On this Day in History ... 27 October

27 Oct is in October.

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

1644 Second Battle of Newbury

1644 First Battle of Newbury

1666 Great Fire of London

1666 St James' Day Battle

On 27 Oct 625 Pope Honorius I was appointed Pope.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1065. Soon after this all the thanes in Yorkshire and in Northumberland gathered themselves together at York, and outlawed their Earl Tosty (age 39); slaying all the men of his clan that they could reach, both Danish and English; and took all his weapons in York, with gold and silver, and all his money that they could anywhere there find. They then sent after Morkar, son of Earl Elgar, and chose him for their earl. He went south with all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire and Lincolnshire, till he came to Northampton [Map]; where his brother Edwin came to meet him with the men that were in his earldom. Many Britons also came with him. Harold (age 43) also there met them; on whom they imposed an errand to King Edward (age 62), sending also messengers with him, and requesting that they might have Morcar for their earl. This the king granted; and sent back Harold (age 43) to them, to Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon and St. Jude; and announced to them the same, and confirmed it by hand, and renewed there the laws of Knute. But the Northern men did much harm about Northampton, whilst he went on their errand: either that they slew men, and burned houses and corn; or took all the cattle that they could come at; which amounted to many thousands. Many hundred men also they took, and led northward with them; so that not only that shire, but others near it were the worse for many winters.

On 27 Oct 1277 Bishop Walter de Merton (age 72) died. Monument in Rochester Cathedral [Map].

Bishop Walter de Merton: Around 1205 he was born.

On 27 Oct 1312 John "Peaceful" Reginar II Duke Brabant (age 37) died. His son John Brabant III Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded III Duke Brabant.

Froissart. WHEN the queen (age 31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle [Map] as near as they might. The queen (age 31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) the elder and the earl of Arundel (age 20) to be brought forth before Edward her son (age 13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that she and her son (age 13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) said, 'Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment1, and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (age 29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty1, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth;3 wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow [Map] in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (deceased). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?].

Note 1. This should be, 'God give us a good judge and good judgment ' ; but Verard's edition, from which the translation was made, has 'vous' for 'nous.'

Note 2. This appears to mean, ' To the intent that he should find him guilty on the charge' ('fauty' for 'faulty'); but the original means, 'To the intent that he should declare upon his fealty (féaulté) what should be done with such persons,' etc.

Note 3. Or rather as follows: ' That the accused had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds which they had heard in that place rehearsed, and held them for true and manifest.'

On 27 Oct 1439 Albert Habsburg V Duke Austria (age 42) died.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Before 27 Oct 1441 Eleanor Cobham Duchess of Gloucester (age 41), wife of the heir presumptive Humphrey 1st Duke Gloucester (age 51), brother of the deceased King Henry V of England, uncle of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 19), was tried for predicting the future of the King; in reality a veiled attack on her husband who had over-reached himself. She had consulted two astrologers Thomas Southwell Astrologer and Roger Bolingbroke. All three were arrested, tried and found guilty. Eleanor denied most of the charges but confessd to obtaining potions from Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26). She was sentenced to do public penance, divorce her husband and remain confined for the remainder of her life.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude ys eve was the wycche (age 26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde [Map], and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore sayde traytours, deyde in the Toure [Map] for sorowe.

Note 1. Necromancy.

On 27 Oct 1441 Margery Jourdemayne "The Witch of Eye" (age 26) was burned at the stake.

On 27 Oct 1485 Thomas Lovell was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

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Coronation of Henry VII

On 27 Oct 1513 George Manners 11th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 43) died. He was buried in the St Leger Chantry, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map]. On 27 Oct 1513 His son Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 21) succeeded 12th Baron Ros Helmsley.

On 27 Oct 1587 Robert Ker 1st Earl Roxburghe (age 17) and Margaret Maitland were married.

After 27 Oct 1601 Alexander Seton 1st Earl Dunfermline (age 46) and Grizel Leslie Countess Dunfermline were married.


1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

On 12 Jul 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 34) led an English force of 100 ships and 6,000 soldiers to capture the city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré.

In Aug 1627 more troops, including the newly promoted Lieutenant John Felton (age 32), arrived.

On 03 Sep 1627 two thousand Irish troops arrived under Ralph Bingley (age 57)

On 27 Oct 1627 a final assault was attempted; it failed because the attackers' siege ladders were shorter than the walls of the fortress.

In Nov 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) retreasted and returned to England having lost thousands of his men.

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First Battle of Newbury

On 27 Oct 1644 Anthony Mansel of Ischoed was killed at the First Battle of Newbury fighting for the Royalists.

Second Battle of Newbury

On 27 Oct 1644 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport (age 47) fought for the Royalist Army at the Second Battle of Newbury.

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On 27 Oct 1644 Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 23) fought for the defeated Royalist army at the Second Battle of Newbury at Speen Newbury [Map]. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 53) was captured. Edward St John (age 27) was killed.

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 36), who had his horse shot from under him, commanded five regiments.

Great Fire of London

Before 27 Oct 1666 John Kelyng Lord Chief Justice (age 59) prosecuted Frenchman John Hubert who confessed to setting the fire in the King's Bakehouse in Pudding Lane. Hubert was duly found guilty by the jury and executed on 27 Oct 1666 by order of Kelynge, even though Kelynge told the King that he did not believe a word of the confession.

St James' Day Battle

Calendars. 27 Oct 1666. Whitehall. 62. H. Muddiman to Sir Edward Stradling, St. Donat's Castle, Glamorganshire. The sickness is abating, 8 only have died of it at Plymouth, 8 at Sarum, decrease 17, one or two at Ips- wich, and 8 at Norwich. The English are said to have been forced from the Canaries, leaving their estates in the hands of Spaniards. The Commissioners for payment of seamen daily pay off great numbers who are discharged from winter service, and bring their tickets with them, and the rest are ordered by beat of drum to repair aboard. The planting of hemp is much enconraged. The Commons have answered the Lords' reasons about importing French commodities, and are settling supplies. Sir Jeremy Smith has got as much credit by his late examination as his enemies wished him disgrace, the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) being fully satisfied of his valour in the engagement. It appears that he had 147 men killed and wounded, while the most eminent of his accusers had but two or three. Peter Ceely of Cornwall, secured on suspicion of fanaticism, refused the liberty offered him if he would give security to the deputy lieutenants. The King has ordered a proclamation in Scotland for a convocation, which differs from a parliament in that it can levy money, but makes no laws. News from Germany, Brandenburg, Holland, and Munster. Sir Rich. Browne has brought into the House of Commons knives broad and sharp, able to pierce armour, of which 300 were found in the rubbish of a house where two Frenchmen lived; they can be guessed of no use but to massacre. A proclamation and other measures are proposed, for repressing the insolencies of the Papists. [8 pages.]


On 27 Oct 1677 Alexander Seton 3rd Earl Dunfermline (age 35) died. James Seton 4th Earl Dunfermline 1643-1694 succeeded 4th Earl Dunfermline.

Before 27 Oct 1749 William Byron 5th Baron Byron (age 26) and Elizabeth Shaw were married.

Before 27 Oct 1757 John Drummond 5th Duke Perth (age 77) and Mary Stewart (age 55) were married. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of Charles Stewart 4th Earl Traquair and Mary Maxwell Countess Traquair (age 86). He the son of James Drummond 1st Duke Perth. They were third cousins.

On 27 Oct 1757 John Drummond 5th Duke Perth (age 77) died. His brother Edward Drummond 6th Duke Perth succeeded 6th Duke Perth.

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On 27 Oct 1774 Alexander Baring 1st Baron Ashburton was born to Francis Baring 1st Baronet (age 34) and Harriet Herring Lady Baring (age 24).

On 27 Oct 1788 Robert Jocelyn 3rd Earl Roden was born to Robert Jocelyn 2nd Earl Roden (age 32).

On 27 Oct 1788 William Waldegrave 8th Earl Waldegrave was born to George Waldegrave 4th Earl Waldegrave (age 36) and Elizabeth Laura Waldegrave Countess Waldegrave (age 28). He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland. Coefficient of inbreeding 6.27%.


On 27 Oct 1822 Stephen Moore 2nd Earl Mount Cashell (age 52) died.


On 27 Oct 1865 Murray Finch-Hatton 7th Earl Nottingham 12th Earl Winchilsea (age 14) and Edith Harcourt Countess Winchelsea and Nottingham (age 9) were married. He the son of George Finch-Hatton 5th Earl Nottingham 10th Earl Winchilsea and Fanny Margaretta Rice Countess Nottingham Winchilsea.

On 27 Oct 1866 Herbet Merton Jessel 1st Baron Jessel was born to George Jessel (age 42).

On 27 Oct 1868 Archibishop Charles Longley (age 74) died.

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On 27 Oct 1871 Robert Newman 1st Baron Mamhead was born to Lydston Newman 3rd Baronet (age 47).

On 27 Oct 1883 William Palmer 2nd Earl Selborne (age 24) and Beatrix Maud Gascoyne-Cecil Countess Selborne (age 25) were married. She the daughter of Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil 3rd Marquess Salisbury (age 53). He the son of Roundell Palmer 1st Earl Selborne (age 70) and Laura Waldegrave Countess Selborne (age 62). He a great x 5 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

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On 27 Oct 1886 Robert Collier 1st Baron Monkswell (age 69) died. His son Robert Collier 2nd Baron Monkswell (age 41) succeeded 2nd Baron Monkswell of Monkswell in Devon. Mary Josephine Hardcastle Baroness Monkswell (age 36) by marriage Baroness Monkswell of Monkswell in Devon.

On 27 Oct 1889 Constantine I King Greece (age 21) and Sophia Hohenzollern Queen Consort Greece (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Frederick III King Prussia and Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia (age 48). He the son of George I King Greece (age 43) and Olga Constantinovna Holstein Gottorp Romanov Queen Consort Greece (age 38). They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland. She a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.


On 27 Oct 1892 Henry Waldegrave 11th Earl Waldegrave (age 38) and Anne Katherine Bastard Countess Waldegrave (age 25) were married. They were half second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 27 Oct 1945 John Wodehouse 4th Earl Kimberley (age 21) and Diana Evelyn Legh Countess Kimberley (age 21) were married. She by marriage Countess Kimberley. They were divorced in 1949. He the son of John Wodehouse 3rd Earl Kimberley and Frances Margaret Irby Countess Kimberley (age 60).