1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy is in 16th Century Events.
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Execution of the Fitzgeralds
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Bigod's Rebellion
Hall's Chronicle 1537. Dec 1536. Also in the latter end of this yere, the lord Darcy (age 69), Aske (age 36), Sir Robert constable (age 58), Sir Jhon Bulmer and his wyfe (age 25), Sir Thomas Percie (age 32) brother to the Erie of Northumberland (age 34), Syr Stephen Hamelton, Nicholas Tempest (age 56) Esquire, William Lumley, son to the lord Lumley (age 44) began again to conspire, although they before had every one of them their pardons, and now they were all taken and brought to the Tower of London [Map].
After Jan 1537. The rebellion failed. The rebels arrested, convicted of treason, and subsequently executed during the course of 1537. A total of 216 rebels were executed.
On 17 Jan 1537 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst (age 70) wrote to Robert Aske (age 37) and Robert Constable (age 59) ... Of Sir Fras Bigod (age 29) I heard, this day at dinner, as you wrote; and more, that Hallum was taken at Hull yesterday with a letter in his purse from Sir Francis Bigod (age 29) promising that he and all the West Base Countries would rise and come forward. This day with my servant, Alan Gefreyson, I sent you my news which are of such bruits, rages, and furies as the like I have not read nor heard of. I sent to my cousin Ellerker and Whartton for the premises concerning Hull. My advice is that you stay the people till the coming of my lord of Norfolk (age 64), which, I hear, shall be shortly, and all the gentlemen that is above of the North with him. He brings gracious answers of the Parliament and petitions. Good Mr. Aske, where you write desiring me to stay my quarters; there has yet been no stir in my rooms and lands, but what was caused by other wild countries and dales. I shall do my duty, and play my part therein, though I lie in my bed. I hear my lord of Cumberland is likely to have business for two prisoners he keeps.NOTEXT
On 18 Jan 1537 Francis Bigod (age 29) ... "Though the commons at first had me in suspicion for my learning and conversation with such a lewd one as they judged were enemies both to Christ's Church and the commonwealth, and I was even in danger of my life at Pountefrett [Map], they have now the greatest confidence in me. Now messengers come from Bishopric, Richmondshire, and the West, for me to go forward with the commons, especially to bring John Halom, whom the mayor of Hull has imprisoned, to their great offence. I have sworn to go with the commons having good reason to doubt the Duke of Norfolk is coming rather to bring them to captivity like those of Lincolnshire than to fulfil our petitions. There is no man they trust so much as Constable whom Bygott would gladly join and follow his advice, if he will be true to them." He begs an answer and sends a copy of their oath.
Hall's Chronicle 1537. Feb 1537. Also in the said month, Nichol Musgrave, Thomas Tilbie, with other began a new rebellion at Kirbie Stephen [Map] in Westmoreland with eight thousand persons, and besieged the city of Carlisle [Map], from whence they were beaten, with the only power of the city, and in their returning the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), who then was made Lieutenant of the North encountered with them, and took the captains, and according to the law martial, arraigned threescore and fourteen of them, and hanged them on Carlisle walls, but Musgrave escaped. And in the same month of February began yet another insurreccion, by the enticement of Sir Frances Bigod (age 29), a man no doubt that loved God, and feared his Prince, with a right obedient and loving fear but now being deceived and provoked thereunto by false rebellious persons, it was his fortune to taste of the end which appertains to rebels such are men when God leaves them to themselves, and when they will enterprise the doing of that thing which God’s most holy word utterly forbids. This Bigod was apprehended and brought to the Tower of London. This last rebellion began in Setrington, and in Pikerin Leigh, and Scarborough.NOTEXT
Hall's Chronicle 1537. 02 Jun 1537 In June the lord Darcy (age 70) and the lord Hosey [Map] were arraigned at Westminster before the Marques of Exceter (age 41), then High Steward of England, and they were both found guilty and had their judgement as in cases of high treason.
After 02 Jun 1537. Shortly after were also arraigned Sir Robert Constable (age 59), Sir Thomas Percy (age 33), Sir Fraunces Bygod (age 29), Sir Stephin Hamelton, Sir Jhon Bulmer and his wife (deceased), which some reported was not his wife but his paramour, also William Lumley, Nicholas Tempest (age 57), and the Abbots of Jerney (age 35) and Rivers, and Robert Aske (age 37), and all found guilty of high treason, and all put to death at Tiborne [Map], saving Sir Robert Constable (age 59), which was hanged in chains on Beverley gate at Hull and Aske (age 37) was also hanged in chains in Yorke on a Tower, and Sir John Bulmer’s Paramour (deceased), was burned in Smithfclde [Map] in London. And in the latter end of June, was the Lord Darcy (age 70) beheaded at Tower Hill [Map], and shortly after was the Lord Hosey (age 70) beheaded at Lyncolne [Map].
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 30 Jun 1537. This yeare, the 30th daie of June, the Lord Darcye (age 70) was beheaded at the Tower Hill, and his head sett on London Bridge, and his bodie buried at the Crossed Friars beside the Tower of London.
Also the Lord Hussey (deceased) was beheaded at Lyncolne, and Sir Robert Constable (age 59) was hanged at Hull in Yorkeshire in chaines. Aske (age 37) was hanged in the cittie of Yorke in chaines till he died.
Letters and Papers 1537. 3 July.
203. Norfolk to Cromwell.
Calig. B. vii. 224. B. M.
Received yesternight his letter of the 28 June and a packet under the King's Seal. Has appointed all therein named of the West Marches to be with him at York, Friday se'nnight, when Aske (age 37) is to suffer. Before his execution an exhortation to be given. Will take care to satisfy the King.
Harl. MS. 282, f. 205. B. M. Nott's Wyatt, 316.
Writes this by George Pery, a gentleman of M. Chappuys, the Emperor's ambassador. Here at Stepney this morning arrived Rougecroix the herald with Wyat's letters dated 24 June. Forwarded them straightway to the King at Oking. Thanks him for his letters written at his first arrival before he had audience and for those now received. Touching communications with the Emperor's ambassadors, of which Cromwell wrote by M. de Vauldray, hopes for a good result. No news since last writing. The traitors have been executed, lord Darcy (deceased) at Tower Hill and lord Hussey (deceased) at Lincoln, Aske (age 37) hanged upon the dungeon of York Castle, Sir Robt. Constable (deceased) hanged at Hull, and the rest at Thyfbourne; so that all the cankered hearts are weeded away.
Letters and Papers 1537. 20 Jul 1537. 292. Richard Coren to Cromwell.
R. O. St. P. i. 557.
Excuses his slack letters by his absence from my Lord of Norfolk at the expedition of the last post. Was present at Aske's (deceased) execution, as well as at that of Sir Robert Constable (deceased), which no doubt Thomas Hossy has described. Noted in both men "that they thought a religion to keep secret between God and them certain things rather than open their whole stomach; from the which opinion I could not abduce them." For Robert Aske's demeanour, refers to the schedule enclosed. Sherifhoton, 20 July.
ii. Goods which Robert Aske had during the commotion, whereof no satisfaction is made, to his remembrance.
First, Mr. Lacy sent to him to Hull £10 of Dr. Halsworth's goods, and an obligation of the Abbot of Kirkstead, Linc, which the subprior of Watton had. 2. The vicar of Braton sent him 10 sheep and 30s., but of whose goods he knows not. 3. Had sent from Drake Abbey to Wresill 10 or 12 qrs. of oats and 3 qrs. of wheat. 4. From Wato[n], 40 sheep. 5. Had of Mr. Krake's goods, sheep to the value of £4 10s. Thinks that is all he had, "not given and not restored," and begs the King to pay them out of his goods for the discharge of his conscience.
In Aske's hand and subscribed: "This is Ask's own hand delivered unto me, Richard Coren."
St. P. i. 558.
iii. "The saying of Robert Aske to me, Richard Coren, out of confession to-for his death.
"First, he said that my lord Darcy (deceased) did tell him that he had spoken with the emperor's ambassador concerning his purpose in this late rebellion, for the causes of the Church, as he said, and that the said ambassador should encourage him unto the same, saying that he should lack none help."
3. That my lord Privy Seal "did not bear so great favour to my Lord of Norfolk as he thought he did; which thing I have kept secret from my said Lord of Norfolk."
4. When he "should be" laid on the hurdle to be drawn he openly confessed he had offended God, the King, and the world. After this he declared that the King was so gracious that none should be troubled for offences comprised in the pardon. He was then laid on the hurdle and drawn through the notable places of the city "desiring the people ever as he passed by to pray for him."
5. At the place of execution he was taken off the hurdle, repeated like confession, and ascended up into the dungeon to wait the coming of my Lord of Norfolk.
6. "Item, there were two things, wherewithal he was aggrieved. The one was, that he said my lord Privy Seal spake a sore word and affirmed it with a stomach, swearing that all the Northern men were but traitors: where-withal he was somewhat offended. The second was that my lord Privy Seal sundry times promised him a pardon of his life, and at one time he had a token from the King's Majesty of pardon for confessing the truth. These two things he showed to no man in these North parts, as he said, but to me only; which I have and will ever keep secret."
7. At Norfolk's arrival Aske ascended the tower to the gallows, repeated his former confession and asked forgiveness of the King, my lord Chancellor, my Lord of Norfolk, my lord Privy Seal, my Lord of Sussex, and all the world; and after orisons made on the ladder, commended his soul to God.
Pp. 5. All in Coren's hand, except § ii. Add.: Privy Seal. Sealed and endd.
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Birth and Christening Edward VI
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Oct 1537. And the morrowe after, being Fridaie and the eaven of Sainct Edwarda, sometime King of Englande, at tow of the clocke in the mominge the Quecne [was] delivered of a man chieldeb at Hampton Court beside Kingston. And the same daie, at eight of the clocke in the morning, Te Deum was songe in everie parish church throughout Londonc, with all the bells ringing in everie church, and great fiars made in everie streete; and at 9 of the clocke their was assembled at Ponies all the orders of friars, monkes, channons, priestes, and clarkes about London, standing all about Paules in rich copes, with the best crosses and candlestickes of everie parrishe church in London; the Bishopp of London, the Bishopp of Chichestre, Deane of Poules, and the Abbott of West- minster being mitred, the said Bishopp and Deane of Paules making a collation to the people at the quire dore of Poules, the French Kinges embassadour being present, the Lord Chauncelor of Englande, the Lord Privie Scale, the Lorde Marques Dorsett, with all the judges and serjeantes of the lawe; the Major of London, with the orderman [aldermen] and sherives, with all the craftes of London, standing in their liveries: and after the said collation Poules quire song an attempncd of the Trinitie, with Te Deum, and the 9th responde of the Trinitie, with the colect of the same. Then the Kinges waites and the waites of London plaied with the shalmes; and after that a great peale of gonnea were shott at the Tower of London, all which solempnitie was donne to give laude and prayse to God for joy of our prince.
October 12th. Circular letters, in the Queen's name and under her signet, were prepared, announcing the birth of Prince Edward. One of them, addressed to the Lord Privy Seal, and dated on that day at Hampton Court, is now in the British Museum, Nero, C. x. leaf 7.
Note b. The story of Edward's being brought into the world by surgical art, and at the sacrifice jof his mother's life, seems to haye been invented by Nicolas Sanders, the Jesuit, from whom it was borrowed by Sir John Hayward, and adopted in his life of Edward VI. - See Kennett's Hist. Engl. vol. ii. p. 273. From this source it found its way into various historical books. The error apparently originated through the Queen's death having been assigned to the 14th, only two days after her deliyery, instead of to the 24th. - See p. 69 of this Chronicle.
Note c. As the King had caused his two daughters by his former marriages to be declared illegitimate, nothing could be more acceptable than the birth of a son which put the succession of the Crown out of all dispute.
Note d. Anthem.
Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.NOTEXT
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 25thd daie of October, being Moundaie, the Prince was christened in the Kinges chappell at Hampton Court, the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 48) and the Duke of Norfoike (age 64) godfathers at the font, and my Ladie Maries grace (age 21), the Kinges daughter by Queene Katherin, godmotherb, and the Duke of Suffolke, godfather at the confirmation, the Princes name being Edwarde, proclaymed after his christning by the King of Haroldesa, "Edward, sonne and heire to the King of Englande, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester." The goodlie solempnitie of the lordes and ladies done at the christning was a goodlie sight to behoulde, everie one after their office and degree; the Ladie Elizabeth (age 4), the Kinges daughter, bearing the chrisome on her breast, the Viscoumpt Beauchampe (age 37), brother to the Queeneb, bearing her in his armes, the Earle of Essex (age 52) bearing the salte, the Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 34) bearing the Prince to the church and home againe, the Duke of Norfolke (age 64) staying his head, as she bare him, and the Duke of Suffolke (age 53) at his feete.NOTEXT
Note d. Evidently a clerical error for the 15th, which was Monday, whereas the 25th would haye been Thursday.
Note e. It is cnrions to note the incongruity of the sponsors: these were Archbishop Cranmer (age 48), the head of the Protestant Reformers, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), leader of the lay Catholics, and the Princess Mary (age 21), a bigoted Catholic, who had been bastardised by her father.
Note a. Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux King-at-Arms.
Note b. Edward Seymour (age 37), elder brother of Queen Jane, and so brother-in-law of Henry VIII was created Viscount Beauchomp, of Hache, co. Somerset, 5th June, 1536. He was lineally descended from Sir Roger Seymour (temp. Edward III.) who married Cicely, sister and eldest coheir of John de Beauchamp, last Baron Beauchamp.
On 15 Oct 1537 the future Edward VI was christened by Bishop John Stokesley (age 62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) were Godparents.NOTEXT
Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long (age 43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52), Philip Boteler (age 45), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66) and John Gage (age 57) attended. Mary Scrope (age 61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried the canopy.
Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker Garter King of Arms proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton (age 48) attended.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 18 Oct 1837. Also, on Saint Lukes daiec, being Thursdaie, the Prince was proclaymed at the court "Edward, sonne and heire to King Henrie the Eight, Prince of Wales, Duke of Comewall, and Earle of Chesterd." Also the King made that daie tow earles and six knightes, that is to saie: Mr. Fittes Williams, Lord Admirall and Vice-Treasorer, was made Earle of Hamptone, and the Queenes brother, Viscount Beawchamp, was made Earle of Hertfordef and Mr. Powlett was made Vice-Treasorer,a and Sir John Russell, Controler of the Kinges howse, Mr. Henageb, Mr. Longc, and Mr. Knevett of the Kinges Privie Chamber, knightes, and Mr. Coffin, and Mr. Listred, knightes and Mr. Semere, the Queenes brother, knight..
Note c. October 18th.
Note d. This passage would seem to countenance the common account that the infant prince was almost immediately invested with these titles, whereas he himself tells us in his journal that he was only about to be created so when his father died, in which he is confirmed by Burnet, who says that Edward was called Prince of Wales, as the heirs to this crown are, yet he was not invested with that dignity by a formal creation.
Note e. William Fitzwilliam, descended from the ancestor of the present Earl Fitswilliam, was created Earl of Southampton, October 18th, 1537.
Note f. By which title he is known until the accession, in 1547, of his nephew Edward VI. when he was created Duke of Somerset, and was made Lord Protector of the Kingdom.
Note a. Sir William Poulet, Comptroller of the Household, was made Treasurer of the Household in 1587, when the Comptrollership was conferred on Sir John Russell, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, who eventually became first Earl of Bedford.
Note b. Thomas Hennage.
Note c. Richard Long, Master of the Buckhonnds.
Note d. Richard Lister, Chief Baron of the Exchequer.
Note e. The Queen's younger brother, Thomas Seymour.
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Death of Jane Seymour
Hall's Chronicle 1537. 14 Oct 1537. But Lord what lamentation shortly after was made for the death of his noble and gracious mother Queen Jane (age 28), which departed out of this life the fourteenth day of October, next following: and of none in the realm was it more heavier taken than of the King’s Majesty (age 46) himself, whose death caused the King immediately to remove unto Westminster, where he mourned and kept himself close and secret a great while.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 14 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 14 of October, beinge Weddnesday1, Queene Jane (age 28) departed this lyfe, lyeinge in childe bedd, aboute 2 of the clocke in the morninge, when she had reigned as the Kings wife, beinge never crowned, one yeare and a quarter2.
Note 1. This date has evidently been tampered with by the transcriber to make it correspond with Stow, Hall, Godwin, and others, who assign the Queen's death to the 14th, whereas it took place on the 24th, which was evidently correctly given by the original writer of this Chronicle, as he makes it Wednesday, whereas the 14th would have been Sunday. It is very remarkable that the date of an event of so much interest at the time as the Queen's death should haye been misplaced by no less than ten days by nearly all ancient chroniclers, but the doubt as to the correct date is set at rest by an original letter written by Sir John Russell, from Hampton Court, to Cromwell, and dated the 24th of October, which is still extant in the Public Record Office, and reads as follows: "Sir, the King was determyned this day to have remoyed to Asher, and because the Queene was very sik this night and this day he taried, but to morrowe, God willing, he entendithe to be ther. If she amende, he will go; and if she amende not, he tolde me this day, he coold not fynde in his harte to tary; for I ensuer you she hathe bene in grete dannger yesternight and this day, bnt, thankid be God, she is somwhat amended, and, if she skape this night, the fyshionns be in good hope that she is past all dannger." Also Cecil's Journal is to the same effect.
Note 2. One year and nearly five months.
Letters and Papers 1537. 24 Oct . 977. Sir J. Russell to Cromwell. R. O. St. P. i. 573.
I have received your letter and shown it to the King, who caused Mr. Nevell to send for divers of the men, who shall be here to-morrow. Yesterday Mr. Treasurer and I examined one of Mr. Nevell's servants, who confessed to 20, not one of them in the bill the King had of you; so, by the time those you wrote of shall be taken, ye shall have a great number accused. Today the King intended to remove to Asher, and, because the Queen (age 28) was very sick this night and today, he tarried, but he will be there tomorrow. "If she amend he will go and if she amend not he told me this day he could not find in his heart to tarry." She was in great danger yesternight and to day but, if she sleep this night, the physicians hope that she is past danger. Hampton Court, xxiiiiith (sic) day of October. Signed.
Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Endd.: 24 October.
Letters and Papers 1537. 26 Oct . 988. Sir Thos. Palmer to Lord Lisle. R. O.
We have here heavy tidings. The bruit was that the Queen (deceased) died on Tuesday, but she was alive late on Wednesday night, "and if good prayers can save her, she is not like to die, for never lady was so much plained with every man, rich and poor." The King will be at York Place on Tuesday night. There is no time to sue, or the money would have been paid two days ago. I beg you to remember your promise for Thos. Appowell. I am sure you have a sufficient warrant both from the King and my lord Admiral, and also from my lord Privy Seal, by three of his letters. I trust Mr. Surveyor will not be against it so that he will have the next, for I spoke with him here in London. I will see you discharged when you admit him, or else count me the falsest man that ever was born. London, 26 Oct.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais.
Letters and Papers 1537. [24 Oct.] 970. Earl of Rutland, Bishop of Carlisle, and Others to [Cromwell]. Nero C. x. 2. B. M. St. P. i. 572. Hearne's1 Sylloge, 114.
Yesterday afternoon the Queen had "an naturall laxe," by reason of which she seemed to amend till toward night. All night she has been very sick, and rather "appears" than amends. Her confessor has been with her this morning, and is now preparing to minister the Sacrament of Unction. Hampton Court, Wednesday, 8 a.m.
Signed: Thomas Rutland—Robert Karliolen.—Edward Bayntun—John Chamber, priest—William Butt—George Owen.
Note 1. Two of the signatures are quite mis-read by Hearne or the copy he followed.
Letters and Papers 1537. [24 Oct.] 971. Norfolk to Cromwell. R.O.
"My good lord, I pray you to be here tomorrow early to comfort our good master, for as for our mistress [Queen Jane Seymour] there is no likelihood of her life, the more pity, and I fear she shall not be on lyve at the time ye shall read this. At viij at night, with the hand of [your] sorrowful friend, T. Norffolk."
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Funeral of Jane Seymour
Letters and Papers 1537. 24 Oct 1537. Heralds' College MS. I. 11,f. 37. 1060. Queen Jane Seymour. A remembrance of the interment of Queen Jane, mother of Edward VI., who died at Hampton Court, 24 Oct., on Wednesday about 12 p.m., in child-bed, 29 Henry VIII.
Immediately upon this heavy news the King ordained the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), High Marshal, and Sir William Pawlet, Treasurer of the Household, to see to her burial; and he himself retired to a solitary place to pass his sorrows. The aforesaid councillors then sent for Garter and other of the Office of Arms to show precedents. First the wax-chandler did his office, taking out the entrails "with searing, balming, spicing, and trammeling in cloth," then the plumber leaded, soldered, and chested; and her entrails were honourably interred in the chapel. Friday, 26 Oct., there was provided in the chamber of presence a hearse with 21 tapers about it, &c., and the corpse conveyed, in honourable wise, from the place where she died, and laid beneath the hearse. All the ladies and gentlewomen "put off their rich apparel, doing on their mourning habit and white kerchers hanging over their heads and shoulders," and there knelt about the hearse during mass afore noon and Dirige after; there was also a watch kept nightly until the last day of the month.NOTEXT
Letters and Papers 1537. On Wednesday [01 Nov 1537], the vigil of All Saints, the great chamber and galleries leading to the chapel, and the chapel, were hung with black cloth and garnished with rich images. In the chapel was prepared a hearse, garnished with 8 banner-rolls of descents i.e. of the King, Queen, Prince, York, Normandy, Guienne, Ireland and Cornwall with "rachments and majestye." The same afternoon the corpse was conveyed to the chapel, the King's officers and servants standing in double rank from the chamber to the chapel with torches, not lighted, whilst the Bishop of Carlisle, her almoner, assisted by the Bishop of Chichester, dean of the Chapel and the subdean, entered the chamber and did the ceremonies, as sensing with holy water and De profundis. That done, torches were lighted and the procession formed; first the cross with priests, two and two, then gentlemen, esquires, pursuivants and heralds, then the noblemen, then Garter, then the Earl of Rutland (age 45), the Queen's chamberlain, and Duke of Norfolk (age 64), then the corpse, then the chief mourner, the lady Marquis of Exeter "in place of the Lady Mary as then accrased assisted by two noblemen as earls," then nine noble ladies, mourners. The corpse being received in the chapel by the prelates and placed under the hearse, Lancaster Herald said, with a loud voice, "Of your charity pray for the soul" &c. (words quoted). Then Dirige was sung and all departed to the Queen's chamber. Watch was kept every night in the chapel by priests, gentlemen-ushers and officers of arms who, in the morning, early, were relieved by ladies and went to breakfast, which was provided "as two chines of beef with bread ale and wine thereto sufficient." Then began Laudes; and at nine a.m. the Lady Mary (age 21), chief mourner, and the others proceeded to the chapel. Thursday, 1 Nov., was the offering mass (described) at which everyone offered a piece of gold. Then after dinner and consultation with the cofferer and other chief clerks of the Household about the provision to be made, Dirige was solemnly sung by the Bishop of Chichester. On Friday, 2 Nov., the Abbot of St. Albans said mass and conducted the service; Saturday, 3 Nov., the Abbot of Waltham did execute; Sunday, 4 Nov., the Abbot of Reading; Monday, 5 Nov., the Abbot of Stratford. On Tuesday, 6 Nov., were 3 solemn masses, (1) by the Abbot of Tower Hill at which were the chief mourner, the Countess of Rutland (age 42) and other ladies, nine in all, the train borne by Mrs. Bassett: (2) by the Abbot of Westminster (attended by the chief mourner, Countess of Oxford (age 19) and others): (3) by the Bishop of St. Tasse, Abbot of Bramsey (attended by the chief mourner, Lady Marquis of Exeter, Countess of Rutland (age 42) and Sussex and others; the train borne by lady Coffyn).NOTEXT
Letters and Papers 1537. On the 7th Nov  the Bishop of Rochester officiated, 8 Nov. the Bishop of Lincoln, 9 Nov. the Abbot of Tower Hill, 10 Nov. the Bishop of Carlisle. Sunday 11 Nov. were three solemn masses by the abbots of Stratford and Westminster and the Bishop of Chichester.
Hall's Chronicle 1537. 08 Nov 1537. And the eighth day of November the corpse of the Queen (deceased) was carried to Windsor with great solemnity, and there was buried in the midst of the choir in the Castel Church [Map]: And at the same time was made in Paul’s a solemn hearse for her, where was mass and dirge, and in like manner was sung Mass and dirge in every parish church in London.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Nov 1537. This yeare, the 12th of November,1 being Mundaye, the corps of Queene Jane were, with great solemnitie, caried from Hampton Cowrte in a chariott covered with black velvett, with a picture of the sayde Queene richelye apparelled lyke a Queene, wiUi a riche crowne of golde on her head, lyinge above on the coffin of the sayde corps, and so was conveyed to Wyndsore with great lightes of torches, with a great multitude of lordes and gentlemen rydinge all in black gownes and cotes, the Ladye Marie (age 21), the Kinges daughter, beinge cheife mourner, with a great companye of ladies and gentleweomen waytinge on her, and ridinge all in blacke allso; and there, with great solemnities buried by the Archbishopp of Canterburie (age 48), with a great companye of bishopps and abbotts being there present in their mitres, with all the gentlemen and priestes of the Kinges chappell, which rode all the way in their surplesses, singinge the obsequie for the dead; and the morrowe after there was a solemne masse of requiem sunge by the Archbishopp of Canterburie; and the Bishop of Worcester, called Dr. Latimer (age 50), made a notable sermon; and at the offertorie all the estates offered ryche palls of clothe of golde; and after masse there was a great feast made in the Kinges pallace at Windsore for all the estates and other that had bene present at the same buriall.
Allso, the sayde 12th of Novembre, at afternoone, there was a solemne herse made at Powles in London, and a solemne dirige done there by Powles queere, the Major of London2 beinge there present with the alldermen and sheriffes, and all the major's officers and the sheriffes sergeantes, mourninge all in blacke gownes, and all the craftes of the cittie of London in their lyveries; allso there was a knyll rongen in everie parishe churche in London, from 12 of the clocke at noone tyll six of the clocke at night, with all the bells ringinge in everye parishe churche solemne peales, firom 3 of the clocke tyll the knylls ceased ; and allso a solempne dirige songen in everye parishe churche in London, and in every church of Friars, Monks, and Canons, about London; and, the morrow after, a solemn mass of requiem in all the said churches, with all the bells ringing, from 9 of the clock in the morning till noon; also there was a solemn masse of requiem done at Pauls, and all Pauls choir offering at the same masse, the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, and the wardens of every craft of the city of London; and, after the said mass, the mayor and aldermen going about the hearse sainge "De profundis," with all the crafts of the city following, every one after their degrees, praying for the soul of the said Queen.
Note 1. Stow agrees with the text, which would appear to be correct, being Wednesday, but Hall [Hall's Chronicle] has the eighth day of November, which was Saturday.
Note 2. Sir Richard Gresham, who, in a letter of the 8th Noyember to Cromwell, had suggested that such a solemn service should be celebrated; "yt shall please you to understand that, by the commanndement of the Ducke of Norfolke, I have cawssyd 1,200 masses to be sejde, within the cite of London, for the sowle of our moste gracious Qweene. And whereas the majer and aldyrmen with the commenors was lattely at Powlles, and ther gaye thanckes nnto God for the byrthe of our prynce, My Lorde, I doo think it, where convenient, that theer should bee also at Pauls a solemn dirge and masse; and that the mayor, aldermen, with the commoners, to be there, for to pray and offer for her Grace's soul. My Lord, it shall please you to move the King's Highness, and his pleasure known in this behalf, I am and shall be ready to accomplish his moste gracious pleasure, and if there be any alms to be given, there is many power people within the city." — State Papers, yol. L part ii. p. 574.
Letters and Papers 1537. 12 Nov 1537. Monday, 12 Nov , the corpse was removed to a chair drawn by six chariot horses, and four banners were borne by four barons (not named). Banners (described) were also borne by Chester, Windsor, Richmond, and Lancaster heralds, by Sir Thomas Denys, Gregory Crumwell, Sir William Godolphyn, Sir John Sandes, Richard Crumwell and Richard Manners. Assistants about the corpse and chair:—Duke of Suffolk (age 53), Marquis Dorset, and earls of Surrey, Westmorland, Wiltshire and Sussex. To the chief mourner:—lords Montague and Clifford. Gentlemen-ushers:—Henry Webbe and Thomas Dauncy. Henchmen that sat upon the chariot horses:—Thomas Kempe, Robert Turwytt, Bennet Lee, and John Hastynges. Officers of arms in attendance:— Garter and Clarencieux, kings; York, Chester, Windsor, Richmond, Lancaster and Somerset, heralds; Portcullis, Bluemantle, Rougedragon, Guisnes, Hammes, Berwick and Blaunchlyon, pursuivants. Serjeants-at-arms:—William Rowte, John Gwillm, Walt. Chalcote, Thomas Dawtry, William Uxley, George Warrenne, Richard Raynshowe, William Clerke, John Stoner, Ralph Framyngham, John Greefelde, Ralph Saintjohn, John up Richards, Edward Slegge, Nicholas Jacsoune. Everything being in order the procession started, Gregory Lovell and Robert Hawkes leading the way, with black staves, followed by 200 poor men wearing the Queen's badges, who at Colbrooke, Exton (sic, Eton), and Windsor stood on each side of the street with their torches. Then came minstrels and trumpets, strangers and ambassadors' servants, the cross with priests, knights, chaplains, abbots, barons and bishops, councillors and head officers, Viscounts and earls. Lord Cromwell lord Privy Seal with the French ambassador Mons. de Schatelon. The lord Chancellor with the ambassador of the Emperor "last come." The cross of the archbishop of Canterbury borne before him by his chaplain; and he himself with the Emperor's ambassador "longest being here." Then Clarencieux and Garter, the Queen's almoner, the chamberlains to the King and Queen, the Earl of Oxford (age 66), High-Chamberlain, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), High-Marshal. Then the corpse surrounded by banners borne by Sir William Muschame, lord Hungerford, lord Mordaunt, lord Bray and lord Mountjoy; assisted by the earls of Sussex and Westmorland, marquis Dorset, the earls of Wiltshire and Surrey and Duke of Suffolk (age 53). Then my Lady Mary, chief mourner, her horse trapped in black velvet and assisted by lords Clifford and Montague. Noble ladies following, in the first chair:—Lady Fraunces, the Countesses of Oxford (age 19), Rutland (age 42), Sussex, Bath, and Southampton, and lady Margaret Howard. In the 2nd (described) the Countess of Derby (age 52), widow, and ladies Margaret Gray, Rochford (age 32), and Carowe, followed by ladies Morley, Dawbeney, Dudley, Owtred, Browne, Pawlet, Russell, and Baynton. The 3rd chair containing ladies Cobham, Bray, Kingston (age 61), and Coffyn; followed by ladies Knevet, Wollope, Henage, and Lyster, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Jernyngham, Mrs. Stoner, and Mrs. Francis Aylmer. The 4th chair containing Mrs. Souche, Mrs. Hollande, Mrs. Asheley, Mrs. Norres, and Mrs. Parre; and followed by Mrs. Darcy, Mrs. Pexsall, Mrs. Clarencieux, Mrs. Carowe, Mrs. Poyntes, Mrs. Cromwell, Mrs. Boynton, and Mrs. Tymeo. The 5th chair containing Mrs. Fitzherbart, Mrs. Bassett, Mrs. Rastall, Mrs. Uxbryge, and Mrs. Joscelyn. (All other gentlewomen rode on before to await the arrival at Windsor, and the start was to be made at 5 a.m.) After the 5th chariot came Sir William Kingston (age 61), the King's vice-chamberlain and captain of the Guard, followed by the Guard—three and three—and all other noblemen's servants. Two almoners were appointed to distribute alms by the way. At Colbroke the corpse was reverently received; and so forth at Eaton, where the Bishop of Lincoln, the Bishop of Carlisle "provost of the said college," and all the priests, clerks, and children received it with caps and tapers in their hands. At Windsor the mayor and brethren met it at the bridge-foot with lighted torches, and so passed to the College. Describes the hangings on the way from the bridge-foot to the west door and in the choir. The dean of Windsor and all the College met the corpse at the utter gate, and accompanied it to the west door, where the chair was taken out and borne by Sir Henry Savyll, Sir Marm. Constable, Sir Arthur Darcy, Sir John St. John, Sir Henry Parker, Sir Thomas Poyninges, and Sir Thomas Darcy, assisted by Sir Humph. Radclyff, Sir John Gage, Sir Richard Weston, and Sir Richard Sandys. A canopy (described) was borne over the corpse by Lord Hastyngs, son and heir to the Earl of Huntingdon, and lords Delaware, Morley, Dacres of the South, Cobham and Bray. In the choir was the archbishop of Canterbury, in pontificalibus, assisted by the bishops of London, Lincoln, Chichester, Worcester, Rochester, St. Taxe (St. Asaph), and Carlisle, and the abbots of Westminster, St. Albans, Reading, Waltham, Tower Hill, and Stratford. The chief mourner followed the corpse, having her train borne by the Viscountess Rochforde (age 32), and assisted by lady Fraunces, the Countesses of Oxford, Derby (age 52) (widow), Rutland (age 42), Bath, and Southampton, and lady Margaret Howard. The corpse being passed under the hearse, a Dirge began in which the lessons were read by the prelates in turn (named) and that finished, the nobility went to the Castle. Describes solemn watch that night and services next day, after which the "offering of the palles began" i.e., ladies Bray, Dawbeney, Morley and Cobham offered one each, ladies Margaret Howard, and Marg. Gray two each, the Countesses of Southampton, Bath, Sussex, Rutland (age 42), Oxford, and Derby (age 52) three each, lady Fraunces four, and the Lady Mary, who was lead between the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, seven. That done, the mourners went to the Castle where they were sumptuously provided for, and the corpse was solemnly buried and all finished by 12 o'clock that day.NOTEXT
ii. Liveries given to the officers of arms and payments for diets made to them by Mr. Gostwick.
Pp. 24 in an Elizabethan hand.
Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) was Chief Mourner.
Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53), John Gage (age 58), Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 20), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64), Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 45), Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 39), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66), Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) attended.NOTEXT
John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 57) carried the banner.
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Execution of Friar John Forest
Hall's Chronicle 1538. May 1538. In May there was a Friar, called Friar Forest, one of the Observant Friars, but he might have bene more truly named as after shall appear, an Obstinate Friar, this obstinate friar had secretly in confessions declared to many of the King’s subjects that the King was not Supreme Head, and being hereof accused and apprehended, he was examined how he could say that the King was not Supreme Head of the Church, when he himself had sworn to the contrary, he answered that he took his oath with his outward man, but his inward man never consented thereunto: At this answer the lords who examined him looked very strangely at the dissimulation of the Friar, but being farther accused of diverse heretical and damnable articles, that he held contrary to the scripture of god, he was after sundry examinations convinced and confuted, and gladly submitted himself to abide the punishment of the church. But upon this his submission, having more liberty than before he had, as well to talk with whom he would, as also, who that he would to talk with him, certain such outward men as he was so talked with him and so incensed him, that the outward Freer was as far from his open submission as ever he was, and when his abjuration was sent him to read, and loke upon, he utterly refused it, and obstinately stood in all his heresies and treasons before conspired, al gentle meanes that was possible to be sought for his reconciliation was had, but the more gentler that the magistrates were to him, the more obstinate was the friar, and would neither argue nor answer wherefore justly he was condemned, and after for him was prepared in Smithfeld [Map] in London a gallows on the which he was hanged in chains by the middle and armholes all quick, and under the gallows was made a fire, and he so consumed and burned to death. At his coming to the place of execution, there was prepared a great scaffold, on which sat the nobles of the realm, and the King’s Majesty’s most honourable counsel only to have granted pardon to that wretched creature, if any spark of repentance would have happened in him there was also prepared a pulpit where a right reverend father in God and a renowned and famous Clerck the bishop of Worcester called Hugh Latimer (age 51), declared to him his errors, and openly and manifestly by the scripture of God confuted them, and with many and godly exhortations moved him to repentance, but such was his forwardness that he neither would hear nor speak. And a little before the execution, a huge and great image was brought to the gallows, which image was brought out of Wales, and of the Welshmen much sought and worshipped. This image was called Darvel Gatheren, and the Welshmen had a prophesy that this image should set a whole forest on fire, which prophesy now took effect, for he set this friar Forest on fire and consumed him to nothing. This Friar when he saw the fire come, and that present death was at hand, caught hold upon the ladder, which he would not let go, but so unpatiently took his death, that no man that ever put his trust in God never so unquietly nor so ungodly ended his life. If men might judge him by his outward man, he appeared to have little knowledge of God and his sincere truth, and less trust in him at his ending.
Upon the gallows that he died on, was set with great letters these verses following.
David Darvel Gatheren
As sayth the Welshmen
Fetched Outlawes out of Hell.
Now is he come, with spere and shild
In harnes to burne in Smithfeld
For in Wales he may not dwel
And Foreest the Freer
That obstinate Iyer
That wylfully shalbe dead.
In his contumacie
The Gospel doeth deny
The King to be supreme heade.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 22 May 1538. Also the 22th daie of Maie, being Wednesdaie this same yeare, the said Friar Forrest was drawen from Newgate to the place of execution in Smythfielde, where was a noble sermon made by the Bishopp of Worcestre (age 51), afore writton, to have drawen the said Friar Forrest from his opinions; but he, obstinatlie standing still and stiffe in his opininons, and beinge asked by the said bishopp in what state he would die, he openlie declaring their with a lowde voyce to the Bishopp as followeth: That if an angell should come downe from heaven and shew him any other thing then that he had beleeved all his liffe tyme past he would not beleeve him, and that if his bodie should be cutt joynt after joynt or membre after membre, brent, hanged, or what paine soever might de donne to his bodie, he wold neaver turne from his old sect of this Bishopp of Rome; and also seaven yeare agone hea durst not have made such a sermon for his lief. And then after this, being a false traitor to his Praynce, an hereticke, and a seditious person to the Kinges leighe people, was had to the place of executionb and their hanged about the middle in chains of iron on a paire of gallowes alive, a great fire made under him and about him, and so was burned for his said heresie and treason.
Also their was brent with him an idollc that was brought out of Gidarne was North Wales, which idoll was of woode like a man of armes in his armes in his harneies having a litle speare in his hande and a caskett of iron about his necke hanging with a ribond, the which people of North Walles honored as a sainct. The name of the idoll was called in Walch Darvell Gadarn.d Present at this execution were the Duke of Norfolke (age 65), the Duke of Suffolke (age 54), the Erle of Sussex (age 31), the Earle of Hartford (age 38) being Vicount Beawchampe, the Bishoppe of London, with other of the Kinges Counsell, the Major (age 53)e of London, with the most part of the aldermen and shrives, and, as I thinke, tenne thousand persons and more; also the place of execution where the gallowes and fire was made was railed round about; and their was a skaffold made to sett the pulpitt on where the preacher stoode, and an other against itt where the friar stoode all the sermon tyme, and a long skaffold next to Sainct Bartholomewes spittell gate, where the Lordes of the Privie Counsell sate with the major and aldermen and other gentlemen and commons of the cittie.NOTEXT
Note a. Bishop Latimer (age 51).
Note b. Compare this with the account of the burning of Friar Forest in Harleian MS. 530, f. 120.
Note c. The Welshmen had a prophesy that this image should set a whole forest a fire, which prophesie now toke effect, for it set this Frier Forest on fyre, and consumed him to nothing. Hall, p 826.
Note d. Usually written Darvell or David Gatheren.
Note e. Sir Richard Gresham (age 53).
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Exeter Conspiracy
Before Aug 1538 the Exeter Conspiracy was an attempt to overthrow Henry VIII (age 47) and replace him with Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 42), grandson of Edward VI, Henry's first cousin. Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 50) presided. John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 67) sat in judgement. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 23) was juror.
In Aug 1538 Geoffrey Pole (age 37) was arrested. He had been corresponding with Cardinal Reginald Pole (age 38). The investigation of Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 42) had turned up his name; he had appealed to Thomas Cromwell, who had him arrested and interrogated. Under interrogation, Geoffrey (age 37) said that his eldest brother Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 46), and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 42) had been party to his correspondence with Cardinal Reginald Pole (age 38).
In Nov 1538 Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (age 65), her son Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 46), his son Henry Pole (age 18), and other Pole family members, and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 42), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 35), their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 11) and Edward Neville (age 67) were arrested and imprisoned on charges of treason. Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he [Reginald Pole] is of their kin". They were committed to the Tower of London [Map].
In Jan 1539 Geoffrey Pole (age 38) was, somewhat surprisingly given the executions of the rest of his family, pardoned.
In Jan 1539 Cardinal Reginald Pole (age 38) was attainted in absentia.
Hall's Chronicle 1538. 03 Nov 1539. The third day of November were Henry Marquess of Exeter and Earl of Devonshire (age 43) and Sir Henry Pole knight and Lord Montague and Sir Edward Neville brother to the Lord Bergavenny sent to the Tower which three were accused by Sir Geoffrey Pole (age 38) brother to the Lord Montague (age 47), of high treason, and the two lords were arraigned the last day of December, at Westminster before the Lord Audley of Walden, Lord Chancellor, and then the High Steward of England, and there found guilty, likewise on the third day after was arraigned Sir Edward Neville, Sir Geoffrey Pole and two priests called Croftes and Collins, and one Holande a mariner and all attainted, and the ninth day of Januarie, were the said two lords and Sir Edward Neville beheaded at the Tower Hill, and the two priests and Holande were drawnn to Tyburn, and there hanged and quartered, and Sir Geoffrey Pole was pardoned.
On 09 Dec 1539 Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 47) and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 43) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 43), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 36) and their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 12) were attainted; Marquess Exeter 1C 1525, Earl Devon 3C 1485, Earl Devon 4C 1511, Baron Okehampton, Baron Courtenay forfeit.
In 1540 Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 37) was released.
Around Sep 1542, after three years of imprisonment, Henry Pole (age 22) died, possibly starved to death.
On 03 Aug 1553 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) was finally released from imprisonment after fifteen years by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) who was a close friend of his mother Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 50).
2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1537-1540 Bigod's Rebellion and the Exeter Conspiracy, Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed
In Sep 1538 Henry VIII (age 47) ordered Thomas of Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral [Map] to be destroyed. Both an attack on the Catholic Church, and a means to generate revenue; Thomas' shrine was covered in precious metals and stones. Two huges chests, each requiring six men to carry, were required to remove the treasure.
Henry enacted legislation as follows:
ITEM, for as moche as it appereth now clerely, that Thomas Becket, sometyme Archbyshop of Canterburie, stubburnly to withstand the holsome lawes establyshed agaynste the enormities of the clergie, by the kynges highness mooste noble progenitour, kynge HENRY the Seconde, for the common welthe, reste, and tranquillitie of this realme, of his frowarde mynde fledde the realme into Fraunce, and to the bishop of Rome, mayntenour of those enormities, to procure the abrogation of the sayd lawes, whereby arose moch trouble in this said realme, and that his dethe, which they untruely called martyrdome, happened upon a reskewe by him made, and that, as it is written, he gave opprobrious wordes to the gentyllmen, whiche than counsayled hym to leave his stubbernesse, and to avoyde the commocion of the people, rysen up for that rescue. And he not only callyd the one of them bawde, but also toke Tracy by the bosome, and violently shoke and plucked hym in suche maner, that he had almoste overthrowen hym to the pavement of the Churche; so that upon this fray one of their company, perceivynge the same, strake hym, and so in the thronge Becket was slayne. And further that his canonization was made onely by the bysshop of Rome, bycause he had ben a champion of maynteyne his usurped auctoritie, and a bearer of the iniquitie of the clergie, for these and for other great and urgent causes, longe to recyte, the Kynge's Maiestie, by the advyse of his counsayle, hath thought expedient to declare to his lovynge subjectes, that notwithstandynge the sayde canonization, there appereth nothynge in his lyfe and exteriour conversation, wherby he shuld be callyd a sainct, but rather estemed to have ben a rebell and traytour to his prynce. Therefore his Grace strayghtly chargeth and commandeth that from henseforth the sayde Thomas Becket shall not be estemed, named, reputed, nor called a sayncte, but bysshop Becket; and that his ymages and pictures, through the hole realme, shall be putte downe, and avoyded out of all churches, chapelles, and other places; and that from henseforthe, the dayes used to be festivall in his name shall not be observed, nor the service, office, antiphoners, colletes, and prayers, in his name redde, but rased and put out of all the bokes.