1553-1558 Queen Mary

1553-1558 Queen Mary is in 16th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Coronation of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Sep 1553. The xxix day of September the Qwuen('s) (age 37) grace mad knyghts of the Bathe xv; the furst was the yerle of Devonshyre (age 26), the yonge yerle of Surray (age 17), the iijde lord of Borgane, and lord Barkley, the lord Monjoye (age 20), lord Sowche (age 27), ser Wylliam Pallet, my lord Cardyff (age 52), the lord Wyndsore('s) (age 54) sune (age 21), sir Ryche('s) sune, sir Clynton, ser Pagett, ser Robart Rochaster, ser Hare Jernyngham (age 41), ser Edward Dormer.

Note. P. 45. The knights of the Bath made at the coronation of queen Mary were, Edward earl of Devonshire (age 26), Thomas earl of Surrey (age 17), William lord Herbert of Cardiff (age 52), Henry lord Bergavenny (age 23), Henry lord Berkeley (age 18), John lord Lumley, James lord Mountjoy (age 20), sir Robert Rochester (age 59), controller of the queen's house, sir Henry Jerningham (age 41), sir William Powlett (age 21), sir Henry Clinton, sir Hugh Rich, sir Henry Paget, sir Henry Parker, and sir William Dormer. The arms of these knights are beautifully tricked in the Cottonian MS. Claudius C. III.

Note. P. 45. Coronation of queen Mary. A document respecting the claims at this coronation has been printed in the Society's volume of Rutland Papers, p. 118: and, as there mentioned, a formulary of the ceremonial is in the library of the Society of Antiquaries.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the Qwuyen('s) (age 37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of Darbe (age 44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (age 41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (age 45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (age 26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (age 28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (age 53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (age 80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (age 41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (age 17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (age 27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (age 54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my lade Elisabeth (age 20) and my lade Anne of Cleyff (age 38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.

On 30 Sep 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal journey from the Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. She was accompanied by Mary Roper (age 30).

Bishop George Day (age 52) preached.

On 01 Oct 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) was crowned I Queen of England and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) carried the Sword of State.

John Gage (age 73) bore the queen's train. Edward Dymoke (age 45) attended as the Queen's Champion. James Blount 6th Baron Mountjoy (age 20) and Henry Parker 12th Baron Marshal 11th Baron Morley (age 20) were created Knight of the Bath. Thomas Hastings (age 38) and John Leigh (age 51) were knighted. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) and Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 28) attended.

Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 38) took part in the procession.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1553. The ij day her grace (age 37) mayd lxxiiij knyghts [Note. the list has eighty-nine], the morowe after her crownnasyon, the wyche her be ther names folowyng: (not inserted by the Diarist)

Note. P. 46. Knights made the morrow after the Coronation. Their names were as follow, according to a list in the MS. Coll. Arm. I. 7. f. 74.

The morowe after the day of Coronation, beinge the seconde day of October, at the palys of Wystmister, were dobyd the knightes of the carpet foloinge in the presence of the quenes majestie in her chamber of presens under the clothe of estate by therl of Arundell, lord stuarde of the quenes housse, who had of her highnes commission to execute the same:

The lord Garratte, Sir Edward Walgrave, Sir Christofer Allen, The lord Borough, Sir John Bourne, secretary, Sir Richard Freston, The lord Dudley, Sir Raff Chamberlen, Sir William Kelloway, Sir Thomas Stanley, Sir John Tyrell, Sir Henry Garton, Sir Edmond Wyndsor, Sir John Hodlestone, Sir John Tregonell, Sir Henry Ratclyff, Sir Robert Peckham, Sir Ambrose Jermyn, Sir Thomas Hastings, Sir Harry Lea, Sir Leonard Chamberlen, Sir Thomas Gerarde, Sir Rychard Tate, Sir John Croftes, The lord chef baron, Sir Edmond Grene, Sir Edmond Mauleverer, The lord chef justyce, Sir Robart Lane, Sir Rychard Bruges, Sir George Gefforde, Sir Rychard Stapleton, Sir James FytzJames, Sir Thomas Packington, Sir William Damsell, Sir Thomas Verney, Sir Thomas Lovell, Sir John Chichester, Sir James Williams, Sir John Spencer, Sir Harry Crypes, Sir William Meringe, Sir William Fitzwilliam, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Edward Pylson, Sir Thomas Androus, Sir Henry Ashley, Sir Edward Fytton, Sir William Courtney, Sir Rychard Stranguishe, Sir William Warham, Sir William Gresley, Sir George Mathwe, Sir Thomas Whyte, lord, Sir Thomas Cave, Sir John Cotton, mayor, Sir Edward Lytelton, Sir John Pollarde, Sir Thomas Throgmerton, Sir Philip Parreys, Sir John Warburton, Sir Edward Grevell, Sir Thomas White, Sir John Fermer, Sir Henry Stafford, Sir Thomas Metham, Sir Thomas Berenger, Sir William Wygston, Sir Rychard Lasen, Sir John Constable, Sir Harry Jones, Sir Thomas Dawney, Sir George Stanley, Sir John Bruse, Sir Robart Wyngfelde, Sir Rouland Stanley, Sir Robart Whitney, Sir Thomas Knyvett, Sir Rauf Egerton, Sir Rychard Chudley, Sir Roger Woodhouse, Sir Rychard Molineux, Sir Thomas Baskerfelde, Sir Francis Stoner, Sir Thomas Heskett, Sir Thomas Tyndall, Sir John a Lye, Sir Thomas Wayman, Sir Rychard Wallwine.

The arms of these knights are beautifully tricked in the Cottonian MS. Claud. C. III. but they are differently arranged, and some made at other times are interspersed. On this authority some slight amendment of the orthography of the names has been made where it appeared necessary.

A commission dated 17 Oct. empowering the earl of Arundel "to make so many persons knightes, within the tyme of two daies next ensuinge the date hereof, as by us shall be named, or by hymselfe may be thoughte mete, so as he excede not in the hole the numbre of threescore," is printed in Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xv. p. 350: but qu. its date?

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Battle of Hartley

On 28 Jan 1554 the Battle of Hartley was fought at Hartley Sevenoaks, Kent between a rebel force of Wyatt's Rebellion led by Henry Isley (age 54) and a loyal royalist force led by Henry Neville 6th and 4th Baron Bergavenny (age 24) and Robert Southwell (age 48). The rebels were defeated. Rebel Anthony Knyvet (age 37) fought and was captured.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The 12 of Februarie Guilforde Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at the Tower hill [Map]. And Ladie Jane (age 18) his wife was immediatlie after his death beheaded within the Tower upon the greene [Map].

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The monday, being the xij th of Februarie, about ten of the clocke, ther went out of the Tower to the scaffolde on Tower hill, the lorde Guilforde Dudley (age 19), sone to the late duke of Northumberland, husbande to the lady Jane Grey (age 18), daughter to the duke of Suffolke (age 37), who at his going out tooke by the hande sir Anthony Browne (age 25), maister John Throgmorton (age 30), and many other gentyllmen, praying them to praie for him; and without the bullwarke Offeleya the sheryve receyved him and brought him to the scaffolde, where, after a small declaration, having no gostlye fatherb with him, he kneeled downe and said his praiers; then holding upp his eyes and handes to God many tymesc; and at last, after he had desyred the people to pray for him, he laide himselfe along, and his hedd upon the block, which was at one stroke of the axe taken from him.

Note, the lorde marques (age 42)d stode upon the Devyl's towre, and sawe the executyon. His carcas throwne into a carre, and his hed in a cloth, he was brought into the chappell [Map] within the Tower, wher the ladye Jane (age 18), whose lodging was in Partrige's house, dyd see his ded carcase taken out of the cart, aswell as she dyd see him before on lyve going to his deathe, a sight to hir no lessee then deathf.

Note a. Sir Thomas Offley; see note in Machyn's Diary, p. 353.

Note b. He had probably refused the attendance of a Roman Catholic priest, and was not allowed one of his own choice.

Note c. Misread by Stowe with teares.

Note d. The marquess of Northampton (age 42).

Note e. no lesse in MS., not worse as given by Stowe and Holinshed.

Note f. "Great pitie was it for the casting awaye of that fayre Ladye, whome nature had not onely so bewtified, but God also had endewed with singuler gyftes and graces, so that she ignorantly receaved that which other wittingly devised and offred unto her.

"And in like manner that comely, vertuous, and goodly gentleman the lorde Gylford Duddeley most innocently was executed, whom God had endowed with suche vertues, that even those that never before the tyme of his execution saw hym, dyd with lamentable teares bewayle his death." Grafton's Abridgment, 1563.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. By this tyme was ther a scaffolde made upon the grene over agaynst the White tower, for the saide lady Jane (age 18) to die apon. Who with hir husband (age 19) was appoynted to have ben put to deathe the fryday before, but was staied tyll then, for what cause is not knowen, unlesse yt were because hir father was not then come into the Tower. The saide lady, being nothing at all abashed, neither with feare of her owne deathe, which then approached, neither with the sight of the ded carcase of hir husbande, when he was brought in to the chappell, came fourthe, the levetenaunt leding hir, in the same gown wherin she was arrayned, hir countenance nothing abashed, neither her eyes enything moysted with teares, although her ij. gentylwomen, mistress Elizabeth Tylney and mistress Eleyn, wonderfully wept, with a boke in hir hande, wheron she praied all the way till she cam to the saide scaffolde, wheron when she was mounted, &c.

So far, our Diarist's narrative of this judicial tragedy has been adopted, somewhat abridged, by Stowe and Holinshed. The latter chronicler then proceeds thus (copying Grafton), "Whereon when she was mounted, this noble young ladie, as she was indued with singular gifts both of learning and knowledge, so was she as patient and mild as any lambe at hir execution, and a little before hir death uttered these words," (then giving her address to the people assembled). Whether our Diarist's conclusion," when she was mounted, &c."was intended to lead on to some other paper, written by himself or another, it is impossible to decide; but it seems not very improbable that he was also the writer of the account of the lady Jane's execution, which begins with the same words, and which was originally published in a small black-letter pamphleta entitled,

The Ende of the lady Jane Dudley, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, upon the scaffolde, at the houre of her death.

First, when she mounted upon the scaffolde, she sayd to the people standing thereabout: "Good people, I am come hether to die, and by a lawe I am condemned to the same. The facte, in dede, against the quenes highnesse was unlawfull, and the consenting thereunto by meb but touching the procurement and desyre therof by me or on my halfe, I doo wash my handes thereof in innocencie, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day," and therewith she wrong [Note. wrung] her handes, in which she had hir booke. Then she sayd, "I pray you all, good Christian people, to beare me witnesse that I dye a true Christian woman, and that I looke to be saved by none other meane, but only by the mercy of God in the merites of the blood of his only sonne Jesus Christ: and I confesse, when I dyd know the word of God I neglected the same, loved my selfe and the world, and therefore this plague or punyshment is happely and worthely happened unto me for my sins; and yet 1 thank God of his goodnesse that he hath thus geven me a tyme and respet to repent. And now, good people, while I am alyve, I pray you to assyst me with your prayers."a2 And then, knelyng downe, she turned to Fecknamb2, saying, "Shall I say this psalme?" And he said, "Yea." Then she said the psalme of Miserere mei Deus in English, in most devout maner, to the end. Then she stode up, and gave her maiden mistris Tilneyc her gloves and handkercher, and her book to maister Brugesd, the lyvetenantes brother; forthwith she untyed her gown.

The hangman went to her to help her of therewith; then she desyred him to let her alone, turning towardes her two gentlewomen, who helped her off therwith, and also with her frose paasta3 and neckercher, geving to her a fayre handkercher to knytte about her eyes.

Then the hangman kneeled downe, and asked her forgevenesse, whome she forgave most willingly. Then he willed her to stand upon the strawe: which doing, she sawe the block. Then she sayd,

"I pray you dispatch me quickly." Then she kneeled down, saying, "Wil you take it of before I lay me downe?" and the hangman answered her, "No, madame." She tyed the kercher about her eys; then feeling for the blocke, saide, "What shall I do? Where is it?" One of the standers-by guyding her therunto, she layde her heade down upon the block, and stretched forth her body and said: "Lorde, into thy hands I commende my spirite!" And so she ended.

Note a. This is here copied from a reprint edited by the Rev. John Brand in the 13th volume of the Archaeologia. I have not been able to find a copy of the original. It was incorporated into the narratives of Grafton and Foxe, with some variations, which will be noticed in the ensuing notes.

Note b. Holinshed has amplified this into the following more explicit statement: "My offence agaynst the queenes highnesse was onely in consent to the device of other, which nowe is deemed treason; but it was never my seeking, but by counsell of those who shoulde seeme to have further understanding of things than I, which knewe little of the lawe, and much lesae of the tytles to the crowne."

Note a2. Another report of "lady Jane Dudley's speech on the scaffold," somewhat more verbose but not so impressive, is printed in Nicolas's Remains, &c. p. 52.

Note b2. This circumstance, that Feckenham (the new dean of St. Paul's) was attendant upon her, is suppressed by Grafton, but preserved by Foxe.

Note c. Altered by Grafton, &c. to "her mayden (called mystresse Eleyn)" that is, her other female attendant.

Note d. Grafton altered this "to mayster Bruges, then lieutenant of the Tower;" and Foxe says, "maister Bruges" only. The book is supposed to have been the same manual of English prayers which is now preserved in the British Museum as the MS. Harl. 2342; and which contains the three following notes, the two former it will be perceived addressed to the duke of Suffolk, and the last to sir John Brydges:

Your lovyng and obedyent son wischethe unto your grace long lyfe in this world, with as muche joye and comforte as ever I wyshte to my selfe, and in the world to come joy everlasting. Your most humble son tel his death. G. DUDDELEY.

The Lorde comforte your grace, and that in his worde, whearin all creatures onlye are to be comforted. And thoughe it hathe pleased God to take away ij. of your children, yet thincke not, I most humblye beseach your grace, that you have loste them, but truste that we, by leasinge this mortall life, have wunne an immortal life. And I for my parte, as I have honoured your grace in this life, wyll praye for you in another life. Youre gracys humble doughter, JANE DUDDELEY.

Forasmutche as you have desired so simple a woman to wrighte in so worthye a booke, good mayster lieuftenaunte, therefore I shall as a frende desyre you, and as a Christian require you, to call uppon God to encline your harte to his lawes, to quicken you in his waye, and not to take the worde of trewethe utterlye oute of youre mouthe. Lyve styll to dye, that by deathe you may purchase eternall life, and remembre howe the ende of Mathusael, whoe, as we reade in the scriptures, was the longeste liver that was of a manne, died at the laste: for, as the precher sayethe, there is a tyme to be borne, and a tyme to dye; and the daye of deathe is better than the daye of cure birthe. Youres, as the Lorde knowethe, as a frende, JANE DUDDELEY."

These passages (facsimiles of the first and last of which are engraved in "Autographs of Remarkable Persons," 4to. 1829, Pl. 19) were evidently written very shortly before the execution of the noble pair, as is shown by an expression in the lady Jane's address to her father; and there is every probability in sir Harris Nicolas's conjecture that this book was employed as the messenger to convey these assurances of duty and affection, when personal intercourse was denied. The duke of Suffolk was brought back to the Tower only two days before his daughter's decapitation, and it is possible that she was spared the additional pain of knowing how imminent his fate also was. From the passage addressed to the lieutenant, it would further appear that the book, "so worthye a booke," already belonged to him; if, therefore, it is the same which the lady Jane carried with her to the scaffold, she would place it in the hands of "maister Brydges" (whether the lieutenant or his brother) as returning it to its owner. In some accounts of the lady Jane's last moments it will be found stated that she gave a book to sir John Gage; this error, into which Mr. Howard in his Memoir has fallen, arises merely from a confusion of the constable with the lieutenant of the Tower, sir John Gage having been erroneously named as the lieutenant in the description of the manual in the Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. This interesting relic is a small square vellum book, now in modern binding.

Note a3. Sir Harris Nicolas (p. xci.) states that, after having taken considerable pains to ascertain the meaning of the article here named, he was inclined to coincide with a literary friend who suggested "Fronts-piece." Foxe, however, has it spelt "frowes past," which is probably "frow's paste," or matronly head-dress: the paste being a head attire worn by brides, as explained in the glossarial index to Machyn's Diary, p. 463. The term was thought probably too familiar, if not inapplicable, by Grafton, who altered it in his chronicle to "her other attyres."

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (age 18) was beheaded at Tower Green [Map] by order of Queen Mary I (age 37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip. Thus God performed a miracle. At present there is no other occupation than the cutting off of heads and inflicting exemplary punishments Jane of Suffolk (deceased), who made herself Queen, and her husband (deceased), have been executed; Courtenay (age 27) is in the Tower; and this very day we expect the Lady Elizabeth (age 20) to arrive here, who they say has lived loosely like her mother and is now with child.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 23 Feb 1554. 23 Feb 1554. Frydaye the 23 of February Lorde Gray, Duke of Suffolke (age 37), was beheaded at the Towerhill [Map].

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1554 Consecration of new Bishops

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Apr 1554. [The first day of April my lord chancellor (age 54) did consecrate six new bishops at St. Mary Overy's [Map], before the high altar; and a goodly mass was said. And when all] was done thay yede unto my lord ch[ancellor's,] for ther was as grett a dener as youe ha[ve seen.] Thes be the bysshopes names that wher consecrated, [doctor] Whyt (age 44), warden of Wynchastur, the bysshope of Ly[ncoln]; doctur Borne, bysshope of Bathe; doctur Morgan, bishop of sant Davys; doctur Brokes (age 41), bysshope of Gloss [ter]; doctur Cottes, bysshope of Westtchastur; bysshope of sant Asse changyd to be bysshope of Arfford; master [Griffith] (age 47) parsun of sant Magnus bysshope of Rochastur.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 01 Apr 1554. 01 Apr 1554. The first day of Aprill was consecrated at St. Marye Overies churche [Map] in Southwerke vi new Bishopps after the olde sorte, the Lord Chauncellor (age 54) and Bishop of Winchester (age 71) singinge the masse, the Bishop of London (age 54) and the Bishop of Durham (age 80) assistinge him.

On 01 Apr 1554 the Lord Chancellor Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London (age 54), assisted by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71), Bishop Nicholas Ridley (age 54) and Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 80), consecrated seven bishops at Southwark Cathedral [Map]:

Bishop George Cotes was consecrated Bishop of Chester.

Bishop Gilbert Bourne was consecrated Bishop of Bath and Wells.

Bishop James Brooks (age 41) was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester.

Bishop Maurice Griffiths (age 47) was consecrated Bishop of Rochester.

Bishop Henry Morgan was consecrated Bishop of St David's.

Bishop John White (age 44) was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton was consecrated Bishop of Hereford.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Wriothesley's Chronicle 21 Jul 1554. 21 Jul 1554. The xxith of Julie proclamation was made in London that all noblemen, gentlemen, ladies, ancJ other should repayre to the Cittie of Winchester, Hampshire [Map], there to doe their attendance at her graces marriage accordinge as they are appoynted. And that night were bonefyers made in everie parishe within the Cittie of London, with all the bells ringinge in everye parishe churche for the ioyfull tydinges of the Princes landinge in safetie.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 23 Jul 1554. 23 Jul 1554. The 23 of Julie the Prince of Spayne (age 27) came to Winchesterd about vi of the clock at night, accompanied with noblemen as well of England as of his owne countriea, with trumpetts blowinge and bells ringinge, and came to the Cathedrall [Map] churche, where he alighted. And there the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chauncellor (age 71), with 4 bishops more, with the priests, singinge-men, and children, receaved him with procession in riche copes and with iii crosses up into the quiere, where was a riche traves richlye hanged for him; and there he kneeled downe before the sacrament; and then the Lord Chauncellor began Te Deum, the organs playinge and the quier singinge the rest. This done he was brought out with torche light to his lodginge throughe the cloyster to the Deanes howsse, all the Queens garde standinge in their riche cotes all the waye. He was apparelled in a riche cote richlie imbroydered with goulde, and an hatt much like the same with a feather in it. The same night after he had supped, which was about x of the clock, certeyne of the Councell brought him to the Queen (age 38) by a secrett waye, where she receaved him right lovinglye and kissed him, and after halfe an howre they tooke their leave, eche kissinge the other, and so departed that night to his lodginge.

Note d. Philip lingered a few days at Southampton, where he disembarked, as if in order to ascertain the humour of the nation, as one of his ambassadors, the Count of Egmont (age 31), had been recently violently assaulted by the populace, who mistook him for his master.

Note a. He came well attended with a bodyguard and troops.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 25 Jul 1554. The 25 of Julie [1554], beinge Weddensdaye and St. James dayea, about xi of the clocke the Kinge (age 27) and Queene (age 38) came from their lodgings towardes the churche all the way on foote, verie richelye apparelled in gownes of cloth of golde sett with riche stones, he with his gentle-men and garde and she with hers, eche of them havinge a sworde borne before them, the Earle of Darbye (age 45) bearinge the sworde before her Maiestie, and the Earle of Pembroke (age 53) before the Kinge; and when they were come into the churche he went into one traveys and the Queen to another richlye hunge, where they were shriven. This done they came forth of their traveys to the place appoynted for the marriage, where the Lord Chauncellor (age 71), beinge before with 5 other bishops assistinge him, used all thinges, both in the banes-byddinge and otherwise, as hath bene in all marriages of olde tyme, and spake it both in Latin and in Englishe, her Grace on the right syde standinge and the King on the left syde. Her marriage ringe was a rownd hoope of gould without anye stone, which was her desire, for she sayde she would be married as maydens were in the olde tyme, and so she was.

After the marriage knott thus knitt the King and Queen came hand in hand under a riche canopie, beinge borne over them with 6 knightes and 2 swordes before them, all the lordes both Englishe and strangers richelye apparelled goeinge afore them, the trumpetts then blowinge tyll they came into the quier, where all the priestes and singinge men all in riche copes began to singe a psalme used in marriages, the King and Queen kneelinge awhile before the aulter, eche of them havinge a taper afore them; then after her Majestic went into her traveys on the right syde, and the King into another on the left syde; after the gospell they came owt and kneeled before the alter openlye all the masse tyme, and the care-cloth was holden ouer them; and he kissed the bishopp at the Agnus and then her Majestie. The masse done the Kinge of Herroldes openlye in the churche, and in presence of the King, the Queen, the lordes and ladies, and all the people, solemnlye proclay'med their Maiesties Kinge and Queene, with their title and style, in manner as followeth:

Philippe and Marie, by the grace of God Kinge and Queene of The Kinge and Englande, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Irelande, Defenders of the Faythe, Princes of Spayne and Sicilie, Archdukes of Austriche, Dukes of Mylane, Burgundye, and Brabant, Countes of Aspurge,b Flaunders, and Tyrrole. Which proclamation ended, the trumpetts blue and other noyses playde. And then the Kinge and Queene came furthe hand in hand, with their lordes, ladies, and gentlemen way tinge on them, and 2 swordes borne afore them in manner aforesayde; and so went on foote to the courte, and there dined openlye in the hall, both together at one table.

Note a. The feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Note b. Haspurgi, Hapsburg.

On 25 Jul 1554 Prince Philip of Spain (age 27) and Queen Mary (age 38) were married by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71) at Winchester Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland and Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England. He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 54) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John Gage (age 74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1554 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1554. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, her grace (age 38) whent unto the chapell and whent a prossessyon with all the kynghtes of the garter that was ther pressent [to St.] James in the Feld; ther wher creatyd the sam day knights of the garter, the prynsse of Spayne (age 26) one, and the yerle of Sussex (age 47).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 05 Aug 1554. 05 Aug 1554. Sundaye 5 August the King (age 27) was stalled in Windsore of the noble order of the Garter, and there kept St. George's feast in his royall estate himselfe; where was kept a great feast. And the Earle of Sussex (age 47) was made knight of the Garter at that tyme allso.

On 23 Aug 1554 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38) created her new husband (age 27) and the Earl of Sussex Garter Knights:

331st Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 27).

332nd Henry Radclyffe 2nd Earl of Sussex (age 47).

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Protestant Executions

On 20 Jan 1555 the statutes for burning heretics, originally enacted in 1401 to repress Lollardism, De heretico comburendo, and repealed in 1547, was re-enacted by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38) to provide for the burning of Protestants.

The burning of Protestants wasn't new. During the reign of King Henry VIII sixty-three Protestants had been burned over a period of sixteen years. During the reign of Queen Mary, however, two-hundred and eighty four were burned in three and a half years.

Two days later Henry Machyn describes in his diary: "whent in-to Smythfeld to berne betwyn vij and viij in the mornyng v men and ij women

In a number of cases burnings were posthumous ie bodies were exhumed and burned.

Thereafter burning take place on a regular basis, weekly, at various places around the country, and continued for the whole of Queen Mary's reign, with the last being two days before Mary's death. Executions continued in Queen Elizabeth's reign albeit at a much reduced rate.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. 04 Feb 1555. Now when the time came, that he, being delivered to the sheriffs, should be brought out of Newgate [Map] to Smithfield [Map], the place of his execution, first came to him Master Woodroofe, one of the aforesaid sheriffs, and calling Master Rogers (age 50) unto him, asked him if he would revoke his abominable doctrine, and his evil opinion of the sacrament of the altar. Master Rogers (age 50) answered and said, "That which I have preached I will seal with my blood." "Then," quoth Master Woodroofe, "thou art a heretic." "That shall be known," quoth Rogers, "at the day of judgment." "Well," quoth Master Woodroofe, "I will never pray for thee." "But I will pray for you," quoth Master Rogers: and so was brought the same day, which was Monday the fourth of February, by the sheriffs towards Smithfield, saying the psalm Miserere by the way, all the people wonderfully rejoicing at his constancy, with great praises and thanks to God for the same. And there, in the presence of Master Rochester, comptroller of the queen's household, Sir Richard Southwell (age 52), both the sheriffs, and a wonderful number of people, the fire was put unto him; and when it had taken hold both upon his legs and shoulders, he, as one feeling no smart, washed his hands in the flame, as though it had been in cold water. And, after lifting up his hands unto heaven, not removing the same until such time as the devouring fire had consumed them - most mildly this happy martyr yielded up his spirit into the hands of his heavenly Father. A little before his burning at the stake, his pardon was brought, if he would have recanted, but he utterly refused. He was the first protomartyr of all the blessed company that suffered in Queen Mary's time, that gave the first adventure upon the fire. His wife and children, being eleven in number, and ten able to go, and one sucking on her breast, met him by the way as he went towards Smithfield. This sorrowful sight of his own flesh and blood could nothing move him; but that he constantly and cheerfully took his death, with wonderful patience, in the defence and quarrel of Christ's gospel.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. 08 Feb 1555. The next day, which was the eighth of February, he was led to the place of execntion in the park without the city, going in an old gown and a shirt, barefooted, and ofttimes fell flat on the ground, and prayed. When he was come nigh to the place, the officer appointed to see the execution done, said to Master Saunders, that he was one of them which marred the queen's realm with false doctrine and heresy, "wherefore thou hast deserved death," quoth he; "but yet, if thou wilt revoke thine heresies, the queen hath pardoned thee: if not, yonder fire is prepared for thee." To whom Master Saunders answered, "It is not I, nor my fellow preachers of God's truth, that have hurt the queen's realm, but it is yourself, and such as you are,which have always resisted God's holy word; it is you which have and do mar the queen's realm. I do hold no heresies; but the doctrine of God, the blessed gospel of Christ, that hold I; that believe I; that have I taught; and that will I never revoke." With that, this tormentor cried, "Away with him." And away from him went Master Saunders with a merry courage towards the fire. He fell to the ground, and prayed: he rose up again, and took the stake to which he should be chained in his arms, and kissed it, saying, "Welcome the cross of Christ! welcome everlasting life!" and being fastened to the stake, and fire put to him, full sweetly he slept in the Lord.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. 09 Feb 1555. So it was determined, at length, he should still remain in Robert Ingram's house; and the sheriffs, and the sergeants, and other officers did appoint to watch with him that night themselves. His desire was, that he might go to bed that night betimes, saying, that he had many things to remember: and so he did at five of the clock, and slept one sleep soundly, and bestowed the rest of the night in prayer. After he got up in the morning, he desired that no man should be suffered to come into the chamber, that he might he solitary till the hour of execution.

About eight o'clock came Sir John Bridges, Lord Chandos (age 62), with a great band of men, Sir Anthony Kingston (age 47), Sir Edmund Bridges (age 33), and other commissioners appointed to see execution done. At nine o'clock Master Hooper (age 60) was willed to prepare himself to be in a readiness, for the time was at hand. Immediately he was brought down from his chamber by the sheriffs, who were accompanied with bills, glaves, and weapons. When he saw the multitude of weapons, he spake to the sheriffs on this wise "Master Sheriffs," said he, "I am no traitor, neither needed you to have made such a business to bring me to the place where I must suffer; for if ye had willed me, I would have gone alone to the stake, and have troubled none of you all. Afterward, looking upon the multitude of people that were assembled, being by estimation to the number of seven thousand, (for it was market day, and many also came to see his behaviour towards death,) he spake unto those that were about him, saying, "Alas, why be these people assembled and come together? Peradventure they think to hear something of me now, as they have in times past; but, alas! speech is prohibited me. Notwithstanding, the cause of my death is well known unto them. When I was appointed here to be their pastor, I preached unto them true and sincere doctrine; and that, out of the word of God: because I will not now account the same to be heresy and untruth, this kind of death is prepared for me."

So he went forward, led between the two sheriffs (as it were a lamb to the place of slaughter) in a gown of his host's, his hat upon his head, and a staff in his hand to stay himself withal: for the pain of the sciatica, which he had taken in prison, caused him somewhat to halt. All the way being straitly charged not to speak, he could not be perceived once to open his mouth, but beholding the people all the way, which mourned bitterly for him, he would sometimes lift up his eyes towards heaven, and look very cheerfully upon such as he knew: and he was never known, during the time of his being amongst them, to look with so cheerful and rnddy a countenance as he did at that present. When he came to the place appointed where he should die, smilingly he beheld the stake and preparation made for him, which was near unto the great elm tree, over against the college of priests, where he was wont to preach. The place round about the houses and the boughs of the tree were replenished with people; and in the chamber over the college-gate stood the priests of the college.

Then kneeled he down (forasmuch as he could not be suffered to speak unto the people) to prayer, and beckoned six or seven times unto one whom he knew well, to hear the said prayer, to make report thereof in time to come, (pouring tears upon his shoulders and in his bosom,) who gave attentive ears unto the same; the which prayer he made upon the whole creed, wherein he continued the space of half an hour. Now, after he was somewhat entered into his prayer, a box was brought and laid before him upon a stool, with his pardon (or at least-wise it was feigned to be his pardon) from the queen, if he would turn. At the sight whereof he cried, "If you love my soul, away with it! if you love my soul, away with it!" The box being taken away, the Lord Chandos said, "Seeing there is no remedy, despatch him quickly." Master Hooper said, "Good my Lord, I trust your Lordship will give me leave to make an end of my prayers."


Within a space after, a few dry faggots were brought, and a new fire kindled with faggots, (for there were no more reeds,) and that burned at the nether parts, but had small power above, because of the wind, saving that it did burn his hair, and scorch his skin a little. In the time of which fire, even as at the first flame, he prayed, saying mildly and not very loud, (but as one without pains,) "O Jesus, the Son of David, have mercy upon me, and receive my soul!" After the second was spent. he did wipe both his eyes with his hands, and beholding the people, he said with an indifferent loud voice, "For God's love, good people, let me have more fire!"

And all this while his nether parts did burn; for the faggots were so few, that the flame did not burn strongly at his upper parts.

The third fire was kindled within a while after, which was more extreme than the other two: and then the bladders of gunpowder brake, which did him small good, they were so placed, and the wind had such power. In the which fire he prayed with somewhat a loud voice. "Lord Jesus, have mercy upon me; Lord Jesus, have mercy upon me: Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!" And these were the last words he was heard to utter. But when he was black in the mouth, and his tongue swollen, that he could not speak, yet his lips went till they were shrunk to the gums: and he knocked his breasts with his hands, until one of his arms fell off, and then knocked still with the other, what time the fat, water, and blood, dropped out at his fingers' ends, until by renewing of the fire his strength was gone, and his hand did cleave fast, in knocking, to the iron upon his breast. So immediately, bowing forwards, he yielded up his spirit.

Thus was he three quarters of an hour or more in the fire. Even as a lamb, patiently he abode the extremity thereof, neither moving forwards, backwards, nor to any side: but, having his nether parts burned, and his bowels fallen out, he died as quietly as a child in his bed. And he now reigneth as a blessed martyr, in the joys of heaven prepared for the faithful in Christ, before the foundations of the world: for whose constancy all Christians are bound to praise God.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Protestant Executions of Cardmaker and Warne

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 May 1555. The xxx day of May was burnt in Smythfeld [Map] master Cardmaker sum-tyme veker of sant Bryd and master Varren (age 29) clothworker dwellyng aganst sant Johns in Walbroke, an hupholster, and ys wyff behyng in [Newgate].

On 30 May 1555 two Protestants were burned at the stake at Smithfield [Map]:

John Cardmaker

John Warne (age 29)

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Banning of Protestant Books

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jun 1555. The xiiij day (of) Juin was a proclamassyon [that all] bokes shuld be broyth [brought] in of Luter, Tendalles, .... and Coverdals (age 67) and bysshope Cremer (age 65), and all shyche as .... shuys and all hereses bokes, and he that dyd nott [bring them] in with-in the xv days after shuld go to presun with-owt prysse, of what degre they be of.

Note. P. 90. Proclamation for bringing in heretical books. A printed copy of this, dated 13 June, is in the collection at the Society of Antiquaries: it is inserted in Foxe's Actes and Monuments, vol. iii. p. 271. Of its objects see also Strype, Mem. vol. iii. p. 250.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Attack on French Merchant Fleet

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1555. The xv day of August was a grett ffett on the see [fight on the sea] be-twyn the Frencmen and the Flemmyng, and ther wher dyvers of boyth partes slene, and boyth men and shypes and dyvers taken, and the goodes.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Consecrations

On 04 Sep 1555 Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London (age 55) consecrated an Archbishop and two Bishops at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]:

Archbishop Hugh Curwen (age 55) was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin.

Bishop James Turbeville was consecrated Bishop of Exeter.

Bishop William Glynne (age 51) was consecrated Bishop of Bangor.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Great Flood

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Sep 1555. The xxix day of September was the grettest rayn and fludes that ever was sene in England, that all low contreys was drounyd, and in dyver plasses boyth men and catell drounyd, and all the marssys, and sellers boyth of wyne and bere and alle and odur marchandysse, in London and odur plassys, drounyd; and the rayne begane after Bathellmuw-tyd telle sant Edwardes tyde, after not x days fayre....ij goodly whytt branchys and xij longe torchys .... stayffes torchys grett, and a c. mornars in blake, [xij poor] men and xij women, and all xxiiij in rosett gownes [and the] vomen raylles apon ther heds, and iiij gylt candyllstykes, with iiij grett tapurs and xx prestes and xx clarkes.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1555 Execution of Bishops

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Oct 1555. [The same day were burnt at Oxford for heresy doctor Latimer (age 68), late bishop of Worcester, and doctor Ridley (age 55),] late bysshope of London; [they were some] tyme grett prychers as ever was; and at ther bornyng dyd pryche doctur Smyth, sum-tyme the master of Vetyngtun colege (blank).

On 16 Oct 1555 Bishop Hugh Latimer (age 68) and Bishop Nicholas Ridley (age 55) were burned at the stake at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 66) was forced to watch.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, England Re-established as Catholic

On 12 Nov 1555 Queen Mary (age 39) re-established England as a Catholic country.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1556 Great Comet

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1556. The vij day of Marche be-gane the blassyng [star] at nyght, and yt dyd shutt owt fyre to grett [wonder] and marvell to the pepull, and contynud serten [nights].

Note. The blasyng star. This is recorded by Stowe to have appeared on the 4th March, and continued for twelve days (Summarie 1566); but in his chronicle 1580 he limits its continuance to five nights from the 6th to the 10th of March.

Note. P. 101. The blazing star which is noticed in this page, and of which Stowe's account has been quoted in p. 348, was calculated by Halley to have been the same comet which had before appeared in the year 1264, and which, having completed its presumed revolution of two hundred and ninety-two years, may be expected to appear again in the present year, 1848. The learned Fabricius described the comet of 1556 as of a size equal to half that of the moon. Its beams were short and flickering, with a motion like that of the flame of a conflagration or of a torch waved by the wind. It alarmed the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who, believing his death at hand, is said to have exclaimed "His ergo indiciis me mea fata vocant." This warning, it is asserted, contributed to the determination which the monarch formed, and executed a few months later, of resigning the imperial crown to his brother Ferdinand.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Execution of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1556. The xxj day of Marche was bornyd at Oxford doctur Cranmer (age 66), late archebysshope of Canturbere.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Dudley Plot against Mary I

In early 1556 Henry Dudley (age 29) attempted to replace Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 39) on the throne with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 22) to then marry her to Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 29).

On 14 Apr 1556 Anthony Kingston (age 48) died at Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map]. Possibly suicide. he had been implicated in the Dudley Plot against Mary I and was on his way from Gloucester to London when he died.

In May 1556 Edward St Lo (age 37) was imprisoned at the Fleet Prison [Map] for complicity in the Dudley Plot against Mary I.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Salisbury Execution of Protestant Martyrs

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. 24 Mar 1556. Those articles thus answered, (for their articles were one, and their answers in manner like,) the chancellor read their condemnation, and so delivered them to the sheriff: Then spake John Spicer, saying; "O Master Sheriff, now must you be their butcher, that you may be guilty also with them of innocent blood before the Lord." This was the twenty-hird day of March, anno 1556; and the twenty-fourth day of the same month they were carried out of the common gaol [Map] to a place betwixt Salisbury and Wilton, where were two posts set for them to be burnt at: which men coming to the place, kneeled down, and made their prayers secretly together; and then, being disclothed to their shirts, John Maundrel spake with a loud voice, "Not for all Salisbury;" which words men judged to be an answer to the sheriff, which offered him the queen's pardon if he would recant. And after that in like manner spake John Spicer, saying, "This is the joyfullest day that ever I saw." Thus were they three burnt at two stakes; where most constantly they gave their bodies to the fire, and their souls to the Lord, for testimony of his truth.

Note. Tradition suggests they were burned at the location of the Spike, indicating a stake or, subsequently, a gallows, indicated 'S' bottom left on John Speed's map of 1611.

On 24 Mar 1556 Protestant Martyrs Willam Coberley, John Maundrel and John Spicer were burned at the stake in Salisbury Marketplace, Wiltshire [Map].

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, 1557 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1557. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant Gorge('s) day [the King's (age 29)] grace whent a pressessyon in ys robes of the garter; lord Talbott (age 29) bare the sword a-for the Kyng, and master (blank) bare the rod; and doctur (blank) bare the boke of the record; and the bysshope of Wynchaster (age 47) ware ys myter, and song masse that day; and x knyghtes of the Garter be-syd the Kyng; and secretere Peter ware a robe of cremesun velvett with the Garter; and after the Kyng and odur lordes and knyghtes of the garter whent to evyngsong; and ther was the duke of Muskovea was in chapell at evyngsong, and after he whent and toke ys barge and whent to London, and after wher iij knyghtes of the garter chossen, furst my lord F(itz)uater (age 32), my lord Gray of Wylton (age 48), and ser Robart Rochaster (age 63); thes iij wher mad of the order.

On 23 Apr 1557 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 41) appointed three new Garter Knights:

337th Thomas Radclyffe 3rd Earl of Sussex (age 32).

338th William Grey 13th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 48).

339th Robert Rochester (age 63).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 May 1557. The sam after-non was chossen iij knyghtes of the garter, my lord Fuwwater depute of Yrland (age 32), my lord Gray (age 48) depute of Gynes, and ser Robart Rochaster (age 63) comtroller of the quen('s) howsse the iij. And after cam the duwcke of Muskovea cam thrugh the halle, and the gard stod in a-ray in ther ryche cottes with halbardes, and so up to the quen('s) chambur, and dyvers althermen and marchandes; and after cam downe a-gayne to the chapell to evyngsong, and contenent cam the Kyng (age 30) and the knyghtes of the garter to evyngsong; and when that evyngsong was down cam the Kyng and the knyghtes up to the chambur of presens; and after cam the duke of Muskovea, and toke ys barge to London, and that tyme my lord Strange bare the sword to evyngsong.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. Apr 1557. The (blank) day of Aprell suffered dethe in [several] plases in the Northe for entrying in-to Sk[arborough] castyll [Map], (for) the wyche at London master Thomas [Stafford] (age 24) was heddyd on Towre hylle [Map]; and at Tyborne [Map] John Procter aleas Wylliamsun, Wyllyam Stowe, John Bradford, and more in dyvers plases; [in York]shyre, John Wylborne, Clement Tyllyd, John Cawsewelle, and Robart Hunter, at York, [by the] dethe of hangyng, drahyns, and quarter[ing].

On 25 Apr 1557 Thomas Stafford (age 24) sailed from Dieppe with two ships and over 30 men. He took Scarborough Castle [Map] and declared himself Protector of the Realm.

On 28 Apr 1557 Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 32) retook Scarborough Castle [Map] and captured the rebels.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 May 1557. The ij day of May dyd pryche at Powlles crosse [Map] dyd pryche docthur Chadsay, and mad a godly sermon, and ther he declaryd that serten trayturs that was taken at Skarborow castyll [Map], the wyche they fled over the see a-for ....

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 May 1557. [The iij day of May came five persons to the Tower [Map], the chief of those that had taken the] castylle of Skarborow [Map] in Yorke-shyre, [viz. Stafford (age 24), Saund]urs, Seywelle, and Prowtter, and a Frenche man.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 May 1557. The xxv day of May was raynyd at Westmynster one, a Frenche man, that was taken at Skarborow when that Thomas Stafford (age 24) was taken with ys adherentes, and cast to dee, and so cared to the Towre agayn.

Note. P. 135. Scarborough castle. Strype in his Memorials, vol. iii. Appen. lxxiii. has printed "the Names of the Prisoners taken in Scarborowe Castell the 28th of Apryll, An. 1557." Five were committed to the Tower of London, and twenty-seven remained in York Castle.

Note. Pp. 135, 136. Death and Funeral of sir Jaques Granado. He was a native of Brabant: having distinguished himself in the campaign in Scotland in 1547 (Holinshed, 1st edit. p. 1620), he was one of the knights made at its close by the duke of Somerset at Berwick, Sept. 28. (Ibid. p. 1633). An annuity of 50l. was granted March 10, 1549-50, to sir Jaques Granado and Magdalen his wife, and to the longer liver: see the patent printed in Rymer, xv. 210. He appears to have filled the office of equerry or some similar post, as in Oct. 1551, he had a passport to conduct sixteen horses sent by Edward VI. to the French king. His widow "Mawdelyn" became the second wife of sir Robert Chester, and his daughter Katharine was married to Edward Chester, sir Robert's son and heir. (MS. Harl. 897, f. 55b.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 May 1557. The xxix day of May was the iiij heds sett upon London bryge, and ther xvj quarters sett up, iij and ij, on evere gatt of London; the sam mornyng was Thomas Stafford('s) (deceased) body quartered.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 May 1577. [The xxviij day of May Thomas Stafford was beheaded on Tower hill [Map], by nine of the clock, master Wode being his] gostly father; and after ther wher iij more [drawn from the To] wre, and thrugh London unto Tyburne [Map], and ther [they were] hangyd and quartered; and the morow after was master [Stafford] quartered, and hangyd on a care, and so to Nuwgatt to [boil.]

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Death of Anne of Cleves

On 16 Jul 1557 Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 41) died at Chelsea Manor [Map]. She was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map] on 03 Aug 1557. She was the last of Henry VIII's six wives to die having outlived him by ten years.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Battle of St Quentin

On 10 Aug 1557 or 15 Aug 1557 Jean Bourbon Count Soissons and Enghien (age 29) was killed at the Battle of St Quentin. His brother Louis Bourbon Prince Condé (age 27) succeeded Count Soissons 1367.

On 10 Aug 1557 Henry Dudley (age 26) was killed at the Battle of St Quentin.

On 10 Aug 1557 Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 30) fought being Captain-General of the cavalry at St Quentin during the Battle of St Quentin.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Aug 1557. The xiiij day of August cam tydynges from beyond the see that the Kyng (age 30) our master had taken mony nobull men of France gohyng to vetell Sant Qwynten, the constabull of Fransse and a vj m. presonares taken, and vj .. cartes and wagens laden with tresur and vetell, at a plasse callyd Sant Qwynten, and ther my lord Hare Dudley (deceased) was slayn at the wynnyng of ytt.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1557. The sam day at nyght cam commondement that evere chyrche in London, and oder contrey and shyre, to syng and make bonfeyrs for the wynnynge of Sant Qwynten; and ther was slayn my lord Hare Dudley (deceased) the yonger sone of the duke of Northumberland that was he[aded,] with mony mo, at the wynnyng of yt.

Note. P. 150. Death of lord Harry Dudley. Fourth son of John duke of Northumberland. He was condemned at the time of the ruin of his family, (see p. 48,) but pardoned by the queen. He married Margaret only daughter of lord chancellor Audley; and, leaving no issue, his widow became the second wife of Thomas fourth duke of Norfolk, and from this match descend the earls of Suffolk and Carlisle. The duke's former lady had expired just before the death of lord Henry Dudley, and their surviving partners intermarried before the end of the year. The duchess Margaret died at Norwich Jan. 9, 1563-4. (See lord Braybrooke's History of Audley End, 1836, 4to. pp. 27, 296.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Sep 1557. The xix day of September cam a commondement downe to all parryche(s) in London that they shuld go in prossessyon at Powlles, and Te Deum laudamus songe; all the chyrches in London to synge, and rynge for wynnynge of Perro [Note. Assumed to be a reference to John Perrot (age 28) who fought at the Battle of St Quentin] in Franse and odur plasses.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Nov 1557. [The xviij day of November died the lord Bray, within the Black-friars, near Ludgate]; the wyche he gatt ys deth [at St. Quintin's.]

On 19 Nov 1557 John Braye 2nd Baron Braye died from wounds received at the Battle of St Quentin without issue. He was buried at Chelsea Old Church. Baron Braye abeyant between his six sisters inherited. The abeyance would be terminated in 1839 in favour of Sarah Otway-Cave 3rd Baroness Braye a descendant of his sister Elizabeth Braye (age 56).

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Surrender of Calais

On 07 Jan 1558 the English surrendered Calais to the French following a one week siege. It had been in English hands since 1347. At 6am Thomas Wentworth (age 33), Governor of Calais, surrendered Calais [Map] to François de Lorraine-Guise, 2nd Duke of Guise (age 38), after a seven-day siege. Calais was the last English owned territory in France. The loss was a huge blow for Queen Mary I (age 41) and it is said that upon hearing the news she stated "When I am dead and opened, you shall find 'Philip' and 'Calais' lying in my heart" although the source for this is unknown.

Edward Grimston (age 50) was captured and imprisoned at the Bastille [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jan 1558. [The x day of January heavy news came to En]gland, and to London, thatt the Fre[nch had won] Cales [Map], the wyche was the hevest tydy[ngs to London] and to England that ever was hard of, for lyke a trayter yt was sold and d[elivered unto] them the (blank) day of January; the duke of Guise (age 38) was cheyff capten, and evere man dyschargyd the town.

Note. Pp. 162, 163. Soldiers sent to Calais. The several parishes of the counties where musters took place were obliged to send their quota. Thus the churchwardens of St. Margaret's Westminster paid "for setting owt of soldyers the vijth day of January as apperethe by a bylle, iiijli. viijs. vijd. ob." "Item, for settyng forthe fyve soldyers to Portismothe the last yere of quene Mary xxxiijs. iiijd."

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France

On 24 Apr 1558 Dauphin of France (age 14) and Mary Queen of Scots (age 15) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map]. He by marriage King Consort Scotland. She the daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland (age 42). He the son of King Henry II of France (age 39) and Catherine Medici Queen Consort France (age 39). They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Death of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Nov 1558. The xvij day of November be-twyn v and vj in the mornyng ded quen Mare (age 42), the vj yere of here grace('s) rayne, the wyche Jhesu have mercy on her solle! Amen.

On 17 Nov 1558 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 42) died at St James's Palace [Map]. Her half sister Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) succeeded I Queen England. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 31) was deputed with informing Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 31).

Thomas Wendy (age 58) attended the Queen as physician; the third monarch's death he attended.

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Funeral of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1558. [The xiij day of December, the corpse of the late Queen (deceased) was brought from St. James's, in a cha]rett, with the pyctur of emages [images] lyke [her person], adorned with cremesun velvett and her crowne on her hed, her septer on her hand, and mony goodly rynges on her fyngers; up the he-way [went] formett [foremost] [the] standard with the Faucon and [the Hart]; then cam a grett compene of morners; and after anodur godly standard of the Lyon and the Faucon; and then her houshold servandes, ij and ij together, in blake gownes, [the] haroldes rydyng to and fro to se them go in order; and after cam the iij standard with the Whyt Grahond and the Faucon; and then cam gentyllmen in gownes, morners; and then cam rydyng sqwyrs, bayryng of baners of armes; and then cam my lord marques of Wynchester (age 75) on hors-bake, bayryng the baner of the armes of England in-brodered with gold; and then cam after Chester the harold (age 60), baryng the helm and the crest and mantyll; then cam master Norroy (age 48), bayryng the targett with the garter and the crowne; and then cam master Clarenshus (age 48) bayreng the sword and after cam Garter (age 48), bayryng her cot-armur, on hors-bake they all; and baners borne abowt her, with knyghts, lords, and baners a-bowt the corse; with iiij harolds bayryng on horss-bake iiij whyt baners of santes wroth with fyne gold, master Samersett, master Lanckostur, master Wyndsor, and master Yorke; and then cam the corse, with her pyctur lyung over her, and the corse covered with cloth of gold, the crosse sylver, and then cam iij (blank) with the cheyff morners; and then lades rydyn, alle in blake, trapyd to the grond; and the charett that the quen was in rode the pages of honor with baners in ther handes; and a-for the corse her chapell, and after all the monkes, and after the bysshopes in order; and so by Charyng-crosse to Westmynster abay; and at the grett dore of the chyrche evere body dyd a-lykt of ther horse; and then was gentyll-men rede [ready] to take the quen owt of her charett, and so erles and lordes whent afor her grace to the herse ward, with her pyctur borne betwyn men of worshype; and at the cherche dore met her iiij byshopes, and the abbott (age 43), mytered, in copes, and sensyng the body; and so she lay all nyght under the herse, and her grace was wachyd. [And there were an hundred poor men in good black gowns] bayryng longe torchys, with [hoods on their heads, and arms] on them; and a-bowt her the gard bayryng [staff-torches] in blake cottes; and all the way chandlers [having] torchys, to gyffe them that had ther torchys [burnt out].

Note. P. 182. Funeral of queen Mary. The ceremonial is in the College of Arms, I. 14, ff. 19—30, and again in ff. 202—214; and the painters' charges at f. 198.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Dec 1558. The xiiij day of Desember [was] the quen('s) (deceased) masse; and [all the lords] and lades, knyghtes and gentyll women, dyd offer. [And there was] a man of armes and horse offered; and her cotarmur, and sword, and targett, and baner of armes, and iij [standards]; and all the haroldes abowt her; and ther my lord bysshope of Wynchester (age 48) mad the sermon; and ther was offered cloth of gold and welvet, holle pesses, and odur thynges. [After the] masse all done, her grace was cared up [to the chapel [Map]] the kyng Henry the vij byldyd, with bysshopes [mitred;] and all the offesers whent to the grayffe [grave], and after [they] brake ther stayffes, and cast them in-to the grayffe; in the mayn tyme the pepull pluckt [down] the cloth, evere man a pesse that cold caycth [catch] [it,] rond a-bowt the cherche, and the armes. And after[wards,] my lord bysshope of Yorke (age 57), after her grace was [buried,] he declaryd an colasyon [collation], and as sone as he had made an end, all the trumpetes bluw a blast, and so the cheyff morners and the lords and knyghtes, and the bysshopes, with [the] abbott (age 43), whent in-to the abbay to dener, and all the offesers of the quen('s) cott [court].

2nd Millennium, 16th Century Events, 1553-1558 Queen Mary, Second Act of Supremacy

After 17 Nov 1558 the Second Act of Supremacy re-instated Elizabeth, and her heirs, as Supreme Head of the Church of England (after had rescinded the original act of her father of 1553).