2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration

1660-1684 Restoration is in 17th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

On 13 Feb 1660 Charles Gustav X King Sweden (age 37) died. His son Charles XI King Sweden (age 4) succeeded XI King Sweden.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1660. At the same time in comes Mr. Wade and Mr. Sterry, secretary to the plenipotentiary in Denmark, who brought the news of the death of the King of Sweden (deceased) at Gottenburgh the 3rd of the last month, and he told me what a great change he found when he came here, the secluded members being restored. He also spoke very freely of Mr. Wades profit, which he made while he was in Zeeland, how he did believe that he cheated Mr. Powell, and that he made above £500 on the voyage, which Mr. Wade did very angrily deny, though I believe he was guilty enough.Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Declaration of Breda

04 Apr 1660 The Declaration of Breda [Map], written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Convention Parliament

In 1659 John Bernard 2nd Baronet (age 28) was elected MP Huntingdon in the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 John Carew 3rd Baronet (age 24) was elected MP Cornwall during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 Edward Hungerford (age 27) was elected MP Chippenham during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 Robert Pierrepont (age 23) was elected MP Nottingham after the selected candidate John Hutchinson was evicted as a regicide.

In 1660 William Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby of Parham (age 44) was elected MP Midhurst during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 Robert Pye (age 40) was elected MP Berkshire during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 William Wyndham 1st Baronet (age 28) was elected MP Taunton during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 James Herbert (age 37) was elected MP Queenborough in the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew (age 36) was elected MP Brackley during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 Hender Robartes (age 24) was elected MP Bodmin during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 Robert Robartes (age 25) was elected MP Cornwall during the Convention Parliament.

In 1660 William Borlase (age 39) was elected MP Great Marlow in the Convention Parliament.

In Mar 1660 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 26) was elected MP Windsor during the Convention Parliament.

In Apr 1660 Wentworth Fitzgerald 17th Earl of Kildare (age 26) was elected MP East Retford during the Convention Parliament.

In Apr 1660 Robert Brooke (age 23) was elected MP Aldeburgh during the Convention Parliament.

In Apr 1660 Francis Bacon (age 59) was elected MP Ipswich in the Convention Parliament.

In Apr 1660 Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry (age 31) was elected MP Droitwich during the Convention Parliament.

In Apr 1660 Thomas Archer (age 41) was elected MP Warwickshire during the Convention Parliament.

In Apr 1660 William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) was elected MP Grimsby during the Convention Parliament.

On 25 Apr 1660 ...

Thomas Thynne (age 50) was elected MP Hindon.

Henry Carey 4th Viscount Falkland (age 26) was elected MP Oxfordshire.

Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 29) was elected MP Derbyshire.

John Glynne (age 58) was elected MP Caernarfonshire.

William Glynne 1st Baronet (age 22) was elected MP Caernarfon.

Francis Godolphin (age 54) was elected MP Heytesbury.

Richard Jennings (age 41) was elected MP St Albans.

In Aug 1660 Thomas Tomkins (age 55) was elected MP Weobley in the Convention Parliament.

Before 31 Aug 1660 John Drake 1st Baronet (age 35) was elected MP Bridport during the Convention Parliament.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Charles II Proclaimed

On 27 Apr 1660 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans (age 55) was created 1st Earl St Albans.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 May 1660. This day was his Majesty (age 29) proclaimed in London, etc.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1660. All the morning busy. After dinner come several persons of honour, as my Lord St. John (age 61) and others, for convoy to Flushing [Map], and great giving of them salutes. My Lord and we at nine-pins: I lost 9s. While we were at play Mr. Cook brings me word of my wife. He went to Huntsmore to see her, and brought her and my father Bowyer to London, where he left her at my father's (age 59), very well, and speaks very well of her love to me. My letters to-day tell me how it was intended that the King should be proclaimed to-day in London, with a great deal of pomp. I had also news who they are that are chosen of the Lords and Commons to attend the King. And also the whole story of what we did the other day in the fleet, at reading of the King's (age 29) declaration, and my name at the bottom of it. After supper some musique and to bed. I resolving to rise betimes to-morrow to write letters to London.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 May 1660. I stood in the Strand [Map] and beheld it, and blessed God. And all this was done without one drop of blood shed, and by that very army which rebelled against him: but it was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was never mentioned in any history, ancient or modern, since the return of the Jews from their Babylonish captivity; nor so joyful a day and so bright ever seen in this nation, this happening when to expect or effect it was past all human policy.

On 29 May 1660, his thirtieth birthday, King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) was restored II King England Scotland and Ireland.

John Evelyn 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Evelyn of Godstone. This is the first Baronetcy Charles II created following his Restoration indicating the high regard in which he held John Evelyn 1st Baronet (age 27) and the Evelyn family including John Evelyn (age 39).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 June Creation of Baronets

In Jun 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration ...

6th William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) and John Talbot of Lacock (age 29) were knighted.

7th Geoffrey Palmer 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Palmer of Carlton in Northampton

7th Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Bridgeman of Great Lever in Lancashire.

7th John Langham 1st Baronet (age 76) was created 1st Baronet Langham of Cottesbrooke in Northamptonshire.

11th Henry Wright 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Wright of Dagenham. Ann Crew Lady Wright by marriage Lady Wright of Dagenham.

13th Nicholas Gould 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Gould of the City of London.

14th Thomas Allen 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Allen of Totteridge in Middlesex.

18th Thomas Cullum 1st Baronet (age 73) was created 1st Baronet Cullum of Hastede in Suffolk.

19th Thomas Darcy 1st Baronet (age 28) was created 1st Baronet Darcy of St Osith's.

22nd Robert Cordell 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Cordell of Long Melford.

22nd John Robinson 1st Baronet (age 45) was created 1st Baronet Robinson of London. Anne Whitmore Lady Robinson (age 48) by marriage Lady Robinson of London.

25th William Bowyer 1st Baronet (age 47) was created 1st Baronet Bowyer of Denham Court. Margaret Weld Lady Bowyer (age 43) by marriage Lady Bowyer of Denham Court.

25th Thomas Stanley 1st Baronet (age 63) was created 1st Baronet Stanley of Alderley in Cheshire.

26th Jacob Astley 1st Baronet (age 21) was created 1st Baronet Astley of Hill Morton.

27th William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Wray of Ashby in Lincolnshire. Olympia Tufton Lady Ashby (age 36) by marriage Lady Wray of Ashby in Lincolnshire.

28th Oliver St John 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet St John of Woodford in Northamptonshire.

29th Ralph Delaval 1st Baronet (age 37) was created 1st Baronet Delaval of Seaton in Northumberland. Anne Leslie Lady Delaval by marriage Lady Delaval of Seaton in Northumberland.

30th Andrew Henley 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Henley of Henley in Somerset.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 July Creation of Peerages

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 August Creation of Baronets

In Aug 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 02 Aug 1660 Hugh Smithson 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Smithson of Stanwick in Yorkshire.

On 10 Aug 1660 Peter Leicester 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Leicester of Tabley in Cheshire. Elizabeth Gerard Lady Leicester by marriage Lady Leicester of Tabley in Cheshire.

On 11 Aug 1660 William wheler 1st Baronet 1611 1666 (age 49) was created 1st Baronet Wheler of the City of Westminster with a special remainder failing the heirs male of his body, "to Charles Wheeler (age 40) [rectius Wheler], cosin to the said Sir William and the heires males of the body of the said Sir Charles."

On 16 Aug 1660 Thomas Lee 1st Baronet (age 25) was created 1st Baronet Lee of Hartwell in Buckinghamshire.

On 16 Aug 1660 John Newton 1st Baronet (age 49) was created 1st Baronet Newton of Barrs Court.

On 16 Aug 1660 Thomas Smith 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Smith of Hatherton in Cheshire.

On 31 Aug 1660 John Drake 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Drake of Ashe in Devon. Dionise Strode Lady Drake by marriage Lady Drake of Ashe in Devon.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Indemnity and Oblivion Act

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Apr 1652. My brother George (age 34) brought to Sayes Court [Map] Cromwell's (age 52) Act of Oblivion to all that would submit to the Government.

On 29 Aug 1660 the Indemnity and Oblivion Act became law. The act was a general pardon for everyone who had committed crimes during the Civil War and Interregnum with the exception of certain crimes such as murder (without a licence granted by King or Parliament), piracy, buggery, rape and witchcraft, and people named in the act such as those involved in the regicide of Charles I.

Henry Mildmay (age 67) was excepted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act.

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 52) was exempted. In 1661 his Baronetcy was forfeit for life.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest man; he was Sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys (age 38), newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill [Map], on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's (age 60) study, pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been written before his Majesty's (age 53) Restoration, and then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.

Before 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was arrested. He was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. He was indicted on high treason by a Middlesex grand jury after charges were presented by the king's attorney general Sir Geoffrey Palmer (age 64) assisted by John Kelyng (age 54).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 September Creation of Peerages

In Sep 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded a further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 04 Sep 1660 John King 1st Baron Kingston was created 1st Baron Kingston of Kingston in Dublin.

On 05 Sep 1660 Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery (age 39) was created 1st Earl Orrery. Margaret Howard Countess Orrery (age 38) by marriage Countess Orrery.

On 05 Sep 1660 Oliver St George 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet St George of Carrickdrumrusk in Leitrim in the Peerage of England.

On 06 Sep 1660 Francis Boyle 1st Viscount Shannon (age 37) was created 1st Viscount Shannon. Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 38) by marriage Viscountess Shannon.

On 06 Sep 1660 Richard Coote 1st Baron Coote (age 40) was created 1st Baron Coote.

On 10 Sep 1660 Charles Gordon 1st Earl Aboyne (age 22) was created 1st Earl Aboyne.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Oct 1660. The regicides who sat on the life of our late King, were brought to trial in the Old Bailey, before a commission of oyer and terminer.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1660. Thus it was my chance to see the King beheaded at White Hall, and to see the first blood shed in revenge for the blood of the King at Charing Cross. From thence to my Lord's, and took Captain Cuttance and Mr. Sheply to the Sun Tavern, King Street, and did give them some oysters. After that I went by water home, where I was angry with my wife for her things lying about, and in my passion kicked the little fine basket, which I bought her in Holland, and broke it, which troubled me after I had done it. Within all the afternoon setting up shelves in my study. At night to bed.

On 13 Oct 1660 General Thomas Harrison (age 44) was hanged, drawn and quartered for his role in the regicide of King Charles I.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Oct 1660. Axtall (age 38), Carew (age 38), Clement (age 66), Hacker, Hewson [Note. Evelyn possibly wrong here since John Hewson died in 1662], and Peters (age 62), were executed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1660. Office all the morning. my wife and I by water; I landed her at Whitefriars, she went to my father's (age 59) to dinner, it being my father's (age 59) wedding day, there being a very great dinner, and only the Fenners and Joyces there. This morning Mr. Carew (age 38)1 was hanged and quartered at Charing Cross; but his quarters, by a great favour, are not to be hanged up.

Note 1. John Carew (age 38) signed the warrant for the execution of Charles I He held the religion of the Fifth Monarchists, and was tried October 12th, 1660. He refused to avail himself of many opportunities of escape, and suffered death with much composure.

On 16 Oct 1660 Hugh Peter (age 62) and John Cook (age 52) were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Oct 1660. Scot, Scroop (age 59), Cook (deceased), and Jones (age 63), suffered for reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross [Map], in sight of the place where they put to death their natural prince, and in the presence of the King (age 30) his son, whom they also sought to kill. I saw not their execution, but met their quarters, mangled, and cut, and reeking, as they were brought from the gallows in baskets on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous providence of God!

On 17 Oct 1660 Gregory Clement (age 66), Adrian Scrope (age 59), John Jones (age 63) and Thomas Scot were hanged, drawn and quartered at Charing Cross [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1660. Office in the morning. This morning my dining-room was finished with green serge hanging and gilt leather, which is very handsome. This morning Hacker and Axtell (age 38) were hanged and quartered, as the rest are. This night I sat up late to make up my accounts ready against to-morrow for my Lord. I found him to be above £80 in my debt, which is a good sight, and I bless God for it.

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn [Map] ...

Daniel Axtell (age 38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall [Map].

Francis Hacker was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 November Creation of Baronets

In Nov 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 08 Nov 1660 William Russell 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Russell of Laugherne in Carmarthenshire.

On 12 Nov 1660 John Cutler 1st Baronet (age 57) was created 1st Baronet Cutler of London.

On 21 Nov 1660 John Clotworthy 1st Viscount Massereene was created 1st Viscount Massereene, 1st Baron Lough Neagh, in the Irish peerage, with remainder in default of male heirs to his son-in-law. See Viscountcies of England Created with a Special Remainder.

On 21 Nov 1660 Thomas Foote 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Foote of London with a special remainder for title to revert on his death to his son-in-law, Arthur Onslow of West Clandon (age 36).

On 29 Nov 1660 John Wroth 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Wroth of Blenden Hall in Kent.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1660 December Creation of Baronets and Peerages

In Dec 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 03 Dec 1660 George Winn 1st Baronet (age 53) was created 1st Baronet Winn of Nostel in Yorkshire.

On 22 Dec 1660 John Keyt 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Keyt of Ebrington in Gloucestershire for having raised a troop of horse to fight in the Royalist cause.

On 24 Dec 1660 William Frankland 1st Baronet (age 20) was created 1st Baronet Frankland of Thirkleby in Yorkshire.

On 31 Dec 1660 ...

George Marwood 1st Baronet (age 59) was created 1st Baronet Marwood Little Busby in Yorkshire.

John Jackson 1st Baronet (age 29) was created 1st Baronet Jackson of Hickleton in Yorkshire.

James Livingston 1st Earl Newburgh (age 38) was created 1st Earl of Newburgh, 1st Viscount of Kinnaird with remainder to his heirs whatsoever.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

On 19 Jan 1661 Thomas Venner was hanged, drawn and quartered for his leading Venner's Uprising aka the Fifth Monarchists.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (age 50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), the Comptroller (age 50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Execution of Deceased Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (age 63) and thence to the Theatre [Map], where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (age 63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.

Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn [Map], and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".-Rugge's Diurnal.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty (age 30)), and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster [Map] among the Kings, to Tyburn [Map], and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (age 30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John (age 20), a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion. Then to my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn [Map]. Then I home1.

Note 1. "Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn [Map], and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails".-Rugge's Diurnal.

On 30 Jan 1661 the remains of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were exhumed from and mutilated in a posthumous execution.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1661. Washing-day. My wife and I by water to Westminster. She to her mother's and I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I found a full term, and here I went to Will's, and there found Shaw and Ashwell and another Bragrave (who knew my mother wash-maid to my Lady Veere), who by cursing and swearing made me weary of his company and so I went away. Into the Hall and there saw my Lord Treasurer (who was sworn to-day at the Exchequer, with a great company of Lords and persons of honour to attend him) go up to the Treasury Offices, and take possession thereof; and also saw the heads of Cromwell, Bradshaw, and Ireton, set up upon the further end of the Hall. Then at Mrs. Michell's in the Hall met my wife and Shaw, and she and I and Captain Murford to the Dog [Map], and there I gave them some wine, and after some mirth and talk (Mr. Langley coming in afterwards) I went by coach to the play-house at the Theatre [Map], our coach in King Street breaking, and so took another. Here we saw Argalus and Parthenia, which I lately saw, but though pleasant for the dancing and singing, I do not find good for any wit or design therein. That done home by coach and to supper, being very hungry for want of dinner, and so to bed.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

In early 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 02 Jan 1661 Henry Bedingfield 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Bedingfield of Oxburgh in Norfolk.

On 10 Jan 1661 Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was created 1st Baron Rutherford with special remainder to his heirs and assignees whatsoever, and that under what provisions, restrictions, and conditions the said Lord Rutherford should think fit.

On 23 Jan 1661 John Cole 1st Baronet (age 41) was created Baronet Cole of Newland.

On 23 Feb 1661 Edward Smythe 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Smythe.

On 04 Mar 1661 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet Reade of Barton in Berkshire. Mary Cornwall Lady Reade (age 31) by marriage Lady Reade of Barton in Berkshire.

On 10 Mar 1661 Brian Broughton 1st Baronet (age 42) was created 1st Baronet Broughton of Broughton in Staffordshire.

On 20 Mar 1661 Thomas Rich 1st Baronet (age 60) was created 1st Baronet Rich of Sonning in Berkshire.

On 29 Mar 1661 Robert Cholmondeley 1st Viscount Cholmondeley (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Cholmondeley of Kells in County Meath.

On 30 Mar 1661 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 50) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 30 Mar 1661 John Fettiplace 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire. Anne Wenman Lady Fettiplace (age 31) by marriage Lady Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1661. Among my workmen and then to the office, and after that dined with Sir W. Batten (age 60), and then home, where Sir W. Warren came, and I took him and Mr. Shepley and Moore with me to the Mitre [Map], and there I cleared with Warren for the deals I bought lately for my Lord of him, and he went away, and we staid afterwards a good while and talked, and so parted, it being so foul that I could not go to Whitehall to see the Knights of the Bath made to-day, which do trouble me mightily. So home, and having staid awhile till Will came in (with whom I was vexed for staying abroad), he comes and then I went by water to my father's, and then after supper to bed with my wife.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Apr 1661. To London, and saw the bathing and rest of the ceremonies of the Knights of the Bath, preparatory to the coronation; it was in the Painted Chamber [Map], Westminster. I might have received this honor; but declined it. The rest of the ceremony was in the chapel at Whitehall, when their swords being laid on the altar, the Bishop delivered them.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. But my pleasure was great to see the manner of it, and so many great beauties, but above all Mrs. Palmer (age 20), with whom the King do discover a great deal of familiarity. So Mr. Creed and I (the play being done) went to Mrs. Harper's, and there sat and drank, it being about twelve at night. The ways being now so dirty, and stopped up with the rayles which are this day set up in the streets, I would not go home, but went with him to his lodging at Mr. Ware's, and there lay all night.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. Was the splendid cavalcade of his Majesty (age 30) from the Tower of London to Whitehall, when I saw him in the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map] create six Earls, and as many Barons, viz:

Edward Lord Hyde, Lord Chancellor (age 52), Earl of Clarendon; supported by the Earls of Northumberland (age 58) and Sussex (age 14); the Earl of Bedford (age 44) carried the cap and coronet, the Earl of Warwick (age 46), the sword, the Earl of Newport (age 64), the mantle.

Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex.

Brudenell, Cardigan;.

Valentia, Anglesea;.

Greenvill, Bath;.

Howard, Earl of Carlisle.

The Barons were: Denzille Holles; Cornwallis; Booth; Townsend; Cooper; Crew; who were led up by several Peers, with Garter and officers of arms before them; when, after obedience on their several approaches to the throne, their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, which being received by the Lord Chamberlain (age 59), and delivered to his Majesty (age 30), and by him to the Secretary of State, were read, and then again delivered to his Majesty (age 30), and by him to the several Lords created; they were then robed, their coronets and collars put on by his Majesty (age 30), and they were placed in rank on both sides of the state and throne; but the Barons put off their caps and circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls keeping on their coronets, as cousins to the King (age 30).

I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several archtriumphals built in the streets at several eminent places through which his Majesty (age 30) was next day to pass, some of which, though temporary, and to stand but one year, were of good invention and architecture, with inscriptions.

Notes:

Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 29) was created 1st Earl Essex. Elizabeth Percy Countess Essex (age 25) by marriage Countess Essex.

Thomas Brudenell 1st Earl Cardigan (age 78) was created 1st Earl Cardigan. Mary Tresham Countess Cardigan by marriage Countess Cardigan.

Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Annesley (age 46) was created 1st Earl Anglesey, 1st Baron Annesley Newport Pagnell Buckinghamshire. Elizabeth Altham Countess Anglesey (age 41) by marriage Countess Anglesey.

John Granville 1st Earl Bath (age 32) was created 1st Earl Bath.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle (age 32) was created 1st Earl Carlisle.

Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles (age 61) was created 1st Baron Holles. Jane Shirley Baroness Holles by marriage Baroness Holles.

Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis (age 50) was created 1st Baron Cornwallis.

George Booth 1st Baron Delamer (age 38) was created 1st Baron Delamer. Elizabeth Grey Baroness Delamer (age 39) by marriage Baroness Delamer.

Horatio Townshend 1st Viscount Townsend (age 30) was created 1st Baron Townshend of Lynn Regis in Norfolk.

Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury (age 39) was created 1st Baron Ashley of Wimborne St Giles.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. KING'S GOING FROM YE TOWER TO WHITE HALL1. Up early and made myself as fine as I could, and put on my velvet coat, the first day that I put it on, though made half a year ago. And being ready, Sir W. Batten (age 60), my Lady, and his two daughters and his son and wife, and Sir W. Pen (age 39) and his son and I, went to Mr. Young's, the flag-maker, in Corne-hill2; and there we had a good room to ourselves, with wine and good cake, and saw the show very well.

Note 1. The king in the early morning of the 22nd went from Whitehall to the Tower by water, so that he might proceed from thence through the City to Westminster Abbey, there to be crowned.

Note 2. The members of the Navy Office appear to have chosen Mr. Young's house on account of its nearness to the second triumphal arch, situated near the Royal Exchange [Map], which was dedicated to the Navy.

On 22 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rode from the Tower of London [Map] to Whitehall Palace [Map]. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".

Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street [Map], that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.

At the Conduit in Cornhill [Map] a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.

The procession included the Duke of York (age 27), the Lord High Constable (age 58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (age 53).

The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. But, above all, was these three Lords, Northumberland (age 58), and Suffolk (age 42), and the Duke of Ormond (age 50), coming before the courses on horseback, and staying so all dinner-time, and at last to bring up [Dymock] the King's Champion, all in armour on horseback, with his spear and targett carried before him. And a Herald proclaims "That if any dare deny Charles Stewart to be lawful King of England, here was a Champion that would fight with him1;" and with these words, the Champion flings down his gauntlet, and all this he do three times in his going up towards the King's table. At last when he is come, the King drinks to him, and then sends him the cup which is of gold, and he drinks it off, and then rides back again with the cup in his hand.

Note 1. The terms of the Champion's challenge were as follows: "If any person of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay our Soveraigne Lord King Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, Sonne and next heire to our Soveraigne Lord Charles the First, the last King deceased, to be right heire to the Imperiall Crowne of this Realme of England, or that bee ought not to enjoy the same; here is his champion, who sayth that he lyeth and is a false Traytor, being ready in person to combate with him, and in this quarrell will venture his life against him, on what day soever hee shall be appointed".

On 23 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston (age 44), Francis Fane (age 23) and Edward Hungerford (age 28) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Francis Godolphin (age 55) was knighted.

Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland (age 16) attended.

James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 42) was appointed Earl Marshal.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (age 30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster [Map]; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (age 30) and his Nobility went to the Tower [Map], I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (age 34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (age 30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:

On 29 Apr 1661 William Godolphin 1st Baronet (age 21) was created 1st Baronet Godolphin.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Cavalier Parliament

In 1661 William Borlase (age 40) was elected MP Great Marlow in the Cavalier Parliament.

In 1661 Thomas Tomkins (age 56) was elected MP Weobley in the Cavalier Parliament which seat he held until his death in 1674.

In 1661 Edmund Pye 1st Baronet (age 54) was elected MP Wycombe in the Cavalier Parliament.

On 08 May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) summoned his second Parliament.

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston (age 44) was elected MP Wallingford.

James Thynne (age 56) was elected MP Wiltshire.

Adam Browne 2nd Baronet (age 35) was elected MP Surrey.

Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 30) was elected MP Northumberland.

William Compton (age 36) was elected MP Cambridge.

Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry (age 32) was elected MP Camelford.

Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury.

Edward Hungerford (age 28) was elected MP Chippenham.

Robert Pierrepont (age 24) was elected MP Nottingham.

John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 75) was elected MP Weymouth.

Giles Strangeways (age 45) was elected MP Dorset.

John Strangeways (age 24) was elected MP Bridport.

William Wyndham 1st Baronet (age 29) was elected MP Taunton.

James Herbert (age 38) was elected MP Queenborough.

William Alington 1st and 3rd Baron Alington (age 21) was elected MP Cambridge.

William Bowes of Streatlam (age 4) was elected MP Durham.

Robert Brooke (age 24) was elected MP Aldeburgh.

Josiah Child (age 30) was elected MP Dartmouth.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet (age 73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire.

Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew (age 37) was elected MP Brackley.

Richard Jennings (age 42) was elected MP St Albans.

Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet (age 33) was elected MP Norfolk.

Edward Phelips (age 48) was elected MP Somerset.

Robert Robartes (age 27) was elected MP Bossiney.

Hender Robartes (age 25) was elected MP Bodmin.

Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet (age 48) was elected MP Coventry.

William Portman 6th Baronet (age 17) was elected MP Taunton.

John Robinson 1st Baronet (age 46) was elected MP Rye.

In 1673 John Hobart 3rd Baronet (age 44) was elected MP Norfolk in the Cavalier Parliament which seat he held until Feb 1679.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1661 Creation of Baronets and Peerages by Charles II Post Coronation

In May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

10 May 1661 William Smyth 1st Baronet (age 45) was created 1st Baronet Smyth of Redcliff in Buckinghamshire.

18 May 1661 Robert Jenkinson 1st Baronet (age 40) was created 1st Baronet Jenkinson of Walcot in Oxfordshire and of Hawkesbury in Gloucestershire.

20 May 1661 William Glynne 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Glynne of Bicester aka Bisseter in Oxfordshire.

23 May 1661 Henry Ingram 1st Viscount Irvine (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Irvine.

In Jun 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

05 Jun 1661 James Clavering 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Clavering of Axwell in County Durham.

13 Jun 1661 Thomas Adams 1st Baronet (age 75) was created 1st Baronet Adams of London.

14 Jun 1661 Henry Moore 1st Earl Drogheda (age 39) was created 1st Earl Drogheda.

On 17 Jun 1661 ...

Godfrey Copley 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Copley Sprotborough.

Abraham Cullen 1st Baronet (age 37) was created 1st Baronet Cullen of East Sheen in Surrey.

James Rushout 1st Baronet (age 17) was created 1st Baronet Rushout of Northwick Park in Worcestershire aged only seveneteen.

William Stanley 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Stanley of Hooton in Cheshire. Charlotte Molyneux Lady Stanley by marriage Lady Stanley of Hooton in Cheshire.

Griffith Williams 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Williams of Penrhyn in Caernarfonshire.

18 Jun 1661 Thomas Vyner 1st Baronet (age 72) was created 1st Baronet Vyner of London.

18 Jun 1661 Henry Winchcombe 1st Baronet (age 18) was created 1st Baronet Winchcombe of Bucklebury in Berkshire.

26 Jun 1661 Theobald Taaffe 1st Earl Carlingford (age 58) was created 1st Earl Carlingford.

In Jul 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

10 Jul 1661 Christopher Guise 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Guise of Elmore in Gloucestershire.

16 Jul 1661 Philip Parker 1st Baronet (age 43) was created 1st Baronet Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk. Rebecca Long Lady Parker by marriage Lady Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk.

21 Jul 1661 Charles Hussey 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Hussey of Caythorpe in Lincolnshire.

21 Jul 1661 Edward Barkham 1st Baronet (age 31) was created 1st Baronet Barkham Waynflete.

25 Jul 1661 John Banks 1st Baronet (age 34) was created 1st Baronet Banks of London by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

In Aug 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

02 Aug 1661 Thomas Carew 1st Baronet (age 29) was created 1st Baronet Carew of Haccombe in Devon.

04 Aug 1661 John Chichester 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Chichester of Raleigh in Devon.

07 Aug 1661 Mark Milbanke 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Milbanke of Halnaby in Yorkshire. Elizabeth Acklom Lady Milbanke by marriage Lady Milbanke of Halnaby in Yorkshire.

17 Aug 1661 William Boyd 1st Earl Kilmarnock (age 15) was created 1st Earl Kilmarnock.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1662 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1662. Thence to the Hall, where I heard the House had ordered all the King's murderers, that remain, to be executed, but Fleetwood (age 44) and Downes (age 53).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1662 Great Storm

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1662. So home and to musique, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1662. All the morning at the office. At noon with Mr. Moore to the Coffee-house, where among other things the great talk was of the effects of this late great wind; and I heard one say that he had five great trees standing together blown down; and, beginning to lop them, one of them, as soon as the lops were cut off, did, by the weight of the root, rise again and fasten. We have letters from the forest of Deane, that above 1000 Oakes and as many beeches are blown down in one walk there. And letters from my father tell me of £20 hurt done to us at Brampton.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1662. This night my new camelott riding coat to my coloured cloth suit came home. More news to-day of our losses at Brampton by the late storm.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Dec 1661. I took leave of my Lord Peterborough (age 40), going now to Tangier, which was to be delivered to the English on the match with Portugal.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Before 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was arrested. He was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. He was indicted on high treason by a Middlesex grand jury after charges were presented by the king's attorney general Sir Geoffrey Palmer (age 64) assisted by John Kelyng (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock in the morning and upon business at my office. Then we sat down to business, and about 11 o'clock, having a room got ready for us, we all went out to the Tower-hill [Map]; and there, over against the scaffold, made on purpose this day, saw Sir Henry Vane (age 49) brought1. A very great press of people. He made a long speech, many times interrupted by the Sheriff and others there; and they would have taken his paper out of his hand, but he would not let it go. But they caused all the books of those that writ after him to be given the Sheriff; and the trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard. Then he prayed, and so fitted himself, and received the blow; but the scaffold was so crowded that we could not see it done. But Boreman, who had been upon the scaffold, came to us and told us, that first he began to speak of the irregular proceeding against him; that he was, against Magna Charta, denied to have his exceptions against the indictment allowed; and that there he was stopped by the Sheriff. Then he drew out his, paper of notes, and begun to tell them first his life; that he was born a gentleman, that he was bred up and had the quality of a gentleman, and to make him in the opinion of the world more a gentleman, he had been, till he was seventeen years old, a good fellow, but then it pleased God to lay a foundation of grace in his heart, by which he was persuaded, against his worldly interest, to leave all preferment and go abroad, where he might serve God with more freedom. Then he was called home, and made a member of the Long Parliament; where he never did, to this day, any thing against his conscience, but all for the glory of God. Here he would have given them an account of the proceedings of the Long Parliament, but they so often interrupted him, that at last he was forced to give over: and so fell into prayer for England in generall, then for the churches in England, and then for the City of London: and so fitted himself for the block, and received the blow. He had a blister, or issue, upon his neck, which he desired them not hurt: he changed not his colour or speech to the last, but died justifying himself and the cause he had stood for; and spoke very confidently of his being presently at the right hand of Christ; and in all, things appeared the most resolved man that ever died in that manner, and showed more of heat than cowardize, but yet with all humility and gravity. One asked him why he did not pray for the King (age 32). He answered, "Nay", says he, "you shall see I can pray for the King (age 32): I pray God bless him!" the King (age 32) had given his body to his friends; and, therefore, he told them that he hoped they would be civil to his body when dead; and desired they would let him die like a gentleman and a Christian, and not crowded and pressed as he was.

Note 1. Sir Harry Vane (age 49) the younger was born 1612. Charles (age 32) signed on June 12th a warrant for the execution of Vane by hanging at Tyburn [Map] on the 14th, which sentence on the following day "upon humble suit made" to him, Charles was "graciously pleased to mitigate", as the warrant terms it, for the less ignominious punishment of beheading on Tower Hill [Map], and with permission that the head and body should be given to the relations to be by them decently and privately interred.- Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii, 123.

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for treason against King Charles II (age 32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (age 32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1662. Coming home to-night, I met with Will. Swan, who do talk as high for the Fanatiques as ever he did in his life; and do pity my Lord Sandwich (age 36) and me that we should be given up to the wickedness of the world; and that a fall is coming upon us all; for he finds that he and his company are the true spirit of the nation, and the greater part of the nation too, who will have liberty of conscience in spite of this "Act of Uniformity", or they will die; and if they may not preach abroad, they will preach in their own houses. He told me that certainly Sir H. Vane (deceased) must be gone to Heaven, for he died as much a martyr and saint as ever man did; and that the King (age 32) hath lost more by that man's death, than he will get again a good while. At all which I know not what to think; but, I confess, I do think that the Bishops will never be able to carry it so high as they do.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1662 Montagu Chomeley Duel

Calendars. 18 Aug 1662. 59. -- to [Lord Conway]. Welcomes him to Dublin. Hopes he has received the tender of his brother Dering's service. The Doctors are both at Tunbridge, and are going to Italy. The writer's cousin, Hugh Cholmley (age 30), has fought a duel with Edward Montague (age 27), without harm, and Henry Jermyn (age 26) and Giles Rawlins against one of the Howards (age 31) and Lord Dillon's son; it was fought in St. James's Fields, Pall Mall, at 11am. Rawlins is slain, Jermyn (age 26) wounded, and the other two fled. The King intends to proclaim Tangiers a free port for five years. The London ministers who will not conform have parted from their congregations with great temper. Damaged.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1662. By and by to sit at the office; and Mr. Coventry (age 34) did tell us of the duell between Mr. Jermyn (age 26), nephew to my Lord St. Albans (age 57), and Colonel Giles Rawlins, the latter of whom is killed, and the first mortally wounded, as it is thought. They fought against Captain Thomas Howard (age 31), my Lord Carlisle's (age 33) brother, and another unknown; who, they say, had armour on that they could not be hurt, so that one of their swords went up to the hilt against it. They had horses ready, and are fled. But what is most strange, Howard sent one challenge, but they could not meet, and then another, and did meet yesterday at the old Pall Mall [Map] at St. James's, and would not to the last tell Jermyn what the quarrel was; nor do any body know. The Court is much concerned in this fray, and I am glad of it; hoping that it will cause some good laws against it.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1663 Blood's Plot

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1663. So home to supper and to bed. This day I hear at Court of the great plot which was lately discovered in Ireland, made among the Presbyters and others, designing to cry up the Covenant, and to secure Dublin Castle and other places; and they have debauched a good part of the army there, promising them ready money1. Some of the Parliament there, they say, are guilty, and some withdrawn upon it; several persons taken, and among others a son of Scott's, that was executed here for the King's murder. What reason the King (age 33) hath, I know not; but it seems he is doubtfull of Scotland: and this afternoon, when I was there, the Council was called extraordinary; and they were opening the letters this last post's coming and going between Scotland and us and other places. Blessed be God, my head and hands are clear, and therefore my sleep safe.

Note 1. This was known as "Blood's Plot", and was named after Colonel Thomas Blood (age 45), afterwards notorious for his desperate attack upon the Duke of Ormond (age 52) in St. James's Street (1670) and for his robbery of the crown jewels in the Tower (1671). He died August 24th, 1680.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1663 Battle of Ameixial

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1663. Up betimes and to my office, and by and by to the Temple [Map], and there appointed to meet in the evening about my business, and thence I walked home, and up and down the streets is cried mightily the great victory got by the Portugalls against the Spaniards, where 10,000 slain, 3 or 4,000 taken prisoners, with all the artillery, baggage, money, &c., and Don John of Austria (age 34)1 forced to flee with a man or two with him, which is very great news.

Note 1. He was natural son of Philip IV., King of Spain (age 58), who, after his father's death in 1665, exerted his whole influence to overthrow the Regency appointed during the young king's minority. B.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. So to St. James's by water with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), I giving occasion to a wager about the tide, that it did flow through bridge, by which Sir W. Batten (age 62) won 5s. of Sir J. Minnes (age 64). At St. James's we staid while the Duke (age 29) made himself ready. Among other things Sir Allen Apsley (age 47) showed the Duke (age 29) the Lisbon Gazette in Spanish, where the late victory is set down particularly, and to the great honour of the English beyond measure. They have since taken back Evora, which was lost to the Spaniards, the English making the assault, and lost not more than three men. Here I learnt that the English foot are highly esteemed all over the world, but the horse not so much, which yet we count among ourselves the best; but they abroad have had no great knowledge of our horse, it seems.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1663 Farneley Wood Plot

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1663. It seems that, after the much talk of troubles and a plot, something is found in the North that a party was to rise, and some persons that were to command it are found, as I find in a letter that Mr. Coventry (age 35) read to-day about it from those parts1.

Note 1. This refers to a rising in the West Riding of Yorkshire, which took place on October 12th, and was known as the Farneley Wood Plot. The rising was easily put down, and several prisoners were taken. A special commission of oyer and terminer was sent down to York to try the prisoners in January, 1663-64, when twenty-one were convicted and executed. (See Whitaker's "Loidis and Elmete", 1816.).

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1664. The general talke of the towne still is of Collonell Turner (age 55), about the robbery; who, it is thought, will be hanged. I heard the Duke of York (age 30) tell to-night, how letters are come that fifteen are condemned for the late plot by the judges at York; and, among others, Captain Oates, against whom it was proved that he drew his sword at his going out, and flinging away the scabbard, said that he would either return victor or be hanged.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1663 Storm Tide

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1663. At White Hall I hear and find that there was the last night the greatest tide that ever was remembered in England to have been in this river: all White Hall having been drowned, of which there was great discourse.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Conventicle Act

In 1664 the Conventicle Act forbade conventicles, defined as religious assemblies of more than five people other than an immediate family, outside the auspices of the Church of England as a means of discouaging non-conformism and to stregthen the position of the Church of England.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Battle of Tangier

On 04 May 1664 the Battle of Tangier took place when a force of Moorish warriors ambushed and defeated a detachment of the garrison of English Tangier led by the Governor Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot.

Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was killed. Earl Teviot extinct. Thomas Rutherford of Hunthill 2nd Baron Rutherford succeeded 2nd Baron Rutherford.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Battle of Levice

On 19 Jul 1664 the Habsburg Imperial Army commanded by Jean-Louis Raduit Count de Souches (age 55) defeated an Ottoman army under the command of Ali Pasha. Ali Pasha was killed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Aug 1664. So to the Coffee-house, and there all the house full of the victory Generall Soushe (age 55)1 (who is a Frenchman, a soldier of fortune, commanding part of the German army) hath had against the Turke; killing 4,000 men, and taking most extraordinary spoil.

Note 1. General Soushe (age 55) was Louis Ratuit, Comte de Souches. The battle was fought at Lewenz (or Leva), in Hungary. B.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Battle of St Gothard

On 23 Jul 1664 the Battle of St Gothard was a victory for the Imperial Army (Germans, Swedish and French) over the Ottoman army.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1664. They gone I to my office, and there my head being a little troubled with the little wine I drank, though mixed with beer, but it may be a little more than I used to do, and yet I cannot say so, I went home and spent the afternoon with my wife talking, and then in the evening a little to my office, and so home to supper and to bed. This day comes the newes that the Emperour hath beat the Turke1 killed the Grand Vizier and several great Bassas, with an army of 80,000 men killed and routed; with some considerable loss of his own side, having lost three generals, and the French forces all cut off almost. Which is thought as good a service to the Emperour as beating the Turke almost, for had they conquered they would have been as troublesome to him2.

Note 1. This was the battle of St. Gothard, in which the Turks were defeated with great slaughter by the imperial forces under Montecuculli, assisted by the confederates from the Rhine, and by forty troops of French cavalry under Coligni. St. Gothard is in Hungary, on the river Raab, near the frontier of Styria; it is about one hundred and twenty miles south of Vienna, and thirty east of Gratz. The battle took place on the 9th Moharrem, A.H. 1075, or 23rd July, A.D. 1664 (old style), which is that used by Pepys. B.

Note 2. The fact is, the Germans were beaten by the Turks, and the French won the battle for them. B.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1664 Transit of Mercury

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. We dined at Sir Timothy Tyrill's (age 47) at Shotover. This gentleman married the daughter and heir (age 45) of Dr. James Usher, Archbishop of Armagh, that learned prelate. There is here in the grove a fountain of the coldest water I ever felt, and very clear. His plantation of oaks and other timber is very commendable. We went in the evening to Oxford, lay at Dr. Hyde's (age 47), principal of Magdalen-Hall (related to the Lord Chancellor (age 55)), brother to the Lord Chief Justice (age 69) and that Sir Henry Hyde, who lost his head for his loyalty. We were handsomely entertained two days. The Vice-Chancellor, who with Dr. Fell, Dean of Christ Church, the learned Dr. Barlow, Warden of Queen's, and several heads of houses, came to visit Lord Cornbury his father (age 55) being now Chancellor of the University), and next day invited us all to dinner. I went to visit Mr. Boyle (age 37) (now here), whom I found with Dr. Wallis and Dr. Christopher Wren, in the tower of the schools, with an inverted tube, or telescope, observing the discus of the sun for the passing of Mercury that day before it; but the latitude was so great that nothing appeared; so we went to see the rarities in the library, where the keepers showed me my name among the benefactors. They have a cabinet of some medals, and pictures of the muscular parts of man's body. Thence, to the new theater, now building at an exceeding and royal expense by the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury [Sheldon (age 66)], to keep the Acts in for the future, till now being in St. Mary's Church. The foundation had been newly laid, and the whole designed by that incomparable genius my worthy friend, Dr. Christopher Wren, who showed me the model, not disdaining my advice in some particulars. Thence, to see the picture on the wall over the altar of All Souls, being the largest piece of fresco painting (or rather in imitation of it, for it is in oil of turpentine) in England, not ill designed by the hand of one Fuller; yet I fear it will not hold long. It seems too full of nakeds for a chapel.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1664 Comet

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1664. So to the Coffeehouse, where great talke of the Comet seen in several places; and among our men at sea, and by my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to whom I intend to write about it to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1664. So home and to my office, where late, and then home to bed. Mighty talke there is of this Comet that is seen a'nights; and the King (age 34) and Queene (age 55) did sit up last night to see it, and did, it seems. And to-night I thought to have done so too; but it is cloudy, and so no stars appear. But I will endeavour it. Mr. Gray did tell me to-night, for certain, that the Dutch, as high as they seem, do begin to buckle; and that one man in this Kingdom did tell the King (age 34) that he is offered £40,000 to make a peace, and others have been offered money also. It seems the taking of their Bourdeaux fleete thus, arose from a printed Gazette of the Dutch's boasting of fighting, and having beaten the English: in confidence whereof (it coming to Bourdeaux), all the fleete comes out, and so falls into our hands.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1664. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) this day writes me word that he hath seen (at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]) the Comet, and says it is the most extraordinary thing that ever he saw.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. This year I planted the lower grove next the pond at Sayes Court [Map]. It was now exceedingly cold, and a hard, long, frosty season, and the comet was very visible.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1664. This day Sir W. Batten (age 63) sent and afterwards spoke to me, to have me and my wife come and dine with them on Monday next: which is a mighty condescension in them, and for some great reason I am sure, or else it pleases God by my late care of business to make me more considerable even with them than I am sure they would willingly owne me to be. God make me thankfull and carefull to preserve myself so, for I am sure they hate me and it is hope or fear that makes them flatter me. It being a bright night, which it has not been a great while, I purpose to endeavour to be called in the morning to see the Comet, though I fear we shall not see it, because it rises in the east but 16 degrees, and then the houses will hinder us.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1664. So home and to my office, where late. This evening I being informed did look and saw the Comet, which is now, whether worn away or no I know not, but appears not with a tail, but only is larger and duller than any other star, and is come to rise betimes, and to make a great arch, and is gone quite to a new place in the heavens than it was before: but I hope in a clearer night something more will be seen.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1664. Having sat up all night to past two o'clock this morning, our porter, being appointed, comes and tells us that the bellman tells him that the star is seen upon Tower Hill [Map]; so I, that had been all night setting in order all my old papers in my chamber, did leave off all, and my boy and I to Tower Hill [Map], it being a most fine, bright moonshine night, and a great frost; but no Comet to be seen. So after running once round the Hill, I and Tom, we home and then to bed. Rose about 9 o'clock and then to the office, where sitting all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1664. The Comet appeared again to-night, but duskishly. I went to bed, leaving my wife and all her folks, and Will also, too, come to make Christmas gambolls to-night.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Five Mile Act

In 1665 the Five Mile Act sought to place further constraints on non-conformists by forbidding clergymen to live within five miles of a parish from which they had been expelled unless they swore an oath never to resist the king, or attempt to alter the government of Church or State. The latter involved swearing to obey the 1662 prayer book. Thousands of ministers were deprived of a living under this act.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Sinking of The London

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1665. Though a bitter cold day, yet I rose, and though my pain and tenderness in my testicle remains a little, yet I do verily think that my pain yesterday was nothing else, and therefore I hope my disease of the stone may not return to me, but void itself in pissing, which God grant, but I will consult my physitian. This morning is brought me to the office the sad newes of "The London", in which Sir J. Lawson's (age 50) men were all bringing her from Chatham, Kent [Map] to the Hope, and thence he was to go to sea in her; but a little a'this side the buoy of the Nower, she suddenly blew up. About 24 [men] and a woman that were in the round-house and coach saved; the rest, being above 300, drowned: the ship breaking all in pieces, with 80 pieces of brass ordnance. She lies sunk, with her round-house above water. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) hath a great loss in this of so many good chosen men, and many relations among them. I went to the 'Change [Map], where the news taken very much to heart.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Mar 1665. I went to receive the poor creatures that were saved out of the London frigate, blown up by accident, with above 200 men. .

Evelyn's Diary. 16 May 1665. To London, to consider of the poor orphans and widows made by this bloody beginning, and whose husbands and relations perished in London frigate, of which there were fifty widows, and forty-five of them with child. See Sinking of The London.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Second Anglo Dutch War

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Apr 1665. Was a day of public humiliation and for success of this terrible war, begun doubtless at secret instigation of the French to weaken the States and Protestant interest. Prodigious preparations on both sides.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Second Anglo Dutch War, Battle of Lowestoft

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3rd Viscount Brounckner (age 38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the Duke of York (age 31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the Duke's (age 31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

In May 1665 Edward Grove had been part of an group of ships sent to Norway to attempt to intercept a Dutch naval stores convoy. On they way back, they had put into Lowestoft. When gunfire was heard, three of the ships set sail for the battle. Captain Edward Grove did not, and he was courtmartialed. They had found that he was "dead drunk" at the time. He was dismissed from the service by the courtmartial.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1665. At home to dinner, and all the afternoon at the office, where late at night, and much business done, then home to supper and to bed. All this day by all people upon the River, and almost every where else hereabout were heard the guns, our two fleets for certain being engaged; which was confirmed by letters from Harwich [Map], but nothing particular: and all our hearts full of concernment for the Duke (age 31), and I particularly for my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and Mr. Coventry (age 37) after his Royall Highnesse.

On 03 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.

Richard Boyle was killed.

Charles Maccarthy Viscount Muskerry was killed.

Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth (age 35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the Royal Charles. Earl Falmouth extinct, Baron Botetourt Langport in Somerset extinct. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.

Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland (age 26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland (age 55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland.

Thomas Allin 1st Baronet (age 53) was present.

Admiral Jeremy Smith commanded the Mary.

Captain George Batts fought. He was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's (age 49) division in the Blue Squadron.

James Ley 3rd Earl Marlborough (age 47) was killed at the Battle of Lowestoft commanding Old James attempting to recover a captured ship. His half brother William Ley 4th Earl Marlborough (age 53) succeeded 4th Earl Marlborough.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1665. Thence to my chamber again to settle my Tangier accounts against tomorrow and some other things, and with great joy ended them, and so to supper, where a good fowl and tansy, and so to bed. Newes being come that our fleete is pursuing the Dutch, who, either by cunning, or by being worsted, do give ground, but nothing more for certain. Late to bed upon my papers being quite finished.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. Thence home to dinner, after 'Change [Map], where great talke of the Dutch being fled and we in pursuit of them, and that our ship Charity1 is lost upon our Captain's, Wilkinson, and Lieutenant's yielding, but of this there is no certainty, save the report of some of the sicke men of the Charity, turned adrift in a boat out of the Charity and taken up and brought on shore yesterday to Sole Bay [Map], and the newes hereof brought by Sir Henry Felton.

Note 1. Sir William Coventry (age 37) and Sir William Pen (age 44) to the Navy Commissioners, June 4th: "Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m. Chased them all the rest of the day and night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (deceased), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Captain Kirby are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 406).

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1665. Waked in the morning before 4 o'clock with great pain to piss, and great pain in pissing by having, I think, drank too great a draught of cold drink before going to bed. But by and by to sleep again, and then rose and to the office, where very busy all the morning, and at noon to dinner with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to his house with all our Board, where a good pasty and brave discourse. But our great fear was some fresh news of the fleete, but not from the fleete, all being said to be well and beaten the Dutch, but I do not give much belief to it, and indeed the news come from Sir W. Batten (age 64) at Harwich [Map], and writ so simply that we all made good mirth of it.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Came news of his highness's (age 35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester, Kent [Map] this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, Kent [Map], where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, Kent [Map], and returned to Deal, Kent [Map]; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, Kent [Map], and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (age 35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (age 31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War"..

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (age 50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May (age 37) from the Duke of Yorke (age 31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (age 31) himself, the Prince (age 45), my Lord Sandwich (age 39), and Mr. Coventry (age 37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. VICTORY OVER THE DUTCH, JUNE 3RD, 1665.

This day they engaged; the Dutch neglecting greatly the opportunity of the wind they had of us, by which they lost the benefit of their fire-ships. The Earl of Falmouth (deceased), Muskerry, and Mr. Richard Boyle killed on board the Duke's ship, the Royall Charles, with one shot: their blood and brains flying in the Duke's (age 31) face; and the head of Mr. Boyle striking down the Duke (age 31), as some say. Earle of Marlborough (deceased), Portland (deceased), Rear-Admirall Sansum (to Prince Rupert (age 45)) killed, and Capt. Kirby and Ableson. Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded on the knee; hath had some bones taken out, and is likely to be well again. Upon receiving the hurt, he sent to the Duke (age 31) for another to command the Royall Oake. The Duke (age 31) sent Jordan1 out of the St. George, who did brave things in her. Capt. Jer. Smith of the Mary was second to the Duke (age 31), and stepped between him and Captain Seaton of the Urania (76 guns and 400 men), who had sworn to board the Duke (age 31); killed him, 200 men, and took the ship; himself losing 99 men, and never an officer saved but himself and lieutenant. His master indeed is saved, with his leg cut off: Admirall Opdam blown up, Trump killed, and said by Holmes; all the rest of their admiralls, as they say, but Everson (whom they dare not trust for his affection to the Prince of Orange), are killed: we having taken and sunk, as is believed, about 24 of their best ships; killed and taken near 8 or 10,000 men, and lost, we think, not above 700. A great[er] victory never known in the world. They are all fled, some 43 got into the Texell, and others elsewhere, and we in pursuit of the rest.

Note 1. Afterwards Sir Joseph Jordan, commander of the "Royal Sovereign", and Vice-Admiral of the Red, 1672. He was knighted on July 1st, 1665. B.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1665. So late back, and to the office, wrote letters, and so home to supper and to bed. This day the Newes book upon Mr. Moore's showing L'Estrange1 (Captain Ferrers's letter) did do my Lord Sandwich (age 39) great right as to the late victory. The Duke of Yorke (age 31) not yet come to towne. The towne grows very sickly, and people to be afeard of it; there dying this last week of the plague 112, from 43 the week before, whereof but [one] in Fanchurch-streete [Map], and one in Broad-streete, by the Treasurer's office.

Note 1. "The Public Intelligencer", published by Roger L'Estrange, the predecessor of the "London Gazette"..

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. Strange to hear how the Dutch do relate, as the Duke says, that they are the conquerors; and bonefires are made in Dunkirke in their behalf; though a clearer victory can never be expected. Mr. Coventry (age 37) thinks they cannot have lost less than 6000 men, and we not dead above 200, and wounded about 400; in all about 600.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. Captain Grove the Duke (age 31) told us this day, hath done the basest thing at Lowestoffe, in hearing of the guns, and could not (as others) be got out, but staid there; for which he will be tried; and is reckoned a prating coxcombe, and of no courage.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1665. Thankes-giving-day for victory over ye Dutch. Up, and to the office, where very busy alone all the morning till church time, and there heard a mean sorry sermon of Mr. Mills. Then to the Dolphin Taverne, where all we officers of the Navy met with the Commissioners of the Ordnance by agreement, and dined: where good musique at my direction. Our club [share] 1 -come to 34s. a man, nine of us.

Note 1. "Next these a sort of Sots there are, Who crave more wine than they can bear, Yet hate, when drunk, to pay or spend Their equal Club or Dividend, But wrangle, when the Bill is brought, And think they're cheated when they're not". The Delights of the Bottle, or the Compleat Vintner, 3rd ed., 1721, p. 29.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. The Duke of York (age 31) told us that, when we were in fight, his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all the vessel. In the afternoon, I saw the pompous reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house [Map], both their Majesties [Note. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 26)] sitting together under the canopy of state.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. After the Committee was up, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) did take me aside, and we walked an hour alone together in the robe-chamber, the door shut, telling me how much the Duke (age 31) and Mr. Coventry (age 37) did, both in the fleete and here, make of him, and that in some opposition to the Prince (age 45); and as a more private message, he told me that he hath been with them both when they have made sport of the Prince (age 45) and laughed at him: yet that all the discourse of the towne, and the printed relation, should not give him one word of honour my Lord thinks mighty strange; he assuring me, that though by accident the Prince (age 45) was in the van the beginning of the fight for the first pass, yet all the rest of the day my Lord was in the van, and continued so. That notwithstanding all this noise of the Prince (age 45), he had hardly a shot in his side nor a man killed, whereas he hath above 30 in her hull, and not one mast whole nor yard; but the most battered ship of the fleet, and lost most men, saving Captain Smith of "The Mary". That the most the Duke (age 31) did was almost out of gun-shot; but that, indeed, the Duke (age 31) did come up to my Lord's rescue after he had a great while fought with four of them.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. At noon Captain Ferrers and Mr. Moore dined with me, the former of them the first time I saw him since his coming from sea, who do give me the best conversation in general, and as good an account of the particular service of the Prince (age 45) and my Lord of Sandwich (age 39) in the late sea-fight that I could desire.

On 25 Jun 1665 Admiral John Lawson (age 50) died in Scarborough [Map] from wounds received at the Battle of Lowestoft. He was buried at St Dunstan's in the East Parish.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham, Kent [Map]; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (age 39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (age 31), and Prince Rupert (age 45). Here I saw the King (age 35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (age 35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (age 35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (age 35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham, Kent [Map] on Sunday morning.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1666. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 45) home, calling at Lilly's (age 47), to have a time appointed when to be drawn among the other Commanders of Flags the last year's fight. And so full of work Lilly (age 47) is, that he was faro to take his table-book out to see how his time is appointed, and appointed six days hence for him to come between seven and eight in the morning.

Life of Clarendon by Thomas Henry Lister Volume 2 Chapter IX Pages 333 to 336. The Duke of York's fleet sailed in April; Sea-fight cruised for a time upon the Dutch coast; and, not finding an opposing armament, captured a few merchantmen, and then returned to the Gunfleet, to refit. On the 30th of May the fleet sailed again, and on the 1st of June reached Southwold Bay, on the coast of Suffolk, when the Dutch fleet, consisting of 113 ships of war, 11 fire ships, and 7 yachts, the whole under the command of Opdam, was visible to windward. That day and the following each fleet reconnoitred, and prepared for action; and early in the morning of the 3d of June the fight began. After many hours of hot encounter, upon Opdam's ship being blown up, the Dutch fled, and were pursued towards their own coast. The victors lost in killed and wounded about 800 men, among whom were Vice-Admirals Lawson and Sampson, and the Earls of Marlborough, Portland, and Falmouth. The Dutch according to Downing's statement, lost not less than fourteen ships and admitted that there had been 400 men killed in those ships which escaped1. It was a glorious triumph for the English navy; and much more complete might the success have been if the pursuit had been steadily maintained. Downing informed Clarendon that it was said by the Dutch, "that Tromp, and those ships that fled with him, lay three hours without the Texel, for want of water to get in, so that had the English' pursued their victory close, they must have run their ships on ground or quitted them, and then they should not have been able to have made another fleet, God knows when."2

The cause of this delay is remarkable. During the night, while the Duke slept, Brouncker, his groom of the bed-chamber, pretending orders from the Duke, ordered the lieutenant to shorten sail, by which means (the Duke of York's being the leading ship) he retarded the progress of the whole fleet. That Brouncker should have thus acted of his own accord, through fear for himself or for the safety of his royal master, is, prima facie, more probable than that the Duke of York, who professed a wish to prosecute the war with vigour, and had shown himself, on other occasions, not deficient in personal courage, should have issued such an order. But it is remarkable that (according to the statements in the Life of James, compiled from his own papers) until July, when the fleet was again ready for sail, under the command of Lord Sandwich, "the Duke had not heard one word of his ship having shortened sail!" Still more remarkable is it, that it was not till the meeting of the Parliament, in the autumn, "that the Duke first heard what Brouncker had done, in counterfeiting his orders at sea;"3 but most remarkable that, for nearly two years after this grave offence had come to the knowledge of the Duke, and raised in him no small "indignation," Brouncker, who seems to have been the pandar to his pleasures4, remained, unpunished, in his service; and was at length dismissed on another account5; and thus, for this most grave offence, received no punishment from the Duke at all6. No inquiry appears to have been made respecting the conduct of the Duke of York: but it was opportunely discovered that the command of a fleet in time of war was a situation of peril; - that the Duke of York was presumptive heir to the throne; - and that a life so valuable ought not to be endangered. He was therefore prohibited from serving again, and the command, of the fleet was given to the Earl of Sandwich. It must now be inquired by what foreign alliances tlie English government endeavoured to strengthen itself for that war in which it was so unnecessarily engaged.

Note 1. Downing to Clarendon, June 9, 1665. In the Life of James, the Dutch are stated to have lost 20 ships, and about 10,000 men killed and prisoners. (Life of James I, 418.)

Note 2. Downing to Clarendon, June 9 1665.

Note 3. Life of James I. 421, 422.

Note 4. Pepys, iii. 266. 4

Note 5. J Ibid. iii. 335.

Note 6. The Parliament took up the question after Brouncker had been dismissed from the Duke's service, and expelled him from the House of Commons. It was the circumstance of the Parliament having taken cognisance of the offence which, according to the Life of James, "hindered the Duke from having him try'd by a court martial" more than two years after it had come to his knowledge! It is also singularly stated that, "by length of time the prosecution cool'd so, that Brouncker was only turn'd out of the House, nor could the Duke do anything more at that time than to turn him out of his service," it being neither at that time, nor on that account, that Brouncker was dismissed.

Grammont. Sir George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the Duke of York's regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was killed at sea. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

The Clove Tree, Carolus Quintus and Zealand were captured at the Battle of Lowestoft.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Second Anglo Dutch War, Four Days' Battle

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Jun 1666. Being in my garden at 6 o'clock in the evening, and hearing the great guns go thick off, I took horse and rode that night to Rochester, Kent [Map]; thence next day toward the Downs and seacoast, but meeting the Lieutenant of the Hampshire frigate, who told me what passed, or rather what had not passed, I returned to London, there being no noise, or appearance at Deal, Kent [Map], or on that coast of any engagement. Recounting this to his Majesty (age 36), whom I found at St James' Park [Map], impatiently expecting, and knowing that Prince Rupert (age 46) was loose about three at St. Helen's Point at N. of the Isle of Wight, it greatly rejoiced him; but he was astonished when I assured him they heard nothing of the guns in the Downs, nor did the Lieutenant who landed there by five that morning.

From 01 Jun 1666 to 04 Jun 1666 the English and Dutch fleets engaged in battle. The English lost ten ships and 1000 men. The Dutch lost four ships and 1500 men.

On 01 Jun 1666 William Berkeley (age 27) was killed.

The Gloucester took part.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1666. Up, and to the office, where certain newes is brought us of a letter come to the King (age 36) this morning from the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), dated yesterday at eleven o'clock, as they were sailing to the Gunfleete, that they were in sight of the Dutch fleete, and were fitting themselves to fight them; so that they are, ere this, certainly engaged; besides, several do averr they heard the guns all yesterday in the afternoon. This put us at the Board into a tosse. Presently come orders for our sending away to the fleete a recruite of 200 soldiers. So I rose from the table, and to the Victualling Office, and thence upon the River among several vessels, to consider of the sending them away; and lastly, down to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there appointed two yachts to be ready for them; and did order the soldiers to march to Blackewall [Map]. Having set all things in order against the next flood, I went on shore with Captain Erwin at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and into the Parke, and there we could hear the guns from the fleete most plainly.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. Lord's-day; Whit-sunday. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there met with Mr. Coventry (age 38), who tells me the only news from the fleete is brought by Captain Elliott, of The Portland, which, by being run on board by The Guernsey, was disabled from staying abroad; so is come in to Aldbrough [Map]. That he saw one of the Dutch great ships blown up, and three on fire. That they begun to fight on Friday; and at his coming into port, he could make another ship of the King's coming in, which he judged to be the Rupert: that he knows of no other hurt to our ships. With this good newes I home by water again, and to church in the sermon-time, and with great joy told it my fellows in the pew.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. Whitsunday. After sermon came news that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was still in fight, and had been all Saturday, and that Captain Harman's (age 41) ship (the Henry) was like to be burnt. Then a letter from Mr. Bertie that Prince Rupert (age 46) was come up with his squadron (according to my former advice of his being loose and in the way), and put new courage into our fleet, now in a manner yielding ground; so that now we were chasing the chasers; that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was slightly wounded, and the rest still in great danger. So, having been much wearied with my journey, I slipped home, the guns still roaring very fiercely.

Before 04 Jun 1666 William Clarke (age 43) died after having had his leg amputated following the Four Days' Battle.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1666. THE FIGHT.

How we found the Dutch fleete at anchor on Friday half seas over, between Dunkirke and Ostend, and made them let slip their anchors. They about ninety, and we less than sixty. We fought them, and put them to the run, till they met with about sixteen sail of fresh ships, and so bore up again. The fight continued till night, and then again the next morning from five till seven at night. And so, too, yesterday morning they begun again, and continued till about four o'clock, they chasing us for the most part of Saturday and yesterday, we flying from them. The Duke (age 32) himself, then those people were put into the catch, and by and by spied the Prince's (age 46) fleete coming, upon which De Ruyter (age 59) called a little council (being in chase at this time of us), and thereupon their fleete divided into two squadrons; forty in one, and about thirty in the other (the fleete being at first about ninety, but by one accident or other, supposed to be lessened to about seventy); the bigger to follow the Duke (age 32), the less to meet the Prince (age 46). But the Prince (age 46) come up with the Generall's fleete, and the Dutch come together again and bore towards their own coast, and we with them; and now what the consequence of this day will be, at that time fighting, we know not. The Duke was forced to come to anchor on Friday, having lost his sails and rigging. No particular person spoken of to be hurt but Sir W. Clerke (age 43), who hath lost his leg, and bore it bravely. The Duke himself had a little hurt in his thigh, but signified little. The King (age 36) did pull out of his pocket about twenty pieces in gold, and did give it Daniel for himself and his companion; and so parted, mightily pleased with the account he did give him of the fight, and the successe it ended with, of the Prince's (age 46) coming, though it seems the Duke (age 32) did give way again and again. The King (age 36) did give order for care to be had of Mr. Daniel and his companion; and so we parted from him, and then met the Duke [of York], and gave him the same account: and so broke up, and I left them going to the surgeon's and I myself by water to the 'Change [Map], and to several people did give account of the business.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jun 1666. I went this morning to London, where came several particulars of the fight.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1666. Up betimes, and to my office about business (Sir W. Coventry (age 38) having sent me word that he is gone down to the fleete to see how matters stand, and to be back again speedily); and with the same expectation of congratulating ourselves with the victory that I had yesterday. But my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Sir T. H. (age 41) that come from Court, tell me quite contrary newes, which astonishes me: that is to say, that we are beaten, lost many ships and good commanders; have not taken one ship of the enemy's; and so can only report ourselves a victory; nor is it certain that we were left masters of the field. But, above all, that The Prince run on shore upon the Galloper, and there stuck; was endeavoured to be fetched off by the Dutch, but could not; and so they burned her; and Sir G. Ascue (age 50) is taken prisoner, and carried into Holland. This newes do much trouble me, and the thoughts of the ill consequences of it, and the pride and presumption that brought us to it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1666. After dinner Balty (age 26) and I to my office, and there talked a great deal of this fight; and I am mightily pleased in him and have great content in, and hopes of his doing well.

Before 10 Jun 1666 Vice-Admiral Christopher Myngs (age 40) died of wounds received at the Four Days' Battle. He was buried at St Mary's Church.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1666. At noon home to dinner and then down to Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map] to look after things, my head akeing from the multitude of businesses I had in my head yesterday in settling my accounts. All the way down and up, reading of "The Mayor of Quinborough", a simple play. At Deptford, Kent [Map], while I am there, comes Mr. Williamson (age 32), Sir Arthur Ingram (age 49) and Jacke Fen, to see the new ships, which they had done, and then I with them home in their boat, and a very fine gentleman Mr. Williamson (age 32) is. It seems the Dutch do mightily insult of their victory, and they have great reason1. Sir William Barkeley (deceased) was killed before his ship taken; and there he lies dead in a sugar-chest, for every body to see, with his flag standing up by him. And Sir George Ascue (age 50) is carried up and down the Hague for people to see. Home to my office, where late, and then to bed.

Note 1. This treatment seems to have been that of the Dutch populace alone, and there does not appear to have been cause of complaint against the government. Respecting Sir W. Berkeley's (deceased) body the following notice was published in the "London Gazette" of July 15th, 1666 (No. 69 [Note. actually issue 70]) "Whitehall, July 15. This day arrived a Trumpet from the States of Holland, who came over from Calais in the Dover packet-boat, with a letter to his Majesty, that the States have taken order for the embalming the body of Sir William Berkeley, which they have placed in the chapel of the great church at the Hague, a civility they profess to owe to his corpse, in respect to the quality of his person, the greatness of his command, and of the high courage and valour he showed in the late engagement; desiring his Majesty to signify his pleasure about the further disposal of it". "Frederick Ruysch, the celebrated Dutch anatomist, undertook, by order of the States-General, to inject the body of the English Admiral Berkeley, killed in the sea-fight of 1666; and the body, already somewhat decomposed, was sent over to England as well prepared as if it had been the fresh corpse of a child. This produced to Ruysch, on the part of the States-General, a recompense worthy of their liberality, and the merit of the anatomist", "James's Medical Dictionary"..

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. Thence home and dined, and then to the office, where busy all day, and in the evening Sir W. Pen (age 45) come to me, and we walked together, and talked of the late fight. I find him very plain, that the whole conduct of the late fight was ill, and that that of truth's all, and he tells me that it is not he, but two-thirds of the commanders of the whole fleete have told him so: they all saying, that they durst not oppose it at the Council of War, for fear of being called cowards, though it was wholly against their judgement to fight that day with the disproportion of force, and then we not being able to use one gun of our lower tier, which was a greater disproportion than the other. Besides, we might very well have staid in the Downs without fighting, or any where else, till the Prince (age 46) could have come up to them; or at least till the weather was fair, that we might have the benefit of our whole force in the ships that we had. He says three things must [be] remedied, or else we shall be undone by this fleete.

Note 1. That we must fight in a line, whereas we fight promiscuously, to our utter and demonstrable ruine; the Dutch fighting otherwise; and we, whenever we beat them.

Note 2. We must not desert ships of our own in distress, as we did, for that makes a captain desperate, and he will fling away his ship, when there is no hopes left him of succour.

Note 3. That ships, when they are a little shattered, must not take the liberty to come in of themselves, but refit themselves the best they can, and stay out-many of our ships coming in with very small disablenesses.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the King (age 36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (age 49) and Bishop of Winchester (age 47), where the Dean of Westminster (age 31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (age 57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (age 32) second son, now born at St. James's [Map]; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1666. Up in good case, and so by coach to St. James's after my fellows, and there did our business, which is mostly every day to complain of want of money, and that only will undo us in a little time. Here, among other things, before us all, the Duke of Yorke (age 32) did say, that now at length he is come to a sure knowledge that the Dutch did lose in the late engagements twenty-nine captains and thirteen ships. Upon which Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did publickly move, that if his Royal Highness had this of a certainty, it would be of use to send this down to the fleete, and to cause it to be spread about the fleete, for the recovering of the spirits of the officers and seamen; who are under great dejectedness for want of knowing that they did do any thing against the enemy, notwithstanding all that they did to us. Which, though it be true, yet methought was one of the most dishonourable motions to our countrymen that ever was made; and is worth remembering.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church with my wife, and then home, and there is come little Michell and his wife, I sent for them, and also comes Captain Guy to dine with me, and he and I much talk together. He cries out of the discipline of the fleete, and confesses really that the true English valour we talk of is almost spent and worn out; few of the commanders doing what they should do, and he much fears we shall therefore be beaten the next year. He assures me we were beaten home the last June fight, and that the whole fleete was ashamed to hear of our bonefires. He commends Smith, and cries out of Holmes (age 44) for an idle, proud, conceited, though stout fellow. He tells me we are to owe the losse of so many ships on the sands, not to any fault of the pilots, but to the weather; but in this I have good authority to fear there was something more. He says the Dutch do fight in very good order, and we in none at all. He says that in the July fight, both the Prince (age 46) and Holmes (age 44) had their belly-fulls, and were fain to go aside; though, if the wind had continued, we had utterly beaten them. He do confess the whole to be governed by a company of fools, and fears our ruine.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1661. Then with Dr. Fairbrother (whom I met there) to the Rose tavern [Map], and called for some wine, and there met fortunately with Mr. Turner of our office, and sent for his wife, and were very merry (they being come to settle their son here), and sent also for Mr. Sanchy, of Magdalen, with whom and other gentlemen, friends of his, we were very merry, and I treated them as well as I could, and so at noon took horse again, having taken leave of my cozen Angier, and rode to Impington, where I found my old uncle (age 78)1 sitting all alone, like a man out of the world: he can hardly see; but all things else he do pretty livelyly.

Note 1. Talbot Pepys (age 78), sixth son of John Pepys of Impington, was born 1583, and therefore at this time he was seventy-eight years of age. He was educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1605. He was M.P. for Cambridge in 1625, and Recorder of Cambridge from 1624 to 1660, in which year he was succeeded by his son Roger (age 44). He died of the plague, March, 1666, aged eighty-three.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1663. After being a little with the Duke (age 30), and being invited to dinner to my Lord Barkeley's (age 61), and so, not knowing how to spend our time till noon, Sir W. Batten (age 62) and I took coach, and to the Coffee-house in Cornhill [Map]1; where much talk about the Turk's proceedings, and that the plague is got to Amsterdam, brought by a ship from Argier; and it is also carried to Hambrough. The Duke says the King (age 33) purposes to forbid any of their ships coming into the river. The Duke also told us of several Christian commanders (French) gone over to the Turks to serve them; and upon inquiry I find that the King of France (age 25) do by this aspire to the Empire, and so to get the Crown of Spayne also upon the death of the King (age 33), which is very probable, it seems.

Note 1. This may be the Coffee House in Exchange Alley, which had for a sign, Morat the Great, or The Great Turk, where coffee was sold in berry, in powder, and pounded in a mortar. There is a token of the house, see "Boyne's Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., p. 592.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1663. The Queene (age 53) continues lightheaded, but in hopes to recover. The plague is much in Amsterdam, and we in fears of it here, which God defend1. The Turke goes on mightily in the Emperor's dominions, and the Princes cannot agree among themselves how to go against him. Myself in pretty good health now, after being ill this month for a week together, but cannot yet come to.... well, being so costive, but for this month almost I have not had a good natural stool, but to this hour am forced to take physic every night, which brings me neither but one stool, and that in the morning as soon as I am up, all the rest of the day very costive. My father has been very ill in the country, but I hope better again now. I am lately come to a conclusion with Tom Trice to pay him £100, which is a great deale of money, but I hope it will save a great deale more. But thus everything lessens, which I have and am like to have, and therefore I must look about me to get something more than just my salary, or else I may resolve to live well and die a beggar.

Note 1. Defend is used in the sense of forbid. It is a Gallicism from the French "defendre"..

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1664. Thence to the Coffee-house and to the 'Change [Map] a while. News uncertain how the Dutch proceed. Some say for, some against a war. The plague increases at Amsterdam.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1664. He being gone I to the 'Change [Map], Mr. Creed with me, after we had been by water to see a vessell we have hired to carry more soldiers to Tangier, and also visited a rope ground, wherein I learnt several useful things. The talk upon the 'Change [Map] is, that De Ruyter (age 57) is dead, with fifty men of his own ship, of the plague, at Cales: that the Holland Embassador here do endeavour to sweeten us with fair words; and things likely to be peaceable.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map] and Coffee-house, where great talke of the Dutch preparing of sixty sayle of ships. The plague grows mightily among them, both at sea and land. From the 'Change [Map] to dinner to Trinity House, Deptford [Map] with Sir W. Rider and Cutler, where a very good dinner. Here Sir G. Ascue (age 48) dined also, who I perceive desires to make himself known among the seamen.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1664. Thence back again homewards, and Sir W. Batten (age 63) and I to the Coffee-house, but no newes, only the plague is very hot still, and encreases among the Dutch.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1664. Thence to White Hall to meet with Sir G. Carteret (age 54) about hiring some ground to make our mast docke at Deptford, Kent [Map], but being Council morning failed, but met with Mr. Coventry (age 36), and he and I discoursed of the likeliness of a Dutch warr, which I think is very likely now, for the Dutch do prepare a fleet to oppose us at Guinny, and he do think we shall, though neither of us have a mind to it, fall into it of a sudden, and yet the plague do increase among them, and is got into their fleet, and Opdam's own ship, which makes it strange they should be so high.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1664. So home and to my office, and business being done home to supper and so to bed, my head and throat being still out of order mightily. This night Prior of Brampton came and paid me £40, and I find this poor painful man is the only thriving and purchasing man in the town almost. We were told to-day of a Dutch ship of 3 or 400 tons, where all the men were dead of the plague, and the ship cast ashore at Gottenburgh.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1664. Lord's Day. My wife not being well to go to church I walked with my boy through the City, putting in at several churches, among others at Bishopsgate, and there saw the picture usually put before the King's book, put up in the church, but very ill painted, though it were a pretty piece to set up in a church. I intended to have seen the Quakers, who, they say, do meet every Lord's day at the Mouth at Bishopsgate; but I could see none stirring, nor was it fit to aske for the place, so I walked over Moorefields [Map], and thence to Clerkenwell church, and there, as I wished, sat next pew to the fair Butler, who indeed is a most perfect beauty still; and one I do very much admire myself for my choice of her for a beauty, she having the best lower part of her face that ever I saw all days of my life.

In 1665 the last great bubonic plague occurred in England killing a quarter of London's population, between 60000 and 120000 people died, in around eighteen months.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1665. This day, much against my will, I did in Drury Lane see two or three houses marked with a red cross upon the doors, and "Lord have mercy upon us" writ there; which was a sad sight to me, being the first of the kind that, to my remembrance, I ever saw. It put me into an ill conception of myself and my smell, so that I was forced to buy some roll-tobacco to smell to and chaw, which took away the apprehension.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Alone at home to dinner, my wife, mother, and Mercer dining at W. Joyce's; I giving her a caution to go round by the Half Moone [Map] to his house, because of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1665. In the evening home to supper; and there, to my great trouble, hear that the plague is come into the City (though it hath these three or four weeks since its beginning been wholly out of the City); but where should it begin but in my good friend and neighbour's, Dr. Burnett, in Fanchurch Street [Map]: which in both points troubles me mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1665. To the office late, and then home to bed. It struck me very deep this afternoon going with a hackney coach from my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) down Holborne, the coachman I found to drive easily and easily, at last stood still, and come down hardly able to stand, and told me that he was suddenly struck very sicke, and almost blind, he could not see; so I 'light and went into another coach, with a sad heart for the poor man and trouble for myself, lest he should have been struck with the plague, being at the end of the towne that I took him up; but God have mercy upon us all! Sir John Lawson (age 50), I hear, is worse than yesterday: the King (age 35) went to see him to-day most kindly. It seems his wound is not very bad; but he hath a fever, a thrush, and a hickup, all three together, which are, it seems, very bad symptoms.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1665. My wife come to bed about one in the morning. I up and abroad about Tangier business, then back to the office, where we sat, and at noon home to dinner, and then abroad to Mr. Povy's (age 51), after I and Mr. Andrews had been with Mr. Ball and one Major Strange, who looks after the getting of money for tallys and is helping Mr. Andrews. I had much discourse with Ball, and it may be he may prove a necessary man for our turns. With Mr. Povy (age 51) I spoke very freely my indifference as to my place of Treasurer, being so much troubled in it, which he took with much seeming trouble, that I should think of letting go so lightly the place, but if the place can't be held I will. So hearing that my Lord Treasurer (age 58) was gone out of town with his family because of the sicknesse, I returned home without staying there, and at the office find Sir W. Pen (age 44) come home, who looks very well; and I am gladder to see him than otherwise I should be because of my hearing so well of him for his serviceablenesse in this late great action.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1665. So I home and to supper and to bed, my wife come home when I come from the office. This day I informed myself that there died four or five at Westminster of the plague in one alley in several houses upon Sunday last, Bell Alley, over against the Palace-gate; yet people do think that the number will be fewer in the towne than it was the last weeke! The Dutch are come out again with 20 sail under Bankert; supposed gone to the Northward to meete their East India fleete.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1665. Up pretty betimes, and in great pain whether to send my another into the country to-day or no, I hearing, by my people, that she, poor wretch, hath a mind to stay a little longer, and I cannot blame her, considering what a life she will through her own folly lead when she comes home again, unlike the pleasure and liberty she hath had here. At last I resolved to put it to her, and she agreed to go, so I would not oppose it, because of the sicknesse in the towne, and my intentions of removing my wife. So I did give her money and took a kind leave of her, she, poor wretch, desiring that I would forgive my brother John (age 24), but I refused it to her, which troubled her, poor soul, but I did it in kind words and so let the discourse go off, she leaving me though in a great deal of sorrow.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1665. So, weary, home, and to my office a while, till almost midnight, and so to bed. The plague encreases mightily, I this day seeing a house, at a bitt-maker's over against St. Clement's Church [Map], in the open street, shut up; which is a sad sight.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1665. After dinner to White Hall, thinking to speak with my Lord Ashly (age 43), but failed, and I whiled away some time in Westminster Hall [Map] against he did come, in my way observing several plague houses in King's Street and [near] the Palace. Here I hear Mrs. Martin is gone out of town, and that her husband, an idle fellow, is since come out of France, as he pretends, but I believe not that he hath been. I was fearful of going to any house, but I did to the Swan [Map], and thence to White Hall, giving the waterman a shilling, because a young fellow and belonging to the Plymouth.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1665. Up and by water to White Hall, where the Court full of waggons and people ready to go out of towne. To the Harp and Ball, and there drank and talked with Mary, she telling me in discourse that she lived lately at my neighbour's, Mr. Knightly, which made me forbear further discourse. This end of the towne every day grows very bad of the plague. The Mortality Bill is come to 2671 which is about ninety more than the last: and of these but four in the City, which is a great blessing to us.

In Jul 1665 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) travelled to Salisbury during the Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1665. Thence by coach and late at the office, and so to bed. Sad at the newes that seven or eight houses in Bazing Hall street, are shut up of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1665. Thence to Westminster, where I hear the sicknesse encreases greatly, and to the Harp and Ball with Mary talking, who tells me simply her losing of her first love in the country in Wales, and coming up hither unknown to her friends, and it seems Dr. Williams do pretend love to her, and I have found him there several times.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jul 1665. About three o'clock I, leaving my wife there, took boat and home, and there shifted myself into my black silke suit, and having promised Harman (age 28) yesterday, I to his house, which I find very mean, and mean company. His wife very ill; I could not see her. Here I, with her father and Kate Joyce, who was also very ill, were godfathers and godmother to his boy, and was christened Will. Mr. Meriton christened him. The most observable thing I found there to my content, was to hear him and his clerk tell me that in this parish of Michell's, Cornhill [Map], one of the middlemost parishes and a great one of the towne, there hath, notwithstanding this sickliness, been buried of any disease, man, woman, or child, not one for thirteen months last past; which [is] very strange. And the like in a good degree in most other parishes, I hear, saving only of the plague in them, but in this neither the plague nor any other disease.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1665. At 6 o'clock up and to Westminster (where and all the towne besides, I hear, the plague encreases), and, it being too soon to go to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), I to the Harp and Ball, and there made a bargain with Mary to go forth with me in the afternoon, which she with much ado consented to.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1665. After doing what business I could in the morning, it being a solemn fast-day1 for the plague growing upon us, I took boat and down to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I stood with great pleasure an houre or two by my Lady Sandwich's (age 40) bedside, talking to her (she lying prettily in bed) of my Lady Jemimah's being from my Lady Pickering's (age 39) when our letters come to that place; she being at my Lord Montagu's, at Boughton, Northamptonshire. The truth is, I had received letters of it two days ago, but had dropped them, and was in a very extraordinary straite what to do for them, or what account to give my Lady, but sent to every place; I sent to Moreclacke, where I had been the night before, and there they were found, which with mighty joy come safe to me; but all ending with satisfaction to my Lady and me, though I find my Baroness Carteret (age 63) not much pleased with this delay, and principally because of the plague, which renders it unsafe to stay long at Deptford, Kent [Map].

Note 1. "A form of Common Prayer; together with an order for fasting for the averting of God's heavy visitation upon many places of this realm. The fast to be observed within the cities of London and Westminster and places adjacent, on Wednesday the twelfth of this instant July, and both there and in all parts of this realm on the first Wednesday in every month during the visitation" ("Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1664-65, p. 466).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1665. There come to dinner, they haveing dined, but my Lady caused something to be brought for me, and I dined well and mighty merry, especially my Lady Slaning and I about eating of creame and brown bread, which she loves as much as I Thence after long discourse with them and my Lady alone, I and [my] wife, who by agreement met here, took leave, and I saw my wife a little way down (it troubling me that this absence makes us a little strange instead of more fond), and so parted, and I home to some letters, and then home to bed. Above 700 died of the plague this week.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jul 1665. There died of the plague in London this week 1,100; and in the week following, above 2,000. Two houses were shut up in our parish.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1665. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and so to my house and eat a bit of victuals, and so to the 'Change [Map], where a little business and a very thin Exchange [Map]; and so walked through London to the Temple [Map], where I took water for Westminster to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to wait on him, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there paid for my newes-books, and did give Mrs. Michell, who is going out of towne because of the sicknesse, and her husband, a pint of wine, and so Sir W. Warren coming to me by appointment we away by water home, by the way discoursing about the project I have of getting some money and doing the King (age 35) good service too about the mast docke at Woolwich, Kent [Map], which I fear will never be done if I do not go about it.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1665. So walked to Redriffe [Map], where I hear the sickness is, and indeed is scattered almost every where, there dying 1089 of the plague this week. My Baroness Carteret (age 63) did this day give me a bottle of plague-water home with me.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1665. So home and late at my chamber, setting some papers in order; the plague growing very raging, and my apprehensions of it great. So very late to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. Back to White Hall, and by and by comes the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and there, after a little discourse, I by coach home, not meeting with but two coaches, and but two carts from White Hall to my own house, that I could observe; and the streets mighty thin of people. I met this noon with Dr. Burnett, who told me, and I find in the newsbook this week that he posted upon the 'Change [Map], that whoever did spread the report that, instead of the plague, his servant was by him killed, it was forgery, and shewed me the acknowledgment of the master of the pest-house, that his servant died of a bubo on his right groine, and two spots on his right thigh, which is the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1665. At noon to the 'Change [Map], which was very thin, and thence homeward, and was called in by Mr. Rawlinson (age 51), with whom I dined and some good company very harmlessly merry. But sad the story of the plague in the City, it growing mightily. This day my Lord Bruncker (age 45) did give me Mr. Grant's' (age 45) book upon the Bills of Mortality, new printed and enlarged.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1665. Thence mighty full of the honour of this day, I took coach and to Kate Joyce's, but she not within, but spoke with Anthony, who tells me he likes well of my proposal for Pall to Harman (age 28), but I fear that less than £500 will not be taken, and that I shall not be able to give, though I did not say so to him. After a little other discourse and the sad news of the death of so many in the parish of the plague, forty last night, the bell always going, I back to the Exchange [Map], where I went up and sat talking with my beauty, Mrs. Batelier, a great while, who is indeed one of the finest women I ever saw in my life. After buying some small matter, I home, and there to the office and saw Sir J. Minnes (age 66) now come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I home to set my Journall for these four days in order, they being four days of as great content and honour and pleasure to me as ever I hope to live or desire, or think any body else can live. For methinks if a man would but reflect upon this, and think that all these things are ordered by God Almighty to make me contented, and even this very marriage now on foot is one of the things intended to find me content in, in my life and matter of mirth, methinks it should make one mightily more satisfied in the world than he is. This day poor Robin Shaw at Backewell's died, and Backewell himself now in Flanders. The King (age 35) himself asked about Shaw, and being told he was dead, said he was very sorry for it. The sicknesse is got into our parish this week, and is got, indeed, every where; so that I begin to think of setting things in order, which I pray God enable me to put both as to soul and body.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. At home met the weekly Bill, where above 1000 encreased in the Bill, and of them, in all about 1,700 of the plague, which hath made the officers this day resolve of sitting at Deptford, Kent [Map], which puts me to some consideration what to do.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1665. Will was with me to-day, and is very well again. It was a sad noise to hear our bell to toll and ring so often to-day, either for deaths or burials; I think five or six times. At night weary with my day's work, but full of joy at my having done it, I to bed, being to rise betimes tomorrow to go to the wedding at Dagenhams.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Thus we end this month, as I said, after the greatest glut of content that ever I had; only under some difficulty because of the plague, which grows mightily upon us, the last week being about 1700 or 1800 of the plague. My Lord Sandwich (age 40) at sea with a fleet of about 100 sail, to the Northward, expecting De Ruyter (age 58), or the Dutch East India fleet. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) coming over from France, and will meet his sister at Scott's-hall. Myself having obliged both these families in this business very much; as both my Lady, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and his Lady (age 63) do confess exceedingly, and the latter do also now call me cozen, which I am glad of. So God preserve us all friends long, and continue health among us.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Up, and very betimes by six o'clock at Deptford, Kent [Map], and there find Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and my Lady (age 63) ready to go: I being in my new coloured silk suit, and coat trimmed with gold buttons and gold broad lace round my hands, very rich and fine. By water to the Ferry, where, when we come, no coach there; and tide of ebb so far spent as the horse-boat could not get off on the other side the river to bring away the coach. So we were fain to stay there in the unlucky Isle of Doggs, in a chill place, the morning cool, and wind fresh, above two if not three hours to our great discontent. Yet being upon a pleasant errand, and seeing that it could not be helped, we did bear it very patiently; and it was worth my observing, I thought, as ever any thing, to see how upon these two scores, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), the most passionate man in the world, and that was in greatest haste to be gone, did bear with it, and very pleasant all the while, at least not troubled much so as to fret and storm at it. Anon the coach comes: in the mean time there coming a News thither with his horse to go over, that told us he did come from Islington [Map] this morning; and that Proctor the vintner of the Miter in Wood-street, and his son, are dead this morning there, of the plague; he having laid out abundance of money there, and was the greatest vintner for some time in London for great entertainments. We, fearing the canonicall hour would be past before we got thither, did with a great deal of unwillingness send away the license and wedding ring. So that when we come, though we drove hard with six horses, yet we found them gone from home; and going towards the church, met them coming from church, which troubled us. But, however, that trouble was soon over; hearing it was well done: they being both in their old cloaths; my Lord Crew (age 67) giving her, there being three coach fulls of them. The young lady mighty sad, which troubled me; but yet I think it was only her gravity in a little greater degree than usual. All saluted her, but I did not till my Lady Sandwich (age 40) did ask me whether I had saluted her or no.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Aug 1665. Up, it being a publique fast, as being the first Wednesday of the month, for the plague; I within doors all day, and upon my monthly accounts late, and there to my great joy settled almost all my private matters of money in my books clearly, and allowing myself several sums which I had hitherto not reckoned myself sure of, because I would not be over sure of any thing, though with reason I might do it, I did find myself really worth £1900, for which the great God of Heaven and Earth be praised! At night to the office to write a few letters, and so home to bed, after fitting myself for tomorrow's journey.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. Up, and betimes to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), where, not liking the horse that had been hired by Mr. Uthwayt for me, I did desire Sir G. Carteret (age 55) to let me ride his new £40 horse, which he did, and so I left my 'hacquenee'1 behind, and so after staying a good while in their bedchamber while they were dressing themselves, discoursing merrily, I parted and to the ferry, where I was forced to stay a great while before I could get my horse brought over, and then mounted and rode very finely to Dagenhams; all the way people, citizens, walking to and again to enquire how the plague is in the City this week by the Bill; which by chance, at Greenwich, Kent [Map], I had heard was 2,020 of the plague, and 3,000 and odd of all diseases; but methought it was a sad question to be so often asked me.

Note 1. Haquenee = an ambling nag fitted for ladies' riding.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1665. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who was resolved to stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's Park. Died this week in London, 4,000. See Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1665. By and by to the office, where we sat all the morning; in great trouble to see the Bill this week rise so high, to above 4,000 in all, and of them above 3,000 of the plague. And an odd story of Alderman Bence's stumbling at night over a dead corps in the streete, and going home and telling his wife, she at the fright, being with child, fell sicke and died of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1665. The people die so, that now it seems they are fain to carry the dead to be buried by day-light, the nights not sufficing to do it in.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1665. There perished this week 5,000. See Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1665. Thence in Commissioner Pett's (age 55) coach (leaving them there). I late in the darke to Gravesend, Kent [Map], where great is the plague, and I troubled to stay there so long for the tide.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1665. Lord's Day. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come and walked by my bedside half an houre, talking and telling me how my Lord is in this unblameable in all this ill-successe, he having followed orders; and that all ought to be imputed to the falsenesse of the King (age 35) of Denmarke, who, he told me as a secret, had promised to deliver up the Dutch ships to us, and we expected no less; and swears it will, and will easily, be the ruine of him and his kingdom, if we fall out with him, as we must in honour do; but that all that can be, must be to get the fleete out again to intercept De Witt, who certainly will be coming home with the East India ships, he being gone thither. He being gone, I up and with Fenn, being ready to walk forth to see the place; and I find it to be a very noble seat in a noble forest, with the noblest prospect towards Windsor, and round about over many countys, that can be desired; but otherwise a very melancholy place, and little variety save only trees. I had thoughts of going home by water, and of seeing Windsor Chappell [Map] and Castle [Map], but finding at my coming in that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did prevent me in speaking for my sudden return to look after business, I did presently eat a bit off the spit about 10 o'clock, and so took horse for Stanes, and thence to Brainford to Mr. Povy's (age 51), the weather being very pleasant to ride in. Mr. Povy (age 51) not being at home I lost my labour, only eat and drank there with his lady, and told my bad newes, and hear the plague is round about them there. So away to Brainford [Map]; and there at the inn that goes down to the water-side, I 'light and paid off my post-horses, and so slipped on my shoes, and laid my things by, the tide not serving, and to church, where a dull sermon, and many Londoners. After church to my inn, and eat and drank, and so about seven o'clock by water, and got between nine and ten to Queenhive, very dark. And I could not get my waterman to go elsewhere for fear of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1665. Up, and after much pleasant talke and being importuned by my wife and her two mayds, which are both good wenches, for me to buy a necklace of pearle for her, and I promising to give her one of £60 in two years at furthest, and in less if she pleases me in her painting, I went away and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], in my way seeing a coffin with a dead body therein, dead of the plague, lying in an open close belonging to Coome farme, which was carried out last night, and the parish have not appointed any body to bury it; but only set a watch there day and night, that nobody should go thither or come thence, which is a most cruel thing: this disease making us more cruel to one another than if we are doggs.

On 25 Aug 1665 Charles Seymour 2nd Baron Seymour Trowbridge (age 44) died, possibly of plague. His son Francis Seymour 5th Duke Somerset (age 7) succeeded 3rd Baron Seymour Trowbridge.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Aug 1665. Up betimes to the office, and there, as well as all the afternoon, saving a little dinner time, all alone till late at night writing letters and doing business, that I may get beforehand with my business again, which hath run behind a great while, and then home to supper and to bed. This day I am told that Dr. Burnett, my physician, is this morning dead of the plague; which is strange, his man dying so long ago, and his house this month open again. Now himself dead. Poor unfortunate man!

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Aug 1665. The contagion still increasing, and growing now all about us, I sent my wife (age 30) and whole family (two or three necessary servants excepted) to my brother's at Wotton, Surrey [Map], being resolved to stay at my house myself, and to look after my charge, trusting in the providence and goodness of God.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1665. Up betimes and to my business of settling my house and papers, and then abroad and met with Hadley, our clerke, who, upon my asking how the plague goes, he told me it encreases much, and much in our parish; for, says he, there died nine this week, though I have returned but six: which is a very ill practice, and makes me think it is so in other places; and therefore the plague much greater than people take it to be.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1665. Up and, after putting several things in order to my removal, to Woolwich, Kent [Map]; the plague having a great encrease this week, beyond all expectation of almost 2,000, making the general Bill 7,000, odd 100; and the plague above 6,000.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1665. Church being done, my Lord Bruncker (age 45), Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and I up to the Vestry at the desire of the justices of the Peace, Sir Theo. Biddulph (age 53) and Sir W. Boreman (age 53) and Alderman Hooker (age 53), in order to the doing something for the keeping of the plague from growing; but Lord! to consider the madness of the people of the town, who will (because they are forbid) come in crowds along with the dead corps to see them buried; but we agreed on some orders for the prevention thereof.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1665. Writing letters all the morning, among others to my Baroness Carteret (age 63), the first I have wrote to her, telling her the state of the city as to health and other sorrowfull stories, and thence after dinner to Greenwich, Kent [Map], to Sir J. Minnes (age 66), where I found my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and having staid our hour for the justices by agreement, the time being past we to walk in the Park with Mr. Hammond and Turner, and there eat some fruit out of the King's garden and walked in the Parke, and so back to Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and thence walked home, my Lord Bruncker (age 45) giving me a very neat cane to walk with; but it troubled me to pass by Coome farme where about twenty-one people have died of the plague, and three or four days since I saw a dead corps in a coffin lie in the Close unburied, and a watch is constantly kept there night and day to keep the people in, the plague making us cruel, as doggs, one to another.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1665. Thence by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56): all the way fires on each side of the Thames, and strange to see in broad daylight two or three burials upon the Bankeside, one at the very heels of another: doubtless all of the plague; and yet at least forty or fifty people going along with every one of them.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1665. Up by 5 of the clock, mighty full of fear of an ague, but was obliged to go, and so by water, wrapping myself up warm, to the Tower [Map], and there sent for the Weekely Bill, and find 8,252 dead in all, and of them 6,878 of the plague; which is a most dreadfull number, and shows reason to fear that the plague hath got that hold that it will yet continue among us.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1665. Came home, there perishing near 10,000 poor creatures weekly; however, I went all along the city and suburbs from Kent Street to St James', a dismal passage, and dangerous to see so many coffins exposed in the streets, now thin of people; the shops shut up, and all in mournful silence, not knowing whose turn might be next. I went to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) for a pest-ship, to wait on our infected men, who were not a few. See Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there fitted myself in several businesses to go to London, where I have not been now a pretty while. But before I went from the office newes is brought by word of mouth that letters are now just now brought from the fleete of our taking a great many more of the Dutch fleete, in which I did never more plainly see my command of my temper in my not admitting myself to receive any kind of joy from it till I had heard the certainty of it, and therefore went by water directly to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I find a letter of the Lath from Solebay [Map], from my Lord Sandwich (age 40), of the fleete's meeting with about eighteen more of the Dutch fleete, and his taking of most of them; and the messenger says, they had taken three after the letter was wrote and sealed; which being twenty-one, and the fourteen took the other day, is forty-five sail; some of which are good, and others rich ships, which is so great a cause of joy in us all that my Lord and everybody is highly joyed thereat. And having taken a copy of my Lord's letter, I away back again to the Beare [Map] at the bridge foot, being full of wind and out of order, and there called for a biscuit and a piece of cheese and gill of sacke, being forced to walk over the Bridge [Map], toward the 'Change [Map], and the plague being all thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1665. But, Lord! what a sad time it is to see no boats upon the River; and grass grows all up and down White Hall court, and nobody but poor wretches in the streets! And, which is worst of all, the Duke (age 31) showed us the number of the plague this week, brought in the last night from the Lord Mayor; that it is encreased about 600 more than the last, which is quite contrary to all our hopes and expectations, from the coldness of the late season. For the whole general number is 8,297, and of them the plague 7,165; which is more in the whole by above 50, than the biggest Bill yet; which is very grievous to us all.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Sep 1665. Here I saw this week's Bill of Mortality, wherein, blessed be God! there is above 1800 decrease, being the first considerable decrease we have had.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1665. This night I hear that of our two watermen that use to carry our letters, and were well on Saturday last, one is dead, and the other dying sick of the plague. The plague, though decreasing elsewhere, yet being greater about the Tower [Map] and thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Oct 1665. This night comes Sir George Smith to see me at the office, and tells me how the plague is decreased this week 740, for which God be praised! but that it encreases at our end of the town still, and says how all the towne is full of Captain Cocke's (age 48) being in some ill condition about prize-goods, his goods being taken from him, and I know not what. But though this troubles me to have it said, and that it is likely to be a business in Parliament, yet I am not much concerned at it, because yet I believe this newes is all false, for he would have wrote to me sure about it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1665. Round about and next door on every side is the plague, but I did not value it, but there did what I would 'con elle', and so away to Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) to discourse of our confounded business of prisoners, and sick and wounded seamen, wherein he and we are so much put out of order1. And here he showed me his gardens, which are for variety of evergreens, and hedge of holly, the finest things I ever saw in my life2.

Note 1. Each of the Commissioners for the Sick and Wounded was appointed to a particular district, and Evelyn's district was Kent and Sussex. On September 25th, 1665, Evelyn wrote in his Diary: "my Lord Admiral being come from ye fleete to Greenewich, I went thence with him to ye Cockpit [Map] to consult with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56). I was peremptory that unlesse we had £10,000 immediately, the prisoners would starve, and 'twas proposed it should be rais'd out of the E. India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich (age 40). They being but two of ye Commission, and so not impower'd to determine, sent an expresse to his Majesty and Council to know what they should do".

Note 2. Evelyn (age 44) purchased Sayes Court [Map], Deptford, in 1653, and laid out his gardens, walks, groves, enclosures, and plantations, which afterwards became famous for their beauty. When he took the place in hand it was nothing but an open field of one hundred acres, with scarcely a hedge in it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1665. Thence back the back way to my office, where very late, very busy. But most of all when at night come two waggons from Rochester, Kent [Map] with more goods from Captain Cocke (age 48); and in houseing them at Mr. Tooker's lodgings come two of the Custome-house to seize them, and did seize them but I showed them my 'Transire'. However, after some hot and angry words, we locked them up, and sealed up the key, and did give it to the constable to keep till Monday, and so parted. But, Lord! to think how the poor constable come to me in the dark going home; "Sir", says he, "I have the key, and if you would have me do any service for you, send for me betimes to-morrow morning, and I will do what you would have me". Whether the fellow do this out of kindness or knavery, I cannot tell; but it is pretty to observe. Talking with him in the high way, come close by the bearers with a dead corpse of the plague; but, Lord! to see what custom is, that I am come almost to think nothing of it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1665. Being overjoyed at this I to write my letters, and at it very late. Good newes this week that there are about 600 less dead of the plague than the last. So home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Thence I walked to the Tower [Map]; but, Lord! how empty the streets are and melancholy, so many poor sick people in the streets full of sores; and so many sad stories overheard as I walk, every body talking of this dead, and that man sick, and so many in this place, and so many in that. And they tell me that, in Westminster, there is never a physician and but one apothecary left, all being dead; but that there are great hopes of a great decrease this week: God send it!

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1665. Thus we end the month merrily; and the more for that, after some fears that the plague would have increased again this week, I hear for certain that there is above 400 [less], the whole number being 1,388, and of them of the plague, 1,031. Want of money in the Navy puts everything out of order. Men grow mutinous; and nobody here to mind the business of the Navy but myself. At least Sir W. Batten (age 64) for the few days he has been here do nothing. I in great hopes of my place of Surveyor-Generall of the Victualling, which will bring me £300 per annum.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1665. To dinner, where a great deale of silly discourse, but the worst is I hear that the plague increases much at Lambeth, Surrey [Map], St. Martin's [Map] and Westminster, and fear it will all over the city.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1665. Thence after dinner to the office again, and thence am sent for to the King's Head [Map] by my Lord Rutherford, who, since I can hope for no more convenience from him, his business is troublesome to me, and therefore I did leave him as soon as I could and by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], and there did order my matters so, walking up and down the fields till it was dark night, that 'je allais a la maison of my valentine, [Bagwell's wife] and there 'je faisais whatever je voudrais avec' [I did whatever I wanted with] her, and, about eight at night, did take water, being glad I was out of the towne; for the plague, it seems, rages there more than ever, and so to my lodgings, where my Lord had got a supper and the mistresse of the house, and her daughters, and here staid Mrs. Pierce to speake with me about her husband's business, and I made her sup with us, and then at night my Lord and I walked with her home, and so back again.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1665. Called up by break of day by Captain Cocke (age 48), by agreement, and he and I in his coach through Kent-streete (a sad place through the plague, people sitting sicke and with plaisters about them in the street begging) to Viner's (age 34) and Colvill's about money business, and so to my house, and there I took £300 in order to the carrying it down to my Lord Sandwich (age 40) in part of the money I am to pay for Captain Cocke (age 48) by our agreement. So I took it down, and down I went to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to my office, and there sat busy till noon, and so home to dinner, and thence to the office again, and by and by to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) by water late, where I find he had remembered that I had appointed to come to him this day about money, which I excused not doing sooner; but I see, a dull fellow, as he is, do sometimes remember what another thinks he mindeth not. My business was about getting money of the East India Company; but, Lord! to see how the Duke himself magnifies himself in what he had done with the Company; and my Lord Craven (age 57) what the King (age 35) could have done without my Lord Duke, and a deale of stir, but most mightily what a brave fellow I am.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1665. But, they being gone, the lady and I very civilly sat an houre by the fireside observing the folly of this Robinson (age 50), that makes it his worke to praise himself, and all he say and do, like a heavy-headed coxcombe. The plague, blessed be God! is decreased 400; making the whole this week but 1300 and odd; for which the Lord be praised!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1665. I heard this day that Mr. Harrington is not dead of the plague, as we believed, at which I was very glad, but most of all, to hear that the plague is come very low; that is, the whole under 1,000, and the plague 600 and odd: and great hopes of a further decrease, because of this day's being a very exceeding hard frost, and continues freezing.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1665. Went home, the contagion having now decreased considerably.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1665. In the afternoon to the office, and there very late writing letters and then home, my wife and people sitting up for me, and after supper to bed. Great joy we have this week in the weekly Bill, it being come to 544 in all, and but 333 of the plague; so that we are encouraged to get to London soon as we can. And my father writes as great news of joy to them, that he saw Yorke's waggon go again this week to London, and was full of passengers; and tells me that my aunt Bell hath been dead of the plague these seven weeks.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1665. Up betimes and finished my journall for five days back, and then after being ready to my Lord Bruncker (age 45) by appointment, there to order the disposing of some money that we have come into the office, and here to my great content I did get a bill of imprest to Captain Cocke (age 48) to pay myself in part of what is coming to me from him for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) satisfaction and my owne, and also another payment or two wherein I am concerned, and having done that did go to Mr. Pierce's, where he and his wife made me drink some tea, and so he and I by water together to London. Here at a taverne in Cornhill [Map] he and I did agree upon my delivering up to him a bill of Captain Cocke's (age 48), put into my hand for Pierce's use upon evening of reckonings about the prize goods, and so away to the 'Change [Map], and there hear the ill news, to my great and all our great trouble, that the plague is encreased again this week, notwithstanding there hath been a day or two great frosts; but we hope it is only the effects of the late close warm weather, and if the frosts continue the next week, may fall again; but the town do thicken so much with people, that it is much if the plague do not grow again upon us. Off the 'Change [Map] invited by Sheriff Hooker (age 53), who keeps the poorest, mean, dirty table in a dirty house that ever I did see any Sheriff of London; and a plain, ordinary, silly man I think he is, but rich; only his son, Mr. Lethulier (age 32), I like, for a pretty, civil, understanding merchant; and the more by much, because he happens to be husband to our noble, fat, brave lady in our parish, that I and my wife admire so.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1665. After dinner back again and to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Mr. Evelyn's (age 45), who was not within, but I had appointed my cozen Thos. Pepys of Hatcham to meet me there, to discourse about getting his £1000 of my Lord Sandwich (age 40), having now an opportunity of my having above that sum in my hands of his. I found this a dull fellow still in all his discourse, but in this he is ready enough to embrace what I counsel him to, which is, to write importunately to my Lord and me about it and I will look after it. I do again and again declare myself a man unfit to be security for such a sum. He walked with me as far as Deptford, Kent [Map] upper towne, being mighty respectfull to me, and there parted, he telling me that this towne is still very bad of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1665. So I away home, and was there sat up for to be spoken with my young Mrs. Daniel, to pray me to speake for her husband to be a Lieutenant. I had the opportunity here of kissing her again and again, and did answer that I would be very willing to do him any kindnesse, and so parted, and I to bed, exceedingly pleased in all my matters of money this month or two, it having pleased God to bless me with several opportunities of good sums, and that I have them in effect all very well paid, or in my power to have. But two things trouble me; one, the sicknesse is increased above 80 this weeke (though in my owne parish not one has died, though six the last weeke); the other, most of all, which is, that I have so complexed an account for these last two months for variety of layings out upon Tangier, occasions and variety of gettings that I have not made even with myself now these 3 or 4 months, which do trouble me mightily, finding that I shall hardly ever come to understand them thoroughly again, as I used to do my accounts when I was at home.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1665. Thence to my lodging, making up my Journall for 8 or 9 days, and so my mind being eased of it, I to supper and to bed. The weather hath been frosty these eight or nine days, and so we hope for an abatement of the plague the next weeke, or else God have mercy upon us! for the plague will certainly continue the next year if it do not.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1665. Up, and with Cocke (age 48), by coach to London, there home to my wife, and angry about her desiring a mayde yet, before the plague is quite over. It seems Mercer is troubled that she hath not one under her, but I will not venture my family by increasing it before it be safe.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Dec 1665. Now blessed be God for his extraordinary mercies and preservation of me this year, when thousands, and ten thousands, perished, and were swept away on each side of me, there dying in our parish this year 406 of the pestilence! See Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1665. Thus ends this year, to my great joy, in this manner. I have raised my estate from £1300 in this year to £4400. I have got myself greater interest, I think, by my diligence, and my employments encreased by that of Treasurer for Tangier, and Surveyour of the Victualls. It is true we have gone through great melancholy because of the great plague, and I put to great charges by it, by keeping my family long at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and myself and another part of my family, my clerks, at my charge at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and a mayde at London; but I hope the King (age 35) will give us some satisfaction for that. But now the plague is abated almost to nothing, and I intending to get to London as fast as I can. My family, that is my wife and maids, having been there these two or three weeks. The Dutch war goes on very ill, by reason of lack of money; having none to hope for, all being put into disorder by a new Act that is made as an experiment to bring credit to the Exchequer, for goods and money to be advanced upon the credit of that Act. I have never lived so merrily (besides that I never got so much) as I have done this plague time, by my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) and Captain Cocke's (age 48) good company, and the acquaintance of Mrs. Knipp, Coleman and her husband, and Mr. Laneare, and great store of dancings we have had at my cost (which I was willing to indulge myself and wife) at my lodgings. The great evil of this year, and the only one indeed, is the fall of my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), whose mistake about the prizes hath undone him, I believe, as to interest at Court; though sent (for a little palliating it) Embassador into Spayne, which he is now fitting himself for. But the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) goes with the Prince to sea this next year, and my Lord very meanly spoken of; and, indeed, his miscarriage about the prize goods is not to be excused, to suffer a company of rogues to go away with ten times as much as himself, and the blame of all to be deservedly laid upon him1. My whole family hath been well all this while, and all my friends I know of, saving my aunt Bell, who is dead, and some children of my cozen Sarah's, of the plague. But many of such as I know very well, dead; yet, to our great joy, the town fills apace, and shops begin to be open again. Pray God continue the plague's decrease! for that keeps the Court away from the place of business, and so all goes to rack as to publick matters, they at this distance not thinking of it.

Note 1. According to Granville Penn ("Memorials of Sir W. Penn (age 44)", ii. 488 n.) £2000 went to Lord Sandwich (age 40) and £8000 among eight others.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jan 1666. I supped in Nonesuch House [Map], whither the office of the Exchequer was transferred during the plague, at my good friend.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1666. Up, and all the morning till three in the afternoon examining and fitting up my Pursers' paper and sent it away by an Expresse. Then comes my wife, and I set her to get supper ready against I go to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and back again; and at the Duke's with great joy I received the good news of the decrease of the plague this week to 70, and but 253 in all; which is the least Bill hath been known these twenty years in the City. Through the want of people in London is it, that must make it so low below the ordinary number for Bills.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and there hear to our grief how the plague is encreased this week from seventy to eighty-nine. We have also great fear of our Hambrough fleete, of their meeting the Dutch; as also have certain newes, that by storms Sir Jer. Smith's fleet is scattered, and three of them come without masts back to Plymouth, Devon [Map], which is another very exceeding great disappointment, and if the victualling ships are miscarried will tend to the losse of the garrison of Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1666. Home with his Lordship to Mrs. Williams's, in Covent-Garden [Map], to dinner (the first time I ever was there), and there met Captain Cocke (age 49); and pretty merry, though not perfectly so, because of the fear that there is of a great encrease again of the plague this week. And again my Lord Bruncker (age 46) do tell us, that he hath it from Sir John Baber; who is related to my Lord Craven (age 57), that my Lord Craven (age 57) do look after Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) place, and do reckon himself sure of it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1666. So home late at my letters, and so to bed, being mightily troubled at the newes of the plague's being encreased, and was much the saddest news that the plague hath brought me from the beginning of it; because of the lateness of the year, and the fear, we may with reason have, of its continuing with us the next summer. The total being now 375, and the plague 158.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1666. My wife (age 31) and family returned to me from the country, where they had been since August, by reason of the contagion, now almost universally ceasing. Blessed be God for his infinite mercy in preserving us! I, having gone through so much danger, and lost so many of my poor officers, escaping still myself that I might live to recount and magnify his goodness to me.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1666. I away home, and there at the office all the afternoon till late at night, and then away home to supper and to bed. Ill newes this night that the plague is encreased this week, and in many places else about the towne, and at Chatham, Kent [Map] and elsewhere. This day my wife wanting a chambermaid with much ado got our old little Jane to be found out, who come to see her and hath lived all this while in one place, but is so well that we will not desire her removal, but are mighty glad to see the poor wench, who is very well and do well.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1666. Thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), but he not within, but goes to-morrow. My wife to Mrs. Hunt's, who is lately come to towne and grown mighty fat. I called her there, and so home and late at the office, and so home to supper and to bed. We are much troubled that the sicknesse in general (the town being so full of people) should be but three, and yet of the particular disease of the plague there should be ten encrease.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1666. Up, and to the office and there all the morning sitting and at noon to dinner with my Lord Bruncker (age 46), Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir W. Pen (age 44) at the White Horse in Lombard Street [Map], where, God forgive us! good sport with Captain Cocke's (age 49) having his mayde sicke of the plague a day or two ago and sent to the pest house, where she now is, but he will not say anything but that she is well.

On 01 Mar 1666 Talbot Pepys (age 83) died of plague.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1666. At noon to dinner, and then to the office again, where mighty business, doing a great deale till midnight and then home to supper and to bed. The plague encreased this week 29 from 28, though the total fallen from 238 to 207, which do never a whit please me.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1666. After dinner to my office close, and did very much business, and so late home to supper and to bed. The plague increased four this week, which troubles me, though but one in the whole.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1666. After dinner home, where I find my wife hath on a sudden, upon notice of a coach going away to-morrow, taken a resolution of going in it to Brampton, we having lately thought it fit for her to go to satisfy herself and me in the nature of the fellow that is there proposed to my sister. So she to fit herself for her journey and I to the office all the afternoon till late, and so home and late putting notes to "It is decreed, nor shall thy fate, &c". and then to bed. The plague is, to our great grief, encreased nine this week, though decreased a few in the total. And this encrease runs through many parishes, which makes us much fear the next year.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1666. The Court full this morning of the newes of Tom Cheffin's (age 66) death, the King's closett-keeper. He was well last night as ever, flaying at tables in the house, and not very ill this morning at six o'clock, yet dead before seven: they think, of an imposthume in his breast. But it looks fearfully among people nowadays, the plague, as we hear, encreasing every where again.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1666. Up betimes, and many people to me about business. To the office and there sat till noon, and then home and dined, and to the office again all the afternoon, where we sat all, the first time of our resolution to sit both forenoons and afternoons. Much business at night and then home, and though late did see some work done by the plasterer to my new window in the boy's chamber plastered. Then to supper, and after having my head combed by the little girle to bed. Bad news that the plague is decreased in the general again and two increased in the sickness.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Apr 1666. Our parish was now more infected with the plague than ever, and so was all the country about, though almost quite ceased at London.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1666. Being mighty weary last night, lay long this morning, then up and to the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 65), Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I met, and toward noon took coach and to White Hall, where I had the opportunity to take leave of the Prince (age 46), and again of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57); and saw them kiss the King's (age 35) hands and the Duke's (age 32); and much content, indeed, there seems to be in all people at their going to sea, and [they] promise themselves much good from them. This morning the House of Parliament do meet, only to adjourne again till winter. The plague, I hear, encreases in the towne much, and exceedingly in the country everywhere.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1666. So home, and with my wife and Mercer spent our evening upon our new leads by our bedchamber singing, while Mrs. Mary Batelier looked out of the window to us, and we talked together, and at last bid good night. However, my wife and I staid there talking of several things with great pleasure till eleven o'clock at night, and it is a convenience I would not want for any thing in the world, it being, methinks, better than almost any roome in my house. So having, supped upon the leads, to bed. The plague, blessed be God! is decreased sixteen this week.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1666. So home by water, and there hard till 12 at night at work finishing the great letter to the Duke of Yorke (age 32) against to-morrow morning, and so home to bed. This day come home again my little girle Susan, her sicknesse proving an ague, and she had a fit soon almost as she come home. The fleete is not yet gone from the Nore. The plague encreases in many places, and is 53 this week with us.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jul 1666. Our parish still infected with the contagion.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jul 1666. The pestilence now fresh increasing in our parish, I forbore going to church. In the afternoon came tidings of our victory over the Dutch, sinking some, and driving others aground, and into their ports.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1666. Thence to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 56) and my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), but failed in my business; so home and in Fenchurch-streete [Map] met with Mr. Battersby; says he, "Do you see Dan Rawlinson's (age 52) door shut up?" (which I did, and wondered). "Why", says he, "after all the sickness, and himself spending all the last year in the country, one of his men is now dead of the plague, and his wife and one of his mayds sicke, and himself shut up"; which troubles me mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1666. In the evening to Lumbard-streete [Map] about money, to enable me to pay Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) £3000, which he hath lodged in my hands, in behalf of his son and my Lady Jemimah, toward their portion, which, I thank God, I am able to do at a minute's warning. In my [way] I inquired, and find Mrs. Rawlinson is dead of the sickness, and her mayde continues mighty ill. He himself is got out of the house. I met also with Mr. Evelyn (age 45) in the streete, who tells me the sad condition at this very day at Deptford, Kent [Map] for the plague, and more at Deale [Map] (within his precinct as one of the Commissioners for sick and wounded seamen), that the towne is almost quite depopulated.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. The contagion still continuing, we had the Church service at home.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. Still, the plague continuing in our parish, I could not, without danger, adventure to our church.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1666. Up, and down to Tower Wharfe [Map]; and there, with Batty and labourers from Deptford, Kent [Map], did get my goods housed well at home. So down to Deptford, Kent [Map] again to fetch the rest, and there eat a bit of dinner at the Globe, with the master of the Bezan with me, while the labourers went to dinner. Here I hear that this poor towne do bury still of the plague seven or eight in a day.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Oct 1666. The pestilence, through God's mercy, began now to abate considerably in our town.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1666. He gone, and Sheply, I to the office a little, and then to church, it being thanksgiving-day for the cessation of the plague; but, Lord! how the towne do say that it is hastened before the plague is quite over, there dying some people still1, but only to get ground for plays to be publickly acted, which the Bishops would not suffer till the plague was over; and one would thinke so, by the suddenness of the notice given of the day, which was last Sunday, and the little ceremony. The sermon being dull of Mr. Minnes, and people with great indifferency come to hear him.

Note 1. According to the Bills of Mortality seven persons died in London of the plague during the week November 20th to 27th; and for some weeks after deaths continued from this cause.

Pepy's Diary. The plague, it seems, grows more and more at Amsterdam; and we are going upon making of all ships coming from thence and Hambrough, or any other infected places, to perform their Quarantine (for thirty days as Sir Rd. Browne expressed it in the order of the Council, contrary to the import of the word, though in the general acceptation it signifies now the thing, not the time spent in doing it) in Holehaven, a thing never done by us before.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1665. So late back, and to the office, wrote letters, and so home to supper and to bed. This day the Newes book upon Mr. Moore's showing L'Estrange1 (Captain Ferrers's letter) did do my Lord Sandwich (age 39) great right as to the late victory. The Duke of Yorke (age 31) not yet come to towne. The towne grows very sickly, and people to be afeard of it; there dying this last week of the plague 112, from 43 the week before, whereof but [one] in Fanchurch-streete [Map], and one in Broad-streete, by the Treasurer's office.

Note 1. "The Public Intelligencer", published by Roger L'Estrange, the predecessor of the "London Gazette"..

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1665 Battle of Vågen

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1665. But before I come out there happened newes to come to the by an expresse from Mr. Coventry (age 37), telling me the most happy news of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) meeting with part of the Dutch; his taking two of their East India ships, and six or seven others, and very good prizes and that he is in search of the rest of the fleet, which he hopes to find upon the Wellbancke, with the loss only of the Hector, poor Captain Cuttle. This newes do so overjoy me that I know not what to say enough to express it, but the better to do it I did walk to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there sending away Mr. Andrews (age 33), I to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and his mistress, and Sir J. Minnes (age 66). Where we supped (there was also Sir W. Doyly (age 51) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44)); but the receipt of this newes did put us all into such an extacy of joy, that it inspired into Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44) such a spirit of mirth, that in all my life I never met with so merry a two hours as our company this night was. Among other humours, Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) repeating of some verses made up of nothing but the various acceptations of may and can, and doing it so aptly upon occasion of something of that nature, and so fast, did make us all die almost with laughing, and did so stop the mouth of Sir J. Minnes (age 66) in the middle of all his mirth (and in a thing agreeing with his own manner of genius), that I never saw any man so out-done in all my life; and Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) mirth too to see himself out-done, was the crown of all our mirth. In this humour we sat till about ten at night, and so my Lord (age 45) and his mistress home, and we to bed, it being one of the times of my life wherein I was the fullest of true sense of joy.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. To hear that poor Payne, my waiter, hath buried a child, and is dying himself. To hear that a labourer I sent but the other day to Dagenhams, to know how they did there, is dead of the plague; and that one of my own watermen, that carried me daily, fell sick as soon as he had landed me on Friday morning last, when I had been all night upon the water (and I believe he did get his infection that day at Brainford), and is now dead of the plague. To hear that Captain Lambert and Cuttle are killed in the taking these ships; and that Mr. Sidney Montague is sick of a desperate fever at my Baroness Carteret's (age 63), at Scott's-hall. To hear that Mr. Lewes hath another daughter sick.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Down to the office, and there wrote letters to and again about this good newes of our victory, and so by water home late. Where, when I come home I spent some thoughts upon the occurrences of this day, giving matter for as much content on one hand and melancholy on another, as any day in all my life. For the first; the finding of my money and plate, and all safe at London, and speeding in my business of money this day.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1665. At noon to dinner to my Lord Bruncker (age 45), where Sir W. Batten (age 64) and his Lady come, by invitation, and very merry we were, only that the discourse of the likelihood of the increase of the plague this weeke makes us a little sad, but then again the thoughts of the late prizes make us glad.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1666 Great Storm

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1666. Up and to the office and then to dinner. After dinner to the office again all the afternoon, and much business with me. Good newes beyond all expectation of the decrease of the plague, being now but 79, and the whole but 272. So home with comfort to bed. A most furious storme all night and morning.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1666. By agreement my Lord Bruncker (age 46) called me up, and though it was a very foule, windy, and rainy morning, yet down to the waterside we went, but no boat could go, the storme continued so. So my Lord to stay till fairer weather carried me into the Tower [Map] to Mr. Hore's and there we staid talking an houre, but at last we found no boats yet could go, so we to the office, where we met upon an occasion extraordinary of examining abuses of our clerkes in taking money for examining of tickets, but nothing done in it.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, St James' Day Battle

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1666. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord Berkeley's (age 38), at St. James's, where dined my Lady Harrietta Hyde (age 20), Lord Arlington (age 48), and Sir John Duncomb (age 44).

On 25 Jul 1666 the English fleet inflicted a severe defeat on the Dutch. Dutch casualties amounted to 1200 men, English 300.

Captain George Batts fought in Richard Utber's division in the White Squadron..

The Gloucester fought.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1666. He gone, I away by water from the Old Swan [Map] to White Hall. The waterman tells me that newes is come that our ship Resolution is burnt, and that we had sunke four or five of the enemy's ships. When I come to White Hall I met with Creed, and he tells me the same news, and walking with him to the Park I to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) lodging, and there he showed me Captain Talbot's letter, wherein he says that the fight begun on the 25th; that our White squadron begun with one of the Dutch squadrons, and then the Red with another so hot that we put them both to giving way, and so they continued in pursuit all the day, and as long as he stayed with them: that the Blue fell to the Zealand squadron; and after a long dispute, he against two or three great ships, he received eight or nine dangerous shots, and so come away; and says, he saw The Resolution burned by one of their fire-ships, and four or five of the enemy's. But says that two or three of our great ships were in danger of being fired by our owne fire-ships, which Sir W. Coventry (age 38), nor I, cannot understand. But upon the whole, he and I walked two or three turns in the Parke under the great trees, and do doubt that this gallant is come away a little too soon, having lost never a mast nor sayle. And then we did begin to discourse of the young gentlemen captains, which he was very free with me in speaking his mind of the unruliness of them; and what a losse the King (age 36) hath of his old men, and now of this Hannam, of The Resolution, if he be dead, and that there is but few old sober men in the fleete, and if these few of the Flags that are so should die, he fears some other gentlemen captains will get in, and then what a council we shall have, God knows. He told me how he is disturbed to hear the commanders at sea called cowards here on shore, and that he was yesterday concerned publiquely at a dinner to defend them, against somebody that said that not above twenty of them fought as they should do, and indeed it is derived from the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) himself, who wrote so to the King (age 36) and Duke (age 32), and that he told them how they fought four days, two of them with great disadvantage. The Count de Guiche, who was on board De Ruyter (age 59), writing his narrative home in French of the fight, do lay all the honour that may be upon the English courage above the Dutch, and that he himself [Sir W. Coventry (age 38)] was sent down from the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) after the fight, to pray them to spare none that they thought had not done their parts, and that they had removed but four, whereof Du Tell is one, of whom he would say nothing; but, it seems, the Duke of Yorke (age 32) hath been much displeased at his removal, and hath now taken him into his service, which is a plain affront to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57); and two of the others, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did speake very slenderly of their faults. Only the last, which was old Teddiman, he says, is in fault, and hath little to excuse himself with; and that, therefore, we should not be forward in condemning men of want of courage, when the Generalls, who are both men of metal, and hate cowards, and had the sense of our ill successe upon them (and by the way must either let the world thinke it was the miscarriage of the Captains or their owne conduct), have thought fit to remove no more of them, when desired by the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) to do it, without respect to any favour any of them can pretend to in either of them.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1666. Lord's Day. Up and all the morning in my chamber making up my accounts in my book with my father and brother and stating them. Towards noon before sermon was done at church comes newes by a letter to Sir W. Batten (age 65), to my hand, of the late fight, which I sent to his house, he at church. But, Lord! with what impatience I staid till sermon was done, to know the issue of the fight, with a thousand hopes and fears and thoughts about the consequences of either. At last sermon is done and he come home, and the bells immediately rung soon as the church was done. But coming; to Sir W. Batten (age 65) to know the newes, his letter said nothing of it; but all the towne is full of a victory.

Calendars. 30 Jul 1666. Great Yarmouth, Norfolk [Map]. 80. Rich. Bower to Williamson. The Zealanders were engaged with the Blue squadron Wednesday and most of Thursday, but at length the Zealanders ran; the Dutch fleet escaped to the Weelings and Goree; only hears of six ships lost by them; 32 wounded men from the Victory and Vanguard have come to Southwold, Suffolk [Map]. The Victory being threatened by a fire-ship, the captain sent his lieutenant in a ketch to put the fire-ship by; the ketch followed the fire-ship too near the Dutch fleet, and being herself taken for a fire-ship, every one near let fly at ber, so the ketch was sadly shattered and the lieuten- ant killed. Capt. Talbot of the Elizabeth came into Aldborough [Map], with his vessel in good condition, walking the deck in his silk morning gown and powdered hair. The East India London also came into Aldborough [Map]; the captain was killed, and the surgeon's arm broken; the men declared they would not fight without a surgeon; other arrivals at Yarmouth [Map]. Sir Thomas Allin (age 54) has taken and fired Banckart's flag ship, Banckart escaping in a boat. The Royal Charles is sent in; the generals remain on board the Royal James. The Hull fleet has sailed from Yarmouth [Map] for London without convoy. Begs the Gazettes regularly; 22 wounded men are brought ashore.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1666. Thence parted and to Mrs. Martin's lodgings, and sat with her a while, and then by water home, all the way reading the Narrative of the late fight in order, it may be, to the making some marginal notes upon it. At the Old Swan [Map] found my Betty Michell at the doore, where I staid talking with her a pretty while, it being dusky, and kissed her and so away home and writ my letters, and then home to supper, where the brother and Mary Batelier are still and Mercer's two sisters. They have spent the time dancing this afternoon, and we were very merry, and then after supper into the garden and there walked, and then home with them and then back again, my wife and I and the girle, and sang in the garden and then to bed. Colville was with me this morning, and to my great joy I could now have all my money in, that I have in the world. But the times being open again, I thinke it is best to keepe some of it abroad.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Aug 1666. The death of Everson, and the report of our success, beyond expectation, in the killing of so great a number of men, hath raised the estimation of the late victory considerably; but it is only among fools: for all that was but accidental. But this morning, getting Sir.W. Pen (age 45) to read over the Narrative with me, he did sparingly, yet plainly, say that we might have intercepted their Zealand squadron coming home, if we had done our parts; and more, that we might have spooned before the wind as well as they, and have overtaken their ships in the pursuite, in all the while1.

Note 1. To spoom, or spoon, is to go right before the wind, without any sail. Sea Dictionary. Dryden (age 34) uses the word "When virtue spooms before a prosperous gale, My heaving wishes help to fill the sail". Hind and Panther, iii. 96.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1666. Thanksgiving Day1. Up, and comes Mr. Foley and his man, with a box of a great variety of carpenter's and joyner's tooles, which I had bespoke, to me, which please me mightily; but I will have more. Then I abroad down to the Old Swan [Map], and there I called and kissed Betty Michell, and would have got her to go with me to Westminster, but I find her a little colder than she used to be, methought, which did a little molest me.

Note 1. A proclamation ordering August 14th to be observed in London and Westminster, and August 23rd in other places, as a day of thanksgiving for the late victory at sea over the Dutch, was published on August 6th.

Calendars. 27 Oct 1666. Whitehall. 62. H. Muddiman to Sir Edward Stradling, St. Donat's Castle, Glamorganshire. The sickness is abating, 8 only have died of it at Plymouth, 8 at Sarum, decrease 17, one or two at Ips- wich, and 8 at Norwich. The English are said to have been forced from the Canaries, leaving their estates in the hands of Spaniards. The Commissioners for payment of seamen daily pay off great numbers who are discharged from winter service, and bring their tickets with them, and the rest are ordered by beat of drum to repair aboard. The planting of hemp is much enconraged. The Commons have answered the Lords' reasons about importing French commodities, and are settling supplies. Sir Jeremy Smith has got as much credit by his late examination as his enemies wished him disgrace, the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) being fully satisfied of his valour in the engagement. It appears that he had 147 men killed and wounded, while the most eminent of his accusers had but two or three. Peter Ceely of Cornwall, secured on suspicion of fanaticism, refused the liberty offered him if he would give security to the deputy lieutenants. The King has ordered a proclamation in Scotland for a convocation, which differs from a parliament in that it can levy money, but makes no laws. News from Germany, Brandenburg, Holland, and Munster. Sir Rich. Browne has brought into the House of Commons knives broad and sharp, able to pierce armour, of which 300 were found in the rubbish of a house where two Frenchmen lived; they can be guessed of no use but to massacre. A proclamation and other measures are proposed, for repressing the insolencies of the Papists. [8 pages.]

Calendars. 03 Nov 1666. Declaration [by Lord Arlington]. The King (age 36), haying maturely considered the charges brought against Sir Rob. Holmes (age 44) by Sir Jeremy Smith, finds no cause to suspect Sir Robert (age 44) of cowardice in the fight with the Dutch of June 25 and 26, but thinks that on the night of the 26th, he yielded too easily to the opinion of his pilot, without consulting those of the other ships, muzzled his ship, and thus obliged the squadron to do the same, and so the enemy, which might have been driven into the body of the King's fleet, then returning from the pursuit, was allowed to escape. [Hnt. Book 23, p. 264.]

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jul 1666. The pestilence now fresh increasing in our parish, I forbore going to church. In the afternoon came tidings of our victory over the Dutch, sinking some, and driving others aground, and into their ports.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and to church with my wife, and then home, and there is come little Michell and his wife, I sent for them, and also comes Captain Guy to dine with me, and he and I much talk together. He cries out of the discipline of the fleete, and confesses really that the true English valour we talk of is almost spent and worn out; few of the commanders doing what they should do, and he much fears we shall therefore be beaten the next year. He assures me we were beaten home the last June fight, and that the whole fleete was ashamed to hear of our bonefires. He commends Smith, and cries out of Holmes (age 44) for an idle, proud, conceited, though stout fellow. He tells me we are to owe the losse of so many ships on the sands, not to any fault of the pilots, but to the weather; but in this I have good authority to fear there was something more. He says the Dutch do fight in very good order, and we in none at all. He says that in the July fight, both the Prince (age 46) and Holmes (age 44) had their belly-fulls, and were fain to go aside; though, if the wind had continued, we had utterly beaten them. He do confess the whole to be governed by a company of fools, and fears our ruine.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Holme's Bonfire

On 09 Aug 1666 and 10 Aug 1666 Holme's Bonfire was an attack by the English fleet commanded by Admiral Robert Holmes (age 44) on a Dutch merchant fleet of 140 ships at the Vlie estuary. The town of West-Terschelling was burnt down.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1666. Thence to the office, and there did the remainder of my business, and so home to supper and to bed. This afternoon I hear as if we had landed some men upon the Dutch coasts, but I believe it is but a foolery either in the report or the attempt.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. Mighty sleepy; slept till past eight of the clock, and was called up by a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), which, among other things, tells me how we have burned one hundred and sixty ships of the enemy within the Fly1. I up, and with all possible haste, and in pain for fear of coming late, it being our day of attending the Duke of Yorke (age 32), to St. James's, where they are full of the particulars; how they are generally good merchant ships, some of them laden and supposed rich ships. We spent five fire-ships upon them. We landed on the Schelling (Sir Philip Howard (age 35) with some men, and Holmes (age 44), I think; with others, about 1000 in all), and burned a town; and so come away.

Note 1. On the 8th August the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) reported to Lord Arlington (age 48) that he had "sent 1000 good men under Sir R. Holmes (age 44) and Sir William Jennings to destroy the islands of Vlie and Schelling". On the 10th James Hayes wrote to Williamson: "On the 9th at noon smoke was seen rising from several places in the island of Vlie, and the 10th brought news that Sir Robert had burned in the enemy's harbour 160 outward bound valuable merchant men and three men-of-war, and taken a little pleasure boat and eight guns in four hours. The loss is computed at a million sterling, and will make great confusion when the people see themselves in the power of the English at their very doors. Sir Robert then landed his forces, and is burning the houses in Vlie and Schelling as bonfires for his good success at sea" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 21,27).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1666. This day Sir W. Batten (age 65) did show us at the table a letter from Sir T. Allen (age 54), which says that we have taken ten or twelve' ships (since the late great expedition of burning their ships and towne), laden with hempe, flax, tarr, deales, &c. This was good newes; but by and by comes in Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and he asked us with full mouth what we would give for good newes. Says Sir W. Batten (age 65), "I have better than you, for a wager". They laid sixpence, and we that were by were to give sixpence to him that told the best newes. So Sir W. Batten (age 65) told his of the ten or twelve ships Sir G. Carteret (age 56) did then tell us that upon the newes of the burning of the ships and towne the common people a Amsterdam did besiege De Witt's house, and he was force to flee to the Prince of Orange (age 15), who is gone to Cleve to the marriage of his sister (age 23) [Notee. his aunt]. This we concluded all the best newest and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and myself did give Sir G. Carteret (age 56) our sixpence a-piece, which he did give Mr. Smith to give the poor. Thus we made ourselves mighty merry.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1666. Up and by coach with £100 to the Exchequer to pay fees there. There left it, and I to St. James's, and there with; the Duke of Yorke (age 32). I had opportunity of much talk with Sir. W. Pen (age 45) to-day (he being newly come from the fleete); and he, do much undervalue the honour that is given to the conduct of the late business of Holmes (age 44) in burning the ships and town1 saying it was a great thing indeed, and of great profit to us in being of great losse to the enemy, but that it was wholly a business of chance, and no conduct employed in it. I find Sir W. Pen (age 45) do hold up his head at this time higher than ever he did in his life. I perceive he do look after Sir J. Minnes's (age 67) place if he dies, and though I love him not nor do desire to have him in, yet I do think (he) is the first man in England for it.

Note 1. The town burned (see August 15th, ante) was Brandaris, a place of 1000 houses, on the isle of Schelling; the ships lay between that island and the Fly (i.e. Vlieland), the adjoining island. This attack probably provoked that by the Dutch on Chatham, Kent [Map].

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Great Fire of London

Before 1100. St Benet Gracechurch [Map] was known as Grass Church given the nearby haymarket. St Benet is a shortened form of St Benedict of Nursia who founded Western monasticism. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of London and rebuilt by Christopher Wren.

King's Great Wardrobe. In 1381 the Wardrobe moved from the Tower of London to this location. The Wardrobe was a function of the royal household, charged with overseeing the King's robes, armour and garments. It also served as a treasure store. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of London.

In 1666 St Nicholas Acons Church was destroyed in the Great Fire of London; it was not rebuilt.

In Sep 1666 St Martin Vintry [Map] was one of the eight-six parish churches destroyed in the Great Fire of London.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. This fatal night, about ten, began the deplorable fire, near Fish Street Hill [Map], in London.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So home with a sad heart, and there find every body discoursing and lamenting the fire; and poor Tom Hater come with some few of his goods saved out of his house, which is burned upon Fish-streets Hill [Map]. I invited him to lie at my house, and did receive his goods, but was deceived in his lying there, the newes coming every moment of the growth of the fire; so as we were forced to begin to pack up our owne goods; and prepare for their removal; and did by moonshine (it being brave dry, and moon: shine, and warm weather) carry much of my goods into the garden, and Mr. Hater and I did remove my money and iron chests into my cellar, as thinking that the safest place. And got my bags of gold into my office, ready to carry away, and my chief papers of accounts also there, and my tallys into a box by themselves. So great was our fear, as Sir W. Batten (age 65) hath carts come out of the country to fetch away his goods this night. We did put Mr. Hater, poor man, to bed a little; but he got but very little rest, so much noise being in my house, taking down of goods.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. We staid till, it being darkish, we saw the fire as only one entire arch of fire from this to the other side the bridge, and in a bow up the hill for an arch of above a mile long: it made me weep to see it. The churches, houses, and all on fire and flaming at once; and a horrid noise the flames made, and the cracking of houses at their ruins.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Having seen as much as I could now, I away to White Hall by appointment, and there walked to St. James's Parks, and there met my wife and Creed and Wood and his wife, and walked to my boat; and there upon the water again, and to the fire up and down, it still encreasing, and the wind great. So near the fire as we could for smoke; and all over the Thames, with one's face in the wind, you were almost burned with a shower of firedrops. This is very true; so as houses were burned by these drops and flakes of fire, three or four, nay, five or six houses, one from another. When we could endure no more upon the water; we to a little ale-house on the Bankside, over against the Three Cranes, and there staid till it was dark almost, and saw the fire grow; and, as it grew darker, appeared more and more, and in corners and upon steeples, and between churches and houses, as far as we could see up the hill of the City, in a most horrid malicious bloody flame, not like the fine flame of an ordinary fire. Barbary and her husband away before us.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. They now removing out of Canning-streets (which received goods in the morning) into Lumbard-streets [Map], and further; and among others I now saw my little goldsmith, Stokes, receiving some friend's goods, whose house itself was burned the day after. We parted at Paul's; he home, and I to Paul's Wharf, where I had appointed a boat to attend me, and took in Mr. Carcasse and his brother, whom I met in the streets and carried them below and above bridge to and again to see the fire, which was now got further, both below and above and no likelihood of stopping it. Met with the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) in their barge, and with them to Queenhith and there called Sir Richard Browne (age 61) to them. Their order was only to pull down houses apace, and so below bridge the water-side; but little was or could be done, the fire coming upon them so fast. Good hopes there was of stopping it at the Three Cranes above, and at Buttolph's Wharf below bridge, if care be used; but the wind carries it into the City so as we know not by the water-side what it do there. River full of lighters and boats taking in goods, and good goods swimming in the water, and only I observed that hardly one lighter or boat in three that had the goods of a house in, but there was a pair of Virginalls1 in it.

Note 1. The virginal differed from the spinet in being square instead of triangular in form. The word pair was used in the obsolete sense of a set, as we read also of a pair of organs. The instrument is supposed to have obtained its name from young women, playing upon it.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. By this time it was about twelve o'clock; and so home, and there find my guests, which was Mr. Wood and his wife Barbary Sheldon, and also Mr. Moons: she mighty fine, and her husband; for aught I see, a likely man. But Mr. Moone's design and mine, which was to look over my closett and please him with the sight thereof, which he hath long desired, was wholly disappointed; for we were in great trouble and disturbance at this fire, not knowing what to think of it. However, we had an extraordinary good dinner, and as merry, as at this time we could be. While at dinner Mrs. Batelier come to enquire after Mr. Woolfe and Stanes (who, it seems, are related to them), whose houses in Fish-street [Map] are all burned; and they in a sad condition. She would not stay in the fright. Soon as dined, I and Moone away, and walked, through the City, the streets full of nothing but people and horses and carts loaden with goods, ready to run over one another, and, removing goods from one burned house to another.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So he left me, and I him, and walked home, seeing people all almost distracted, and no manner of means used to quench the fire. The houses, too, so very thick thereabouts, and full of matter for burning, as pitch and tarr, in Thames-street; and Ware, Hertfordshire [Map] houses of oyle, and wines, and brandy, and other things. Here I saw Mr. Isaake Houblon, the handsome man, prettily dressed and dirty, at his door at Dowgate, receiving some of his brothers' (age 37) things, whose houses were on fire; and, as he says, have been removed twice already; and he doubts (as it soon proved) that they must be in a little time removed from his house also, which was a sad consideration. And to see the churches all filling with goods by people who themselves should have been quietly there at this time.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Here meeting, with Captain Cocke (age 49), I in his coach, which he lent me, and Creed with me to Paul's, and there walked along Watlingstreet, as well as I could, every creature coming away loaden with goods to save, and here and there sicke people carried away in beds. Extraordinary good goods carried in carts and on backs. At last met my Lord Mayor (age 46) in Canningstreet, like a man spent, with a handkercher about his neck. To the King's message he cried, like a fainting woman, "Lord! what can I do? I am spent: people will not obey me. I have been pulling down houses; but the fire overtakes us faster than we can do it". That he needed no more soldiers; and that, for himself, he must go and refresh himself, having been up all night.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So I was called for, and did tell the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) what I saw, and that unless his Majesty did command houses to be pulled down nothing could stop the fire. They seemed much troubled, and the King (age 36) commanded me to go to my Lord Mayor (age 46)1 from him, and command him to spare no houses, but to pull down before the fire every way. The Duke of York (age 32) bid me tell him that if he would have any more soldiers he shall; and so did my Lord Arlington (age 48) afterwards, as a great secret2.

Note 1. Sir Thomas Bludworth (age 46). See June 30th, 1666.

Note 2. Sir William Coventry wrote to Lord Arlington on the evening of this day, "The Duke of York (age 32) fears the want of workmen and tools to-morrow morning, and wishes the deputy lieutenants and justices of peace to summon the workmen with tools to be there by break of day. In some churches and chapels are great hooks for pulling down houses, which should be brought ready upon the place to-night against the morning" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-66, p. 95).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Having staid, and in an hour's time seen the fire: rage every way, and nobody, to my sight, endeavouring to quench it, but to remove their goods, and leave all to the fire, and having seen it get as far as the Steele-yard [Map], and the wind mighty high and driving it into the City; and every thing, after so long a drought, proving combustible, even the very stones of churches, and among other things the poor steeple by which pretty Mrs.----lives, and whereof my old school-fellow Elborough is parson, taken fire in the very top, an there burned till it fell down: I to White Hall (with a gentleman with me who desired to go off from the Tower, to see the fire, in my boat); to White Hall, and there up to the Kings closett in the Chappell, where people come about me, and did give them an account dismayed them all, and word was carried in to the King (age 36).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So I down to the water-side, and there got a boat and through bridge, and there saw a lamentable fire. Poor Michell's house, as far as the Old Swan [Map], already burned that way, and the fire running further, that in a very little time it got as far as the Steeleyard [Map], while I was there. Everybody endeavouring to remove their goods, and flinging into the river or bringing them into lighters that layoff; poor people staying in their houses as long as till the very fire touched them, and then running into boats, or clambering from one pair of stairs by the water-side to another. And among other things, the poor pigeons, I perceive, were loth to leave their houses, but hovered about the windows and balconys till they were, some of them burned, their wings, and fell down.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears that above 300 houses have been burned down to-night by the fire we saw, and that it is now burning down all Fish-street [Map], by London Bridge [Map]. So I made myself ready presently, and walked to the Tower [Map], and there got up upon one of the high places, Sir J. Robinson's (age 51) little son going up with me; and there I did see the houses at that end of the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great fire on this and the other side the end of the bridge; which, among other people, did trouble me for poor little Michell and our Sarah on the bridge. So down, with my heart full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), who tells me that it begun this morning in the King's baker's' house in Pudding-lane, and that it hath burned St. Magnus's Church [Map] and most part of Fish-street [Map] already.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. Lord's Day. Some of our mayds sitting up late last night to get things ready against our feast to-day, Jane called us up about three in the morning, to tell us of a great fire they saw in the City. So I rose and slipped on my nightgowne, and went to her window, and thought it to be on the backside of Marke-lane [Map] at the farthest; but, being unused to such fires as followed, I thought it far enough off; and so went to bed again and to sleep. About seven rose again to dress myself, and there looked out at the window, and saw the fire not so much as it was and further off.

From 02 Sep 1666 to 06 Sep 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed around 13000 properties in the medieval City of London as well as 87 parish churches and St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. The fire is estimated to have left 80% of the city's residents homeless.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (age 31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge [Map], all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside [Map], down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside [Map] to the Thames, and all along Cornhill [Map] (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street [Map], Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle [Map], and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church [Map], to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage-"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. About four o'clock in the morning, my Lady Batten sent me a cart to carry away all my money, and plate, and best things, to Sir W. Rider's at Bednall-greene. Which I did riding myself in my night-gowne in the cart; and, Lord! to see how the streets and the highways are crowded with people running and riding, and getting of carts at any rate to fetch away things. I find Sir W. Rider tired with being called up all night, and receiving things from several friends. His house full of goods, and much of Sir W. Batten's (age 65) and Sir W. Pen's (age 45) I am eased at my heart to have my treasure so well secured. Then home, with much ado to find a way, nor any sleep all this night to me nor my poor wife. But then and all this day she and I, and all my people labouring to get away the rest of our things, and did get Mr. Tooker to get me a lighter to take them in, and we did carry them (myself some) over Tower Hill [Map], which was by this time full of people's goods, bringing their goods thither; and down to the lighter, which lay at next quay, above the Tower Docke. And here was my neighbour's wife, Mrs.----,with her pretty child, and some few of her things, which I did willingly give way to be saved with mine; but there was no passing with any thing through the postern, the crowd was so great. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) of this day by the office, and spoke to us, and did ride with his guard up and down the City, to keep all quiet (he being now Generall, and having the care of all). This day, Mercer being not at home, but against her mistress's order gone to her mother's, and my wife going thither to speak with W. Hewer (age 24), met her there, and was angry; and her mother saying that she was not a 'prentice girl, to ask leave every time she goes abroad, my wife with good reason was angry, and, when she came home, bid her be gone again. And so she went away, which troubled me, but yet less than it would, because of the condition we are in, fear of coming into in a little time of being less able to keepe one in her quality. At night lay down a little upon a quilt of W. Hewer's (age 24) in the office, all my owne things being packed up or gone; and after me my poor wife did the like, we having fed upon the remains of yesterday's dinner, having no fire nor dishes, nor any opportunity of dressing any thing.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Thence homeward, having passed through Cheapside and Newgate Market, all burned, and seen Anthony Joyce's House in fire. And took up (which I keep by me) a piece of glasse of Mercers' Chappell in the streete, where much more was, so melted and buckled with the heat of the fire like parchment. I also did see a poor cat taken out of a hole in the chimney, joyning to the wall of the Exchange [Map]; with, the hair all burned off the body, and yet alive.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. The burning still rages, and it is now gotten as far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet Street [Map], the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Warwick lane, Newgate, Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and most of it reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's [Map] flew like grenados, the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them, and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetuously driving the flames forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was able to stop them; for vain was the help of man.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Here I met with Mr. Young and Whistler; and having removed all my things, and received good hopes that the fire at our end; is stopped, they and I walked into the town, and find Fanchurch-streete [Map], Gracious-streete [Map]; and Lumbard-streete [Map] all in dust. The Exchange [Map] a sad sight, nothing standing there, of all the statues or pillars, but Sir Thomas Gresham's picture in the corner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Home; and whereas I expected to have seen our house on fire, it being now about seven o'clock, it was not. But to the fyre, and there find greater hopes than I expected; for my confidence of finding our Office on fire was such, that I durst not ask any body how it was with us, till I come and saw it not burned. But going to the fire, I find by the blowing up of houses, and the great helpe given by the workmen out of the King's yards, sent up by Sir W. Pen (age 45), there is a good stop given to it, as well as at Marke-lane [Map] end as ours; it having only burned the dyall of Barking Church [Map], and part of the porch, and was there quenched. I up to the top of Barking steeple, and there saw the saddest sight of desolation that I ever saw; every where great fires, oyle-cellars, and brimstone, and other things burning. I became afeard to stay there long, and therefore down again as fast as I could, the fire being spread as far as I could see it; and to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), and there eat a piece of cold meat, having eaten nothing since Sunday, but the remains of Sunday's dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Now begins the practice of blowing up of houses in Tower-streete [Map], those next the Tower, which at first did frighten people more than anything, but it stopped the fire where it was done, it bringing down the1 houses to the ground in the same places they stood, and then it was easy to quench what little fire was in it, though it kindled nothing almost. W. Newer this day went to see how his mother did, and comes late home, telling us how he hath been forced to remove her to Islington [Map], her house in Pye-corner being burned; so that the fire is got so far that way, and all the Old Bayly, and was running down to Fleete-streete [Map]; and Paul's [Map] is burned, and all Cheapside [Map]. I wrote to my father this night, but the post-house being burned, the letter could not go2. 5th. I lay down in the office again upon W. Hewer's (age 24), quilt, being mighty weary, and sore in my feet with going till I was hardly able to stand. About two in the morning my wife calls me up and tells me of new cRye [Map]s of fire, it being come to Barkeing Church, which is the bottom of our lane. I up, and finding it so, resolved presently to take her away, and did, and took my gold, which was about £2350, W. Newer, and Jane, down by Proundy's boat to Woolwich, Kent [Map]; but, Lord! what sad sight it was by moone-light to see, the whole City almost on fire, that you might see it plain at Woolwich, Kent [Map], as if you were by it. There, when I come, I find the gates shut, but no guard kept at all, which troubled me, because of discourse now begun, that there is plot in it, and that the French had done it. I got the gates open, and to Mr. Shelden's, where I locked up my gold, and charged, my wife and W. Newer never to leave the room without one of them in it, night, or day. So back again, by the way seeing my goods well in the lighters at Deptford, Kent [Map], and watched well by people.

Note 1. A copy of this letter, preserved among the Pepys MSS. in the author's own handwriting, is subjoined: "SIR, The fire is now very neere us as well on Tower Streete as Fanchurch Street side, and we little hope of our escape but by this remedy, to ye want whereof we doe certainly owe ye loss of ye City namely, ye pulling down of houses, in ye way of ye fire. This way Sir W. Pen (age 45) and myself have so far concluded upon ye practising, that he is gone to Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map] to supply himself with men and necessarys in order to the doeing thereof, in case at his returne our condition be not bettered and that he meets with his R. Hs. approbation, which I had thus undertaken to learn of you. Pray please to let me have this night (at whatever hour it is) what his R. Hs. directions are in this particular; Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Batten (age 65) having left us, we cannot add, though we are well assured of their, as well as all ye neighbourhood's concurrence. "Yr. obedient servnt. "S. P. "Sir W. Coventry (age 38), "Septr. 4, 1666"..

Note 2. J. Hickes wrote to Williamson on September 3rd from the "Golden Lyon", Red Cross Street Posthouse. Sir Philip (Frowde) and his lady fled from the (letter) office at midnight for: safety; stayed himself till 1 am. till his wife and childrens' patience could stay, no longer, fearing lest they should be quite stopped up; the passage was so tedious they had much ado to get where they are. The Chester and Irish, mails have come-in; sends him his letters, knows not how to dispose of the business (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 95).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. This afternoon, sitting melancholy with Sir W. Pen (age 45) in our garden, and thinking of the certain burning of this office, without extraordinary means, I did propose for the sending up of all our workmen from Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map] yards (none whereof yet appeared), and to write to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to have the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) permission to pull down houses, rather than lose this office, which would, much hinder, the King's business. So Sir W. Pen (age 45) he went down this night, in order to the sending them up to-morrow morning; and I wrote to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about the business, but received no answer. This night Mrs. Turner (age 43) (who, poor woman, was removing her goods all this day, good goods into the garden, and knows not how to dispose of them), and her husband supped with my wife and I at night, in the office; upon a shoulder of mutton from the cook's, without any napkin or any thing, in a sad manner, but were merry. Only now and then walking into the garden, and saw how horridly the sky looks, all on a fire in the night, was enough to put us out of our wits; and, indeed, it was extremely dreadful, for it looks just as if it was at us; and the whole heaven on fire. I after supper walked in the darke down to Tower-streete, and there saw it all on fire, at the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] on that side, and the Dolphin Taverne on this side, which was very near us; and the fire with extraordinary vehemence.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Walked into Moorefields [Map] (our feet ready to burn, walking through the towne among the hot coles), and find that full of people, and poor wretches carrying their good there, and every body keeping his goods together by themselves (and a great blessing it is to them that it is fair weathe for them to keep abroad night and day); drank there, and paid two-pence for a plain penny loaf.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. So home at night, and find there good hopes of saving our office; but great endeavours of watching all night, and having men ready; and so we lodged them in the office, and had drink and bread and cheese for them. And I lay down and slept a good night about midnight, though when I rose I heard that there had been a great alarme of French and Dutch being risen, which proved, nothing. But it is a strange thing to see how long this time did look since Sunday, having been always full of variety of actions, and little sleep, that it looked like a week or more, and I had forgot, almost the day of the week.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Up by break of day to get away the remainder of my things; which I did by a lighter at the Iron gate and my hands so few, that it was the afternoon before we could get them all away. Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I to Tower-streete [Map], and there met the fire burning three or four doors beyond Mr. Hovell's, whose goods, poor man, his trayes, and dishes, shovells, &c., were flung all along Tower-street in the kennels, and people working therewith from one end to the other; the fire coming on in that narrow streete, on both sides, with infinite fury. Sir W. Batten (age 65) not knowing how to remove his wine, did dig a pit in the garden, and laid it in there; and I took the opportunity of laying all the papers of my office that I could not otherwise dispose of.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. And in the evening Sir W. Pen (age 45) and I did dig another, and put our wine in it; and I my Parmazan cheese, as well as my wine and some other things. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) was at the office this day, at Sir W. Pen's (age 45); but I happened not to be within.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1666. The coal and wood wharfs, and magazines of oil, rosin, etc., did infinite mischief, so as the invective which a little before I had dedicated to his Majesty (age 36) and published, giving warning what probably might be the issue of suffering those shops to be in the city was looked upon as a prophecy.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1666. The poor inhabitants were dispersed about St. George's Fields, and Moorfields [Map], as far as Highgate, and several miles in circle, some under tents, some under miserable huts and hovels, many without a rag, or any necessary utensils, bed or board, who from delicateness, riches, and easy accommodations in stately and well-furnished houses, were now reduced to extreme misery and poverty.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1666. In this calamitous condition, I returned with a sad heart to my house, blessing and adoring the distinguishing mercy of God to me and mine, who, in the midst of all this ruin, was like Lot, in my little Zoar, safe and sound.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall [Map]; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (age 36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate [Map] and the Tower [Map], as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple [Map]; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1666. At home, did go with Sir W. Batten (age 65), and our neighbour, Knightly (who, with one more, was the only man of any fashion left in all the neighbourhood thereabouts, they all removing their goods and leaving their houses to the mercy of the fire), to Sir R. Ford's (age 52), and there dined in an earthen platter-a fried breast of mutton; a great many of us, but very merry, and indeed as good a meal, though as ugly a one, as ever I had in my life.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1666. Thence down to Deptford, Kent [Map], and there with great satisfaction landed all my goods at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) safe, and nothing missed I could see, or hurt. This being done to my great content, I home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 65), and there with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and one Withers, a professed lying rogue, supped well, and mighty merry, and our fears over. From them to the office, and there slept with the office full of labourers, who talked, and slept, and walked all night long there. But strange it was to see Cloathworkers' Hall on fire these three days and nights in one body of flame, it being the cellar full of oyle.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1666. Up about five o'clock, and where met Mr. Gawden at the gate of the office (I intending to go out, as I used, every now and then to-day, to see how the fire is) to call our men to Bishop's-gate [Map], where no fire had yet been near, and there is now one broke out which did give great grounds to people, and to me too, to think that there is some kind of plot1 in this (on which many by this time have been taken, and, it hath been dangerous for any stranger to walk in the streets), but I went with the men, and we did put it out in a little time; so that that was well again. It was pretty to see how hard the women did work in the cannells, sweeping of water; but then they would scold for drink, and be as drunk as devils. I saw good butts of sugar broke open in the street, and people go and take handsfull out, and put into beer, and drink it. And now all being pretty well, I took boat, and over to Southwarke [Map], and took boat on the other side the bridge, and so to Westminster, thinking to shift myself, being all in dirt from top to bottom; but could not there find any place to buy a shirt or pair of gloves, Westminster Hall [Map] being full of people's goods, those in Westminster having removed all their goods, and the Exchequer money put into vessels to carry to Nonsuch [Map]; but to the Swan [Map], and there was trimmed; and then to White Hall, but saw nobody; and so home. A sad sight to see how the River looks: no houses nor church near it, to the Temple [Map], where it stopped.

Note 1. The terrible disaster which overtook London was borne by the inhabitants of the city with great fortitude, but foreigners and Roman Catholics had a bad dime. As no cause for the outbreak of the fire could be traced, a general cry was raised that it owed its origin to a plot. In a letter from Thomas Waade to Williamson (dated "Whitby, Sept. 14th") we read, "The destruction of London by fire is reported to be a hellish contrivance of the French, Hollanders, and fanatic party" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 124).

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall [Map] as far as London Bridge [Map], through the late Fleet Street [Map], Ludgate hill by St. Paul's [Map], Cheapside [Map], Exchange, Bishops-gate [Map], Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields [Map], thence through Cornhill [Map], etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (age 36) got to the Tower [Map] by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower [Map], where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's [Map] - now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's [Map], which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange [Map], the august fabric of Christ Church [Map], all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. The people, who now walked about the ruins, appeared like men in some dismal desert, or rather, in some great city laid waste by a cruel enemy; to which was added the stench that came from some poor creatures' bodies, beds, and other combustible goods. Sir Thomas Gresham's statue, though fallen from its niche in the Royal Exchange [Map], remained entire, when all those of the Kings since the Conquest were broken to pieces. Also the standard in Cornhill [Map], and Queen Elizabeth's effigies, with some arms on Ludgate, continued with but little detriment, while the vast iron chains of the city streets, hinges, bars, and gates of prisons, were many of them melted and reduced to cinders by the vehement heat. Nor was I yet able to pass through any of the narrow streets, but kept the widest; the ground and air, smoke and fiery vapor, continued so intense, that my hair was almost singed, and my feet insufferably surbated. The by-lanes and narrow streets were quite filled up with rubbish; nor could one have possibly known where he was, but by the ruins of some Church, or Hall, that had some remarkable tower, or pinnacle remaining.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. Up by five o'clock; and, blessed be God! find all well, and by water to Paul's Wharfe. Walked thence, and saw, all the towne burned, and a miserable sight of Paul's church [Map]; with all the roofs fallen, and the body of the quire fallen into St. Fayth's [Map]; Paul's school also, Ludgate, and Fleet-street [Map], my father's house, and the church, and a good part of the Temple [Map] the like.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. So to Creed's lodging, near the New Exchange, and there find him laid down upon a bed; the house all unfurnished, there being fears of the fire's coming to them. There borrowed a shirt of him, and washed. To Sir W. Coventry (age 38), at St. James's, who lay without curtains, having removed all his goods; as the King (age 36) at White Hall, and every body had done, and was doing. He hopes we shall have no publique distractions upon this fire, which is what every body fears, because of the talke of the French having a hand in it. And it is a proper time for discontents; but all men's minds are full of care to protect themselves, and save their goods: the militia is in armes every where. Our fleetes, he tells me, have been in sight one of another, and most unhappily by fowle weather were parted, to our great losse, as in reason they do conclude; the Dutch being come out only to make a shew, and please their people; but in very bad condition as to stores; victuals, and men. They are at Bullen [Map]; and our fleete come to St. Ellen's. We have got nothing, but have lost one ship, but he knows not what.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford, Kent [Map] for some things of W. Hewer's (age 24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) at Sir W. Batten's (age 65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange [Map]. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (age 59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall [Map] and Mileendgreene [Map], and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill [Map], and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.

Note 1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill [Map], Smithfield [Map], and Leadenhall Street [Map]" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. In the midst of all this calamity and confusion, there was, I know not how, an alarm begun that the French and Dutch, with whom we were now in hostility, were not only landed, but even entering the city. There was, in truth, some days before, great suspicion of those two nations joining; and now that they had been the occasion of firing the town. This report did so terrify, that on a sudden there was such an uproar and tumult that they ran from their goods, and, taking what weapons they could come at, they could not be stopped from falling on some of those nations whom they casually met, without sense or reason. The clamor and peril grew so excessive, that it made the whole Court amazed, and they did with infinite pains and great difficulty, reduce and appease the people, sending troops of soldiers and guards, to cause them to retire into the fields again, where they were watched all this night. I left them pretty quiet, and came home sufficiently weary and broken. Their spirits thus a little calmed, and the affright abated, they now began to repair into the suburbs about the city, where such as had friends, or opportunity, got shelter for the present to which his Majesty's (age 36) proclamation also invited them.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. I then went towards Islington [Map] and Highgate, where one might have seen 200,000 people of all ranks and degrees dispersed, and lying along by their heaps of what they could save from the fire, deploring their loss; and, though ready to perish for hunger and destitution, yet not asking one penny for relief, which to me appeared a stranger sight than any I had yet beheld. His Majesty (age 36) and Council indeed took all imaginable care for their relief, by proclamation for the country to come in, and refresh them with provisions.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1666. Thence with Sir W. Batten (age 65) to the Cock-pit [Map], whither the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is come. It seems the King (age 36) holds him so necessary at this time, that he hath sent for him, and will keep him here. Indeed, his interest in the City, being acquainted, and his care in keeping things quiet, is reckoned that wherein he will be very serviceable. We to him; he is courted in appearance by every body. He very kind to us; I perceive he lays by all business of the fleete at present, and minds the City, and is now hastening to Gresham College, to discourse with the Aldermen. Sir W. Batten (age 65) and I home (where met by my brother John (age 25), come to town to see how things are with us), and then presently he with me to Gresham College; where infinity of people, partly through novelty to see the new place, and partly to find out and hear what is become one man of another. I met with many people undone, and more that have extraordinary great losses. People speaking their thoughts variously about the beginning of the fire, and the rebuilding; of the City. Then to Sir W. Batten's (age 65), and took my brothet with me, and there dined with a great company of neighbours; and much good discourse; among others, of the low spirits of some rich men in the City, in sparing any encouragement to the poor people that wrought for the saving their houses. Among others, Alderman Starling, a very rich man, without; children, the fire at next door to him in our lane, after our men had saved his house, did give 2s. 6d. among thirty of them, and did quarrel with some that would remove the rubbish out of the way of the fire, saying that they come to steal. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told me of another this morning, in Holborne, which he shewed the King (age 36) that when it was offered to stop the fire near his house for such a reward that came but to 2s. 6d. a man among the neighbours he would, give but 18d.

Calendars. 14 Sep 1666. 111. Whitby. Thomas Waade to Williamson. The destruction of London by fire is reported to be a hellish contrivance of the French, Hollanders, and fanatic party. At the first notice of it there, the trained bands were in arms, those for the North Rriding endezvousing at Malton, Sir Jordan Crosland's regiment at Easingwold, and Sir Thomas Strickland's foot company was sent to guard Whitby. The coun- try being alarmed with the men-of-war, Alderman Shipton of Lythe raised 200 men ina moment, with such arms as they could get who were very willing to engage the enemy if they durst land, but seeing such a flocking of people, they weighed anchor, and are cruising off, expecting laden colliers from Newcastle or Sunderland.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1666. This day was ordered a general Fast through the Nation, to humble us on the late dreadful conflagration, added to the plague and war, the most dismal judgments that could be inflicted; but which indeed we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, burning lusts, dissolute court, profane and abominable lives, under such dispensations of God's continued favor in restoring Church, Prince, and People from our late intestine calamities, of which we were altogether unmindful, even to astonishment. This made me resolve to go to our parish assembly, where our Doctor preached on Luke xix. 41: piously applying it to the occasion. After which, was a collection for the distressed losers in the late fire.

Before 27 Oct 1666 John Kelyng (age 59) prosecuted Frenchman John Hubert who confessed to setting the fire in the King's Bakehouse in Pudding Lane. Hubert was duly found guilty by the jury and executed on 27 Oct 1666 by order of Kelynge, even though Kelynge told the King that he did not believe a word of the confession.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1666. Went to see Clarendon House, now almost finished, a goodly pile to see, but had many defects as to the architecture, yet placed most gracefully. After this, I waited on the Lord Chancellor (age 57), who was now at Berkshire House, since the burning of London.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1666. Thence home to dinner, and there W. Hewer (age 24) dined with me, and showed me a Gazette, in April last, which I wonder should never be remembered by any body, which tells how several persons were then tried for their lives, and were found guilty of a design of killing the King (age 36) and destroying the Government; and as a means to it, to burn the City; and that the day intended for the plot was the 3rd of last September1. And the fire did indeed break out on the 2nd of September, which is very strange, methinks, and I shall remember it.

Note 1. The "Gazette" of April 23rd-26th, 1666, which contains the following remarkable passage: "At the Sessions in the Old Bailey, John Rathbone, an old army colonel, William Saunders, Henry Tucker, Thomas Flint, Thomas Evans, John Myles, Will. Westcot, and John Cole, officers or soldiers in the late Rebellion, were indicted for conspiring the death of his Majesty and the overthrow of the Government. Having laid their plot and contrivance for the surprisal of the Tower, the killing his Grace the Lord General, Sir John Robinson (age 51), Lieutenant of the Tower, and Sir Richard Brown; and then to have declared for an equal division of lands, &c. The better to effect this hellish design, the City was to have been fired, and the portcullis let down to keep out all assistance; and the Horse Guards to have been surprised in the inns where they were quartered, several ostlers having been gained for that purpose. The Tower was accordingly viewed, and its surprise ordered by boats over the moat, and from thence to scale the wall. One Alexander, not yet taken, had likewise distributed money to these conspirators; and, for the carrying on the design more effectually, they were told of a Council of the great ones that sat frequently in London, from whom issued all orders; which Council received their directions from another in Holland, who sat with the States; and that the third of September was pitched on for the attempt, as being found by Lilly's Almanack, and a scheme erected for that purpose, to be a lucky day, a planet then ruling which prognosticated the downfall of Monarchy. The evidence against these persons was very full and clear, and they were accordingly found guilty of High Treason". See November 10th, 1666 B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. So I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met my good friend Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and walked with him a good while, lamenting our condition for want of good council, and the King's minding of his business and servants. I out to the Bell Tavern, and thither comes Doll to me .... [Note. Other versions include 'and yo did tocar la cosa [ I did touch the thing ] of her as I pleased;'], and after an hour's stay, away and staid in Westminster Hall [Map] till the rising of the house, having told Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and he several others, of my Gazette which I had about me that mentioned in April last a plot for which several were condemned of treason at the Old Bayly for many things, and among others for a design of burning the city on the 3rd of September.

St Leonard Eastcheap Church [Map] was destroyed in the Great Fire of London. It wasn't rebuilt being combined with St Benet Gracechurch [Map].

Pie Corner is the corner of Cock Lane and Giltspur Street that is traditionally the furthest extent of the Great Fire of London which is commemorated by the Golden Boy of Pye Corner.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Pentland Rising

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Pentland Rising, Battle of Rullion Green

On 28 Nov 1666 the Battle of Rullion Green between Covenanter dissidents and the Scottish government. The battle ended the Pentland Rising.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1666. So to bed, and with more cheerfulness than I have done a good while, to hear that for certain the Scott rebells are all routed; they having been so bold as to come within three miles of Edinburgh, and there given two or three repulses to the King's forces, but at last were mastered. Three or four hundred killed or taken, among which their leader, one Wallis, and seven ministers, they having all taken the Covenant a few days before, and sworn to live and die in it, as they did; and so all is likely to be there quiet again. There is also the very good newes come of four New-England ships come home safe to Falmouth, Cornwall with masts for the King (age 36); which is a blessing mighty unexpected, and without which, if for nothing else, we must have failed the next year. But God be praised for thus much good fortune, and send us the continuance of his favour in other things! So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1666. So to supper and to bed. This day, in the Gazette, is the whole story of defeating the Scotch rebells, and of the creation of the Duke of Cambridge (age 3), Knight of the Garter.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Poll Bill

Poll Bill. An Act for the raising of money by means of a Poll, and otherwise towards the Maintenance of the present Warr.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon home to dinner, and there find Mr. Pierce and his wife and Betty, a pretty girle, who in discourse at table told me the great Proviso passed the House of Parliament yesterday; which makes the King (age 36) and Court mad, the King (age 36) having given order to my Lord Chamberlain (age 64) to send to the playhouses and bawdy houses, to bid all the Parliament-men that were there to go to the Parliament presently. This is true, it seems; but it was carried against the Court by thirty or forty voices. It is a Proviso to the Poll Bill, that there shall be a Committee of nine persons that shall have the inspection upon oath, and power of giving others, of all the accounts of the money given and spent for this warr. This hath a most sad face, and will breed very ill blood. He tells me, brought in by Sir Robert Howard (age 40), who is one of the King's servants, at least hath a great office, and hath got, they say, £20,000 since the King (age 36) come in.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Dec 1666. Thence, having promised to write every month to her, we home, and I to my office, while my wife to get things together for supper. Dispatching my business at the office. Anon come our guests, old Mr. Batelier, and his son and daughter, Mercer, which was all our company. We had a good venison pasty and other good cheer, and as merry as in so good, innocent, and understanding company I could be. He is much troubled that wines, laden by him in France before the late proclamation was out, cannot now be brought into England, which is so much to his and other merchants' loss. We sat long at supper and then to talk, and so late parted and so to bed. This day the Poll Bill was to be passed, and great endeavours used to take away the Proviso.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where some accounts of Mr. Gawden's were examined, but I home most of the morning to even some accounts with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), Mr. Moone, and others one after another. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) did with grief tell me how the Parliament hath been told plainly that the King (age 36) hath been heard to say, that he would dissolve them rather than pass this Bill with the Proviso; but tells me, that the Proviso is removed, and now carried that it shall be done by a Bill by itself.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1667. This morning come Captain. Cocke (age 50) to me, and tells me that the King (age 36) comes to the House this day to pass the Poll Bill and the Irish Bill; he tells me too that, though the Faction is very froward in the House, yet all will end well there. But he says that one had got a Bill ready to present in the House against Sir W. Coventry (age 39), for selling of places, and says he is certain of it, and how he was withheld from doing it. He says, that the Vice-chamberlaine (age 57) is now one of the greatest men in England again, and was he that did prevail with the King (age 36) to let the Irish Bill go with the word "Nuisance".

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1667. At night I, by appointment, home, where W. Batelier and his sister Mary, and the two Mercers, to play at cards and sup, and did cut our great cake lately given us by Russell: a very good one. Here very merry late. Sir W. Pen (age 45) told me this night how the King (age 36) did make them a very sharp speech in the House of Lords to-day, saying that he did expect to have had more Bills1 that he purposes to prorogue them on Monday come se'nnight; that whereas they have unjustly conceived some jealousys of his making a peace, he declares he knows of no such thing or treaty: and so left them. But with so little effect, that as soon as he come into the House, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) moved, that now the King (age 36) hath declared his intention of proroguing them, it would be loss of time to go on with the thing they were upon, when they were called to the King (age 36), which was the calling over the defaults of Members appearing in the House; for that, before any person could now come or be brought to town, the House would be up. Yet the Faction did desire to delay time, and contend so as to come to a division of the House; where, however, it was carried, by a few voices, that the debate should be laid by. But this shews that they are not pleased, or that they have not any awe over them from the King's displeasure. The company being gone, to bed.

Note 1. On this day "An Act for raising Money by a Poll and otherwise towards the maintenance of the present War", and "An Act prohibiting the Importation of Cattle from Ireland and other parts beyond the Sea, and Fish taken by Foreigners", were passed. The King (age 36). complained of the insufficient supply, and said, "'Tis high time for you to make good your promises, and 'tis high time for you to be in the country" ("Journals of the House of Lords", vol xii., p. 81).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1667. Here spoke with my Lord Bellasses (age 52) about getting some money for Tangier, which he doubts we shall not be able to do out of the Poll Bill, it being so strictly tied for the Navy. He tells me the Lords have passed the Bill for the accounts with some little amendments.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1667. This afternoon I saw the Poll Bill, now printed; wherein I do fear I shall be very deeply concerned, being to be taxed for all my offices, and then for my money that I have, and my title, as well as my head. It is a very great tax; but yet I do think it is so perplexed, it will hardly ever be collected duly. The late invention of Sir G. Downing's (age 42) is continued of bringing all the money into the Exchequer; and Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) three pence is turned for all the money of this act into but a penny per pound, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1667. Thence I through the garden into the Park, and there met with Roger Pepys (age 49), and he and I to walk in the Pell Mell [Map]. I find by him that the House of Parliament continues full of ill humours, and he seems to dislike those that are troublesome more than needs, and do say how, in their late Poll Bill, which cost so much time, the yeomanry, and indeed two-thirds of the nation, are left out to be taxed, that there is not effectual provision enough made for collecting of the money; and then, that after a man his goods are distrained and sold, and the overplus returned, I am to have ten days to make my complaints of being over-rated if there be cause, when my goods are sold, and that is too late. These things they are resolved to look into again, and mend them before they rise, which they expect at furthest on Thursday next.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1667. Thus the month ends: myself in very good health and content of mind in my family. All our heads full in the office at this dividing of the Comptroller's duty, so that I am in some doubt how it may prove to intrench upon my benefits, but it cannot be much. The Parliament, upon breaking up, having given the King (age 36) money with much ado, and great heats, and neither side pleased, neither King nor them. The imperfection of the Poll Bill, which must be mended before they rise, there being several horrible oversights to the prejudice of the King (age 36), is a certain sign of the care anybody hath of the King's business. Prince Rupert (age 47) very ill, and to be trepanned on Saturday next. Nobody knows who commands the fleete next year, or, indeed, whether we shall have a fleete or no. Great preparations in Holland and France, and the French have lately taken Antego1 from us, which vexes us. I am in a little care through my at last putting a great deal of money out of my hands again into the King's upon tallies for Tangier, but the interest which I wholly lost while in my trunk is a temptation while things look safe, as they do in some measure for six months, I think, and I would venture but little longer.

Note 1. Antigua, one of the West India Islands (Leeward Islands), discovered by Columbus in 1493, who is said to have named it after a church at Seville called Santa Maria la Antigua. It was first settled by a few English families in 1632, and in 1663 another settlement was made under Lord Willoughby, to whom the entire island was granted by Charles II In 1666 it was invaded by a French force, which laid waste all the settlement. It was reconquered by the English, and formally restored to them by the treaty of Breda.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Feb 1667. Up, and by water to the Temple [Map], and thence to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) about my Tangier warrant for tallies, and there met my Lord Bellasses (age 52) and Creed, and discoursed about our business of money, but we are defeated as to any hopes of getting [any] thing upon the Poll Bill, which I seem but not much troubled at, it not concerning me much.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall, where to the Duke of York (age 33), and there did our usual business; but troubled to see that, at this time, after our declaring a debt to the Parliament of £900,000, and nothing paid since, but the debt increased, and now the fleete to set out; to hear that the King (age 36) hath ordered but £35,000 for the setting out of the fleete, out of the Poll Bill, to buy all provisions, when five times as much had been little enough to have done any thing to purpose. They have, indeed, ordered more for paying off of seamen and the Yards to some time, but not enough for that neither.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and called at Michell's, and took him and his wife and carried them to Westminster, I landing at White Hall, and having no pleasure in the way 'con elle'; and so to the Duke's (age 33), where we all met and had a hot encounter before the Duke of York (age 33) about the business of our payments at the Ticket Office, where we urged that we had nothing to do to be troubled with the pay, having examined the tickets. Besides, we are neglected, having not money sent us in time, but to see the baseness of my brethren, not a man almost put in a word but Sir W. Coventry (age 39), though at the office like very devils in this point. But I did plainly declare that, without money, no fleete could be expected, and desired the Duke of York (age 33) to take notice of it, and notice was taken of it, but I doubt will do no good. But I desire to remember it as a most prodigious thing that to this day my Lord Treasurer (age 59) hath not consulted counsel, which Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I and others do think is necessary, about the late Poll act, enough to put the same into such order as that any body dare lend money upon it, though we have from this office under our hands related the necessity thereof to the Duke of York (age 33), nor is like to be determined in, for ought I see, a good while had not Sir W. Coventry (age 39) plainly said that he did believe it would be a better work for the King (age 36) than going to church this morning, to send for the Atturney Generall (age 69) to meet at the Lord Treasurer's (age 59) this afternoon and to bring the thing to an issue, saying that himself, were he going to the Sacrament, would not think he should offend God to leave it and go to the ending this work, so much it is of moment to the King (age 36) and Kingdom. Hereupon the Duke of York (age 33) said he would presently speak to the King (age 36), and cause it to be done this afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1667. Thence to the Exchequer, and there find the people in readiness to dispatch my tallies to-day, though Ash Wednesday. So I back by coach to London to Sir Robt. Viner's (age 36) and there got £100, and come away with it and pay my fees round, and so away with the 'Chequer men to the Leg in King Street, and there had wine for them; and here was one in company with them, that was the man that got the vessel to carry over the King (age 36) from Bredhemson, who hath a pension of 200 per annum, but ill paid, and the man is looking after getting of a prizeship to live by; but the trouble is, that this poor man, who hath received no part of his money these four years, and is ready to starve almost, must yet pay to the Poll Bill for this pension. He told me several particulars of the King's coming thither, which was mighty pleasant, and shews how mean a thing a king is, how subject to fall, and how like other men he is in his afflictions.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1667. Up, and to the office, where sitting all the morning, and among other things did agree upon a distribution of £30,000 and odd, which is the only sum we hear of like to come out of all the Poll Bill for the use of this office for buying of goods. I did herein some few courtesies for particular friends I wished well to, and for the King's service also, and was therefore well pleased with what was done.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1667. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and drank at the Swan [Map], and 'baiserais the petite misse'; and so to Mrs. Martin's... I sent for some burnt wine, and drank and then away, not pleased with my folly, and so to the Hall again, and there staid a little, and so home by water again, where, after speaking with my wife, I with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to our church to the vestry, to be assessed by the late Poll Bill, where I am rated as an Esquire, and for my office, all will come to about £50. But not more than I expected, nor so much by a great deal as I ought to be, for all my offices. So shall be glad to escape so.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1667. Up, being visited very early by Creed newly come from Hinchingbrooke, who went thither without my knowledge, and I believe only to save his being taxed by the Poll Bill. I did give him no very good countenance nor welcome, but took occasion to go forth and walked (he with me) to St. Dunstan's, and thence I to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39), where a good while with him, and I think he pretty kind, but that the nature of our present condition affords not matter for either of us to be pleased with any thing. We discoursed of Carcasse, whose Lord, he tells me, do make complaints that his clerk should be singled out, and my Lord Berkeley (age 65) do take his part. So he advises we would sum up all we have against him and lay it before the Duke of York (age 33); he condemned my Lord Bruncker (age 47).

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1667. So home to dinner, where Creed come, whom I vexed devilishly with telling him a wise man, and good friend of his and mine, did say that he lately went into the country to Hinchingbroke [Map]; and, at his coming to town again, hath shifted his lodgings, only to avoid paying to the Poll Bill, which is so true that he blushed, and could not in words deny it, but the fellow did think to have not had it discovered. He is so devilish a subtle false rogue, that I am really weary and afeard of his company, and therefore after dinner left him in the house, and to my office, where busy all the afternoon despatching much business, and in the evening to Sir R. Viner's (age 36) to adjust accounts there, and so home, where some of our old Navy creditors come to me by my direction to consider of what I have invented for their help as I have said in the morning, and like it mighty well, and so I to the office, where busy late, then home to supper and sing with my wife, who do begin to give me real pleasure with her singing, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1667. So from hence to White Hall, and in the streete Sir G. Carteret (age 57) showed me a gentleman coming by in his coach, who hath been sent for up out of Lincolneshire, I think he says he is a justice of peace there, that the Council have laid by the heels here, and here lies in a messenger's hands, for saying that a man and his wife are but one person, and so ought to pay but 12d. for both to the Poll Bill; by which others were led to do the like: and so here he lies prisoner.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Paper Bill

Paper Bill. An Act for Duty on sealed Paper and Parchment.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. The House have been mighty hot to-day against the Paper Bill, showing all manner of averseness to give the King (age 36) money; which these courtiers do take mighty notice of, and look upon the others as bad rebells as ever the last were. But the courtiers did carry it against those men upon a division of the House, a great many, that it should be committed; and so it was: which they reckon good news.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1666. Good news to-day upon the Exchange [Map], that our Hamburgh fleete is got in; and good hopes that we may soon have the like of our Gottenburgh, and then we shall be well for this winter. Very merry at dinner. And by and by comes in Matt. Wren (age 37) from the Parliament-house; and tells us that he and all his party of the House, which is the Court party, are fools, and have been made so this day by the wise men of the other side; for, after the Court party had carried it yesterday so powerfully for the Paper-Bill1, yet now it is laid aside wholly, and to be supplied by a land-tax; which it is true will do well, and will be the sooner finished, which was the great argument for the doing of it. But then it shews them fools, that they would not permit this to have been done six weeks ago, which they might have had. And next, they have parted with the Paper Bill, which, when once begun, might have proved a very good flower in the Crowne, as any there. So do really say that they are truly outwitted by the other side.

Note 1. It was called "A Bill for raising part of the supply for his Majesty by an imposition on Sealed Paper and Parchment" B.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1667 Thames Frozen

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1667. Lay long, being a bitter, cold, frosty day, the frost being now grown old, and the Thames covered with ice. Up, and to the office, where all the morning busy. Se Freezing of the River Thames.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1667 Raid on the Medway

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, Kent [Map], by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Lord Middleton (age 59), Prince Rupert (age 47), and the Duke (age 33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, Kent [Map], fortifying Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the news this morning is, that the Dutch are come with a fleete of eighty sail to Harwich [Map], and that guns were heard plain by Sir W. Rider's people at Bednallgreene, all yesterday even.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1667. Up; and news brought us that, the Dutch are come up as high as the Nore; and more pressing orders for fireships. W. Batten (age 66), W. Pen (age 46), and I to St. James's; where the Duke of York (age 33) gone this morning betimes, to send away some men down to Chatham, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1667. Late at night comes Mr. Hudson, the cooper, my neighbour, and tells me that he come from Chatham, Kent [Map] this evening at five o'clock, and saw this afternoon "The Royal James", "Oake", and "London", burnt by the enemy with their fire-ships: that two or three men-of-war come up with them, and made no more of Upnor's [Map] shooting, than of a fly; that those ships lay below Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], but therein, I conceive, he is in an error; that the Dutch are fitting out "The Royall Charles"; that we shot so far as from the Yard thither, so that the shot did no good, for the bullets grazed on the water; that Upnor [Map] played hard with their guns at first, but slowly afterwards, either from the men being beat off, or their powder spent. But we hear that the fleete in the Hope is not come up any higher the last flood; and Sir W. Batten (age 66) tells me that ships are provided to sink in the River, about Woolwich, Kent [Map], that will prevent their coming up higher if they should attempt it. I made my will also this day, and did give all I had equally between my father and wife, and left copies of it in each of Mr. Hater and W. Hewer's (age 25) hands, who both witnessed the will, and so to supper and then to bed, and slept pretty well, but yet often waking.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1667. Upon which newes the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) have been below [Below London Bridge [Map].] since four o'clock in the morning, to command the sinking of ships at Barking-Creeke, and other places, to stop their coming up higher: which put me into such a fear, that I presently resolved of my father's and wife's going into the country; and, at two hours' warning, they did go by the coach this day, with about £1300 in gold in their night-bag. Pray God give them good passage, and good care to hide it when they come home! but my heart is full of fear.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. I went to see the work at Woolwich, Kent [Map], a battery to prevent them coming up to London, which Prince Rupert (age 47) commanded, and sunk some ships in the river.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. Up, and to the office; where Mr. fryer comes and tells me that there are several Frenchmen and Flemish ships in the River, with passes from the Duke of York (age 33) for carrying of prisoners, that ought to be parted from the rest of the ships, and their powder taken, lest they do fire themselves when the enemy comes, and so spoil us; which is good advice, and I think I will give notice of it; and did so. But it is pretty odd to see how every body, even at this high time of danger, puts business off of their own hands! He says that he told this to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 52), to whom I, for the same reason, was directing him to go; and the Lieutenant of the Tower bade him come to us, for he had nothing to do with it; and yesterday comes Captain Crew, of one of the fireships, and told me that the officers of the Ordnance would deliver his gunner's materials, but not compound them1, 2 but that we must do it; whereupon I was forced to write to them about it; and one that like a great many come to me this morning by and by comes-Mr. Wilson, and by direction of his, a man of Mr. Gawden's; who come from Chatham, Kent [Map] last night, and saw the three ships burnt, they lying all dry, and boats going from the men-of-war and fire them. But that, that he tells me of worst consequence is, that he himself, I think he said, did hear many Englishmen on board the Dutch ships speaking to one another in English; and that they did cry and say, "We did heretofore fight for tickets; now we fight for dollars!" and did ask how such and such a one did, and would commend themselves to them: which is a sad consideration.

Note 1. Meaning, apparently, that the Ordnance would deliver the charcoal, sulphur, and saltpetre separately, but not mix them as gunpowder.

Note 2. The want of ammunition when the Dutch burnt the fleet, and the revenge of the deserter sailors, are well described by Marvell "Our Seamen, whom no danger's shape could fright, Unpaid, refuse to mount their ships, for spite Or to their fellows swim, on board the Dutch, Who show the tempting metal in their clutch.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard [Map], made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower [Map] (it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. The Dutch fleet still continuing to stop up the river, so as nothing could stir out or come in, I was before the Council, and commanded by his Majesty (age 37) to go with some others and search about the environs of the city, now exceedingly distressed for want of fuel, whether there could be any peat, or turf, found fit for use. The next day, I went and discovered enough, and made my report that there might be found a great deal; but nothing further was done in it.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1667. I went to Gravesend, Kent [Map]; the Dutch fleet still at anchor before the river, where I saw five of his Majesty's (age 37) men-at-war encounter above twenty of the Dutch, in the bottom of the Hope, chasing them with many broadsides given and returned toward the Buoy of the Nore, where the body of their fleet lay, which lasted till about midnight. One of their ships was fired, supposed by themselves, she being run on ground. Having seen this bold action, and their braving us so far up the river, I went home the next day, not without indignation at our negligence, and the nation's reproach. It is well known who of the Commissioners of the Treasury gave advice that the charge of setting forth a fleet this year might be spared, Sir W. C. (William Coventry (age 39)) by name.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1667 Treaty of Breda

On 31 Jul 1667 the 1667 Treaty of Breda was signed bringing to an end hostilties between England and its opponents in the Second Anglo-Dutch War: Dutch Republic, France and Denmark-Norway.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1671. We ordered that a proclamation should be presented to his Majesty (age 41) to sign, against what Sir Charles Wheeler (age 51) had done in St. Christopher's since the war, on the articles of peace at Breda. He was shortly afterward recalled.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Aug 1674. His Majesty (age 44) told me how exceedingly the Dutch were displeased at my treatise of the "History of Commerce;" that the Holland Ambassador had complained to him of what I had touched of the Flags and Fishery, etc., and desired the book might be called in; while on the other side, he assured me he was exceedingly pleased with what I had done, and gave me many thanks. However, it being just upon conclusion of the treaty of Breda (indeed it was designed to have been published some months before and when we were at defiance), his Majesty (age 44) told me he must recall it formally; but gave order that what copies should be publicly seized to pacify the Ambassador, should immediately be restored to the printer, and that neither he nor the vender should be molested. The truth is, that which touched the Hollander was much less than what the King (age 44) himself furnished me with, and obliged me to publish, having caused it to be read to him before it went to press; but the error was, it should have been published before the peace was proclaimed. The noise of this book's suppression made it presently to be bought up, and turned much to the stationer's advantage. It was no other than the preface prepared to be prefixed to my "History of the Whole War;" which I now pursued no further.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Frederick III King Denmark Dies Christian V King Denmark Succeeds

On 09 Feb 1670 Frederick III King Denmark (age 60) died. His son Christian V King Denmark and Norway (age 23) succeeded V King Denmark and Norway. Charlotte Amalie Hesse-Kassel Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 19) by marriage Queen Consort Denmark and Norway.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Lord Ross Divorce

On 15 Jul 1658 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 20) and Anne Pierrepont (age 27) were married. See Lord Ross Divorce. She the daughter of Henry Pierrepont 1st Marquess Dorchester (age 52) and Cecilia Bayning. He the son of John Manners 8th Earl of Rutland (age 54) and Frances Montagu Countess Rutland (age 44). They were second cousins.

In 1663 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 24) and Anne Pierrepont (age 32) were separated. He obtained a "separation from bed and board" on the grounds of her adultery. See Lord Ross Divorce. Around this time it appears her father Henry Pierrepont 1st Marquess Dorchester (age 56) offered John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 24) a duel which he declined. See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1667 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 28) procured an Act of Parliament by which his issue since 1659 were legally illegitimate barring them from inheriting his title. See Lord Ross Divorce.

In 1670 John Manners 1st Duke Rutland (age 31) procured permission from Parliament to re-marry so that his title would continue. See Lord Ross Divorce.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1670. I went to Westminster, where in the House of Lords I saw his Majesty (age 39) sit on his throne, but without his robes, all the peers sitting with their hats on; the business of the day being the divorce of my Lord Ross. Such an occasion and sight had not been seen in England since the time of Henry VIII.

The Lord Ross Divorce attracted considerable public attention since it highlighted the shortcomings of the divorce laws. Anne Pierrepont had clearly committed adultery since she was in London at the time of the conception whilst her husband, known by the courtesy title Lord Ross was at Belvoir Castle [Map]. The child would be considered legitimate since the parents were married; the law made no provision for adultery or divorce. He was forced to seek legislation in Parliament that made the child illegitimate and, therefore, unable to inherit his title. He was further compelled to seek legislation so that he could marry again so that he could produce an heir.

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland took a more than passing interest, it is believed, since divorce may have been an option since he and his wife Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England had not had any children in their eight years of marriage despite he having had eight illegitimate children.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (age 41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (age 25) (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (age 39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (age 52) to meet him at the Tower [Map], where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover, Kent [Map] that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

The 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover was a pact between France and England for England to abandon its alliance with Sweden and the Duct Republic, allowing France to conquer the Dutch Republic after which France would England a number of stratgeic ports on Dutch Rivers.

King Charles II's sister Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was instrumental in arranging the Treaty - she was married to the French King's brother Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans.

The signatories included:

Richard Bellings

Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington

Henry Arundell 3rd Baron Arundel

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

On 30 Jun 1670 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 26) (sister of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover, Kent [Map]. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1671 Raid on Panama

On 19 Jan 1671 Captain Henry Morgan Privateer (age 35) routed a superior Spanish force and captured Old Panama City.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Aug 1671. To Council. The letters of Sir Thomas Modiford (age 51) were read, giving relation of the exploit at Panama, which was very brave; they took, burned, and pillaged the town of vast treasures, but the best of the booty had been shipped off, and lay at anchor in the South Sea, so that, after our men had ranged the country sixty miles about, they went back to Nombre de Dios, and embarked for Jamaica. Such an action had not been done since the famous Drake.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Oct 1674. At Lord Berkeley's (age 46), I discoursed with Sir Thomas Modiford (age 54), late Governor of Jamaica, and with Colonel Morgan (age 39), who undertook that gallant exploit from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all the Spanish Indies, they were so secure. They took great booty, and much greater had been taken, had they not been betrayed and so discovered before their approach, by which the Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men, who had no boats to follow. They set fire to Panama, and ravaged the country sixty miles about. The Spaniards were so supine and unexercised, that they were afraid to fire a great gun.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1672 Declaration of Indulgence

On 15 Mar 1672. The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II's (age 41) attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics. It was highly controversial. Sir Orlando Bridgeman (age 66) resigned as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal because he refused to apply the Great Seal to it.

Around Mar 1673 the Test Act was a law enacted by Parliament that required public servants to take an oath according to the rites of the English church and to deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. The Act undermined the 1672 Declaration of Indulgence.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood (age 53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London [Map]. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London [Map] with the Crown. Following his capture he refused to to answer to anyone but the King (age 40). He was questioned by the King (age 40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 51). For unknown reasons he was pardoned by the King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (age 40), in company with Monsieur De Grammont (age 50) and several French noblemen, and one Blood (age 53), that impudent, bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown itself out of the Tower of London [Map], pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty (age 40) services that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Oct 1671 and 10 Oct 1671. I went, after evening service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer (age 41), to Newmarket, Suffolk, where the King (age 41) then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford [Map], and last, at Chesterford; so, by night, we got to Newmarket, Suffolk, where Mr. Henry Jermain (age 35) (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban (age 66)) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, the King (age 41) and all the English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King (age 41), and to Mr. Eliot, of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race had not been run for many years.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Mar 1672. Now was the first blow given by us to the Dutch convoy of the Smyrna fleet, by Sir Robert Holmes (age 32) and Lord Ossory (age 37), in which we received little save blows, and a worthy reproach for attacking our neighbors ere any war was proclaimed, and then pretending the occasion to be, that some time before, the Merlin yacht chancing to sail through the whole Dutch fleet, their Admiral did not strike to that trifling vessel. Surely, this was a quarrel slenderly grounded, and not becoming Christian neighbors. We are likely to thrive, accordingly. Lord Ossory (age 37) several times deplored to me his being engaged in it; he had more justice and honor than in the least to approve of it, though he had been over-persuaded to the expedition. There is no doubt but we should have surprised this exceeding rich fleet, had not the avarice and ambition of Holmes (age 32) and Spragge (age 52) separated themselves, and willfully divided our fleet, on presumption that either of them was strong enough to deal with the Dutch convoy without joining and mutual help; but they so warmly plied our divided fleets, that while in conflict the merchants sailed away, and got safe into Holland.

On 12 Mar 1672 Admiral John Holmes (age 32), commanding The Gloucester, and Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory (age 37) attacked the Dutch Smyrna Fleet on its return from the Mediterranean beginning the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

The London Gazette 662. 21 Mar 1672. The Hague. 1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet. Most of our Smirna Fleet are arrived in Zealand and in the Maes, together with the Mep of war, under whose Convoy they were, though extremely torn and very much disabled 5 five of ©ur Merchant men were taken bythe English-two of which were the richest in the Fleet, laden with Silks and other rich Commodities, and were called the Landtman oi Amsterdam, and the Vrede of Rotterdam, besides one of our men of War, called the Little Holland, mounted with 44 Guns and 150 men J Captain de Hies Admiral of this Fleet was killed in this engagement, with many of our men, and many more wounded, who have been since brought a shore at Rotterdam and other places. The men of War which served for Convoys to the said Fleet were.

Ships, Captains, Guns, Men.

The Ulisstiing, Adrian de Haes, 50, 250.

The Dort, Thomas de Bois, 46, 170.

The Entrecht, Cornelius Everfon, 48, 220.

the Hollandia, Thomas Nes, 44, 150.

The Delf, Pourt, 38, 145.

The Lion, Lenny, 34, 140.

The Centaur, Thomas Anderson, 41, 120.

The Friezland, Jacon Anderson, 30, 110.

The Munnick, a considerable Merchant man mounted with 30 guns was so torn and disabled that with much difficulty they have brought her into port, Captain du Bois Vice-=Admiral of this Fleet hath lost his right arm, and many of his men.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1672. I visited the coasts in my district of Kent, and divers wounded and languishing poor men, that had been in the Smyrna conflict. I went over to see the new-begun Fort of Tilbury; a royal work, indeed, and such as will one day bridle a great city to the purpose, before they are aware.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. It was reported with these particulars, that, causing his servant to leave him unusually one morning, locking himself in, he strangled himself with his cravat upon the bed-tester; his servant, not liking the manner of dismissing him, and looking through the keyhole (as I remember), and seeing his master hanging, broke in before he was quite dead, and taking him down, vomiting a great deal of blood, he was heard to utter these words: "Well; let men say what they will, there is a God, a just God above"; after which he spoke no more. This, if true, is dismal. Really, he was the chief occasion of the Dutch war, and of all that blood which was lost at Bergen in attacking the Smyrna fleet, and that whole quarrel.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Freschville Holles (age 29) died at the 1672 Battle of Solebay at which he was in command of the Cambridge. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map] in an unmarked grave.

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret (age 31) and Winston Churchill were killed at Solebay, Southwold [Map].

Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 46) was killed. His son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich.

George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 25) fought.

Charles Harbord (age 32) was killed. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey [Map] reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (age 46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly dissabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.

Captain John Cox was killed in action.

Admiral John Holmes (age 32) fought as commander of Rupert.

The Gloucester took part.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 May 1672. I received another command to repair to the seaside; so I went to Rochester, Kent [Map], where I found many wounded, sick, and prisoners, newly put on shore after the engagement on the 28th, in which the Earl of Sandwich (deceased), that incomparable person and my particular friend, and divers more whom I loved, were lost. My Lord (who was Admiral of the Blue) was in the "Prince", which was burnt, one of the best men-of-war that ever spread canvas on the sea. There were lost with this brave man, a son of Sir Charles Cotterell (age 57) (Master of the Ceremonies), and a son (age 32) of Sir Charles Harbord (his Majesty's (age 42) Surveyor-General), two valiant and most accomplished youths, full of virtue and courage, who might have saved themselves; but chose to perish with my Lord, whom they honored and loved above their own lives.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1672. Trinity Sunday, I passed at Rochester, Kent [Map]; and, on the 5th, there was buried in the Cathedral [Map] Monsieur Rabiniére, Rear Admiral of the French squadron, a gallant person, who died of the wounds he received in the fight. This ceremony lay on me, which I performed with all the decency I could, inviting the Mayor and Aldermen to come in their formalities. Sir Jonas Atkins (age 62) was there with his guards; and the Dean and Prebendaries: one of his countrymen pronouncing a funeral oration at the brink of his grave, which I caused to be dug in the choir. This is more at large described in the "Gazette" of that day; Colonel Reymes (age 58), my colleague in commission, assisting, who was so kind as to accompany me from London, though it was not his district; for indeed the stress of both these wars lay more on me by far than on any of my brethren, who had little to do in theirs. I went to see Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], which I found pretty well defended, but of no great moment.

The London Gazette 684. Rochester, 06 Jun 1672.

Yesterday was performed the solemn Enterment Monseur Rabiniere tres le boys, Rear-Admiral of the French Squadron who some days since dyed here of the Wounds he received in the late Engagement. The Corps was accomapanied by several persons of quality (his Pall being born up by Sir Johnathan Atkins (age 62), His Majesties Governor here, Colonel Rheyms (age 58), Mr Evelin (age 51), and a person of quality related to the Deceased) together with the Mayor and Alderman of this place in the Formalities, and all other solemnity we are here capable of, to the place of Enterment, which was in the Quire of our Cathedral Church [Map], where was pronounced an excellent Funeral Oration with an Elogy on the Deceased by Dr. God, one of the Prebends; the whole having been concluded by three Volleys of the several Companies of Guard, now here, who likewise assisted at this Solemnity in excellent order.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Treaty of Nimeguen

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1673. I dined with the plenipotentiaries designed for the Treaty of Nimeguen.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1675. I settled affairs, my son (age 20) being to go into France with my Lord Berkeley (age 47), designed Ambassador-extraordinary for France and Plenipotentiary for the general treaty of peace at Nimeguen.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 May 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York (age 42) about my Lord Berkeley's (age 74) going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House [Map], about Mrs. Godolphin's (age 23) lease of Spalding [Map], in Lincolnshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Jun 1677. I went to London, to give the Lord Ambassador Berkeley (age 75) (now returned from the treaty at Nimeguen) an account of the great trust reposed in me during his absence, I having received and remitted to him no less than £20,000 to my no small trouble and loss of time, that during his absence, and when the Lord Treasurer (age 45) was no great friend [of his] I yet procured him great sums, very often soliciting his Majesty (age 47) in his behalf; looking after the rest of his estates and concerns entirely, without once accepting any kind of acknowledgment, purely upon the request of my dear friend, Mr. Godolphin (age 31). I returned with abundance of thanks and professions from my Lord Berkeley (age 49) and my Lady.

Between 1678 and 1679 The Treaty of Nimeguen was a series of treaties that sought to bring peace between European nations. The ten Treaties were signed between 1678 and 1679.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, 1673 Test Act

Around Mar 1673 the Test Act was a law enacted by Parliament that required public servants to take an oath according to the rites of the English church and to deny the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. The Act undermined the 1672 Declaration of Indulgence.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1673. Dr. Lamplugh (age 58) preached at St. Martin's [Map] the Holy Sacrament following, which I partook of, upon obligation of the late Act of Parliament, enjoining everybody in office, civil or military, under penalty of £500, to receive it within one month before two authentic witnesses; being engrossed on parchment, to be afterward produced in the Court of Chancery, or some other Court of Record; which I did at the Chancery bar, as being one of the Council of Plantations and Trade; taking then also the oath of allegiance and supremacy, signing the clause in the said Act against Transubstantiation.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jun 1673. Congratulated the new Lord Treasurer, Sir Thomas Osborne (age 41), a gentleman with whom I had been intimately acquainted at Paris, and who was every day at my father-in-law's (age 68) house and table there; on which account I was too confident of succeeding in his favor, as I had done in his predecessor's; but such a friend shall I never find, and I neglected my time, far from believing that my Lord Clifford (age 42) would have so rashly laid down his staff, as he did, to the amazement of all the world, when it came to the test of his receiving the Communion, which I am confident he forbore more from some promise he had entered into to gratify the Duke, than from any prejudice to the Protestant religion, though I found him wavering a pretty while.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, Kent [Map], to visit my Lord Clifford (age 42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (age 39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Battles of Schooneveld

On 07 Jun 1673 and 14 Jun 1673 two naval battles took place between an allied Anglo-French fleet commanded by Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 53) on his flagship the Royal Charles, and the fleet of the United Provinces, commanded by Admiral Michiel de Ruyter (age 66). The Dutch won both battles.

The Gloucester took part.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Battle of Texel

On 21 Aug 1673 the Battle of Texel was a naval battle between the English and Dutch. Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 53) commanded the Allied fleet of about 92 ships and 30 fireships. Jean II d'Estrées commanding the van, and Sir Edward Spragge (age 53) the rear division. The Dutch fleet of 75 ships and 30 fireships was commanded by Admiral Michiel de Ruyter (age 66).

Although there were no major ship losses, many were seriously damaged and about 3,000 men died, two-thirds of them English or French.

The Gloucester fought.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Suicide of Lord Clifford

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. And I the rather am confident of it, remembering what Sir Edward Walker (age 62) (Garter King at Arms) had likewise affirmed to me a long time before, even when he was first made a Lord; that carrying his pedigree to Lord Clifford (age 43) on his being created a peer, and, finding him busy, he bade him go into his study and divert himself there till he was at leisure to discourse with him about some things relating to his family; there lay, said Sir Edward, on his table, his horoscope and nativity calculated, with some writing under it, where he read that he should be advanced to the highest degree in the state that could be conferred upon him, but that he should not long enjoy it, but should die, or expressions to that sense; and I think, (but cannot confidently say) a bloody death. This Sir Edward (age 62) affirmed both to me and Sir Richard Browne; nor could I forbear to note this extraordinary passage in these memoirs.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) were married. She by marriage Princess Orange. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England. They were first cousins. He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1677. The Queen's (age 38) birthday, a great ball at Court, where the Prince of Orange (age 27) and his new Princess (age 15) danced.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2

In 1679 Walter Long 2nd Baronet (age 52) was elected MP Bath during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

In Mar 1679 William Bowes of Streatlam (age 22) was elected MP Durham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

In Mar 1679 Robert Pierrepont (age 42) was elected MP Nottingham during the Habeas Corpus Parliament 3C2.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2

In Jul 1679 William Bowes of Streatlam (age 22) was elected MP Durham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2.

In Jul 1679 Robert Pierrepont (age 42) was elected MP Nottingham during the Exclusion Bill Parliament 4C2.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Siege of Tangier

On 17 Oct 1680 Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth (age 23) died of dysentery at Tangier during the Siege of Tangier. Earl Plymouth, Viscount Totnes and Baron Dartmouth extinct.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Popish Plot

Between 1678 and 1681 the Popish Plot was a fictitious Catholic conspiracy to murder King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 47) invented by Titus Oates (age 28) that led to the execution of more than twenty-two men.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1678. The Queen's (age 39) birthday. I never saw the Court more brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and consternation. Coleman (age 42) and one Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this, Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen (age 39) of intending to poison the King (age 48); which certainly that pious and virtuous lady abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my opinion. He probably thought to gratify some who would have been glad his Majesty (age 48) should have married a fruitful lady; but the King (age 48) was too kind a husband to let any of these make impression on him. However, divers of the Popish peers were sent to the Tower of London [Map], accused by Oates; and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act forever excluded the Parliament; which was a mighty blow. the King's (age 48), Queen's, and Duke's servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who pretended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would not be suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William Godolphin (age 38), a member of the Commons' House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning (age 64)), to be resolved whether masses were idolatry, as the text expressed it, which was so worded, that several good Protestants scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. The Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he wished it had been otherwise worded in the text.

On 03 Dec 1678 Edward Coleman (age 42) was hanged, drawn and quartered on a charge of treason having been implicated by Titus Oates (age 29).

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys (age 46) in the Tower of London [Map], he having been committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my Lords Stafford (age 64) and Petre (age 53), who were committed for the Popish plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jun 1679. There were now divers Jesuits executed about the plot, and a rebellion in Scotland of the fanatics, so that there was a sad prospect of public affairs.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jul 1679. I went early to the Old Bailey Sessions House, to the famous trial of Sir George Wakeman, one of the Queen's (age 40) physicians, and three Benedictine monks; the first (whom I was well acquainted with, and take to be a worthy gentleman abhorring such a fact), for intending to poison the King (age 49); the others as accomplices to carry on the plot, to subvert the government, and introduce Popery. The bench was crowded with the judges, Lord Mayor justices, and innumerable spectators. The chief accusers, Dr. Oates (age 29) (as he called himself), and one Bedlow, a man of inferior note. Their testimonies were not so pregnant, and I fear much of it from hearsay, but swearing positively to some particulars, which drew suspicion upon their truth; nor did circumstances so agree, as to give either the bench or jury so entire satisfaction as was expected. After, therefore, a long and tedious trial of nine hours, the jury brought them in not guilty, to the extraordinary triumph of the Papists, and without sufficient disadvantage and reflections on witnesses, especially Oates (age 29) and Bedlow.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jun 1683. The Popish Plot also, which had hitherto made such a noise, began now sensibly to dwindle, through the folly, knavery, impudence, and giddiness of Oates (age 33), so as the Papists began to hold up their heads higher than ever, and those who had fled, flocked to London from abroad. Such sudden changes and eager doings there had been without anything steady or prudent, for these last seven years.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (age 53) and the Duke (age 49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower [Map], the Lord Russell (age 43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (age 66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (age 34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (age 53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (age 60) and Russell (age 43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (age 53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Feb 1684. The Earle of Danby (age 51), late Lord Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords impeach'd of High Treason in the Popish Plot, had now their Habeas Corpus, and came out upon baile, after five yeares imprisonment in the Tower [Map]. Then were also tried and deeply fin'd Mr. Hampden and others for being suppos'd of the late Plot, for which Lord Russell and Col. Sidney suffer'd; as also the person who went about to prove that the Earle of Essex had his throat cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the author of that famous piece called Julian.

In 1685, following his accession, King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) had Titus Oates (age 35) retried. He was found guilty of perjury on two separate indictments.

His sentence read ... First, The Court does order for a fine, that you pay 1000 marks upon each Indictment. Secondly, That you be stript of all your Canonical Habits. Thirdly, the Court does award, That you do stand upon the Pillory, and in the Pillory, here before Westminster-hall gate, upon Monday next, for an hour's time, between the hours of 10 and 12; with a paper over your head (which you must first walk with round about to all the Courts in Westminister-hall) declaring your crime. And that is upon the first Indictment.

Fourthly, (on the Second Indictment), upon Tuesday, you shall stand upon, and in the Pillory, at the Royal Exchange in London, for the space of an hour, between the hours of twelve and two; with the same inscription. You shall upon the next Wednesday be whipped from Aldgate to Newgate. Upon Friday, you shall be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn [Map], by the hands of the common hangman.

According to his sentence, Oates was to stand every year of his life in the pillory on five different days: before the gate of Westminster Hall on the 9th of August, at Charing Cross on the 10th, at the Temple on the 11th, at the Royal Exchange on the 2nd of September, and at Tyburn [Map] on the 24th of April; but, fortunately for the infamous creature, the Revolution deprived his determined enemies of power, and turned the criminal into a pensioner on Government."

The presiding judge was George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys (age 39). Robert Sawyer Attorney General (age 52) acted for the prosecution.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jan 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel of Wardour (age 52), (now newly released of his 6 yeares confinement in ye Tower [Map] on suspicion of the Plot call'd Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertain'd us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist Sign' Jo. Baptist playing to it on the harpsichord. My daughter Mary (age 20) being with us, she also sung to the greate satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of quality present. She did so also at my Lord Rochester's (age 42) the evening following, where we had the French Boy so fam'd for his singing, and indeede he had a delicate voice, and had ben well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my old friend) sing before his Ma* and the Duke, privately, that stupendous basse Gosling accompanying her, but hers was so loud as tooke away much of the sweetnesse. Certainly never woman had a stronger or better eare, could she possibly have govern'd it. She would do rarely in a large church among the nunns.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Apr 1685. I went early to Whitehall [Map] to heare Dr. Tillotson, Deane of Canterbury (age 54), preaching on 9 Eccles. 18. I returned in the evening, and visited Lady Tuke, and found with her Sr Geo Wakeman, the physician, whom I had seene tried and acquitted J, amongst the plotters for poisoning the late King, on the accusation of the famous Oates (age 35); and surely I believ'd him guiltlesse.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 May 1685. I was in Westm Hall [Map] when Oates (age 35), who had made such a stir in the Kingdom, on his revealing a Plot of the Papists, and alarm'd several Parliaments, and had occasioned the execution of divers Priests, Noblemen*, &c. was tried for perjurie at the King's Bench [Map]; but being very tedious, I did not endeavour to see the issue, considering that it would be published. Aboundance of Roman Catholics were in the Hall in expectation of the most gratefull conviction and ruine of a person who* had ben so obnoxious to them, and, as I verily believe, had don much mischeife and greate injury to several by his violent and ill-grounded proceedings; whilst he was at first so unreasonably blowne up and encouraged, that his insolence was no longer sufferable. Mr. Roger L'Estrange (age 68) (a gentleman whom I had long known, and a person of excellent parts abating some affectations) appearing first against the Dissenters in several Tracts, had now for some yeares turn'd his style against those whom (by way of hateful distinction) they call'd Whiggs and Trimmers, under the title of Observator, which came out 3 or 4 days every weeke, in which sheets, under pretence to serve the Church of England, he gave suspicion of gratifying another party, by several passages which rather kept up animosities than appeas'd them, especialy now that nobody gave the least occasion.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 May 1685. Oates (age 35) was sentenced to be whipped and pilloried with the utmost severity.Popish Plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1678. Dr. Tillotson (age 48) preached before the Commons at St. Margaret's [Map]. He said the Papists were now arrived at that impudence, as to deny that there ever was any such as the gunpowder-conspiracy; but he affirmed that he himself had several letters written by Sir Everard Digby (one of the traitors), in which he gloried that he was to suffer for it; and that it was so contrived, that of the Papists not above two or three should have been blown up, and they, such as were not worth saving.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Popish Plot, Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1680. The signal day begun the trial (at which I was present) of my Lord Viscount Stafford (age 66), (for conspiring the death of the King (age 50), second son to my Lord Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, and grandfather to the present Duke of Norfolk (age 52), whom I so well knew, and from which excellent person I received so many favors. It was likewise his birthday, The trial was in Westminster Hall [Map], before the King (age 50), Lords, and Commons, just in the same manner as, forty years past, the great and wise Earl of Strafford (there being but one letter differing their names) received his trial for pretended ill government in Ireland, in the very same place, this Lord Stafford's father being then High Steward. The place of sitting was now exalted some considerable height from the paved floor of the hall, with a stage of boards. The throne, woolsacks for the Judges, long forms for the Peers, chair for the Lord Steward, exactly ranged, as in the House of Lords. The sides on both hands scaffolded to the very roof for the members of the House of Commons. At the upper end, and on the right side of the King's (age 50) state, was a box for his Majesty (age 50), and on the left others for the great ladies, and over head a gallery for ambassadors and public ministers. At the lower end, or entrance, was a bar, and place for the prisoner (age 66), the Lieutenant of the Tower of London, the ax-bearer and guards, my Lord Stafford's two daughters, the Marchioness of Winchester being one; there was likewise a box for my Lord to retire into. At the right hand, in another box, somewhat higher, stood the witnesses; at the left, the managers, in the name of the Commons of England, namely, Serjeant Maynard (age 76) (the great lawyer, the same who prosecuted the cause against the Earl of Strafford forty years before, being now near eighty years of age), Sir William Jones (age 49), late Attorney-General, Sir Francis Winnington (age 46), a famous pleader, and Mr. Treby, now Recorder of London, not appearing in their gowns as lawyers, but in their cloaks and swords, as representing the Commons of England: to these were joined Mr. Hampden, Dr. Sacheverell, Mr. Poule, Colonel Titus (age 57), Sir Thomas Lee (age 45), all gentlemen of quality, and noted parliamentary men. The first two days, in which were read the commission and impeachment, were but a tedious entrance into matter of fact, at which I was but little present. But, on Thursday, I was commodiously seated among the Commons, when the witnesses were sworn and examined. The principal witnesses were Mr. Oates (age 31) (who called himself Dr.), Mr. Dugdale (age 40), and Turberville (age 32). Oates (age 31) swore that he delivered a commission to Viscount Stafford (age 66) from the Pope, to be Paymaster-General to an army intended to be raised; Dugdale (age 40), that being at Lord Aston's, the prisoner dealt with him plainly to murder his Majesty (age 50); and Turberville (age 32), that at Paris he also proposed the same to him.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Dec 1680. The depositions of my Lord's (age 66) witnesses were taken, to invalidate the King's (age 50) witnesses; they were very slight persons, but, being fifteen or sixteen, they took up all that day, and in truth they rather did my Lord more injury than service.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Dec 1680. Came other witnesses of the Commons to corroborate the King's (age 50), some being Peers, some Commons, with others of good quality, who took off all the former day's objections, and set the King's (age 50) witnesses recti in curiâ.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Dec 1680. One thing my Lord (age 66) said as to Oates (age 31), which I confess did exceedingly affect me: That a person who during his depositions should so vauntingly brag that though he went over to the Church of Rome, yet he was never a Papist, nor of their religion, all the time that he seemed to apostatize from the Protestant, but only as a spy; though he confessed he took their sacrament; worshiped images, went through all their oaths and discipline of their proselytes, swearing secrecy and to be faithful, but with intent to come over again and betray them; that such a hypocrite, that had so deeply prevaricated as even to turn idolater (for so we of the Church of England termed it), attesting God so solemnly that he was entirely theirs and devoted to their interest, and consequently (as he pretended) trusted; I say, that the witness of such a profligate wretch should be admitted against the life of a peer,-this my Lord looked upon as a monstrous thing, and such as must needs redound to the dishonor of our religion and nation. And verily I am of his Lordship's opinion: such a man's testimony should not be taken against the life of a dog. But the merit of something material which he discovered against Coleman, put him in such esteem with the Parliament, that now, I fancy, he stuck at nothing, and thought everybody was to take what he said for Gospel. The consideration of this, and some other circumstances, began to stagger me; particularly how it was possible that one who went among the Papists on such a design, and pretended to be intrusted with so many letters and commissions from the Pope and the party,-nay, and delivered them to so many great persons,-should not reserve one of them to show, nor so much as one copy of any commission, which he who had such dexterity in opening letters might certainly have done, to the undeniable conviction of those whom he accused; but, as I said, he gained credit on Coleman. But, as to others whom he so madly flew upon, I am little inclined to believe his testimony, he being so slight a person, so passionate, ill bred, and of such impudent behavior; nor is it likely that such piercing politicians as the Jesuits should trust him with so high and so dangerous secrets.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Dec 1680. On Tuesday, I was again at the trial, when judgment was demanded; and, after my Lord (age 66) had spoken what he could in denying the fact, the managers answering the objections, the Peers adjourned to their House, and within two hours returned again. There was, in the meantime, this question put to the judges, "whether there being but one witness to any single crime, or act, it could amount to convict a man of treason". They gave an unanimous opinion that in case of treason they all were overt acts for though no man should be condemned by one witness for any one act, yet for several acts to the same intent, it was valid; which was my Lord's (age 66) case. This being past, and the Peers in their seats again, the Lord Chancellor Finch (age 33) (this day the Lord High-Steward) removing to the woolsack next his Majesty's (age 50) state, after summoning the Lieutenant of the Tower to bring forth his prisoner, and proclamation made for silence, demanded of every Peer (who were in all eighty-six) whether William, Lord Viscount Stafford, were guilty of the treason laid to his charge, or not guilty.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Dec 1680. The Viscount Stafford (age 66) was beheaded on Towerhill [Map].

On 29 Dec 1680 William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford (age 66) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was attainted; Viscount Stafford forfeit. His wife Mary Stafford Countess Stafford (age 60), with whom he was jointly created Baron Stafford continued as Baroness.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Oxford Parliament 5C2

On 21 Mar 1681 Edward Hungerford (age 48) was elected MP Chippenham at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] during the Oxford Parliament 5C2.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Murder of Tom of Ten Thousand Thynne

On 12 Feb 1682 Thomas "Tom of Ten Thousand" Thynne (age 34) was shot and killed while riding in his coach along Pall Mall [Map], by three men, Christopher Vratz, John Stern and Charles George Borosky who were believed to be acting for her lover the Swedish Count Karl Johann von Königsmark (age 22). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Mar 1682. This day was executed Colonel Vrats, and some of his accomplices, for the execrable murder of Mr. Thynn (deceased), set on by the principal Koningsmark (age 22). He went to execution like an undaunted hero, as one that had done a friendly office for that base coward, Count Koningsmark (age 22), who had hopes to marry his widow, the rich Baroness Ogle (age 15), and was acquitted by a corrupt jury, and so got away. Vrats told a friend of mine who accompanied him to the gallows, and gave him some advice that he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped and believed God would deal with him like a gentleman. Never man went, so unconcerned for his sad fate.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Sinking of the Gloucester

On 03 May 1682 the Duke of York (age 48) and his retinue including John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough (age 31) and George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 35) were seen off on their journey north by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland from Margate Roads, Kent [Map]. James (age 48) was possibly travelling to Edinburgh to collect his six months pregnant wife Mary of Modena (age 23) to ensure their child was born in England.

On 06 May 1682 The Gloucester sank during a strong gale when it struck a sandbank twenty-eight miles off Great Yarmouth, Norfolk [Map] on a journey from Portsmouth to Edinburgh. Of the estimated 330 people on board it is believed between 130 and 250 sailors and passengers perished.

The Duke of York (age 48) [the future King James II] and John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough (age 31) were rescued in the ship's boat.

Robert Ker 3rd Earl Roxburghe (age 24) drowned. His son Robert Ker 4th Earl Roxburghe (age 5) succeeded 4th Earl Roxburghe.

John Hope of Hopetoun drowned. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.

Richard Hill drowned.

The pilot James Ayres was blamed for the disaster. The Duke of York (age 48) wished him to be hanged immediately. He was court-martialled and imprisoned.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1682. The Duke (age 48) and King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) and Duchess of York (age 23) were just now come to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland.

On 15 Apr 1703 Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun (age 22) was created 1st Earl Hopetoun by Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 38) in recognitions of his father having given up his seat in a lifeboat to the Duke of York during the Sinking of the Gloucester; his father subsequently drowned.

In 2007 the wreck of The Gloucester was discovered by Norfolk-based printer brothers Julian and Lincoln Barnwell, together with their late father, friend James Little and another unnamed friend.

The shipwreck is split down the keel, with remains of the hull submerged in sand, and it is not known how much of it is intact. There are no plans to raise any part of it.

The finds included glasses found in the original case, clothes, shoes, navigational equipment, personal possessions and unopened wine bottles. One of the wine bottles bears a glass seal with the crest of the Legge family.

In 2012 the bell of the The Gloucester was raised to the surface providing evidence of the identity of the vessel.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1683. He was married to the Lady Anne (age 18) at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled as the Duke's, her father (age 49), had been, and they to continue in England. See Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.

The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). King Charles II (age 53) bought one.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames frozen.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Dec 1683. I went to visite Sir John Chardin (age 40), a French gentleman who had travell'd three times by land into Persia, and had made many curious researches in his travells, of which he was now setting forth a relation. It being in England this year one of the severest frosts that had hap pen'd of many yeares, he told me the cold in Persia was much greater, the ice of an incredible thicknesse; that they had little use of iron in all that country, it being so moiste (tho' the aire admirably clear and healthy), that oyle would not preserve it from rusting, so that they had neither clocks nor watches; some padlocks they had for doores and boxes.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Jan 1684. The weather continuing intolerably severe, streetes of booths were set upon the Thames; the aire was so very cold and thick, as of many yeares there had not ben the like. The smallpox was very mortal.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1684. The river quite frozen.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jan 1684. I went crosse the Thames on the ice, now become so thick as to beare not onely streetes of boothes, in which they roasted meate, and had divers shops of wares, quite acrosse as in a towne, but coaches, carts, and horses, passed over. So I went from Westminster Stayres to Lambeth [Map], and din'd with the Archbishop (age 66): where I met my Lord Bruce, Sir Geo. Wheeler (age 32), Coll. Cooke, and severall divines. After dinner and discourse with his Grace till evening prayers, Sir Geo. Wheeler (age 32) and I walked over the ice from Lambeth Stayres to the horse ferry.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jan 1684. The Thames was fill'd with people and tents, selling all sorts of wares as in the Citty.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jan 1684. The frost continuing more and more severe, the Thames before London was still planted with boothes in formal streetes, all sorts of trades and shops furnish'd and full of commodities, even to a printing presse, where the peopje and ladyes tooke a fancy to have their names printed, and the day and yeare set down when printed on the Thames; this humour tooke so universally, that 'twas estimated the printer gain'd £5. a day, for printing a line onely, at sixpence a name, be sides what he got by ballads, &c. Coaches plied from Westminster to the Temple, and from several other staires to and fro, as in the streetes, sleds, sliding with skeetes, a bull-baiting, horse and coach races, puppet plays and interludes, cookes, tlpling, and other lewd places, so that it seem'd to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on the water, whilst it was a severe judgment on the land, the trees not onely splitting as if lightning-struck, but men and cattle perishing in divers places, and the very seas so lock'd up with ice, that no vessells could stir out or come in. The fowles, fish, and birds, and all our exotiq plants and greenes universally perishing. Many parkes of deer were destroied, and all sorts of fuell so deare that there were greate con tributions to preserve the poore alive. Nor was this severe weather much lesse intense in most parts of Europe, even as far as Spaine and the most Southern tracts. London, by reason of the excessive coldnesse of the aire hindering the ascent of the smoke, was so fill'd with the fuliginous steame of the sea-coale, that hardly could one see crosse the streetes, and this filling the lungs with its grosse particles, exceedingly obstructed the breast, so as one could scarcely breath. Here was no water to be had from the pipes and engines, nor could the brewers and divers other tradesmen worke, and every moment was full of disastrous accidents.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Feb 1684. It began to thaw, but froze againe. My coach crossed from Lambeth [Map] to the Horseferry at Millbank, Westminster. The booths were almost all taken downe, but there was first a Map or Landskip cut in copper representing all the manner of the camp, and the several actions, sports, and pastimes thereon, in memory of so signal a frost.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1660-1684 Restoration, Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52) and his brother King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49) as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket, Suffolk on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket, Suffolk on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

After 21 Mar 1683 Edward Hungerford (age 50) was implicated and his home was searched during the Rye House Plot.

Before Jul 1683 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 27) was arrested for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. He ecasped from the Tower of London [Map] in Jul 1683.

On 08 Jul 1683 John Hampden of Great Hampden (age 30) was sent to the Tower of London [Map] on the discovery of the Rye House Plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden [Map], the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (age 51) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower [Map], and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (age 43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (age 51) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King (age 53). It is certain the King (age 53) and Duke (age 49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (age 51) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1683. The public was now in great consternation on the late plot and conspiracy; his Majesty (age 53) very melancholy, and not stirring without double guards; all the avenues and private doors about Whitehall and the Park shut up, few admitted to walk in it. The Papists, in the meantime, very jocund; and indeed with reason, seeing their own plot brought to nothing, and turned to ridicule, and now a conspiracy of Protestants, as they called them.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1683. Several of the conspirators of the lower form were executed at Tyburn [Map]; and the next day.

Before 21 Jul 1683 Robert Sawyer Attorney General (age 50) prosecuted members of the Rye House Plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1683. Lord Russell (age 43) was beheaded in Lincoln's Inn Fields, the executioner giving him three butcherly strokes. The speech he made, and the paper which he gave the Sheriff of declaring his innocence, the nobleness of the family, the piety and worthiness of the unhappy gentleman, wrought much pity, and occasioned various discourses on the plot.

On 21 Jul 1683 William Russell (age 43) was beheaded by Jack Ketch at Lincoln's Inn for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. The executioner was so inept that he took four axe blows to separate the head from the body. After the first failed blow his victim looked up and said "You dog, did I give you 10 guineas to use me so inhumanely?".

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3: Parishes: Chenies. Lord William Russell (age 43), son of the fifth earl, is perhaps the most interesting figure in connexion with Chenies [Map]. As a member of the country party in the House of Commons he backed the Bill excluding the Duke of York from the throne. Being afterwards implicated in the Rye House Plot he was executed for treason in Lincoln's Inn Fields on 21 July 1683 and has earned for himself the name of 'patriot' or martyr of the Revolution52. He was buried at Chenies and his widow Lady Rachel Russell (age 47) visited the church in later years, when she decided to 'make a little monument' and erected the one to the fifth earl (age 66) and his wife (age 67) with medallions of their children, conspicuous among which is that of Lord William Russell (age 43), ranged in rows on either side54. Chenies has remained in the Russell family until the present day55, the present Duke of Bedford being lord of the manor, but it is many years since the family ceased to use the old manor-house as a residence.

Note 53. Dict. Nat. Biog.; G.E.C. Complete Peerage.

Note 54. Froude, op. cit. iv, 517.

Note 55. 55. Feet of F. Div. Co. Mich. 8 & 9 Eliz.; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxi, 132; ccccxxxv, 118; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1581-90, p. 380; Acts of P.C. 1601-4, p. 145; Hist.MSS. Com. Rep. xii, App. v, 131; Recov. R. Hil. 11 Jas. I, m. 97; Mich. 14 Jas. I, m. 136; Mich. 6 Geo. II, m. 291; Mich. 1 Geo. III, m. 139; Trin. 49 Geo. III, m. 152; Fine R. 16 Jas. I, pt. i, no. 4; Lysons, Mag. Brit. i (3), 584.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Sep 1683. There was this day a collection for rebuilding Newmarket, consumed by an accidental fire, which removing his Majesty (age 53) thence sooner than was intended, put by the assassins, who were disappointed of their rendezvous and expectation by a wonderful providence. This made the King (age 53) more earnest to render Winchester the seat of his autumnal field diversions for the future, designing a palace there, where the ancient castle stood; infinitely indeed preferable to Newmarket for prospects, air, pleasure, and provisions. The surveyor has already begun the foundation for a palace, estimated to cost £35,000, and his Majesty (age 53) is purchasing ground about it to make a park, etc.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1683. The Duke of Monmouth (age 34), till now proclaimed traitor on the pretended plot for which Lord Russell was lately beheaded, came this evening to Whitehall [Map] and rendered himself, on which were various discourses.

On 07 Dec 1683 Algernon Sidney (age 60) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] during the Rye House Plot.

On 20 Jun 1684 Thomas Armstrong (age 51) was dragged by hurdle to Tower Hill [Map] where he was hanged, drawn and quartered for his involvement in the Rye House Plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jun 1684. Last Friday Sir Tho. Armstrong (deceased) was executed at Tyburn [Map] for treason, without tryal, having ben outlaw'd and apprehended in Holland, on the conspiracy of the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), Lord Russell, &c. which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in reguard it was on an outlawry that judgment was given and execution.

In 1685 Charles Gerard 2nd Earl Macclesfield (age 26) was sentenced to death for his part in the Rye House Plot but was subsequently pardoned by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (age 53) and the Duke (age 49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower [Map], the Lord Russell (age 43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (age 66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (age 34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (age 53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (age 60) and Russell (age 43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (age 53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!