On this Day in History ... 23 October

23 Oct is in October.

1448 Battle of Sark

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1641 Irish Rebellion

1642 Battle of Edge Hill

1702 Battle of Vigo Bay

Battle of Sark

On 23 Oct 1448 Hugh Douglas 1st Earl Ormonde commanded at during the Battle of Sark inflicting a heavy defeat on the English forces. Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 27) and Thomas Harrington (age 48) were captured. Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 55) escaped.

On 23 Oct 1508 Edmund Ros 10th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 53) died. Baron Ros Helmsley abeyant between his daughters.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries v. lvii. p. 266. 822. Zuam Antonio Venier to the Signory.

All the ambassadors being here [at Abbeville] on the 18th, I wrote from Montreuil, that on the 17th the Papal Nuncio and the Imperial Ambassador caused us to remain here at Abbeville an insult to the powers we represent, we being put to cost and in confinement whilst the former ambassadors are sent for to Montreuil and Boulogne, and while others are allowed to attend the congress, which shows they are treating against our princes.1

On the 11th instant the English King crossed the Channel, and landed at Calais with from 1,500 to 2,000 horse. He brought with him the Marchioness Boleyn (age 31), his favourite, with some twenty maids of honour (damigelle). The most Christian King remained hunting in the neighbourhood of Boulogne until the 19th, when he entered the town. On the 20th he went to Marquise, and on the afternoon of the 21st proceeded towards Calais, and midway met the English King, and both their Majesties, with mutual goodwill and respect, embraced, calling each other "brother;" and coming to Boulogne, the most Christian King placed the King of England on his right hand; and passing through Marquise they refreshed themselves, the reception being as pompous and costly as possible, there being great plenty of everything requisite.

Proceeding on their way, they met the Dauphin and the Dukes of Orleans and Angouleme, and the most Christian King said to the English King, "Sire, those are the Dauphin and my other sons, who wish, and are bound, to pay their respects to your Majesty;" and he then drew a little aside, not choosing to take part in the reception. Whereupon the English King not only embraced but kissed them all three on the mouth; and the Dauphin and Orleans thanked him for what he had done, and for having released their father from captivity, declaring that their lives and their entire substance would at all times be at the disposal of his Majesty and his kingdom. Angouleme, who had not the same subject of discourse, addressed him in another form, but so sweetly and sagely, according to report, that he spoke like an angel; so that the English King again embraced him alone, kissing him several times; after which the most Christian King resumed his place beside King Henry, thanking him for his gracious reception of his sons. They were then met in succession by five cardinals, namely, the Legate [Chancellor Duprat (age 69)], Bourbon, Lorraine, Tournon, and Grammont, and by a great number of archbishops, bishops, and prelates, and by many princes and barons, all of whom were embraced by the English King, which being a tedious and fatiguing ceremony, was considered a mark of great gracious-ness on the part of his Majesty; there being, in addition to these, the 200 gentlemen of his most Christian Majesty's household, in rich and noble array, and the 400 archers, and the 100 Switzers, all in very costly liveries of silk and gold, so that the abundance of silk, gold, pearls, and jewels on the part of France was considered inestimable, most especially on account of the embroideries and brocades (brocature) now in fashion there; but on the side of England there were many cloths of silk, and gold chains without number, but not such boundless expense.

On entering Boulogne, although the English King remonstrated against it, his most Christian Majesty accompanied him to his chamber; and on the following day sent him, as a present, a coat (iuppone) a doublet (soio) and a gown (roba) such as he himself purposed wearing on that day, which apparel was embroidered with pearls and precious stones, so that it is said to be marvellous. And the various games, entertainments, and pageants were most splendid and endless; and the extreme graciousness of both the Kings was remarkable, for the most Christian King always banqueted the Englishmen, King Henry doing the like by the Frenchmen. On the 13th the most Christian King gave the English King a suit of bed furniture, wrought throughout with pearls on crimson velvet, which he purchased lately in Paris of an Italian merchant for 10,000 golden crowns; and the other day he gave him six coursers of his own breed, the handsomest he had in his stable.

It is said that on the evening of the 23rd the two Kings held a long secret conference, there being present on the part of France the Lord Chancellor Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral2, and on the part of England the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the Bishop of Winchester.

The result of this conference is understood to be that the most Christian King sends the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont to the Pope about the Emperor entering Italy, and will send a personage to said Emperor (a esso Cesare) and he has despatched an ambassador to Scotland to offer his daughter to the King there, according to the request made by the Scottish ambassador, who had returned to his King without any decision. But his most Christian Majesty will give him his daughter on condition that he do forthwith form a league and understanding with his Majesty and the English King, which will be difficult.

It is said that the English King having made the Marchioness (age 31) cross the Channel with him for the purpose of marrying her, with the intervention of King Francis, (per sposarla con intervento dil Re Xmo.) his most Christian Majesty apparently modified this project at the consultation held between them; and such is the belief of the French and English.

The Reverend (sic) Casal3 arrived lately, having ridden post from Rome, where he was negotiating for the English King. No farther change was caused by his coming.

On the morning of the 25th the most Christian King gave the collar of his order of St. Michael to the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and went to Calais with the English King; and on the road, and on entering that town, the same compliments were paid as on entering Boulogne, every loving and honourable demonstration being made towards the French; nor was there less magnificence; games and pageants being exchanged for wild fowl and venison, and, moreover, for English ladies.4 Then the English King gave his most Christian Majesty a vesture (uno vestido) and six coursers, and six hobbies (chinee); and it is said, though this I do not know for certain, that he remitted and gave to the three French princes the entire debt due from their father, amounting to about 300,000 crowns. He also gave his Order of St. George to the Lord Steward and to the Admiral5; and finally gave, as servant to the most Christian King, his natural son, who is about 13 years old.

On the 29th the English King, accompanied by the most Christian King, went a distance of three leagues beyond Calais; there they took leave of each other with many mutual embraces and caresses.

It is reported that these two nations, which are by nature hostile to each other, exchanged greater marks of honour and goodwill than were expected.

Two days hence the most Christian King will go to Amiens, there to consult about the mission of these two Cardinals. It is said that these two Kings have agreed for the Cardinals to insist on the Pope's not leaguing with the Emperor, and should he make a fresh agreement with him, they will no longer allow the collation of the benefices of France and England to be referred to Rome, but will separate their clergy from the Roman See. (Si dice questi Rè kanno convenuto che li Cardinali insista ch'el Papa non conseguisca il vincolo con Cesare; et facendo nova, intelligentia non voter più che la erpeditione di Franca et Anglia vadino a Roma, ma divider il suo clero dalla Sede Romana). But this interview (vista) and conference have been a superfluous expenditure,—entertainments and pageants, and nothing else.

Abbeville6, 31st October. Registered by Sanuto, 29th November.


Note 1. "Ritrovandosi tutti li Oratori quì alli 18, scrissi da Montreuil che adi 17 il Nontio Pontificio et Orator Cesareo concluseno questo atto di fame star quì apartati, e via (eon pocha consideration, et per far grande iniuria a li Principi de chi semo Oratori, li quali è sta fati venir a Montarol e Bologna), e spender, confiuandone, e a cadaun altro è sta leeito andar a vedcr i congressi."

Note 2. Philippe Chabot, Seigneur de Brion.

Note 3. Query Sir Gregory Casal. (See State Papers, vol. vii. part 5, p. 380.)

Note 4. "e non furono inferiori di splendidezza, suplendo nelli jochi spetaculi, de animali silvestri e di più dille dame Englese." See also Hall, p. 795. "I assure you he [Francis I] and his trayne, were requited at Caleis for [by?] the plentie of wylde foule, venison," etc., etc.

Note 5. Montmorency and Chabot.

Note 6. In the original "Bovilla," but see letter dated Montreuil, 17th October.


Wriothesley's Chronicle. The 23rd dale of October Sir William [Paulet], Lord Sainct John (age 64), and Lord Great Master of the Kinges howse, delivered the Great Seale of England to the Kinges Majestie (age 10) and my Lord Protector, which he had bene custos of synce the dismission of my Lord Wriothesley (age 41), late Chauncelor; and the same daie Sir Richard Rich (age 50), Lord Rich, was chosen Lord Chauncelor, and the Kinges great scale delivered unto him; and the 26th daie of October he was sworne Lord Chauncelor in the Chauncerie in Westminster Hall.


Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1561. The xxviij day of October, the wyche was sant Symon and Jude day, was at Whyt-hall [Map] grett baytyng of the bull and bere for the in-bassadurs of Franse that cam owtt of Scottland, the wyche the Quen('s) (age 28) grace was ther, and her consell and mony nobull men.

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On 23 Oct 1625 Charles Cheyne 1st Viscount Newhaven was born to Francis Cheyne of Chesham Bois in Buckinghamshire (age 57) and Anne Fleetwood.

On 23 Oct 1629 Anthony Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montague (age 55) died. His son Francis Browne 3rd Viscount Montague (age 19) succeeded 3rd Viscount Montague.

1641 Irish Rebellion

On 23 Oct 1641 the 1641 Irish Rebellion was an attempt by Catholic gentry to seize Dublin Castle. The Rebellion was foiled when details of its plot were revealed to Owen O'Connolly who informed the Irish Justices. The leaders were arrested.

Battle of Edge Hill

On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill [Map]. The Royal army was commanded by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) (with his son King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 12) present), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 22) and Richard Spencer (age 49) commanded the army that included Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 21), Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron (age 36), Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland (age 32), Charles Cavendish (age 22), Henry Newton aka Puckering 3rd Baronet (age 24), Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton (age 41), Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet (age 30), John Byron 1st Baron Byron (age 43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh (age 55).

George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny (age 24) was killed.

Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh (age 34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex (age 51). Oliver St John 5th Baron St John Bletso (age 39) was wounded.

Samuel Sandys (age 27) commanded a troop of horse.

Richard Sandys (age 26) was killed.

Thomas Strickland (age 20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry.

Henry Hunloke 1st Baronet (age 24) was knighted by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

William Dugdale (age 37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.

John Hinton (age 38) was present.

Edward Verney (age 52) was killed.

John Assheton (age 29) was killed.

Robert Bertie 1st Earl Lindsey (age 59) was killed. His son Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey (age 34) succeeded 2nd Earl Lindsey, 15th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Martha Cockayne Countess Lindsey and Holderness by marriage Countess Lindsey.

William Pennyman 1st Baronet (age 35) commanded a regiment, of which he served as Colonel, which he led for the King.

Edward Stradling 2nd Baronet (age 42) fought for the King, was captured imprisoned for seven months, and died a month after his release.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange (age 26); his marriage with the Lady Mary (age 15), eldest daughter to the Duke of York (age 44), by Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared.


1702 Battle of Vigo Bay

On 23 Oct 1702 the Battle of Vigo Bay was a naval engagement at which the English fleet captured or sank the Spanish Treasure fleet.

On 23 Oct 1716 Simon Fanshawe 5th Viscount Dromore (age 67) died.

On or before 23 Oct 1729 Charles Grey 1st Earl Grey was born to Henry Grey 1st Baronet (age 37) and Hannah Wood at Howick Hall [Map]. He was baptised on 23 Oct 1729.


On 23 Oct 1753 John Murray 3rd Duke Atholl (age 24) and Charlotte Murray Duchess Atholl (age 22) were married. She the daughter of James Murray 2nd Duke Atholl (age 63) and Jane Frederick Duchess Atholl. They were first cousins.

On 23 Oct 1768 Bishop William Otter was born at Cuckney.

Before 23 Oct 1778 Edward Crofton 2nd Baronet (age 30) and Anne Croker 1st Lady Crofton (age 27) were married. She by marriage Lady Crofton of The Mote in Roscommon.

On 23 Oct 1829 John St Aubyn 1st Baron St Levan was born to Edward St Aubyn 1st Baronet (age 29) and Emma Knollys (age 23).

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On 23 Oct 1892 James Henry Robert Innes-Kerr 7th Duke Roxburghe (age 53) died. His son Henry John Innes-Kerr 8th Duke Roxburghe (age 16) succeeded 8th Duke Roxburghe.

On 23 Oct 1895 George Montagu Bennet 7th Earl Tankerville (age 43) and Leonora Sophia van Marter Countess of Tancerville were married. He the son of Charles Bennet 6th Earl Tankerville (age 85) and Olivia Montagu Countess Tankerville (age 65).

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