster was born to Henry George Grosvenor (age 33) and Dora Mina Erskine-Wemyss (age 38). On 25 Dec 1894 his mother (age 38) died from childbirth. He a great x 2 grandson of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

On 23 Dec 1918 Margaret Elizabeth Mcconnel Duchess Roxburghe was born to Frederick Bradshaw Mcconnel at Coleraine, County Londonderry.

On 23 Dec 1929 Basil Clive Douglas was born to Gavin William Douglas (age 23) and Agnes Salkeld.

Marriages on the 23rd December

Before 23 Dec 1559 John 7th Lord Glamis Lyon (age 38) and Janet Keith were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 23 Dec 1605 William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury (age 61) and Elizabeth Howard Countess Banbury (age 22) were married. She by marriage Baroness Knollys. The difference in their ages was 39 years. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 44) and Catherine Knyvet Countess Suffolk (age 41). They were third cousin once removed.

On 23 Dec 1611 Marmaduke Wyvill 2nd Baronet (age 16) and Isabel Gascoigne (age 15) were married.

Before 23 Dec 1642 Thomas Holt (age 26) and Susan Peacock were married.

On 23 Dec 1746 John Rawdon 1st Earl Moira (age 26) and Anne Hill were married.

On 23 Dec 1766 Thomas Gooch 4th Baronet (age 21) and Anna Maria Hayward were married.

On 23 Dec 1784 James Royds of Falinge (age 26) and Mary Smith (age 17) were married at St Mary's Church, Rochdale [Note. Assumed to be the Parish Church of Rochdale.]

On 23 Dec 1832 Ernest Saxe Coburg Gotha I Duke Saxe Coburg Gotha (age 48) and Marie Württemberg Duchess Saxe Coburg Gotha (age 33) were married. She by marriage Duchess Saxe Coburg Gotha. She the daughter of Alexander Württemberg Duke Württemberg (age 61) and Antoinette Ernestine Amalie Saxe Coburg Gotha Duchess Württemberg. He the son of Francis Saxe Coburg Gotha I Duke Saxe Coburg Gotha and Augusta Reuss Duchess Saxe Coburg Gotha. They were uncle and niece.

On 23 Dec 1835 Francis William Newman (age 30) and Maria Kennaway (age 34) were married.

On 23 Dec 1868 Henry George Percy 7th Duke Northumberland (age 22) and Edith Campbell Duchess Northumberland (age 19) were married. She the daughter of George Douglas Campbell 8th Duke Argyll (age 45) and Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower Duchess Argyll. He the son of Algernon George Percy 6th Duke Northumberland (age 58) and Louisa Drummond Duchess Northumberland.

On 23 Dec 1885 Henry de Courcy Agnew (age 34) and Ethel Anne Goff (age 18) were married. She a great granddaughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

Before 23 Dec 1891 Joshua Thellusson Rowley 5th Baronet (age 53) and Louisa Brownlow Lady Rowley (age 30) were married. She by marriage Lady Rowley of Tendring Hall in Suffolk. The difference in their ages was 23 years.

Deaths on the 23rd December

On 23 Dec 766 Bishop Frithbert died.

On 23 Dec 1230 Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 65) died. She the widow of King Richard "Lionheart" I of England who she had married in 1191 in Cyprus whilst he was on Crusade. She had been brought to Cyprus by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England who was near seventy at the time. Their marriage started with his taking Jerusalem then being captured and held hostage for three years. There were no children of the marriage. She is believed to have never set foot in England. She didn't marry again.

On 27 Nov 1245 Walter Marshal 5th Earl Pembroke (age 46) died at Goodrich Castle, Gloucestershire [Map]. He was buried at Tintern Abbey [Map] next to his mother Isabel Clare Countess Pembroke His brother Anselm Marshal 6th Earl Pembroke (age 37) succeeded 6th Earl Pembroke although he only enjoyed the title for one month dying on 23 Dec 1245.

On 23 Dec 1245 Anselm Marshal 6th Earl Pembroke (age 37) died at Chepstow Castle [Map]. He was buried at Tintern Abbey [Map] next to his brother Walter Marshal 5th Earl Pembroke (deceased), who had died only a month before, and mother Isabel Clare Countess Pembroke. Earl Pembroke extinct.

On 23 Dec 1304 Matilda Habsburg Duchess Bavaria (age 51) died at Munich.

On 23 Dec 1340 Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon (age 64) died. His son Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon (age 37) succeeded 10th Earl Devon, 5th Baron Okehampton, 2nd Baron Courtenay. Margaret Bohun Countess Devon (age 29) by marriage Countess Devon.

On 23 Dec 1383 Beatrice Bourbon (age 63) died.

On 23 Dec 1392 Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 37) died. She the wife of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 51). Isabella had travelled to England with her sister Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 38) who had married Edmund's elder brother John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 52). Isabella and Edmund's marriage was not, apparently, a happy one. She is known to have had an affair with John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 40) who may have been the father of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 7) progenitor of the House of York.

Around 23 Dec 1394 Bishop Thomas de Brantingham died. He was buried in the nave in Exeter Cathedral [Map].

On 23 Dec 1397 Philip Artois (age 4) died. His brother Charles Artois Count Eu (age 3) succeeded Count Eu.

Before 23 Dec 1405 John Scrope died.

On 23 Dec 1473 Fadrique Enríquez Count Melgar Count Rueda (age 83) died. His son Alonso Enríquez (age 38) succeeded 3rd Admiral Castile.

On 23 Dec 1478 Richard Ludlow (age 58) died.

On 23 Dec 1483 William Jenney (age 63) died.

On 23 Dec 1495 John Ludlow (age 36) died.

On 23 Dec 1510 Anthony Fettiplace (age 49) died.

On 23 Dec 1519 Eleanor Cornwall (age 91) died at Yarpole, Herefordshire.

Before 23 Dec 1559 John 7th Lord Glamis Lyon (age 38) died. His son John Lyon 8th Lord Glamis succeeded 8th Lord Glamis.

On 23 Dec 1559 Bishop Henry Morgan died at Wolvercot, Oxfordshire. He was buried at Wolvercote Cemetery Oxford.

On 23 Dec 1588 Henry 1st Duke Guise (age 37), leader of the Catholic League, was assassinated at the Château de Blois by the King's bodyguard whilst Henry III King France (age 37) looked on.

Before 23 Dec 1591 Thomas Kniveton died.

On 23 Dec 1597 Henry Curwen (age 69) died.

On 23 Dec 1607 John Fortescue (age 76) died to John Fortescue (age 76).

On 23 Dec 1619 John Sigismund Hohenzollern (age 47) died.

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall [Map].

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet (age 9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

Before 23 Dec 1662 John Wray died. John Wray was buried at St Michael's Church, Glentworth [Map].

On or before 23 Dec 1688 Anthony Browne 2nd Baronet died. He was buried on 23 Dec 1688 at St Giles in the Fields Church, Camden [Map]. His brother John Browne 3rd Baronet succeeded 3rd Baronet Browne of Caversham.

On 23 Dec 1690 John Johnston 3rd Baronet (age 42) was executed at Tyburn [Map] for having assisted Captain James Campbell (age 30) in the abduction and forced marriage of Mary Wharton (age 13).

On 23 Dec 1700 Francis Aungier 1st Earl of Longford (age 68) died.

On 23 Dec 1704 Margaret Spencer Baroness Arundel Wardour (age 77) died.

On 23 Dec 1739 John Vanderbank (age 45) died of tuberculosis in Holies Street. He was buried in St Marylebone Church.

On 23 Dec 1744 Élisabeth Charlotte Bourbon Duchess Lorraine (age 68) died.

On 23 Dec 1753 Thomas Gresley 5th Baronet (age 30) died of smallpox. His brother Nigel Gresley 6th Baronet (age 26) succeeded 6th Baronet Gresley of Drakelow in Derbyshire. Elizabeth Wynn Lady Gresley by marriage Lady Gresley of Drakelow in Derbyshire.

On 23 Dec 1761 Francis Seymour (age 64) died.

On 23 Dec 1762 George St George (age 80) died.

On 23 Dec 1770 George Raymond Evelyn died.

On 23 Dec 1775 Mehitable Nelson (age 84) died.

On 23 Dec 1779 Augustus John Hervey 3rd Earl Bristol (age 55) died due to a gout in the stomach in St James' Square. His brother Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol (age 49) succeeded 4th Earl Bristol. Elizabeth Davers Countess Bristol (age 46) by marriage Countess Bristol.

On 23 Dec 1797 Frederick Eugene Württemberg Duke Württemberg (age 65) died.

On 23 Dec 1810 William Douglas 4th Duke Queensberry (age 86) died. His second cousin twice removed Francis Charteris 8th Earl Wemyss Douglas 4th Earl March (age 38) succeeded 4th Earl March. He, Francis, assumed the additional surname Douglas. Earl Ruglen extinct.

On 23 Dec 1811 Harriet Barker died. She was buried at St Mary the Virgin Church, Shipton-under-Wychwood.

On 23 Dec 1832 Charles Henry Sloane 2nd Earl Cadogan (age 83) died unmarried in Enfield [Map]. His half brother George Cadogan 3rd Earl Cadogan (age 49) succeeded 3rd Earl Cadogan, 3rd Viscount Chelsea.

On 23 Dec 1843 Maria Stella Chiappini Baroness Newborough (age 70) died.

On 23 Dec 1853 George Perfect Harding (age 72) died.

On 23 Dec 1868 Robert Fitzgerald died.

On 23 Dec 1877 Thomas Wright (age 67) died.

On 23 Dec 1883 Louisa Percy (age 81) died.

On 23 Dec 1897 Euphemia "Effie" Gray Lady Millais (age 69) died at Bowerswell. She was buried at Kinnoull Parish Church next to her son George Millais.

On 23 Dec 1901 Anna Spencer-Stanhope (age 77) died.

On 23 Dec 1901 Edward Onslow Ford (age 49) died.

On 23 Dec 1916 Thomas Henry William Pelham (age 69) died.

On 23 Dec 1916 Arthur Purey Cust (age 88) died.

On 23 Dec 1920 Frederick Coleridge Mackarness (age 66) died.

On 23 Dec 1923 Frederic Henley 4th Baron Henley (age 74) died.

On 23 Dec 1928 Arthur Ramsay 14th Earl Dalhousie (age 50) died at Brechin Castle, Brechin.

On 23 Dec 1931 Walter John Trevelyan 8th Baronet (age 65) died. His son Willoughby John Trevelyan 9th Baronet (age 29) succeeded 9th Baronet Trevelyan of Nettlecombe.

Memorials to the Mack family at St Margaret's Church, Paston [Map].

On 18 May 1933 Hugh Paston Mack died.

On 23 Dec 1917 Lieutenant Commander Ralph Michael Mack (age 34) was killed in action when his destoyer Tornado was mined.

On 29 Apr 1943 Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack (age 50) died in a plane crash.

Hugh Paston Mack: On 22 Mar 1828 he was born to John Mack of Paston Hall.

Lieutenant Commander Ralph Michael Mack: On 11 Oct 1883 he was born to Hugh Paston Mack.

Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack: On 06 Oct 1892 he was born to Major Philip Paston Mack. On 15 Sep 1905 Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack joined the Royal Navy as a naval cadet at the Osborne and Britannia Royal Naval Colleges. On 09 Aug 1910 Rear-Admiral Philip John Mack was posted to the battlecruiser Indomitable as a midshipman, transferring to the cruiser Amethyst on 15 Jul 1913 having been promoted to sub-lieutenant on 15 Jun 1913.

On 23 Dec 1933 Katharine "Kate" Carswell Clerk (age 84) died.

On 23 Dec 1942 Arthur Patrick Spencer Chichester (age 28) was killed in action.

On 23 Dec 1946 Alice "Kiki" Preston aka Gwynne (age 48) committed suicide by jumping out of a window of her fifth-floor apartment in the Stanhope Hotel.

On 23 Dec 1957 John aka Jack Spencer Coke (age 77) died.

On 23 Dec 1963 Robert Early Strawbridge (age 92) died.

On 23 Dec 1964 Stephen de Yarburgh-Bateson 5th Baron Deramore (age 61) died. His brother Richard de Yarburgh-Bateson 6th Baron Deramore (age 53) succeeded 6th Baron Deramore of Belvoir in County Down, 7th Baronet Bateson of Belvoir Park in County Down.

On 23 Dec 1971 Violet Catherine Manners (age 83) died.

On 23 Dec 1993 General John Nelson (age 81) died.

On 23 Dec 1995 Gabrielle Muriel Ritchie (age 87) died.

On 23 Dec 1999 Alexander Ronald George Strutt 4th Baron Belper (age 87) died. His son Richard Henry Strutt 5th Baron Belper (age 58) succeeded 5th Baron Belper.