On this Day in History ... 25th March

25 Mar is in March.

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge

1333 Battle of Dornock

1388 Merciless Parliament

1483 Death of Edward IV

1655 Discovery of Saturn's Moon Titan

1664 Long Parliament

1668 Bawdy House Riots

1802 Treaty of Amiens

1807 Opening of the First Passenger Railway

1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade

1868 Death of Lord Cardigan

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

25 Mar is "Lady Day" aka the Feast of the Annunciation ie the visit of the archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, during which he informed her that she would be the mother of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

25 Mar was New Year's Day until the 1752 Date Change when New Year changed to the 1st of January.

25 Mar is the Feast of the Annunciation aka Lady Day. Under the Julian Calendar the year started on 25 March. In 1750 the start of the year was changed to the Gregorian Calendar which used 01 Jan as the start of the year. At that time the calendar was adjusted to fix the error in the Julian Calendar. Eleven days were lost. The tax year, and rents, and other legal instruments that relied on the calendar were not adjusted hence our tax year now starting on 06 Apr.

Events on the 25th March

On 25 Mar 708 Pope Constantine I (age 44) was appointed Pope.

Around 25 Mar 1005 Kenneth III King Alba (age 39) died. His first cousin King Malcolm II of Alba (age 51) succeeded King Alba.

On 25 Mar 1157 Alfonso II King Aragon was born to Raymond Berenguer Barcelona V Count Barcelona (age 43) and Petronilla Jiménez Queen Aragon (age 20) at Huesca.

On 25 Mar 1223 Alfonso "Fat" II King Portugal (age 37) died at Coimbra. His son Sancho "Pious" II King Portugal (age 13) succeeded II King Portugal.

On 25 Mar 1322 Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle (age 52) was created 1st Earl Carlisle in reward for his capture of Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (deceased) at the Battle of Boroughbridge.

On 25 Mar 1333 the Battle of Dornock was fought between the supporters of the seven year old King David II of Scotland (age 9), son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland, and the supporters of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 50), supported by the English, commanded by Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 43). The English army quickly overwhelmed the Scottish force. William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl (age 33) was captured and spent two years in prison.

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle, Kent [Map]. He fled to Louvain [Map] where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Baron Beauchamp of Kidderminster forfeit.

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

On 25 Mar 1440 Geoffrey Boleyn (age 60) died. Around 1414 Alice Bracton (age 29) died. Memorial brass in the floor of the nave of Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map]. It originally also had tiny figures representing their 5 sons and 4 daughters, but the inlay is lost. Inscription: Hic jacet Galfrid. Boleyn qui obt. 25 die mensis Martij 1440, et Alicie, uxor. ejus, et pueror. suorum, quorum a'i'ab; &c. Label: Dominus propitius esto nobis peccatorib. ie "Here lies Geoffrey Boleyn who died the 25th day of the month of March A.D. 1440, and Alice, his wife, and children, on whose souls may God have mercy Amen"

Geoffrey Boleyn: Around 1380 he was born to Thomas Boleyn and Anne Jane Bracton. Before 1406 Geoffrey Boleyn and Alice Bracton were married. They were first cousins. In 1408 Geoffrey Boleyn provided timber for the building of Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle. The church was paid for by four Lords of the manor, Geoffrey Boleyn, Thomas Brigge, Thomas Roos and an unknown person, with newly acquired wealth from the wool trade.

Alice Bracton: Around 1385 she was born to John Bracton at Salle, Norfolk.

Chronicle of Jean Molinet Chapter 94. [25 Mar 1483]. On the following Thursday, King Edward of England set off on a pilgrimage, as was his custom to hold court sessions; he became overheated and attempted to cool himself with a salad; he cooled off so much that he passed away on the fourth day after Easter.

Le jeudi absolu ensuivant, le roy Edouard d'Angleterre s'en alla faire un pélerinage, comme il avoit de coustume pour tenir les aveaux; il fut altéré de chaleur, et se cuida rafreschir d'une salade; et se refroidi tellement qu'il termina le quatrième jour après Pasques.

On 25 Mar 1483 King Edward IV of England (age 40) returned to Westminster [Map] from Windsor [Map]. A few days later he became sufficiently unwell to add codicils to his will, and to have urged reconciliation between William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) and Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 28); it isn't clear what the cause of the friction between the two men was although it appears well known that Hastings resented the Woodville family.

Journal of Jean de Roye. 25 Mar 1483. In the said month of April, King Edward of England died in the said realm from an apoplexy that struck him. Others say that he was poisoned by drinking the good wine from the Château de Challuau that the king had given him, of which he drank in such great abundance that he died from it, although it has been said afterwards that he lived until he had crowned his eldest son as king in his place.

Oudit mois d'avril , le roy Edouart d'Angleterre mourut oudit royaulme d'une apoplexie qui le print . Autres disent qu'il fut empoisonné en buvant du bon vin du creu de Challuau que le roy luy avoit donné , duquel il but en si grande habondance qu'il en morut , combien que on a dit depuis qu'il vesquit jusques à ce qu'il eust fait roy en son lieu son filz ainsné.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter LIV. Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 42) to Cardinal Wolsey (age 46) reporting an Audience from, the Duchess of Angoulesme, March 25th 1519.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. VII. fol. 105.]

[Pleasyth it youre] Grace to understand that the xxj th day of this moneth I wrote my last Lettres to your Grace, and as yesterday, which was our Lady's day, I was at Seynt Germayns, where the Quene and my Lady lyeth; but the King roode on our Ladye's even viij. leges hens, and as my Lady tellyth me it is in a dowte whether he cormyth ageyn before the Quene here be brought in bedde or nay; for she lookyth her tyme every howre. Also my Lady hath commaunded me, now while the great Master is away, that I shuld resorte to her for any thing that I shuld have to doo for the King my Master. And she hath, promysed me that she woll make me pryve of such newes as she shall here of from any place : and toold me that the King her sonne whan he departed willed her to shew me a Lettre that came now streyt out of Spayn from his Ambassadour there, and therewithall she called to her the tresourer Robertet and bad hym shewe me that Lettre, wherein was wrytten by the said Ambassador whose name is de la Roche Beauconot, that the King's Highnesse had late sent a Lettre to the King Catholique advertysyng hym how the King here had desired the King's Highnesse by his lettres to wryte to th'Ellectowrs of th'Empire in his favour, the rather to atteyn the dygnyte of th'Empire; the which the King's Highness hath refused bicause of the Amytie betwixt the Kings Grace and the King Catholique, and how the Kings Highnesse had rather that the King Catholique wer Emperowr than the King here; which Lettre he wryteth is in th'andes of the Bishop of Bourgesa oon of the great Counsell of Spayn. Whan I had redde this clawse in the Lettre sent out of Spayn, I prayed my Lady that she wold gyve noo credence to yt, and shewed her how I thought that the said Ambassador wrote this by Informacion of some maliciouse personne that wold sett discord bitwixt Princes; and that I assured her it was not trew. She toold me that she had soo perfecte trust in the Kyng my Master's honnor that she beleved, nor wold beleve, noo such thing; and no more she sayeth woll the King her sonne: sayeng that whan the King here redde the same clause in the Lettre wrytten to hym by his Ambassadour in Spayn he did but lawgh at it, and gave no credence thereto. And she saied it cowlde nat be trew, for the ... the Kyng's Highnesse desyring him to wryte to th ... th'Empire for hym. So that as farre as I can perceyve neyther my Lady nor the King her sonne gyve noo credence to yt. And as moch as I cowld instaunce her I have desired her not to beleve this nor noo such thing that shuld be contrary to any thing that the Kings Highnesse hath promysed or wrytten to the King her sonne. My Lady also desireth that likewise as I woll make me pryve of every thing that shall touch or arr ... to the Kings Grace to th'intent I shuld advertise the Kings Highnesse and your Grace. She likewise desireth to bee advertised of any thing apperteynyng to the King her sonne. She talked with me also of the Meeting of the Kings Highnesse and the King her sonne (which she moch desireth) wherein I shewed her according to myn Instructions that if it pleased her to m ... the King her sonne that he wold be content after they had mett a horsbak to repaire streyt to Calais where they myght be honourably receyved, well and easely lodged, it shuld be convenient for their estates. Whereto she aunswered that when they had oones mett, she putt noo dowtes but they shuld . . well enough, sayeng that after they had ones seen togyther his Highnesse shuld desire hym to nothing but he wold gyve thereto assent. She sayeng allwaies that it shalbe more .... and triumphant to be lodged in sommer in the fields in tents and pavilions than it shuld be in any Towne. She often ... b me of my Lady Princesse and of hir helth, if she hath been syck lately or not. Also Madame la Duchesse the Kings syster, the Duke of Alaunson's wief, lately hath been and yet is very sycke. When I shall have knowledge of any other Newes I shall ... to your Grace of them : beseching the holy Trinite long to preserve your Grace. From Poyssy a leege from Saint Germains this xxvjth day of March.

Yowres m ...

Th ...

Note a. Burgos.

Note b. asked

On 25 Mar 1537 Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme (age 47) died. His son Antoine King Navarre (age 18) succeeded Duke Vendôme.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1555. The xxv day of Marche, the wyche was owre lade [day,] ther was as gret justes as youe have sene at the tylt at Vestmynster; the chalyngers was a Spaneard and ser Gorge Haward (age 30); and all ther men, and ther horsses trymmyd in whyt, and then cam the Kyng (age 27) and a gret mene [menée, ie retinue] all in bluw, and trymmyd with yelow, and ther elmets with gret tuyffes [tufts ie plumes.] of blue and yelow fether, and all ther veffelers [whifflers ie forerunners] and ther fotemen, and ther armorers, and a compene lyke Turkes red in cremesun saten gownes and capes, and with fachyons [falchions], and gret targets; and sum in gren, and mony of dyvers colers; and ther was broken ij hondred stayffes and a-boyff.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1556. The xxv day of Marche was owre Lady day, the Annunsyasyon, at Bow chyrche in London was hangyd with cloth of gold, and with ryche hares [arras] and cossens for the commyng of my lord cardenall Polle (age 56); ther dyd the bysshope of Vosseter dyd synge he masse mytyred; and ther wher dyver bysshopes, as the bysshope of Ely (age 50), bysshope of London (age 56), and bysshope of Lynkkolne (age 46), and the yerle of Penbroke (age 55), and ser Edward Hastynges (age 35), the master of horsse, and dyvers odur nobuls, and after masse done to my lord (unfinished).

On 25 Mar 1605 Elizabeth Russell Countess Bath was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map]. After 12 Jul 1623 William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 65) was buried with his wife.

The monument subject to restoration and repainting around 1980.

Monument, possibly by Nicholas Johnson, with Latin inscriptions: Æ.S. Lege viator quæ Magnatum saxa rarissime, loquuntur vir probus et mobilis utero hic situs est Guiliemus Bourgchier Comes Bathone nsis æternitatem apud motales meritus Suauissimo connubio connnxit nobii tatem et virtutem utranq dignitatum in omnibus constanter retinvit et ornavit vixit in hac ipsa Devonia cvi datus est praefectus et puincian triginta pius minus annis integerppime administravit Deum tam privatis quam publicis officus religiosissime colvit magnificum exemplum beneficentiæ, et hosptalitatis pavprervmq et oppressorum acerrimus patronus diniq cum inoffensae foelicitatis cursum ad sinium vsq propuxisset decessit e vivis incens et aeternum Devoniae suæ desiderium 12 July anno salvitus 1623 ætatis vero suæ 65. Uxorem duxit lectissimam toeminan sociam ... sepulchri dnam Elizabetham Francisci Comitis Bedfordensis Filiam ex qua genuit Johem Robertum et Edwardum Filios et Franciscam Filiam E quibus Edwardum modo Comitem Bathoniensem solum reliquit supersitem ipsoum clarissimæ familiæ suis quoq virtutibus et foelicissimo conivgio futurum ornamentum. Hoc fac et vives.

"Reader, read what the rare stones of the great ones seldom speak, here lies buried William Bourchier, Earl of Bath, deserving of eternity among mortals. He united nobility and virtue by a most delightful marriage, consistently maintaining and adorning both dignities in all things. He lived in this very Devonshire, over which he presided as prefect and justice of the peace for thirty years with the utmost integrity. He devoutly worshipped God in both private and public duties, magnificently exemplifying benevolence, hospitality, and being the most ardent protector of the oppressed. When he had set forth the course of his harmless happiness to the bosom of eternity, he departed from the living, leaving behind an incense and eternal longing for his Devonshire. On July 12th, in the year of salvation 1623, at the age of 65. He married the most distinguished lady, Elizabeth, daughter of Francis, Earl of Bedford, by whom he begot John, Robert, and Edward, sons, and Frances, a daughter. Of these, he left surviving only Edward, now Earl of Bath, a future ornament to his most illustrious family by his own virtues and most happy marriage. Do this, and you will live."

BATHONÆ COMTIÆ DEVON PRAEFECTO MEMORIÆ ERGO Ana: Crono: Epi: Mors mihi Ivcrvm ... In grama tum ... Bon Temps viendra Morior ... Orior ... Ad sepul crum ... Finis ... Coronat Ana: Gulielmus Bourchier Luge (si ob Iucrum Heri) Quid sibi vult Tumulus. Quaeve hoec Insignia Iuctus Eft COMES in Svperos ecce LOCUMQ TENES Quare fles, Devonia vel, Bathonia, qvare eXIIt: en bon teMps nVnCo VIenDra patet (Crono) IVLIVS, hoc, mensis fuit AUGUSTISSIMUS, anno Atq SECUNDA (decem junge) SECUNDA dies Non amor, invidia est, DOLOR, euge, lege, (ALME VIATOR) Et difce exemplo VIVERE, disce mori. Sic cecinit, non elevit.

To the memory of William Bourchier, Earl of Bath, Prefect of Devon: Ana: Chrono: Epitaph: Death is my Law ... Then in the grave ... Good Times will come. I die ... I rise ... To the tomb ... The End ... Ana crowns: William Bourchier Mourn (if for the joy of yesterday) What does the Tumulus mean? What does this Emblem of Grief signify? BEHOLD, the Earl holds a place among the heavens. Why do you weep, Devon or Bath, why do you mourn: behold, good times are coming, soon they will come (Chronos) JULY, this, was the most AUGUST month, in the year and the second day (join ten) The second day. Not love, but envy is SORROW, hail, read (kind traveler) And learn to live by example, learn to die. Thus he sang, not did he elevate.

The Plantagenet Arms indicate his being a 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England through his paternal grandfather John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and his paternal grandmother Eleanor Manners Countess Bath.

On 25 Mar 1614 Juan Carreño de Miranda was born.

On 25 Mar 1625 Anne Harrison Lady Fanshawe was born to John Harrison (age 35).

On 25 Mar 1655 Christian Huygens (age 25) discovered Saturn's moon Titan; he named it Luna Saturni, literally Moon of Saturn, using a 2" telescope he and his brother had constructed in Feb 1656. It was the sixth moon discovered, the first being the Earth's moon, and the second to fifth, being the moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo in Mar 1610.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1657. The Protector Oliver (age 57), now affecting kingship, is petitioned to take the title on him by all his newly-made sycophant lords, etc.; but dares not, for fear of the fanatics, not thoroughly purged out of his rebel army.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1664. Lady-day. Up and by water to White Hall, and there to chappell; where it was most infinite full to hear Dr. Critton (age 71). Being not knowne, some great persons in the pew I pretended to, and went in, did question my coming in. I told them my pretence; so they turned to the orders of the chappell, which hung behind upon the wall, and read it; and were satisfied; but they did not demand whether I was in waiting or no; and so I was in some fear lest he that was in waiting might come and betray me. The Doctor (age 71) preached upon the thirty-first of Jeremy, and the twenty-first and twenty-second verses, about a woman compassing a man; meaning the Virgin conceiving and bearing our Saviour. It was the worst sermon I ever heard him make, I must confess; and yet it was good, and in two places very bitter, advising the King (age 33) to do as the Emperor Severus did, to hang up a Presbyter John (a short coat and a long gowne interchangeably) in all the Courts of England. But the story of Severus was pretty, that he hanged up forty senators before the Senate house, and then made a speech presently to the Senate in praise of his owne lenity; and then decreed that never any senator after that time should suffer in the same manner without consent of the Senate: which he compared to the proceeding of the Long Parliament against my Lord Strafford. He said the greatest part of the lay magistrates in England were Puritans, and would not do justice; and the Bishopps, their powers were so taken away and lessened, that they could not exercise the power they ought. He told the King (age 33) and the ladies plainly, speaking of death and of the skulls and bones of dead men and women1, how there is no difference; that nobody could tell that of the great Marius or Alexander from a pyoneer; nor, for all the pains the ladies take with their faces, he that should look in a charnels-house could not distinguish which was Cleopatra's, or fair Rosamond's, or Jane Shoare's.

Note 1. The preacher appears to have had the grave scene in "Hamlet" in his mind, as he gives the same illustration of Alexander as Hamlet does.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1667. Ladyday. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) by coach to Exeter House [Map] to our lawyers to have consulted about our trial to-morrow, but missed them, so parted, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I to Mr. Povy's (age 53) about a little business of Sir W. Pen's (age 45), where we went over Mr. Povy's (age 53) house, which lies in the same good condition as ever, which is most extraordinary fine, and he was now at work with a cabinet-maker, making of a new inlaid table. Having seen his house, we away, having in our way thither called at Mr. Lilly's (age 48), who was working; and indeed his pictures are without doubt much beyond Mr. Hales's (age 67), I think I may say I am convinced: but a mighty proud man he is, and full of state.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1668. By and by the Duke of York (age 34) is ready; and I did wait for an opportunity of speaking my mind to him about Sir J. Minnes (age 69), his being unable to do the King (age 37) any service, which I think do become me to do in all respects, and have Sir W. Coventry's (age 40) concurrence therein, which I therefore will seek a speedy opportunity to do, come what will come of it. The Duke of York (age 34) and all with him this morning were full of the talk of the 'prentices, who are not yet [put] down, though the guards and militia of the town have been in armes all this night, and the night before; and the 'prentices have made fools of them, sometimes by running from them and flinging stones at them. Some blood hath been spilt, but a great many houses pulled down; and, among others, the Duke of York (age 34) was mighty merry at that of Damaris Page's, the great bawd of the seamen; and the Duke of York (age 34) complained merrily that he hath lost two tenants, by their houses being pulled down, who paid him for their wine licenses £15 a year. But here it was said how these idle fellows have had the confidence to say that they did ill in contenting themselves in pulling down the little bawdyhouses, and did not go and pull down the great bawdy-house at White Hall. And some of them have the last night had a word among them, and it was "Reformation and Reducement". This do make the courtiers ill at ease to see this spirit among people, though they think this matter will not come to much: but it speaks people's minds; and then they do say that there are men of understanding among them, that have been of Cromwell's army: but how true that is, I know not.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1668. Betimes I to Alderman Backewell (age 50), and with him to my Lord Ashly's (age 46), where did a little business about Tangier, and to talk about the business of certificates, wherein, contrary to what could be believed, the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) themselves, in my absence, did call for some of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and give them directions about the business [of the certificates], which I, despairing to do any thing on a Sunday, and not thinking that they would think of it themselves, did rest satisfied, and stayed at home all yesterday, leaving it to do something in this day; but I find that the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) had been so pressing in it, that my Lord Ashly (age 46) was more forward with the doing of it this day, than I could have been. And so I to White Hall with Alderman Backewell (age 50) in his coach, with Mr. Blany; my Lord's Secretary: and there did draw up a rough draught of what order I would have, and did carry it in, and had it read twice and approved of, before my Lord Ashly (age 46) and three more of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and then went up to the Council-chamber, where the Duke of York (age 34), and Prince Rupert (age 48), and the rest of the Committee of the Navy were sitting: and I did get some of them to read it there: and they would have had it passed presently, but Sir John Nicholas desired they would first have it approved by a full Council: and, therefore, a Council Extraordinary was readily summoned against the afternoon, and the Duke of York (age 34) run presently to the King (age 37), as if now they were really set to mind their business, which God grant! So I thence to Westminster, and walked in the Hall and up and down, the House being called over to-day, and little news, but some talk as if the agreement between France and Spain were like to be, which would be bad for us, and at noon with Sir Herbert Price (age 63) to Mr. George Montagu's (age 45) to dinner, being invited by him in the hall, and there mightily made of, even to great trouble to me to be so commended before my face, with that flattery and importunity, that I was quite troubled with it. Yet he is a fine gentleman, truly, and his lady a fine woman; and, among many sons that I saw there, there was a little daughter that is mighty pretty, of which he is infinite fond: and, after dinner, did make her play on the gittar and sing, which she did mighty prettily, and seems to have a mighty musical soul, keeping time with most excellent spirit. Here I met with Mr. Brownlow, my old schoolfellow, who come thither, I suppose, as a suitor to one of the young ladies that were there, and a sober man he seems to be. But here Mr. Montagu (age 45) did tell me how Mr. Vaughan (age 64), in that very room, did say that I was a great man, and had great understanding, and I know not what, which, I confess, I was a little proud of, if I may believe him. Here I do hear, as a great secret, that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 34) and Duchesse, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), are now all agreed in a strict league, and all things like to go very current, and that it is not impossible to have my Lord Clarendon (age 59), in time, here again. But I do hear that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is horribly vexed at the late libell1, the petition of the poor whores about the town, whose houses were pulled down the other day. I have got one of them, but it is not very witty, but devilish severe against her and the King (age 37) and I wonder how it durst be printed and spread abroad, which shews that the times are loose, and come to a great disregard of the King (age 37), or Court, or Government.

Note 1. "The Poor Whores' Petition to the most splendid, illustrious, serene and eminent Lady of Pleasure the Countess of Castlemayne (age 27), &c., signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, this present 25th day of March, 1668". This sham petition occasioned a pretended answer, entitled, "The Gracious Answer of the Most Illustrious Lady of Pleasure, the Countess of Castlem.... to the Poor Whores' Petition". It is signed, "Given at our Closset, in King Street, Westminster, die Veneris, April 24, 1668. Castlem...". Compare Evelyn, April 2nd, 1668.

On 25 Mar 1675 Michael Wharton (age 27) died. He was reputed to be the richest man in England worth £15000 a year. Monument in Beverley Minster [Map]. Sculpted by Peter Scheemakers.

Michael Wharton: Around 1648 he was born to Michael Wharton and Susan Paulett. On 30 Jun 1666 Michael Wharton was knighted. In 1688 Michael Wharton and Lord Danby secured Kingston upon Hull for the Prince of Orange during the Glorious Revolution. In Mar 1689 he was appointed Lord of the Admiralty.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1694. Mr. Goode, minister of St. Martin's [Map], preached; he was likewise put in by the Queen (age 31), on the issue of her process with the Bishop of London (age 62).

Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. 25 Mar 1719. Mr President brought an old deed of King Stephen's remarkable for the finesse of its character and largeness, dated MCXXXVII [1137] and likewise another deed of King Harry Ist's time as singlular for its minuteness and laconic style, and likewise the deed of William Albini founder of Belvoir Castle [Map], likewise the Royal Arms impressed in Rye dough which came from Hampton Court [Map].

Mr Director brought a sketch of a design of a plate to be printed as a headpiece or Emblem of the Works of the Society at the beginning of any publications, which he was ordered to to have [?]. Mr President made a Report in the name of those gentlemen who were ordered to revise Mr Samuel Gale's dissertation upon Ulphus's Horn and what alterations they hinted at, are submitted to the Author pleasure, and the work is ordered to be published and printed in a good manner in Quarto by Mr Gossin [?] at the charges of the Society with a print of the Horn before it, whereof a sufficient number are likewise ordered to be printed off. It was ordered by the Society that a manuscript of the Cotton Library being [?] Registrum Honors de Richmond with the Illuminations therein, be printed at their charges, and Mr Roger Gale (age 46) is disposed to get it transcribed, in order thereto, and the Director to have the drawings therein copied to be engraven, the whole to be done in the same form and magnitude with the original.

On 25 Mar 1733 Captain William Berkeley (age 34) died at sea whilst Commander of Tyger on its journey from Guinea to the West Indies. He was buried at sea. Memorial in the Church of St Mary, Bruton [Map] sculpted by Peter Scheemakers (age 58) in 1749. Berkeley Arms Berkeley Arms beneath.

Captain William Berkeley: Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's coming home, he being come to Portsmouth, Hampshire; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King, wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain. Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1663. Up, and after being ready, and done a little business at the office, I and Mr. Hater by water to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I have not been a very great, while, and there paid off the Milford in very good order, and all respect showed me in the office as much as there used to be to any of the rest or the whole board. That done at noon I took Captain Terne, and there coming in by chance Captain Berkeley, him also to dinner with me to the Globe. Captain Berkeley, who was lately come from Algier, did give us a good account of the place, and how the Basha there do live like a prisoner, being at the mercy of the soldiers and officers, so that there is nothing but a great confusion there. Around 1699 he was born to William Berkeley 4th Baron Berkeley and Frances Temple Baroness Berkeley.

On 25 Mar 1739 Prince Edward Hanover 1st Duke of York was born to Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales (age 32) and Augusta Saxe Coburg Altenburg (age 19). He a grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 25 or 30 Mar 1750 Jane Tollemache was born to Lionel Tollemache 4th Earl Dysart (age 41) and Grace Carteret Countess Dysart (age 36).

On 25 Mar 1760 Elizabeth Laura Waldegrave Countess Waldegrave was born to James Waldegrave 2nd Earl Waldegrave (age 45) and Maria Walpole Duchess Gloucester and Edinburgh (age 23). She a great x 2 granddaughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

After 25 Mar 1775. St Asaph Cathedral [Map]. Memorial to Richard Price Thelwall.

On 25 Mar 1802 the United Kingdom and the French Repulic signed the Treaty of Amiens bringing to an end the War of the Second Coalition. The peace laster for fifteen months only.

The Treaty was signed by:

Charles Cornwallis 1st Marquess Cornwallis (age 63), United Kingdom

Joseph Bonaparte (age 34), French Republic

José Nicolás de Azara, Spain

Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck, Batavian Republic

On 25 Mar 1807 the Slave Trade Act received Royal Assent. The Act prohibited the slave trade in the British Empire. The Bill was first introduced to Parliament in January 1807. It went to the House of Commons on 10 Feb 1807. After a debate lasting ten hours, the House agreed to the second reading of the bill to abolish the Atlantic slave trade by an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16. The Act took effect on 01 May 1807.

The last legal slave voyage was that of Kitty's Amelia which sailed on 27 Jul 1807 having received permission to sale on 27 Apr 1807 before the Act came into force. Kitty's Amelia arrived with 233 slaves at Jamaica 25 Jan 1808.

On 25 Mar 1807 the Oystermouth Railway Company, aka Swansea and Mumbles Railway, commenced the first Passenger Railway Service between Swansea and Oystermouth. The service was horse-drawn.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. Shelley - for he alone figures as the writer of the "little syllabus," although there can be no doubt that Hogg was his confidant and coadjutor throughout - published anonymously a pamphlet or flysheet entitled The Necessity of Atheism, which he sent round to bishops and all sorts of people as an invitation or challenge to discussion. It amounted to saying that neither reason nor testimony is adequate to establish the existence of a deity, and that nothing short of a personal individual self-revelation of the deity would be sufficient. The college authorities heard of the pamphlet, identified Shelley as its author, and summoned him before them - "our master, and two or three of the fellows." The pamphlet was produced, and Shelley was required to say whether he had written it or not. The youth declined to answer the question, and was expelled by a written sentence, ready drawn up. Hogg was next summoned, with a result practically the same. The precise details of this transaction have been much controverted; the best evidence is that which appears on the college records, showing that both Hogg and Shelley (Hogg is there named first) were expelled for "contumaciously refusing to answer questions," and for "repeatedly declining to disavow" the authorship. Thus they were dismissed as being mutineers against academic authority, in a case pregnant with the suspicion - not the proof - of atheism; but how the authorities could know beforehand that the two undergraduates would be contumacious and stiff against disavowal, so as to give warrant for written sentences ready drawn up, is nowhere explained. Possibly the sentences were worded without ground assigned, and would only have been produced in terrorem had the young men proved more malleable. The date of this incident was the 25th of March 1811.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. After 25 Mar 1811. Shelley and Hogg came up to London, where Shelley was soon left alone, as his friend went to York to study conveyancing. Percy and his incensed father did not at once come to terms and for a while he had no resource beyond pocket-money saved up by his sisters (four in number altogether) and sent round to him, sometimes by the hand of a singularly pretty school-fellow, Miss Harriet Westbrook, daughter of a retired and moderately rich hotel-keeper. Shelley, in early youth, had a somewhat "priggish" turn for moralizing and argumentation, and a decided mania for proselytizing; his school-girl sisters, and their little Methodist friend Miss Westbrook, aged between fifteen and sixteen, must all be enlightened and converted to anti-Christianity. He therefore cultivated the society of Harriet, calling at the house of her father, and being encouraged in his assiduity by her much older sister Eliza. Harriet not unnaturally fell in love with him; and he, though not it would seem at any time ardently in love with her, dallied along the Bowery pathway which leads to sentiment and a definite courtship. This was not his first love-affair; for he had but a very few months before been courting his cousin Miss Harriet Grove, who, alarmed at his heterodoxies, finally broke off with him - to his no small grief and perturbation at the time. It is averred, and seemingly with truth, that Shelley never indulged in any sensual or dissipated amour; and, as he advances in life, it becomes apparent that, though capable of the passion of love, and unusually prone to regard with much effusion of sentiment women who interested his mind and heart, the mere attraction of a pretty face or an alluring figure left him unenthralled.

After 25 Mar 1840. Memorial to General Henry Fane (deceased) at St Nicholas' Church, Fulbeck.

On 25 Mar 1848 Harry Mengden Scarth (age 33) was appointed Prebendary of Wells Cathedral.

The Diary of George Price Boyce 1852. 25 Mar 1852. With Clayton (age 24) to the R.A. to hear Leslie's 5th lecture on landscape painting, but in reality on the works of Cozens, Girtin, Constable and Turner, exquisite examples of which lined the walls. Crowded audience. Spoke to Frith. Came across J. E. Millais (age 22), only knowing him by sight. Leslie said that Constable painted almost entirely out of doors, lived in the country. Made many studies of skies (some fine ones on the walls) the sky being the key note of the picture. Gave names to the trees about him, and used to speak of a graceful ash called by him "the young lady who died of a broken heart," having had an ugly board nailed to its side with the warning "Trespassers Beware."

On 25 Mar 1862 Mary "May" Morris was born to William Morris (age 28) and Jane Morris nee Burden (age 22) at the Red House. She was baptised 30 May 1862 at Christ Church, Bexleyheath.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. One fine March morning he told me that he was going to ride and see a gamekeeper who had accidentally shot himself.

He asked me and Sir Henry Edwards (age 55) to accompany him, but when we reached the keeper's cottage he told us to return to Deene [Map], saying that as he intended to sit an hour with the man he would come on later. We declared our willingness to wait, but Cardigan would not hear of it, and so we somewhat reluctantly rode home without him.

The luncheon hour arrived, but Lord Cardigan did not come; the afternoon dragged on, and still there were no signs of him. I had a horrible presentment that something must have happened, and at once ordered some of the servants to go in search of his Lordship.

My fears were only too well grounded; my husband was found lying insensible on the roadside, nearly lifeless. A roadmender told us afterwards that Lord Cardigan had passed him and spoken a few words and seemed apparently quite well; the horse he was riding shied at a heap of stones and commenced to rear and plunge rather wildly, but my husband kept the animal well under control, for the roadmender saw him ride quietly away. The effort must, however, have afterwards brought on a seizure, for Cardigan fell from his horse, and lay helpless until he was found and brought back to Deene [Map].

For three dreadful days and nights he lay quite unconscious, gasping for breath, and the knowledge that he could not speak to me and did not recognise me intensified my grief a thousandfold. But mercifully his suffering was not prolonged, and on March 28, 1868, my beloved husband passed away.

There are some griefs that are too deep to speak of, even after Time's soothing touch has taken away the first deadly pain of a great sorrow. When I look back and remember the kindness and love which my husband lavished on me, I feel proud to think he often said that the happiest period of his life was after he married me, and that his great possessions and military fame were as nothing compared to the wife he adored.

Lord Cardigan's body lay in state in the ballroom at Deene [Map] for twelve days, during which time six thousand people came to look their last at the remains of the leader of the Charge of the Light Brigade. On April 9 he was buried in Deene Church [Map]; the whole regiment of the 11th Hussars attended the funeral, and he was carried to his last resting-place by eight of his old officers.

When the will was read, it was found that he had left everything to me.

On 25 Mar 1937 Henry Alfred Pegram (age 74) died.

Births on the 25th March

On 25 Mar 1157 Alfonso II King Aragon was born to Raymond Berenguer Barcelona V Count Barcelona (age 43) and Petronilla Jiménez Queen Aragon (age 20) at Huesca.

On 25 Mar 1309 Robert Ferrers 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley was born to John Ferrers 1st Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 37) and Hawise Muscegros Baroness Ferrers Chartley.

On 25 Mar 1341 Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton was born to William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 31) and Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 28). He a great grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 25 Mar 1345 Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster was born to Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 35) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 25) at Bolingbroke Castle, Lincolnshire [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

On 25 Mar 1414 Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford was born to John Clifford 7th Baron Clifford (age 25) and Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland (age 19). He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Mar 1508 Thomas Speke was born to John Speke (age 66).

On 25 Mar 1533 Philip Aviz was born to John III King Portugal (age 30) and Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal (age 26). Coefficient of inbreeding 11.30%.

On 25 Mar 1545 John "Younger" Oldenburg Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg was born to Christian III King Denmark (age 41) and Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 33)..

On 25 Mar 1567 Mary Kerr was born to William Kerr of Cessford (age 23).

On 25 Mar 1569 Thomas Sidney was born to Henry Sidney (age 40) and Mary Dudley (age 39).

After 25 Mar 1588 Henry Myddelton was born to Thomas Myddelton of Chirk (age 38) and Elizabeth Olmstead. He died young.

Before 25 Mar 1605 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans was born to Thomas Jermyn (age 32) and Catherine Killigrew (age 26). On 25 Mar 1605 he was christened.

On 25 Mar 1614 Thomas Chicheley of Wimpole was born to Thomas Chicheley of Wimpole (age 35) and Dorothy Kempe.

On 25 Mar 1614 Juan Carreño de Miranda was born.

On 25 Mar 1619 Anne Clarges Duchess Albermarle was born to John Clarges .

On 25 Mar 1619 Bishop Peter Mews was born.

On 25 Mar 1625 Anne Harrison Lady Fanshawe was born to John Harrison (age 35).

On 25 Mar 1629 John Northcote was born to John Northcote 1st Baronet (age 30) and Grace Halswell.

On 25 Mar 1632 John Temple was born to John Temple of Dublin (age 32).

On 25 Mar 1650 Richard Cox 1st Baronet was born.

On 25 Mar 1734 James Agar aka Agar-Ellis 1st Viscount Clifden was born to Henry Agar (age 32) and Anne Ellis (age 26) probably at Gowran Castle, Gowran, County Kilkenny.

On 25 Mar 1739 Prince Edward Hanover 1st Duke of York was born to Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales (age 32) and Augusta Saxe Coburg Altenburg (age 19). He a grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 25 or 30 Mar 1750 Jane Tollemache was born to Lionel Tollemache 4th Earl Dysart (age 41) and Grace Carteret Countess Dysart (age 36).

On 25 Mar 1752 Carlos Fitz James Stuart 10th Duke Veragua 4th Duke Berwick was born to James Fitz James 3rd Duke Berwick 10th Duke Veragua (age 33) and Maria Teresa Silva Duchess Berwick and Veragua (age 35) at Llíria. He a great x 2 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Mar 1752 Elizabeth Maria Phipps was born to Robert Phipps (age 41).

On 25 Mar 1760 Elizabeth Laura Waldegrave Countess Waldegrave was born to James Waldegrave 2nd Earl Waldegrave (age 45) and Maria Walpole Duchess Gloucester and Edinburgh (age 23). She a great x 2 granddaughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Mar 1764 Charles Constable aka Stanley was born to William Haggerston aka Constable (age 41) and Winifred Maxwell (age 28).

On 25 Mar 1768 George Scott was born to Henry Scott 3rd Duke Buccleuch (age 21) and Elizabeth Montagu Duchess Buccleuch (age 24).

On 25 Mar 1772 George Greville was born to George Greville 2nd Earl Warwick and Brooke (age 25) and Georgiana Peachey Baroness Brooke. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Mar 1774 Thomas Brand 20th Baron Dacre was born to Thomas Brand Baron Dacre (age 24) and Gertrude Trevor Roper 19th Baroness Dacre Gilsland (age 23). He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Mar 1782 William Boothby 8th Baronet was born to William Boothby 7th Baronet (age 36).

On 25 Mar 1789 Reverend Thomas Heathcote was born to Samuel Heathcote.

On 25 Mar 1796 William Feilding 6th Earl Desmond 7th Earl Denbigh was born to William Feilding (age 35) and Anne Catherine Powys at Berwick House, Shrewsbury.

On 25 Mar 1800 Mary Letitia Crump Baroness Berners was born to Colonel George Crump of Alexton Hall in Leicestershire and Mary Wilson.

On 25 Mar 1807 Augustus Almeric Spencer was born to Francis Almeric Spencer 1st Baron Churchill (age 27) and Frances Fitzroy Baroness Churchill Wychwood (age 26). Coefficient of inbreeding 1.63%.

On 25 Mar 1809 William Miller 1st Baronet was born.

On 25 Mar 1823 Jean-Baptiste Bertrand was born.

On 25 Mar 1846 Walter Henry James 2nd Baron Northbourne was born to Walter Charles James 1st Baron Northbourne (age 29) and Sarah Caroline Ellison.

On 25 Mar 1855 Sibell Mary Lumley was born to Richard Lumley 9th Earl Scarborough (age 41) and Adeliza Drummond Countess Scarborough.

On 25 Mar 1862 Mary "May" Morris was born to William Morris (age 28) and Jane Morris nee Burden (age 22) at the Red House. She was baptised 30 May 1862 at Christ Church, Bexleyheath.

On 25 Mar 1866 John Ponsonby was born to Henry Ponsonby (age 40) and Mary Elizabeth Bulteel (age 33).

On 25 Mar 1875 John Spencer Cavendish was born to Edward Cavendish (age 37) and Emma Elizabeth Lascelles. Coefficient of inbreeding 6.69%.

On 25 Mar 1882 Alick May Cunard was born to William Samuel Cunard (age 26).

On 25 Mar 1915 George William Hanover was born to Ernest Augustus Hanover Duke Brunswick (age 27) and Viktoria Luise Hohenzollern Duchess Brunswick (age 22). He a great x 2 grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

Marriages on the 25th March

Before 25 Mar 1249 John Courtenay 2nd Baron Okehampton (age 24) and Isabel Vere Baroness Okehampton (age 27) were married. She by marriage Baroness Okehampton. She the daughter of Hugh de Vere 4th Earl of Oxford (age 41) and Hawise Quincy Countess Oxford. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 25 Mar 1349 John Mowbray 4th Baron Mowbray Baron Segrave (age 8) and Elizabeth Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave Baroness Mowbray (age 10) were married. She by marriage Baroness Mowbray. He by marriage Baron Segrave. She the daughter of John Segrave 4th Baron Segrave (age 33) and Margaret Plantagenet 2nd Countess Norfolk. They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Before 25 Mar 1460 John Kennedy 2nd Lord Kennedy (age 5) and Elizabeth Montgomerie (age 21) were married.

Before 25 Mar 1588 Thomas Myddelton of Chirk (age 38) and Jane aka Elizabeth Danvers (age 45) were married.

On 25 Mar 1623 Anthony Irby (age 18) and Frances Wray (age 12) were married. They were third cousins.

Before 25 Mar 1641 Thomas Hussey (age 28) and Rhoda Chapman (age 25) were married.

On 25 Mar 1669 Robert Maxwell 4th Earl Nithsdale (age 41) and Lucy Douglas Countess Nithsdale (age 25) were married. She the daughter of William Douglas 1st Marquess Douglas and Mary Gordon Marchioness Douglas (age 69). He the son of John Maxwell 3rd Earl Nithsdale (age 64). They were fourth cousins.

On 25 Mar 1795 Robert Jenkinson 2nd Earl Liverpool (age 24) and Louisa Theodosia Hervey Countess Liverpool (age 28) were married at Wimbledon, Surrey. She the daughter of Frederick Augustus Hervey 4th Earl Bristol (age 64) and Elizabeth Davers Countess Bristol (age 62). He the son of Charles Jenkinson 1st Earl Liverpool (age 65) and Amelia Watts.

On 25 Mar 1800 Thomas Lyon Bowes 11th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne (age 26) and Mary Louisa Elizabeth Rodney Carpenter (age 17) were married. He the son of John Lyon 9th Earl Strathmore and Kinghorne and Mary Bowes Countess Strathmore (age 51).

On 25 Mar 1821 Thomas Cubitt (age 33) and Mary Anne Warner (age 19) were married at St Marylebone Church. They had at least twelve children.

On 25 Mar 1830 Sholto Douglas and Henrietta Patricia Burnett were married.

On 25 Mar 1831 William Nigel Gresley 9th Baronet (age 25) and Georgina-Anne Reid were married.

Before 25 Mar 1881 Ralph Frankland-Payne-Gallwey 3rd Baronet (age 32) and Edith Alice Usborne Lady Payne-Gallwey (age 26) were married. She by marriage Lady Payne of Hampton Hill.

On 25 Mar 1914 Lieutenant-Colonel John Henry Trollope 2nd Baron Kesteven (age 62) and Amy Myddelton Peacock were married.

On 25 Mar 1922 Muir Dudley Coats (age 25) and Audrey Evelyn James (age 19) were married.

Deaths on the 25th March

Around 25 Mar 1005 Kenneth III King Alba (age 39) died. His first cousin King Malcolm II of Alba (age 51) succeeded King Alba.

On 20 or 23 or 25 Mar 1046 Bishop Lyfing died.

On 25 Mar 1051 Hugh Maine IV Count Maine (age 31) died. His son Herbert Maine II Count Maine succeeded II Count Maine.

On 25 Mar 1223 Alfonso "Fat" II King Portugal (age 37) died at Coimbra. His son Sancho "Pious" II King Portugal (age 13) succeeded II King Portugal.

On 25 Mar 1314 Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby (age 46) died. Baron Zouche Ashby abeyant between his three daughters Ellen Zouche, Maud Zouche Baroness Holand and Elizabeth Zouche.

Before 25 Mar 1317 Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby (age 46) died. Before 25 Mar 1317 His son John Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby (age 14) succeeded 2nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby.

On 25 Mar 1323 Mary of Hungary Queen Consort Naples (age 66) died.

On 25 Mar 1330 Elizabeth Wittelsbach (age 24) died.

On 25 Mar 1336 Edmund Bacon (age 47) died.

Before 25 Mar 1338 William de Kyme 2nd Baron Kyme died. His nephew Gilbert Umfraville 9th Earl Angus (age 28) succeeded 3rd Baron Kyme.

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle, Kent [Map]. He fled to Louvain [Map] where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Baron Beauchamp of Kidderminster forfeit.

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

On 25 Mar 1434 Margaret Howard (age 59) died at Norwich, Norfolk [Map].

On 25 Mar 1440 Geoffrey Boleyn (age 60) died. Around 1414 Alice Bracton (age 29) died. Memorial brass in the floor of the nave of Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map]. It originally also had tiny figures representing their 5 sons and 4 daughters, but the inlay is lost. Inscription: Hic jacet Galfrid. Boleyn qui obt. 25 die mensis Martij 1440, et Alicie, uxor. ejus, et pueror. suorum, quorum a'i'ab; &c. Label: Dominus propitius esto nobis peccatorib. ie "Here lies Geoffrey Boleyn who died the 25th day of the month of March A.D. 1440, and Alice, his wife, and children, on whose souls may God have mercy Amen"

Geoffrey Boleyn: Around 1380 he was born to Thomas Boleyn and Anne Jane Bracton. Before 1406 Geoffrey Boleyn and Alice Bracton were married. They were first cousins. In 1408 Geoffrey Boleyn provided timber for the building of Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle. The church was paid for by four Lords of the manor, Geoffrey Boleyn, Thomas Brigge, Thomas Roos and an unknown person, with newly acquired wealth from the wool trade.

Alice Bracton: Around 1385 she was born to John Bracton at Salle, Norfolk.

On 25 Mar 1478 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl of Kildare (age 57) died. His son Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl of Kildare (age 22) succeeded 8th Earl Kildare.

On 25 Mar 1482 Lucrezia Tornabuoni (age 54) died.

On 25 Mar 1490 Thomas Bellingham died.

On 25 Mar 1500 Gaston de Foix 2nd Earl Kendal (age 52) died.

Before 25 Mar 1531 Eleanor Windsor Baroness Scrope Masham (age 40) died.

After 25 Mar 1531 Margaret Scrope died.

On 25 Mar 1537 Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme (age 47) died. His son Antoine King Navarre (age 18) succeeded Duke Vendôme.

On 25 Mar 1545 George Cotton of Combermere (age 40) died.

On 25 Mar 1577 Louis III de La Tremoille 1st Duke Thouars (age 56) died. His son Claude de La Tremoille 2nd Duke Thouars (age 11) succeeded 2nd Duke Thouars.

On 25 Mar 1577 Louis Tremoille (age 56) died.

On 25 Mar 1584 Geoffrey Palmer (age 39) died.

On 25 Mar 1586 Margaret Middleton (age 30) was crushed to death at the Toll Booth on Ouse Bridge, York for refusing to enter a plea to the charge of harbouring Catholic priests.

On 25 Mar 1607 Anthony Mosley (age 65) died.

On 25 Mar 1609 Johann Wilhelm La Marck Duke Cleves (age 46) died.

On 25 Mar 1614 John Bourchier died.

On 25 Mar 1641 Thomas Hussey (age 28) died.

On 25 Mar 1642 Frances Blakiston died.

On 25 Mar 1648 Audrey Poyntz Lady Littleton (age 56) died. She was buried at North Ockendon.

On 25 Mar 1649 Dorothy Gresley (age 41) died.

On 25 Mar 1650 Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (age 56) died.

On 25 Mar 1659 Thomas Cheeke (age 89) died.

On 25 Mar 1667 Margaret Kite died.

On 25 Mar 1667 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 76) died. Earl Cleveland extinct.

Before 25 Mar 1669 Lionel Tollemache 3rd Baronet (age 44) died. His son Lionel Tollemache 3rd Earl Dysart (age 20) succeeded 4th Baronet Talmash of Helmingham in Suffolk.

On 25 Mar 1675 Edward Brabazon 2nd Earl Meath (age 65) drowned whilst travelling from Ireland to England. His son William Brabazon 3rd Earl Meath (age 40) succeeded 3rd Earl Meath.

On 25 Mar 1675 Michael Wharton (age 27) died. He was reputed to be the richest man in England worth £15000 a year. Monument in Beverley Minster [Map]. Sculpted by Peter Scheemakers.

Michael Wharton: Around 1648 he was born to Michael Wharton and Susan Paulett. On 30 Jun 1666 Michael Wharton was knighted. In 1688 Michael Wharton and Lord Danby secured Kingston upon Hull for the Prince of Orange during the Glorious Revolution. In Mar 1689 he was appointed Lord of the Admiralty.

On 25 Mar 1677 Wenceslaus Hollar (age 69) died.

On 25 Mar 1685 Captain Christopher Gunman (age 50) died.

Around 25 Mar 1688 Margaret Keyt Lady Pakington died.

Around 25 Mar 1694 Captain Greenvile Collins (age 51) died.

On 25 Mar 1696 Henry Casimir II Prince of Nassau Dietz (age 39) died.

On 25 Mar 1708 Josepha Gabrièle Lorraine (age 3) died.

On 25 Mar 1712 Nehemiah Grew Plant Anatomist (age 70) died.

On 25 Mar 1728 Edward Spencer (age 59) died at Rendlesham, Suffolk.

On 25 Mar 1733 Captain William Berkeley (age 34) died at sea whilst Commander of Tyger on its journey from Guinea to the West Indies. He was buried at sea. Memorial in the Church of St Mary, Bruton [Map] sculpted by Peter Scheemakers (age 58) in 1749. Berkeley Arms Berkeley Arms beneath.

Captain William Berkeley: Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's coming home, he being come to Portsmouth, Hampshire; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King, wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain. Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1663. Up, and after being ready, and done a little business at the office, I and Mr. Hater by water to Redriffe, and so walked to Deptford, where I have not been a very great, while, and there paid off the Milford in very good order, and all respect showed me in the office as much as there used to be to any of the rest or the whole board. That done at noon I took Captain Terne, and there coming in by chance Captain Berkeley, him also to dinner with me to the Globe. Captain Berkeley, who was lately come from Algier, did give us a good account of the place, and how the Basha there do live like a prisoner, being at the mercy of the soldiers and officers, so that there is nothing but a great confusion there. Around 1699 he was born to William Berkeley 4th Baron Berkeley and Frances Temple Baroness Berkeley.

On 25 Mar 1764 Hannah Thorp (age 95) died.

On 25 Mar 1774 Reverend Spencer Cowper (age 62) died.

On 25 Mar 1782 Frances Clack Countess Devon died.

On 25 Mar 1793 Elisabeth Beauclerk (age 26) died.

On 25 Mar 1794 Hercules Langford Rowley 1st Earl Langford (age 80) died.

On 25 Mar 1805 George Lennox (age 67) died.

On 25 Mar 1826 Bishop Shute Barrington (age 91) died in Soho. He was buried in St John the Baptist's Church, Mongewell Park, Wallingford.

On 25 Mar 1832 Harriet Molyneux Lady Phillipps (age 36) died.

On 25 Mar 1838 Robert Wilson 9th Baron Berners (age 77) died. Baron Berners abeyant. The abeyance was terminated in favour of his younger brother Reverend Henry Wilson 10th Baron Berners (age 75) by Royal Warrant dated 2 Apr 1838.

On 25 Mar 1840 General Henry Fane (age 61) died on board the East India ship Malabar on his passage home from Bombay, India. He was buried at sea later that day. Henry Fane, being illegitmate, inherited a life interest in Fulbeck Hall only.

On 25 Mar 1849 Sherrod Beaumont Burnaby (age 76) died. He was buried at The Church of St Benet.

On 25 Mar 1857 Susan Maria O'Brien died.

On 25 Mar 1888 Joseph William Drexel (age 55) died.

On 25 Mar 1889 Charles Hugh Lindsay (age 72) died.

On 25 Mar 1892 Andrew Agnew 8th Baronet (age 74) died. His son Andrew Agnew 9th Baronet (age 41) succeeded 9th Baronet Agnew of Lochnaw in Wigtownshire.

On 25 Mar 1913 Garnet Wolseley 1st Viscount Wolseley (age 79) died. His daughter Frances Garnet Wolseley 2nd Viscountess Wolseley (age 40) succeeded 2nd Viscountess Wolseley of Wolseley in Staffordshire. Baron Wolseley of Cairo and Wolseley in Staffordshire extinct.

On 25 Mar 1914 Charlotte Osborne Lady Broadhead (age 76) died.

On 25 Mar 1925 Daisy Evelyn Lyster (age 58) died.

On 25 Mar 1925 Charles Spencer Boyle 10th Earl Cork (age 63) died without issue. His brother Robert Boyle 11th Earl Cork (age 60) succeeded 11th Earl Cork.

On 25 Mar 1928 Elizabeth Harriet Grosvenor Marchioness Ormonde (age 71) died.

On 25 Mar 1934 Ethel Mary Carew died.

On 25 Mar 1937 Henry Alfred Pegram (age 74) died.

On 25 Mar 1941 Alberta Louise Edgcumbe Baroness Roborough (age 80) died.

On 25 Mar 1945 Basil Sheridan Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood 4th Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (age 35) was killed in action. Lord Dufferin was serving with the Indian Field Broadcasting Unit on when he was filmed demanding the surrender of Japanese troops who were sheltered in a tunnel; the film captured Lord Dufferin's death when a Japanese mortar shell landed on the unit. His son Sheriden Frederick Terence Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood 5th Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (age 6) succeeded 5th Marquess of Dufferin and Ava, 5th Earl of Ava in County Down and Burma, 5th Earl of Dufferin in County Down, 5th Viscount Dufferin of Claneboye in County Down, 5th Baron Claneboye of Claneboye in County Down, 9th Baron Dufferin and Claneboye of Ballyleidy and Killyleagh in County Down, 9th Baronet Blackwood of Killyleagh in County Down. Maureen Constance Guinness Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava (age 38) by marriage Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava.

On 25 Mar 1947 Henry Hugh Hoare 6th Baronet (age 81) died. His second cousin twice removed Peter William Hoare 7th Baronet (age 48) succeeded 7th Baronet Hoare of Barn Elms in Surrey. Laura Ray Esplen Lady Hoare by marriage Lady Hoare of Barn Elms in Surrey. He and his wife Alda Weston died on the same day within six hours of each other; it isn't clear who died first.

On 25 Mar 1947 Alda Weston died. She and her husband Henry Hugh Hoare 6th Baronet (age 81) on the same day died within six hours of each other; it isn't clear who died first.

On 25 Mar 1949 August Wilhelm Hohenzollern (age 62) died.

On 25 Mar 1951 Thomas Francis Egerton died.

On 25 Mar 1955 Major Hugh Charles Pechell (age 64) died.

On 25 Mar 1958 Lowry Philip Payne-Gallwey (age 66) died.

On 25 Mar 1962 Mary Agnes Emily Wood Baroness Bingley (age 85) died.

On 25 Mar 1995 Anne Dorothy Wood Countess Feversham (age 84) died.