On this Day in History ... 25 March

25 Mar is in March.

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge

1333 Battle of Dornock

1388 Merciless Parliament

1483 Death of Edward IV

1655 Discovery of Saturn's Moon Titan

1664 Long Parliament

1668 Bawdy House Riots

1802 Treaty of Amiens

1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade

1807 Opening of the First Passenger Railway

1868 Death of Lord Cardigan

On 25 Mar 708 Pope Constantine I (age 44) was appointed Pope.

Around 25 Mar 1005 Kenneth III King Alba (age 39) died. His half first cousin King Malcolm II of Alba (age 51) succeeded King Alba.

On 25 Mar 1051 Hugh Maine IV Count Maine (age 31) died. His son Herbert Maine II Count Maine succeeded II Count Maine.

On 25 Mar 1223 Alfonso "Fat" II King Portugal (age 37) died at Coimbra. His son Sancho "Pious" II King Portugal (age 13) succeeded II King Portugal.

Before 25 Mar 1249 John Courtenay 2nd Baron Okehampton (age 24) and Isabel Vere Baroness Okehampton (age 27) were married. She by marriage Baroness Okehampton. She the daughter of Hugh de Vere 4th Earl of Oxford (age 41) and Hawise Quincy Countess Oxford. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 25 Mar 1309 Robert Ferrers 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley was born to John Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 37) and Hawise Muscegros Baroness Ferrers Chartley.

On 25 Mar 1314 Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby (age 46) died. Baron Zouche Ashby abeyant between his three daughters Ellen Zouche, Maud Zouche Baroness Holand and Elizabeth Zouche.

Battle of Boroughbridge

Battle of Dornock

On 25 Mar 1333 the Battle of Dornock was fought between the supporters of the seven year old King David II of Scotland (age 9), son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland, and the supporters of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 50), supported by the English, commanded by Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 43). The English army quickly overwhelmed the Scottish force. William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl (age 33) was captured and spent two years in prison.

Before 25 Mar 1338 William de Kyme 2nd Baron Kyme died. His nephew Gilbert Umfraville 9th Earl Angus (age 28) succeeded 3rd Baron Kyme.

On 25 Mar 1341 Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton was born to William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 31) and Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 28). He a great grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 25 Mar 1345 Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster was born to Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 35) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 25) at Bolingbroke Castle [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

On 25 Mar 1349 John Mowbray 4th Baron Mowbray Baron Segrave (age 8) and Elizabeth Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave Baroness Mowbray (age 10) were married. She by marriage Baroness Mowbray. He by marriage Baron Segrave 1C 1283. She the daughter of John Segrave 4th Baron Segrave (age 33) and Margaret Plantagenet 2nd Countess Norfolk. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle [Map]. He fled to Louvain where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian Chief Justice was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map].

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

On 25 Mar 1414 Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford was born to John Clifford 7th Baron Clifford (age 25) and Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland (age 19). He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Mar 1440 Geoffrey Boleyn (age 60) died. Around 1414 Alice Bracton (age 29) died. Memorial brass in the floor of the nave of Church of St Peter and St Paul Salle [Map]. It originally also had tiny figures representing their 5 sons and 4 daughters, but the inlay is lost. Inscription: Hic jacet Galfrid. Boleyn qui obt. 25 die mensis Martij 1440, et Alicie, uxor. ejus, et pueror. suorum, quorum a'i'ab; &c. Label: Dominus propitius esto nobis peccatorib. ie "Here lies Geoffrey Boleyn who died the 25th day of the month of March A.D. 1440, and Alice, his wife, and children, on whose souls may God have mercy Amen"

Geoffrey Boleyn: Around 1380 he was born to Thomas Boleyn (age 30) and Anne Jane Bracton (age 26). Before 1406 Geoffrey Boleyn (age 26) and Alice Bracton (age 20) were married. They were half first cousins. In 1408 Geoffrey Boleyn (age 28) provided timber for the building of Church of St Peter and St Paul Salle. The church was paid for by four Lords of the manor, Geoffrey Boleyn (age 28), Thomas Brigge, Thomas Roos and an unknown person, with newly acquired wealth from the wool trade.

Alice Bracton: Around 1385 she was born to John Bracton (age 26) at Salle.

On 25 Mar 1478 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl of Kildare (age 57) died. His son Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl of Kildare (age 22) succeeded 8th Earl Kildare.

Death of Edward IV

On 25 Mar 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) returned to Westminster [Map] from Windsor [Map]. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

On 25 Mar 1537 Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme (age 47) died. His son Antoine King Navarre (age 18) succeeded Duke Vendôme.

On 25 Mar 1545 John "Younger" Oldenburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg was born to Christian III King Denmark (age 41) and Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 33)..

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1555. The xxv day of Marche, the wyche was owre lade [day,] ther was as gret justes as youe have sene at the tylt at Vestmynster; the chalyngers was a Spaneard and ser Gorge Haward (age 30); and all ther men, and ther horsses trymmyd in whyt, and then cam the Kyng (age 27) and a gret mene [menée, ie retinue] all in bluw, and trymmyd with yelow, and ther elmets with gret tuyffes [tufts ie plumes.] of blue and yelow fether, and all ther veffelers [whifflers ie forerunners] and ther fotemen, and ther armorers, and a compene lyke Turkes red in cremesun saten gownes and capes, and with fachyons [falchions], and gret targets; and sum in gren, and mony of dyvers colers; and ther was broken ij hondred stayffes and a-boyff.NOTEXT


On 25 Mar 1577 Louis III de La Tremoille 1st Duke Thouars (age 56) died. His son Claude de La Tremoille 2nd Duke Thouars (age 11) succeeded 2nd Duke Thouars.


Before 25 Mar 1605 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans was born to Thomas Jermyn (age 32) and Catherine Killigrew (age 26). On 25 Mar 1605 he was christened.


On 25 Mar 1605 Elizabeth Russell Countess Bath was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map]. After 12 Jul 1623 William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 65) was buried with his wife.

Monument, possibly by Nicholas Johnson, with Latin inscriptions: Æ.S. Lege viator quæ Magnatum saxa rarissime, loquuntur vir probus et mobilis utero hic situs est Guiliemus Bourgchier Comes Bathone nsis æternitatem apud motales meritus Suauissimo connubio connnxit nobii tatem et virtutem utranq dignitatum in omnibus constanter retinvit et ornavit vixit in hac ipsa Devonia cvi datus est praefectus et puincian triginta pius minus annis integerppime administravit Deum tam privatis quam publicis officus religiosissime colvit magnificum exemplum beneficentiæ, et hosptalitatis pavprervmq et oppressorum acerrimus patronus diniq cum inoffensae foelicitatis cursum ad sinium vsq propuxisset decessit e vivis incens et aeternum Devoniae suæ desiderium 12 July anno salvitus 1623 ætatis vero suæ 65. Uxorem duxit lectissimam toeminan sociam ... sepulchri dnam Elizabetham Francisci Comitis Bedfordensis Filiam ex qua genuit Johem Robertum et Edwardum Filios et Franciscam Filiam E quibus Edwardum modo Comitem Bathoniensem solum reliquit supersitem ipsoum clarissimæ familiæ suis quoq virtutibus et foelicissimo conivgio futurum ornamentum. Hoc fac et vivis.

BATHONÆ COMTIÆ DEVON PRAEFECTO MEMORIÆ ERGO Ana: Crono: Epi: Mors mihi Ivcrvm ... In grama tum ... Bon Temps viendra Morior ... Orior ... Ad sepul crum ... Finis ... Coronat Ana: Gulielmus Bourchier Luge (si ob Iucrum Heri) Quid sibi vult Tumulus. Quaeve hoec Insignia Iuctus Eft COMES in Svperos ecce LOCUMQ TENES Quare fles, Devonia vel, Bathonia, qvare eXIIt: en bon teMps nVnCo VIenDra patet (Crono) IVLIVS, hoc, mensis fuit AUGUSTISSIMUS, anno Atq SECUNDA (decem junge) SECUNDA dies Non amor, invidia est, DOLOR, euge, lege, (ALME VIATOR) Et difce exemplo VIVERE, disce mori. Sic cecinit, non elevit.

The Plantagenet Arms indicate his being a 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England through his paternal grandfather John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and his paternal grandmother Eleanor Manners Countess Bath.

Elizabeth Russell Countess Bath: She was born to Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford and Margaret St John Countess Bedford. On 28 Apr 1581 the marriage of William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 23) and Mary Cornwallis Countess Bath was annulled. A letter of Sir Thomas Cornwallis, dat. Brome, 10 June 1601, states "By deposition of 10 witnesses, it was most manifestly proved in the Arches, that the marriage was lawfully, clearly, and honestly compassed," that the Earl's mother "did by great means attempt to corrupt the then Judge of that Court ... but not prevailing that way, all course of law was then broken, for they appealed to the Delegates, slne gravamlne ... who thereupon proceeded in so violent a course as the like hath not been heard of .... Her adversaries effected the end of their desire ; and yet the Commissioners' Sentence was with this corrective, viz. leaving the Earl to his own conscience." (Hist. MSS. Com., Hatfield MSS., Part xi, p. 223). This Mary was a legatee, 25 June 1601, in the will of Sir Thomas Kitson (age 40), her sister's (age 40) husband, who mentions her said marriage, and that it afterwards proved most unfortunate and to her great hindrance. W. Lewyn, also, speaks of this Earl as having "made an untimely marriage by night with the da. of Sir Thomas Cornwallys, which was undone and the Earl since married to another, the da. (as I think) of the late Earl of Bedford (age 54)." (Letter to Lord Cobham, 29 May 1596). V.G. On 07 Aug 1583 William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 25) and she were married at St Mary Major Church, Exeter. She by marriage Countess Bath, Countess Eu. She the daughter of Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 56) and Margaret St John Countess Bedford. In Aug 1603 during a plague in London the royal court moved to Basing House. Francis Palmes of Lindley (age 49) entertained courtiers at his house nearby at Lancelevy, Sherfield on Loddon. The party included Lady Anne Clifford (age 13), her mother Margaret Clifford (age 43), Countess of Cumberland and Elizabeth Bourchier, Countess of Bath, who used Lancelevy as a base to visit Anne of Denmark (age 28) and Arbella Stuart (age 28). On 24 Mar 1605 she died.

On 25 Mar 1609 Johann Wilhelm La Marck Duke Cleves (age 46) died.

On 25 Mar 1619 Bishop Peter Mews was born.


Discovery of Saturn's Moon Titan

On 25 Mar 1655 Christian Huygens (age 25) discovered Saturn's moon Titan; he named it Luna Saturni, literally Moon of Saturn, using a 2" telescope he and his brother had constructed in Feb 1656. It was the sixth moon discovered, the first being the Earth's moon, and the second to fifth, being the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo in Mar 1610.

Long Parliament

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1664. Lady-day. Up and by water to White Hall, and there to chappell; where it was most infinite full to hear Dr. Critton (age 71). Being not knowne, some great persons in the pew I pretended to, and went in, did question my coming in. I told them my pretence; so they turned to the orders of the chappell, which hung behind upon the wall, and read it; and were satisfied; but they did not demand whether I was in waiting or no; and so I was in some fear lest he that was in waiting might come and betray me. The Doctor (age 71) preached upon the thirty-first of Jeremy, and the twenty-first and twenty-second verses, about a woman compassing a man; meaning the Virgin conceiving and bearing our Saviour. It was the worst sermon I ever heard him make, I must confess; and yet it was good, and in two places very bitter, advising the King (age 33) to do as the Emperor Severus did, to hang up a Presbyter John (a short coat and a long gowne interchangeably) in all the Courts of England. But the story of Severus was pretty, that he hanged up forty senators before the Senate house, and then made a speech presently to the Senate in praise of his owne lenity; and then decreed that never any senator after that time should suffer in the same manner without consent of the Senate: which he compared to the proceeding of the Long Parliament against my Lord Strafford. He said the greatest part of the lay magistrates in England were Puritans, and would not do justice; and the Bishopps, their powers were so taken away and lessened, that they could not exercise the power they ought. He told the King (age 33) and the ladies plainly, speaking of death and of the skulls and bones of dead men and women1, how there is no difference; that nobody could tell that of the great Marius or Alexander from a pyoneer; nor, for all the pains the ladies take with their faces, he that should look in a charnels-house could not distinguish which was Cleopatra's, or fair Rosamond's, or Jane Shoare's.

Note 1. The preacher appears to have had the grave scene in "Hamlet" in his mind, as he gives the same illustration of Alexander as Hamlet does.

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On 25 Mar 1667 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 76) died. Earl Cleveland extinct.

1668 Bawdy House Riots

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1668. By and by the Duke of York (age 34) is ready; and I did wait for an opportunity of speaking my mind to him about Sir J. Minnes (age 69), his being unable to do the King (age 37) any service, which I think do become me to do in all respects, and have Sir W. Coventry's (age 40) concurrence therein, which I therefore will seek a speedy opportunity to do, come what will come of it. The Duke of York (age 34) and all with him this morning were full of the talk of the 'prentices, who are not yet [put] down, though the guards and militia of the town have been in armes all this night, and the night before; and the 'prentices have made fools of them, sometimes by running from them and flinging stones at them. Some blood hath been spilt, but a great many houses pulled down; and, among others, the Duke of York (age 34) was mighty merry at that of Damaris Page's, the great bawd of the seamen; and the Duke of York (age 34) complained merrily that he hath lost two tenants, by their houses being pulled down, who paid him for their wine licenses £15 a year. But here it was said how these idle fellows have had the confidence to say that they did ill in contenting themselves in pulling down the little bawdyhouses, and did not go and pull down the great bawdy-house at White Hall. And some of them have the last night had a word among them, and it was "Reformation and Reducement". This do make the courtiers ill at ease to see this spirit among people, though they think this matter will not come to much: but it speaks people's minds; and then they do say that there are men of understanding among them, that have been of Cromwell's army: but how true that is, I know not.

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Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1668. Betimes I to Alderman Backewell (age 50), and with him to my Lord Ashly's (age 46), where did a little business about Tangier, and to talk about the business of certificates, wherein, contrary to what could be believed, the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) themselves, in my absence, did call for some of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and give them directions about the business [of the certificates], which I, despairing to do any thing on a Sunday, and not thinking that they would think of it themselves, did rest satisfied, and stayed at home all yesterday, leaving it to do something in this day; but I find that the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) had been so pressing in it, that my Lord Ashly (age 46) was more forward with the doing of it this day, than I could have been. And so I to White Hall with Alderman Backewell (age 50) in his coach, with Mr. Blany; my Lord's Secretary: and there did draw up a rough draught of what order I would have, and did carry it in, and had it read twice and approved of, before my Lord Ashly (age 46) and three more of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and then went up to the Council-chamber, where the Duke of York (age 34), and Prince Rupert (age 48), and the rest of the Committee of the Navy were sitting: and I did get some of them to read it there: and they would have had it passed presently, but Sir John Nicholas desired they would first have it approved by a full Council: and, therefore, a Council Extraordinary was readily summoned against the afternoon, and the Duke of York (age 34) run presently to the King (age 37), as if now they were really set to mind their business, which God grant! So I thence to Westminster, and walked in the Hall and up and down, the House being called over to-day, and little news, but some talk as if the agreement between France and Spain were like to be, which would be bad for us, and at noon with Sir Herbert Price (age 63) to Mr. George Montagu's (age 45) to dinner, being invited by him in the hall, and there mightily made of, even to great trouble to me to be so commended before my face, with that flattery and importunity, that I was quite troubled with it. Yet he is a fine gentleman, truly, and his lady a fine woman; and, among many sons that I saw there, there was a little daughter that is mighty pretty, of which he is infinite fond: and, after dinner, did make her play on the gittar and sing, which she did mighty prettily, and seems to have a mighty musical soul, keeping time with most excellent spirit. Here I met with Mr. Brownlow, my old schoolfellow, who come thither, I suppose, as a suitor to one of the young ladies that were there, and a sober man he seems to be. But here Mr. Montagu (age 45) did tell me how Mr. Vaughan (age 64), in that very room, did say that I was a great man, and had great understanding, and I know not what, which, I confess, I was a little proud of, if I may believe him. Here I do hear, as a great secret, that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 34) and Duchesse, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), are now all agreed in a strict league, and all things like to go very current, and that it is not impossible to have my Lord Clarendon (age 59), in time, here again. But I do hear that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is horribly vexed at the late libell1, the petition of the poor whores about the town, whose houses were pulled down the other day. I have got one of them, but it is not very witty, but devilish severe against her and the King (age 37) and I wonder how it durst be printed and spread abroad, which shews that the times are loose, and come to a great disregard of the King (age 37), or Court, or Government.

Note 1. "The Poor Whores' Petition to the most splendid, illustrious, serene and eminent Lady of Pleasure the Countess of Castlemayne (age 27), &c., signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, this present 25th day of March, 1668". This sham petition occasioned a pretended answer, entitled, "The Gracious Answer of the Most Illustrious Lady of Pleasure, the Countess of Castlem.... to the Poor Whores' Petition". It is signed, "Given at our Closset, in King Street, Westminster, die Veneris, April 24, 1668. Castlem...". Compare Evelyn, April 2nd, 1668.

Before 25 Mar 1669 Lionel Tollemache 3rd Baronet (age 44) died. His son Lionel Tollemache 3rd Earl Dysart (age 20) succeeded 4th Baronet Talmash of Helmingham in Suffolk.

On 25 Mar 1669 Robert Maxwell 4th Earl Nithsdale (age 41) and Lucy Douglas Countess Nithsdale (age 25) were married. She the daughter of William Douglas 1st Marquess Douglas and Mary Gordon Marchioness Douglas (age 69). He the son of John Maxwell 3rd Earl Nithsdale (age 64). They were fourth cousins.

On 25 Mar 1675 Edward Brabazon 2nd Earl Meath (age 65) drowned whilst travelling from Ireland to England. His son William Brabazon 3rd Earl Meath (age 40) succeeded 3rd Earl Meath.

On 25 Mar 1675 Michael Wharton (age 27) died. He was reputed to be the richest man in England worth £15000 a year. Monument in Beverley Minster [Map]. Sculpted by Peter Scheemakers.

Michael Wharton: Around 1648 he was born to Michael Wharton (age 24) and Susan Paulett. On 30 Jun 1666 Michael Wharton (age 18) was knighted. In 1688 Michael Wharton and Lord Danby (age 55) secured Kingston upon Hull for the Prince of Orange (age 37) during the Glorious Revolution. In Mar 1689 he was appointed Lord of the Admiralty.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1694. Mr. Goode, minister of St. Martin's [Map], preached; he was likewise put in by the Queen (age 31), on the issue of her process with the Bishop of London (age 62).


Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. 25 Mar 1719. Mr President brought an old deed of King Stephen's remarkable for the finesse of its character and largeness, dated MCXXXVII [1137] and likewise another deed of King Harry Ist's time as singlular for its minuteness and laconic style, and likewise the deed of William Albini founder of Belvoir Castle [Map], likewise the Royal Arms impressed in Rye dough which came from Hampton Court [Map].

Mr Director brought a sketch of a design of a plate to be printed as a headpiece or Emblem of the Works of the Society at the beginning of any publications, which he was ordered to to have [?]. Mr President made a Report in the name of those gentlemen who were ordered to revise Mr Samuel Gale's dissertation upon Ulphus's Horn and what alterations they hinted at, are submitted to the Author pleasure, and the work is ordered to be published and printed in a good manner in Quarto by Mr Gossin [?] at the charges of the Society with a print of the Horn before it, whereof a sufficient number are likewise ordered to be printed off. It was ordered by the Society that a manuscript of the Cotton Library being [?] Registrum Honors de Richmond with the Illuminations therein, be printed at their charges, and Mr Roger Gale (age 46) is disposed to get it transcribed, in order thereto, and the Director to have the drawings therein copied to be engraven, the whole to be done in the same form and magnitude with the original.

On 25 Mar 1733 Captain William Berkeley (age 34) died at sea whilst Commander of Tyger on its journey from Guinea to the West Indies. He was buried at sea. Memorial in the Church of St Mary, Bruton [Map] sculpted by Peter Scheemakers (age 58) in 1749. Berkeley Arms Berkeley Arms beneath.

Captain William Berkeley: Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) coming home, he being come to Portsmouth; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King (age 33), wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King (age 33) is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain. Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1663. Up, and after being ready, and done a little business at the office, I and Mr. Hater by water to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I have not been a very great, while, and there paid off the Milford in very good order, and all respect showed me in the office as much as there used to be to any of the rest or the whole board. That done at noon I took Captain Terne, and there coming in by chance Captain Berkeley, him also to dinner with me to the Globe. Captain Berkeley, who was lately come from Algier, did give us a good account of the place, and how the Basha there do live like a prisoner, being at the mercy of the soldiers and officers, so that there is nothing but a great confusion there. Around 1699 he was born to William Berkeley 4th Baron Berkeley (age 35) and Frances Temple Baroness Berkeley.

On 25 Mar 1734 John Agar aka Agar-Ellis 1st Viscount Clifden was born to Henry Agar (age 32) and Anne Ellis (age 26) probably at Gowran Castle, Gowran, County Kilkenny.

On 25 Mar 1752 Carlos Fitz James Stuart 10th Duke Veragua 4th Duke Berwick was born to James Fitz James 3rd Duke Berwick 10th Duke Veragua (age 33) and Maria Teresa Silva Duchess Berwick and Veragua (age 35) at Llíria. He a great x 2 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Mar 1774 Reverend Spencer Cowper (age 62) died.

On 25 Mar 1774 Thomas Brand 20th Baron Dacre was born to Thomas Brand Baron Dacre (age 24) and Gertrude Trevor Roper 19th Baroness Dacre Gilsland (age 23). He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

After 25 Mar 1775. St Asaph Cathedral. Memorial to Richard Price Thelwall.

On 25 Mar 1795 Robert Jenkinson 2nd Earl Liverpool (age 24) and Louisa Theodosia Hervey Countess Liverpool (age 28) were married at Wimbledon, Surrey. She the daughter of Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol (age 64) and Elizabeth Davers Countess Bristol (age 62). He the son of Charles Jenkinson 1st Earl Liverpool (age 65) and Amelia Watts.


On 25 Mar 1796 William Feilding 6th Earl Desmond 7th Earl Denbigh was born to William Feilding (age 35) and Anne Catherine Powys at Berwick House Shrewsbury.

On 25 Mar 1800 Thomas Lyon Bowes 11th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne (age 26) and Mary Louisa Elizabeth Rodney Carpenter (age 17) were married. He the son of John Lyon 9th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne and Mary Bowes Countess Strathmore (age 51).

Treaty of Amiens

On 25 Mar 1802 the United Kingdom and the French Repulic signed the Treaty of Amiens bringing to an end the War of the Second Coalition. The peace laster for fifteen months only.

The Treaty was signed by:

Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis (age 63), United Kingdom

Joseph Bonaparte (age 34), French Republic

José Nicolás de Azara, Spain

Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, Batavian Republic

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Opening of the First Passenger Railway

On 25 Mar 1807 the Oystermouth Railway Company, aka Swansea and Mumbles Railway, commenced the first Passenger Railway Service between Swansea and Oystermouth. The service was horse-drawn.

Abolition of the Slave Trade

On 25 Mar 1807 the Slave Trade Act received Royal Assent. The Act prohibited the slave trade in the British Empire. The Bill was first introduced to Parliament in January 1807. It went to the House of Commons on 10 Feb 1807. After a debate lasting ten hours, the House agreed to the second reading of the bill to abolish the Atlantic slave trade by an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16. The Act took effect on 01 May 1807.

The last legal slave voyage was that of Kitty's Amelia which sailed on 27 Jul 1807 having received permission to sale on 27 Apr 1807 before the Act came into force. Kitty's Amelia arrived with 233 slaves at Jamaica 25 Jan 1808.

On 25 Mar 1824 William Wells Addington 3rd Viscount Sidmouth was born to William Leonard Addington 2nd Viscount Sidmouth (age 29).

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On 25 Mar 1837 Maria Louisa Priscilla Fane (age 14) died.

On 29 May 1848 George Augustus Frederick John Fane (age 28) died.

On 22 Jan 1851 Ernest Neville Fitzroy Fane (age 27) died. Both brothers and sister were buried at the Church of St Leonard, Apethorpe [Map].

Maria Louisa Priscilla Fane: On 24 May 1822 she was born to John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 29).

George Augustus Frederick John Fane: On 18 Jun 1819 he was born to John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 35) and Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 26).

Ernest Neville Fitzroy Fane: On 07 Jan 1824 he was born to John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 39) and Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 30). Around Aug 1849 Ernest Neville Fitzroy Fane (age 25) and Selina Lock were married. He the son of John Fane 11th Earl of Westmoreland (age 65) and Priscilla Anne Wellesley-Pole Countess of Westmoreland (age 56).

On 25 Mar 1838 Robert Wilson 9th Baron Berners (age 77) died. Baron Berners abeyant. The abeyance was terminated in favour of his younger brother Reverend Henry Wilson 10th Baron Berners (age 75) by Royal Warrant dated 2 Apr 1838.

After 25 Mar 1840. Memorial to General Henry Fane (deceased) at St Nicholas' Church, Fulbeck.

On 25 Mar 1846 Walter Henry James 2nd Baron Northbourne was born to Walter Charles James 1st Baron Northbourne (age 29) and Sarah Caroline Ellison.

On 25 Mar 1862 Mary "May" Morris was born to William Morris (age 28) and Jane Morris nee Burden (age 22). She was baptised 30 May 1862 at Christ Church Bexleyheath.

Mary "May" Morris: 1871. The census records William Morris (age 36), Jane Morris nee Burden (age 31), Elizabeth Burden, sister-in-law, Jane Alicia Morris (age 10), Mary "May" Morris (age 8) and three servants living at 21 Queen Square, Bloomsbury. On 17 Oct 1938 Mary "May" Morris (age 76) died.

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On 25 Mar 1864 William Leonard Addington 2nd Viscount Sidmouth (age 69) died. His son William Wells Addington 3rd Viscount Sidmouth (age 40) succeeded 3rd Viscount Sidmouth.

Death of Lord Cardigan

Adeline Horsey Recollections. One fine March morning he told me that he was going to ride and see a gamekeeper who had accidentally shot himself.

He asked me and Sir Henry Edwards (age 55) to accompany him, but when we reached the keeper's cottage he told us to return to Deene [Map], saying that as he intended to sit an hour with the man he would come on later. We declared our willingness to wait, but Cardigan would not hear of it, and so we somewhat reluctantly rode home without him.

The luncheon hour arrived, but Lord Cardigan did not come; the afternoon dragged on, and still there were no signs of him. I had a horrible presentment that something must have happened, and at once ordered some of the servants to go in search of his Lordship.

My fears were only too well grounded; my husband was found lying insensible on the roadside, nearly lifeless. A roadmender told us afterwards that Lord Cardigan had passed him and spoken a few words and seemed apparently quite well; the horse he was riding shied at a heap of stones and commenced to rear and plunge rather wildly, but my husband kept the animal well under control, for the roadmender saw him ride quietly away. The effort must, however, have afterwards brought on a seizure, for Cardigan fell from his horse, and lay helpless until he was found and brought back to Deene [Map].

For three dreadful days and nights he lay quite unconscious, gasping for breath, and the knowledge that he could not speak to me and did not recognise me intensified my grief a thousandfold. But mercifully his suffering was not prolonged, and on March 28, 1868, my beloved husband passed away.

There are some griefs that are too deep to speak of, even after Time's soothing touch has taken away the first deadly pain of a great sorrow. When I look back and remember the kindness and love which my husband lavished on me, I feel proud to think he often said that the happiest period of his life was after he married me, and that his great possessions and military fame were as nothing compared to the wife he adored.

Lord Cardigan's body lay in state in the ballroom at Deene [Map] for twelve days, during which time six thousand people came to look their last at the remains of the leader of the Charge of the Light Brigade. On April 9 he was buried in Deene Church [Map]; the whole regiment of the 11th Hussars attended the funeral, and he was carried to his last resting-place by eight of his old officers.

When the will was read, it was found that he had left everything to me.

On 25 Mar 1893 Vere Fane 14th Earl of Westmoreland was born to Anthony Fane 13th Earl of Westmoreland (age 33) and Sybil Mary St Clair-Erskine Countess of Westmorland (age 21).


On 25 Mar 1914 Lieutenant-Colonel John Henry Trollope 2nd Baron Kesteven (age 62) and Amy Myddelton Peacock were married.

On 25 Mar 1925 Charles Spencer Boyle 10th Earl Cork (age 63) died without issue. His brother Robert Boyle 11th Earl Cork (age 60) succeeded 11th Earl Cork.

On 25 Mar 1945 Basil Sheridan Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood 4th Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (age 35) was killed in action. Lord Dufferin was serving with the Indian Field Broadcasting Unit on when he was filmed demanding the surrender of Japanese troops who were sheltered in a tunnel; the film captured Lord Dufferin's death when a Japanese mortar shell landed on the unit. His son Sheriden Frederick Terence Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood 5th Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (age 6) succeeded 5th Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, 5th Earl of Ava in County Down and Burma, 5th Earl of Dufferin in County Down, 5th Viscount Dufferin of Claneboye in County Down, 5th Baron Claneboye of Claneboye in County Down, 9th Baron Dufferin and Claneboye of Ballyleidy and Killyleagh in County Down, 9th Baronet Blackwood of Killyleagh in County Down. Maureen Constance Guinness Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava (age 38) by marriage Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava.