2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution

1685-1699 Glorious Revolution is in 17th Century Events.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1689. Dr. Burnet (age 45) preached at St. James's on the obligation to walk worthy of God's particular and signal deliverance of the nation and church.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Argyll's Rising

In 1685 Argyll's Rising was a plot to overthrow King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) led by Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 55).

Of the rebels 177 were transported to Jamaica and 100 to New Jersey.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye Queene (age 26) and Princesse of Denmark (age 20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (age 51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect: "That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction". At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (age 56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jun 1685. Argyle (age 56) taken in Scotland and executed, and his party dispers'd.Argyll's Rising.

On 30 Jun 1685 Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 56) was beheaded on the Maiden (an early gullotine) in Edinburgh [Map] for his part in Argyll's Rising. His son Archibald Campbell 1st Duke Argyll (age 26) succeeded 10th Earl Argyll. Elizabeth Tollemache Duchess Argyll (age 25) by marriage Countess Argyll.

On 30 Oct 1685 John Ayloffe (age 40) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Temple Bar for his part in the Argyll's Rising.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Death and Burial of Charles II

On 02 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) suffered a sudden apoplectic fit.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1685. Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (age 54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (age 68), the Bishops of London (age 53), Durham (age 52), and Ely (age 47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (age 47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (age 56) and Feversham (age 44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (age 51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (age 46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (age 54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (age 51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (age 44), and especialy Portsmouth (age 35), and that Nelly (age 35) might not starve.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1685. Thus died King Charles II (age 54) of a vigorous and robust constitution, and in all appearance promising a long life. He was a Prince of many virtues, and many greate imperfections; debonaire, easy of accesse, not bloudy nor cruel; his countenance fierce, his voice greate, proper of person, every motion became him; a lover of the sea, and skilfull in shipping; not affecting other studies, yet he had a laboratory, and knew of many empyrical medicines, and the easier mechanical mathe matics; he lov'd planting and building, and brought in a politer way of living, which pass'd to luxury and intolerable expence. He had a particular talent in telling a story, and facetious passages, of which he had innumerable; this made some buffoons and vitious wretches too presumptuous and familiar, not worthy the favour they abus'd. He tooke delight in having a number of little spaniels follow him and lie in his bed-chamber, where he often suffer'd the bitches to puppy and give suck, which render'd it very offensive, and indeede made the whole Court nasty and stinking. He would doubtlesse have ben an excellent Prince, had he ben less addicted to women, who made him uneasy, 'and allways in want to supply their unmeasurable profusion, to ye detriment of many Indigent persons who had signaly serv'd both him and his father. He frequently and easily chang'd favorites, to his greate prejudice. As to other publiq transactions and unhappy miscarriages, .'tis not here I intend to number them; but certainly never had King more glorious opportunities to have made himselfe, his people, and all Europe happy, and prevented innumerable mischeifs, had not his too easy nature resign'd him to be manag'd by crafty men, and some abandon'd and profane wretches who corrupted his otherwise sufficient parts, disciplin'd as he had ben by many afflictions during his banishment, which gave him much experience and knowledge of men and things; but those wicked creatures took him off from all application becoming so greate a King. The history of his reigne will certainely be the most wonderfull for the variety of matter and accidents, above any extant in former ages: the sad tragical death of his father, his banishment and hardships, his miraculous restauration, conspiracies against him, parliaments, wars, plagues, fires, comets, revolutions abroad happening in his time, with a thousand other particulars. He was ever kind to me, and very gracious upon all occasions, and therefore I cannot, without ingratitude, but deplore his losse, which for many respects as well as duty I do with all my soul.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1685. I went to London, hearing his Ma* (age 54) had ben the Monday before (02 Feb 1685) surpriz'd in his bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that if, by God's providence, Dr. King (that excellent chirurgeon as well as physitian) had not ben accidentally present to let him blood (having his lancet in his pocket) his Ma* had certainly died that moment, which might have ben of direful consequence, there being nobody else present with the King (age 54) save this Doctor and one more, as I am assur'd. It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, and presence of mind in the Dr, to let him bloud in the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other physitians, which regularly should have ben don, and for want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell me *. This rescu'd his Ma* for the instant, but it was only a short reprieve. He still complain'd, and was relapsing, often fainting, with sometimes epileptic symptoms, till Wednesday, for which he was cupp'd, let bloud in both jugulars, had both vomit and purges, which so rellev'd him that on Thursday hopes of recovery were signified in the publiq Gazette, but that day, about noone, the physitians thought him feaverish. This they seem'd glad of, as being more easily allay'd and methodically dealt with than his former fits; so as they prescrib'd the famous Jesuits powder: but it made him worse, and some very able Doctors who were present did not think it a fever, but the effect of his frequent bleeding and other sharp operations us'd by them about his head, so that probably the powder might stop the circulation, and renew his former fits, which now made him very weake. Thus he pass'd Thursday night with greate difficulty, when complaining of a paine in his side, they drew 12 ounces more of bloud from him; this was by 6 in the morning on Friday, and it gave him reliefe, but it did not continue, for being now in much paine, and strugling for breath, he lay dozing, and after some conflicts, the physitians despairing of him, he gave up the ghost at halfe an houre after eleven in the morning, being the sixth of February 1685, in the 36th yeare of his reigne, and 54th of his age.

On 05 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of John Huddlestone (age 76).

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Feb 1685. The King (deceased) was this, night very obscurely buried in a vault under Hen. 7th's Chapell at Westminster [Map], without any manner of pomp, and soone forgotten after all this vanity, and the face of the whole Court was exceedingly chang'd into a more solemn and moral behaviour; the new King (age 51) affecting neither prophanenesse nor buffoonery. All the greate Officers broke their staves over the grave, according to form.

On 14 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (deceased) was buried without any manner of pomp at Westminster Abbey [Map].

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Coronation James II and Mary

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (age 51) and Queene (age 26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (age 47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the King begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1685 Execution of the Wigtown Martyrs

On 13 Apr 1685 Margaret Wilson (age 18), Agnes Wilson and Margaret McLachlan were indicted as being guilty of conventicles. They were found guilty on all charges, and sentenced to be "tied to palisades fixed in the sand, within the floodmark of the sea, and there to stand till the flood o'erflowed them". Agnes Wilson was subsequently granted freedom on a bond of 100 Pounds Scots. Reprieves were written out for the two Margarets with a date of 30 Apr 1685.

Some Remarkable Passages of the Life and Death of Mr Alexander Peden Chapter 24. The broth was hell-hot in these days; they 'wanted long-shanked spoons that supped with the devil:' I could give many instances, but at this time shall only mention the drowning of these two women at Wigtoun in Galloway, the 11th of May 1685, (which some deny to be matter of fact) viz. Margaret Lauchlan, who was past sixty-three years, and some of her intimates said to me. She was a christian of deep exercise through much of her life, and of high attainments and great experiences in the ways of godliness; and Margaret Wilson (age 18) who was put to death with her, aged twenty-three. The old woman was first tied to the stake, enemies saying, 'Tis needless to speak to that old damn'd bitch, let her go to hell: but,' say they, 'Margaret, ye are young; if ye'll pray for the king, we will give you your life.' She said, 'I'll pray for salvation to all the elect, but the damnation of none.' They dashed her under the water, and pulled her up again. People looking on said, 'O Margaret, will ye say it I' She said, 'Lord, give him repentance, forgiveness and salvation, if it be thy holy will.' Lagg (age 30) cry'd, 'Damn'd bitch, we do not want such prayers: tender the oaths to her.' She said, ' No, no sinful oaths for me ' They said, 'To hell with them, to hell with them, it is o'er good for them.' Thus suffered they that extraordinary and unheard-of death.

On 11 May 1685, despite the reprieves Margaret Wilson (age 18) and Margaret McLachlan were drowned at Wigtown, Wigtownshire on the orders of Robert Grierson 1st Baronet (age 30), for refusing to swear an oath declaring James II and VII (age 51) as head of the church.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Monmouth Rebellion

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Monmouth Rebellion, Monmouth's Landing at Lyme Regis

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Monmouth Rebellion, Battle of Sedgemoor

On 06 Jul 1685 Sharington Talbot (age 29) was killed in a duel with Captain Love over whose troops fought better at the Battle of Sedgemoor which had been fought earlier the same day.

On 06 Jul 1685 John Berkeley 4th Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 35) fought at Westonzoyland Bridgwater, Somerset during the Battle of Sedgemoor.

Francis Compton (age 56) was wounded.

Sharington Talbot (age 29) "behaved himself very handsomely".

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1685. Came news of Monmouth's (age 36) utter defeate, and the next day of his being taken by Sr Wm Portman (age 41) and Lord Lumley (age 35) with the militia of their counties. It seemes the horse, commanded by Lord Grey (age 29), being newly rais'd and undisciplin'd, were not to be brought in so short a time to endure the fire, which expos'd the foote to the King's, so as when Monmouth had led the foote in greate silence and order, thinking to surprize Lieut Gen Lord Feversham (age 44) newly encamp'd, and given him a smart charge, interchanging both greate and small shot, the horse, breaking their owne ranks, Monmouth (age 36) gave it over, and fled with Grey (age 29), leaving their party to be cut in pieces to the number of 2000. The whole number reported to be above 8,000, the King's but 2,700. The slaine were most of them Mendip-miners, who did greate execution with their tooles, and sold their lives very dearely, whilst their leaders flying were pursu'd and taken the next morning, not far from one another. Monmouth (age 36) had gone 16 miles on foote, changing; his habite for a poore coate, and was found by Lord Lumley (age 35) in a dry ditch cover'd with fern-brakes, but without sword, pistol, or any weapon, and so might have pass'd for some countryman, his beard being grown so long and so grey as hardly to be known, had not his George [Note. This is possible a reference to the Small St George Pendant] discover'd him, which was found in his pocket. 'Tis said he trembl'd exceedingly all over, not able to speake. Grey (age 29) was taken not far from him. Most of his party were anabaptists and poore cloth workers of yu country, no gentlemen of account being come in to him. The arch-boutefeu Ferguson, Matthews, *&c. were not yet found. The £5,000 to be given to whoever should bring Monmouth in, was to be distributed among the militia by agreement between Sr Wm Portman (age 41) and Lord Lumley (age 35). The battail ended, some words, first In jest, then in passion, pass'd between Sharington Talbot (deceased) (a worthy gent. son to Sr John Talbot (age 55), and who had behav'd himselfe very handsomely) and one Capt. Love, both commanders of the militia, as to whose souldiers fought best, both drawing their swords and passing at one another. Sharington (deceased) was wounded to death on the spot, to the greate regret of those who knew him. He was Sir John's only son.

1927. The History of the Fanshawe Family. By H C Fanshawe. Privately Published, 1927. Pages 81-82.

Elizabeth married Sir Francis Compton and died childless early in 1662; it being recorded in the private act of Parliament passed in 1675-6 to enable him [Sir Francis Compton] to sell Hamerton, of which he had bought a half share from Sir Thomas Leventhorpe and his wife Mary, for £10,000 in November, 1661, that his own wife had died shortly after that date. As he was made Knight on 27th December, 1661, it seems doubtful if his wife was ever Lady Compton. Sir Francis, who was wounded at Sedgemore, died in 1717, and was buried at the head of the tomb of his brother, the Bishop of London, under the east window of the old Parish Church of Fulham"

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Monmouth Rebellion, Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Thus ended this quondam Duke (age 36), darling of his father and ye ladies, being extreamly handsome and adroit; an excellent souldier and dancer, a favourite of the people, of an easy nature, debauch'd by lust, seduc'd by crafty knaves who would have set him up only to make a property, and took the opportunity of the King being of another religion, to gather a party of discontented men. He fail'd, and perish'd. He was a lovely person, had a virtuous and excellent lady that brought him greate riches, and a second dukedom in Scotland. He was Master of the Horse, General of the King his father's Army, Gentleman of the Bedchamber, Knight of the Garter, Chancellor of Cambridge, in a word had accumulations without end. See what ambition and want of principles brought him to! He was beheaded on Tuesday 14th July [Note. Most sources quote 15 Jul 1685]. His mother, whose name was Barlow [Note. Lucy Walter is often spoken of incorrectly as Mrs. Walters or Waters, and during her career she seems to have adopted the alias of Mrs. Barlo or Barlow (the name of a family with which the Walters of Pembrokeshire had intermarried). From Dictionary of National Biography.], daughter of some very meane creatures, was a beautiful strumpet, whom I had often seene at Paris; she died miserably without any thing to bury her; yet this Perkin had ben made to believe that the King had married her; a monstrous and ridiculous forgerie; and to satisfy the world of the iniquity of the report, the King his father (If his father he really was, for he most resembl'd one Sidney, who was familiar with his mother) publickly and most solemnly renounc'd it, to be so enter'd in the Council Booke some yeares since, with all ye Privy Councellors at testation.

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 36) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Bishop Francis Turner (age 47) acted a Chaplain. Duke Monmouth and Duke Buccleuch forfeit.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

On 16 Jan 1668 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 39) fought a duel at Barn Elms with Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) with whose wife Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 25) he was conducting a relationship. Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) was fatally wounded dying two months later. Following the duel George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 39) commenced living with Shrewsbury's wife Anne Maria (age 25). His wife Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham (age 29) returned to live with her parents.

Admiral Robert Holmes (age 46) and Jenkins acted as seconds to George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 39). Jenkins was killed.

John Talbot of Lacock (age 37) and Bernard Howard (age 27) acted as seconds to Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45). Note. Bernard Howard a guess based on name and age.

On 16 Mar 1668 Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) died from wounds received duelling. He was buried at Albrighton, Shropshire. His son Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury (age 7) succeeded 12th Earl of Shrewsbury, 12th Earl Waterford.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle (age 39) the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Holmes, and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), Sir John Talbot (age 37), and one Bernard Howard (age 27), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (age 25)1, who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39). And so her husband (age 45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (age 45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (age 37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (age 37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): though this is a time that the King (age 37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (age 37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (age 59) to confine the Duke (age 39), or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall trusted to the King (age 37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (age 37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's (age 45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard's' (age 39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) hath been married this week to my Lord Burlington's (age 55) daughter (age 23); so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (age 50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have (age 58). But I am mighty glad that the thing is done.

Note 1. Anna Maria (age 25), daughter of Robert Brudenel, second Earl of Cardigan (age 60). Walpole says she held the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) horse, in the habit of a page, while he was fighting the duel with her husband. She married, secondly, George Rodney Bridges, son of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, Somerset (age 51), Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles IL, and died April 20th, 1702. A portrait of the Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, by Lely.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1668. Thence to other discourse, among others, he mightily commends my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 20) match and Lady (age 23), though he buys her £10,000 dear, by the jointure and settlement his father (age 42) makes her; and says that the Duke of York (age 34) and Duchess of York (age 30) did come to see them in bed together, on their wedding-night, and how my Lord had fifty pieces of gold taken out of his pocket that night, after he was in bed. He tells me that an Act of Comprehension is likely to pass this Parliament, for admitting of all persuasions in religion to the public observation of their particular worship, but in certain places, and the persons therein concerned to be listed of this, or that Church; which, it is thought, will do them more hurt than good, and make them not own, their persuasion. He tells me that there is a pardon passed to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), and the rest, for the late duell and murder1 which he thinks a worse fault than any ill use my late Chancellor (age 58) ever put the Great Seal to, and will be so thought by the Parliament, for them to be pardoned without bringing them to any trial: and that my Lord Privy-Seal (age 62) therefore would not have it pass his hand, but made it go by immediate warrant; or at least they knew that he would not pass it, and so did direct it to go by immediate warrant, that it might not come to him. He tells me what a character my Lord Sandwich (age 42) hath sent over of Mr. Godolphin (age 33), as the worthiest man, and such a friend to him as he may be trusted in any thing relating to him in the world; as one whom, he says, he hath infallible assurances that he will remaine his friend which is very high, but indeed they say the gentleman is a fine man.

Note 1. The royal pardon was thus announced in the "Gazette" of February 24th, 1668: "This day his Majesty was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent services heretofore done to his Majesty by most of the persons who were engaged in the late duel, or rencounter, wherein William Jenkins was killed, he Both graciously pardon the said offence: nevertheless, He is resolved from henceforth that on no pretence whatsoever any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any duel or rencounter, but that the course of law shall wholly take place in all such cases". The warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), is dated January 27th, 1668; and on the following day was issued, "Warrant for a grant to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45), of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), Sir John Talbot, Sir Robert Holmes, or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &c". (Calendar of State Papers, 1667-68, pp. 192,193).

The London Gazette 238. 25 Feb 1668. Whitehall, Feb. 25. This day His Majesty (age 37) was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent Services heretofore done to His Majesty by most of those persons who were engaged in the late Duel or Rencounter wherein William Jenkins was killed, He doth Graciously pardon the said Offence: Nevertheless, he is resolved from henceforth, that upon no pretence whatsoever, any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any Duel or Rencounter but that the course of Law shall wholly take place in all such Cases; and His Majesty was pleased to command that this His solemn Declaration should be entred in the Council Book, and that publick notice of it be likewise hereby givern that no persons may for the future pretend ignorance thereof.

Calendars. 27 Jan 1688. Whitehall. Warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham, of all treason, misprision of treason, felony, &c., especially concerning the killing of William Jenkins, and assaults on Francis Earl of Shrewsbury, - or Sir John Talbot (age 57), whether or not they have died or shall die of the same; with non-obstante of the statutes requiring security for good behaviour. [Ibid. No. 90.]

Calendars. 27 Jan 1688. Petition of John Bennett, high bailiff of the city and liberties of Westminster, to the King. By the accidental killing of William Jenkins, in a late duel between the Duke of Buckingham and Earl of Shrewsbury, the Duke forfeits all his goods, chattels, and personal estate to the King, a considerable part of which, being in Westminster, would come to the petitioner; but as he loses it by his Majesty's pardon to the Duke, he begs to be recommended to his Grace for some compensation. [Ibid. No. 93.]

Calendars. 27 Jan 1688? Petition of John Bennett, high bailiff of Westminster, to the King, for similar recommendation to Bernard Howard (age 47), Sir John Talbot (age 57), and Sir Robert  Holmes (age 66), who were engaged in the encounter in which William Jenkins was slain, but his Majesty is inclined to pardon them before conviction. [Ibid. No. 94.]

Calendars. 28 Jan 1688. Whitehall. Warrant for a grant to Francis Earl of Shrewsbury of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George Duke of Buckingham, Sir John Talbot (age 57), Sir Robert  Holmes (age 66), or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 28, f. 12.]

Adeline Horsey Recollections. The second Earl became a Roman Catholic, and spent most of his long life of 102 years at Deene [Map]. His daughter, Lady Anne Brudenell, was one of the most lovely of the beauties associated with the Court of Charles II She married the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the story is well known of how she, dressed as a page, held the Duke of Buckingham's horse whilst he fought with and slew her husband.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1668 Bawdy House Riots

Around 22 Mar 1668, Easter Day, the 1668 Bawdy House Riots were riots over several days caused by Dissenters who resented the King's proclamation against conventicles aka private lay worship while turning a blind eye to the equally illegal brothels. Thousands of young men besieged and demolished brothels throughout the East End, assaulting the prostitutes and looting the properties.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1668. Thence up and down Westminster by Mrs. Burroughes her mother's shop, thinking to have seen her, but could not, and therefore back to White Hall, where great talk of the tumult at the other end of the town, about Moore-fields [Map], among the 'prentices, taking the liberty of these holydays to pull down bawdy-houses1. And, Lord! to see the apprehensions which this did give to all people at Court, that presently order was given for all the soldiers, horse and foot, to be in armes! and forthwith alarmes were beat by drum and Trumpet through Westminster, and all to their colours, and to horse, as if the French were coming into the town! So Creed, whom I met here, and I to Lincolne's Inn-fields, thinking to have gone into the fields to have seen the 'prentices; but here we found these fields full of soldiers all in a body, and my Lord Craven (age 59) commanding of them, and riding up and down to give orders, like a madman. And some young men we saw brought by soldiers to the Guard at White Hall, and overheard others that stood by say, that it was only for pulling down the bawdy-houses; and none of the bystanders finding fault with them, but rather of the soldiers for hindering them. And we heard a justice of the Peace this morning say to the King (age 37), that he had been endeavouring to suppress this tumult, but could not; and that, imprisoning some [of them] in the new prison at Clerkenwell, the rest did come and break open the prison and release them; and that they do give out that they are for pulling down the bawdy-houses, which is one of the greatest grievances of the nation. To which the King (age 37) made a very poor, cold, insipid answer: "Why, why do they go to them, then?" and that was all, and had no mind to go on with the discourse. Mr. Creed and I to dinner to my Lord Crew (age 70), where little discourse, there being none but us at the table, and my Lord and my Lady Jemimah, and so after dinner away, Creed and I to White Hall, expecting a Committee of Tangier, but come too late. So I to attend the Council, and by and by were called in with Lord Brouncker (age 48) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) to advise how to pay away a little money to most advantage to the men of the yards, to make them dispatch the ships going out, and there did make a little speech, which was well liked, and after all it was found most satisfactory to the men, and best for the King's dispatch, that what money we had should be paid weekly to the men for their week's work until a greater sum could be got to pay them their arrears and then discharge them. But, Lord! to see what shifts and what cares and thoughts there was employed in this matter how to do the King's work and please the men and stop clamours would make a man think the King (age 37) should not eat a bit of good meat till he has got money to pay the men, but I do not see the least print of care or thoughts in him about it at all. Having done here, I out and there met Sir Fr. Hollis (age 25), who do still tell me that, above all things in the world, he wishes he had my tongue in his mouth, meaning since my speech in Parliament. He took Lord Brouncker (age 48) and me down to the guards, he and his company being upon the guards to-day; and there he did, in a handsome room to that purpose, make us drink, and did call for his bagpipes, which, with pipes of ebony, tipt with silver, he did play beyond anything of that kind that ever I heard in my life; and with great pains he must have obtained it, but with pains that the instrument do not deserve at all; for, at the best, it is mighty barbarous musick.

Note 1. It was customary for the apprentices of the metropolis to avail themselves of their holidays, especially on Shrove Tuesday, to search after women of ill fame, and to confine them during the season of Lent. See a "Satyre against Separatists", 1642. "Stand forth, Shrove Tuesday, one a' the silenc'st bricklayers; 'Tis in your charge to pull down bawdy-houses". Middleton's Inner Temple Masque, 1619, Works, ed. Bullen, vii., 209.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1668. By and by the Duke of York (age 34) is ready; and I did wait for an opportunity of speaking my mind to him about Sir J. Minnes (age 69), his being unable to do the King (age 37) any service, which I think do become me to do in all respects, and have Sir W. Coventry's (age 40) concurrence therein, which I therefore will seek a speedy opportunity to do, come what will come of it. The Duke of York (age 34) and all with him this morning were full of the talk of the 'prentices, who are not yet [put] down, though the guards and militia of the town have been in armes all this night, and the night before; and the 'prentices have made fools of them, sometimes by running from them and flinging stones at them. Some blood hath been spilt, but a great many houses pulled down; and, among others, the Duke of York (age 34) was mighty merry at that of Damaris Page's, the great bawd of the seamen; and the Duke of York (age 34) complained merrily that he hath lost two tenants, by their houses being pulled down, who paid him for their wine licenses £15 a year. But here it was said how these idle fellows have had the confidence to say that they did ill in contenting themselves in pulling down the little bawdyhouses, and did not go and pull down the great bawdy-house at White Hall. And some of them have the last night had a word among them, and it was "Reformation and Reducement". This do make the courtiers ill at ease to see this spirit among people, though they think this matter will not come to much: but it speaks people's minds; and then they do say that there are men of understanding among them, that have been of Cromwell's army: but how true that is, I know not.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1668. Betimes I to Alderman Backewell (age 50), and with him to my Lord Ashly's (age 46), where did a little business about Tangier, and to talk about the business of certificates, wherein, contrary to what could be believed, the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) themselves, in my absence, did call for some of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and give them directions about the business [of the certificates], which I, despairing to do any thing on a Sunday, and not thinking that they would think of it themselves, did rest satisfied, and stayed at home all yesterday, leaving it to do something in this day; but I find that the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) had been so pressing in it, that my Lord Ashly (age 46) was more forward with the doing of it this day, than I could have been. And so I to White Hall with Alderman Backewell (age 50) in his coach, with Mr. Blany; my Lord's Secretary: and there did draw up a rough draught of what order I would have, and did carry it in, and had it read twice and approved of, before my Lord Ashly (age 46) and three more of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and then went up to the Council-chamber, where the Duke of York (age 34), and Prince Rupert (age 48), and the rest of the Committee of the Navy were sitting: and I did get some of them to read it there: and they would have had it passed presently, but Sir John Nicholas desired they would first have it approved by a full Council: and, therefore, a Council Extraordinary was readily summoned against the afternoon, and the Duke of York (age 34) run presently to the King (age 37), as if now they were really set to mind their business, which God grant! So I thence to Westminster, and walked in the Hall and up and down, the House being called over to-day, and little news, but some talk as if the agreement between France and Spain were like to be, which would be bad for us, and at noon with Sir Herbert Price (age 63) to Mr. George Montagu's (age 45) to dinner, being invited by him in the hall, and there mightily made of, even to great trouble to me to be so commended before my face, with that flattery and importunity, that I was quite troubled with it. Yet he is a fine gentleman, truly, and his lady a fine woman; and, among many sons that I saw there, there was a little daughter that is mighty pretty, of which he is infinite fond: and, after dinner, did make her play on the gittar and sing, which she did mighty prettily, and seems to have a mighty musical soul, keeping time with most excellent spirit. Here I met with Mr. Brownlow, my old schoolfellow, who come thither, I suppose, as a suitor to one of the young ladies that were there, and a sober man he seems to be. But here Mr. Montagu (age 45) did tell me how Mr. Vaughan (age 64), in that very room, did say that I was a great man, and had great understanding, and I know not what, which, I confess, I was a little proud of, if I may believe him. Here I do hear, as a great secret, that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 34) and Duchesse, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), are now all agreed in a strict league, and all things like to go very current, and that it is not impossible to have my Lord Clarendon (age 59), in time, here again. But I do hear that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is horribly vexed at the late libell1, the petition of the poor whores about the town, whose houses were pulled down the other day. I have got one of them, but it is not very witty, but devilish severe against her and the King (age 37) and I wonder how it durst be printed and spread abroad, which shews that the times are loose, and come to a great disregard of the King (age 37), or Court, or Government.

Note 1. "The Poor Whores' Petition to the most splendid, illustrious, serene and eminent Lady of Pleasure the Countess of Castlemayne (age 27), &c., signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, this present 25th day of March, 1668". This sham petition occasioned a pretended answer, entitled, "The Gracious Answer of the Most Illustrious Lady of Pleasure, the Countess of Castlem.... to the Poor Whores' Petition". It is signed, "Given at our Closset, in King Street, Westminster, die Veneris, April 24, 1668. Castlem...". Compare Evelyn, April 2nd, 1668.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

On 13 May 1688 the Archbishop of Canterbury and seven bishops were imprisoned for seditious libel: Archbishop William Sancroft (age 71), Bishop Henry Compton (age 56), Bishop Francis Turner (age 50), Bishop Thomas White (age 60), Bishop Thomas Ken (age 50), Bishop John Lake (age 64), Bishop Jonathan Trelawny 3rd Baronet (age 38) and Bishop William Lloyd (age 51). Their crime was to not read the Declaration of Indulgence as required by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71), with the Bishops of Ely (age 50), Chichester (age 64), St. Asaph (age 60), Bristol (age 38), Peterborough (age 60), and Bath and Wells (age 50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower [Map], for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower [Map] to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (age 71) and the Bishops of Ely (age 50), St. Asaph (age 60), and Bath and Wells (age 50).

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jun 1688. Being the first day of term, the Bishops were brought to Westminster on habeas corpus, when the indictment was read, and they were called on to plead; their counsel objected that the warrant was illegal; but, after long debate, it was overruled, and they pleaded. The Court then offered to take bail for their appearance; but this they refused, and at last were dismissed on their own recognizances to appear that day fortnight; the Archbishop in £200, the Bishops in £100 each.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jun 1688. They appeared; the trial lasted from nine in the morning to past six in the evening, when the jury retired to consider of their verdict, and the Court adjourned to nine the next morning. The jury were locked up till that time, eleven of them being for an acquittal; but one (Arnold, a brewer) would not consent. At length he agreed with the others. The Chief Justice, Wright (age 54), behaved with great moderation and civility to the Bishops. Alibone, a Papist, was strongly against them; but Holloway and Powell (age 56) being of opinion in their favor, they were acquitted. When this was heard, there was great rejoicing; and there was a lane of people from the King's Bench [Map] to the water side, on their knees, as the Bishops passed and repassed, to beg their blessing. Bonfires were made that night, and bells rung, which was taken very ill at Court, and an appearance of nearly sixty Earls and Lords, etc., on the bench, did not a little comfort them; but indeed they were all along full of comfort and cheerful.

On 29 Jun 1688 the seven bishops were tried at the King's Bench. Robert Sawyer Attorney General (age 55) acted for the defence. They were found not guilty. Their acquittal resulted in wild celebrations throughout London

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1688. The late imprisoned Bishops were now called to reconcile matters, and the Jesuits hard at work to foment confusion among the Protestants by their usual tricks. A letter was sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71), informing him, from good hands, of what was contriving by them. A paper of what the Bishops advised his Majesty was published. The Bishops were enjoined to prepare a form of prayer against the feared invasion. A pardon published. Soldiers and mariners daily pressed.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1668 Great Barbados Fire

On 18 Apr 1668 a great fire in Bridgetown Barbados destroyed eight hundred building in the town.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1668. Thence pleasant way to London, before night, and find all very well, to great content; and there to talk with my wife, and saw Sir W. Pen (age 47), who is well again. I hear of the ill news by the great fire at Barbados.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Test Act

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington (age 40) was dismissed by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) for refusing to sign the Test Act.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Glorious Revolution

In 1688 Michael Wharton and Lord Danby (age 55) secured Kingston upon Hull [Map] for the Prince of Orange (age 37) during the Glorious Revolution.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Nov 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince (age 38) being landed somewhere about Portsmouth [Map], or the Isle of Wight [Map], whereas it was thought it would have been northward. The Court in great hurry.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray God to protect and direct the King (age 55) for the best and truest interest of his people!-I saw his Majesty (age 55) touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1688. The Prince (age 38) increases everyday in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury (age 26) carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, Devon, the Prince's (age 38) headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord Berkeley (age 60), at St. John's. The Queen (age 30) prepares to go to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] for safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The King (age 55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (age 36) appears for the Prince (age 38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his Majesty (age 55) to call a Parliament. The King (age 55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (age 52) preached at St. Martin's [Map] on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (age 43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (age 55) and Earl of Nottingham (age 41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (age 38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth, Devon [Map] declared for the Prince (age 38). Bath, Somerset [Map], York [Map], Hull [Map], Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map], and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (age 38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (age 38) coming to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]. The Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], the Earl of Dover (age 52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (age 55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1688. The Prince of Orange (age 38) is advanced to Windsor [Map], is invited by the King (age 55) to St. James's [Map], the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (age 47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (age 38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (age 38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (age 38) goes privately to Rochester, Kent [Map]; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present).

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Dec 1688. That night was a Council; his Majesty (age 38) refuses to assent to all the proposals; goes away again to Rochester, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Dec 1688. All the world go to see the Prince (age 38) at St. James's [Map], where there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Dec 1688. The King (age 55) passes into France, whither the Queen (age 30) and child were gone a few days before.

In Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle (age 18) and Robert Ferguson Minister (age 51) accompanied King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough (age 40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) in recognition of his (age 40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Frances Jones Countess Scarborough (age 23) by marriage Countess Scarborough.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire (age 53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire (age 48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds (age 61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds (age 65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 52) was created 1st Earl Romney by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury (age 33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury, 1st Marquess Alton by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford (age 44) was created 1st Earl Orford by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 46) in recognition of his support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Glorious Revolution, 1688 Battle of Reading

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Glorious Revolution, Abdication of James II

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Glorious Revolution, Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington (age 40) carried the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven to The Hague.

In Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle (age 18) and Robert Ferguson Minister (age 51) accompanied King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough (age 40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) in recognition of his (age 40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Frances Jones Countess Scarborough (age 23) by marriage Countess Scarborough.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds (age 61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds (age 65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire (age 53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire (age 48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 52) was created 1st Earl Romney by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury (age 33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury, 1st Marquess Alton by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

On 07 May 1697 Edward Russell 1st Earl Orford (age 44) was created 1st Earl Orford by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 46) in recognition of his support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

In Oct 1714 John Hervey 1st Earl Bristol (age 49) was created 1st Earl Bristol for having supported the Glorious Revolution.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Glorious Revolution, Coronation William III and Mary II

On 09 Apr 1689 a number of new peers were created at the Coronation William III and Mary II ...

Charles Paulet 1st Duke Bolton (age 59) was created 1st Duke Bolton.

Charles Mordaunt 3rd Earl Peterborough 1st Earl Monmouth (age 31) was created 1st Earl Monmouth. Carey Fraser Countess Peterborough and Monmouth (age 29) by marriage Countess Monmouth.

Thomas Belasyse 1st Earl Fauconberg (age 62) was created 1st Earl Fauconberg. Mary Cromwell Countess Fauconberg (age 52) by marriage Countess Fauconberg.

William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland (age 39) was created 1st Earl of Portland.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of Westminster [Map], with the great feast in Westminster Hall [Map], at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet (age 45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall [Map]. When the King (age 38) and Queen (age 26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.

On 11 Apr 1689 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) and Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) were crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham (age 33) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports.

George Compton 4th Earl of Northampton (age 24) bore the King's sceptre and cross at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (age 61) to visit my Lord of Canterbury (age 58) at Lambeth [Map], who had excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London (age 57), assisted by the Archbishop of York (age 74). We had much private and free discourse with his Grace (age 58) concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.

On 22 Apr 1689 Elizabeth Butler Countess Derby (age 29) was appointed Principal Lady in Waiting to Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) as well as Groom of the Stool and Mistress of the Robes attracting a salary of £1200 per annum (£800 and £400 respectively).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Act of Poll

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1689. A fight by Admiral Herbert (age 41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor-so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (age 38) and Queen (age 26) on their accession to the crown.

Grant to the King and Queen of 10s. in every £100 of Personal Estate.

Wee Your Majestyes most Dutyfull and Loyal Subjects the Commons Assembled in Parlyament haveing entred into a Serious Consideration of the great and extraordinary Expences in which Your Majesties are Engaged for the Reduceing of Ireland and for the Carrying on the Warr against the French King In order towards the Enabling Your Majesties to Prosecute the said Ends with Speede and Vigour doe most humbly present to Your Majestyes a Free Gift of the severall Sums of Money hereafter specified Beseeching Your Majestyes that it may be Enacted And bee it Enacted by the King and Queens most Excellent Majestyes by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and of the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled and by the Authoritie of the same That all and every Person and Persons Bodies Politick and Corporate Guilds or Fraternities within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede haveing any Personall Estate either in Debts oweing to them within this Realme or without which he she or they doe not account as desperate other then such Debts as now are or shall be oweing from Their Majestyes (over and besides such just Debts as he she or they shall bona fide owe) or in ready Moneys shall yield and pay unto Their Majestyes for every Hundred pounds in such Debts and ready Moneys the Summe of Ten shillings (to be paid by the Lender notwithstanding any Agreement to the contrary) to be Assessed Imposed Levyed and Collected in manner herein after mentioned.

II. Public Officers (Exceptions) to pay is. for every 20s. of the Profits of their Offices.

III. Pensions, &c. from Government exceeding £20 per Ann. to pay is in the Pound.

IV. Judges, Serjeants at Law, Barristers, Advocates, and Persons practising Physick, to pay 3s. in the Pound.

V. Rates of Payments by Peers, &c.

VI. Gentleman having Estate of £300 or more, to pay 20s. though an Infant; under that Estate, on Oath, not charged.

VII. Archbishop, £50. Bishop, £20. Deans, £10. Archdeacons, £2. 10s.

etc.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Act of Indulgence

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1689. A fight by Admiral Herbert (age 41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor-so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (age 38) and Queen (age 26) on their accession to the crown.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Siege of Londonderry

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Aug 1689. Hitherto it has been a most seasonable summer. Derry aka Londonderry relieved after a brave and wonderful holding out.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Battle of Killiecrankie

On 27 Jul 1689 James Seton 4th Earl Dunfermline (age 46) fought at Killiecrankie during the Battle of Killiecrankie.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Parliament 2W3

On 20 Mar 1690 William Bowes of Streatlam (age 33) was elected MP Durham during the Parliament 2W3.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Battle of the Boyne

In 1690 Dr George Walker (age 72) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (age 57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower [Map], on suspicion of being affected to King James (age 56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (age 28) uncle. King William (age 39) having vanquished King James (age 56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (age 56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (age 74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (age 39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (age 55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (age 60), was taken. It is reported that King James (age 56) is gone back to France. Drogheda [Map] and Dublin [Map] surrendered, and if King William (age 39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

On 01 Jul 1690 Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg (age 74) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne. He was buried at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. His son Charles Schomberg 2nd Duke Schomberg (age 44) succeeded 2nd Duke Schomberg.

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Catholic King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 56).

The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg (age 74).

The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough (age 40), Osmund Mordaunt and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 49).

For the Irish or Catholic army James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet (age 33) fought. Richard Hamilton was captured.

Drury Wray 9th Baronet (age 56) fought for James II for which he subsequently forfeit his lands.

On 12 Jul 1690 General Charles Chalmot de Saint Ruhe (age 40) was killed at the Battle of the Boyne.

On or before 15 Aug 1690 Charles Tuke 2nd Baronet (age 19) died of wound received at the Battle of the Boyne fighting for King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 56). Baronet Tuke of Cressing Temple extinct.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower [Map], with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (age 62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (age 57), etc. The troops from Blackheath [Map] march to Portsmouth [Map]. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (age 19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (age 55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (age 56).

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1691. The great victory of King William's army in Ireland was looked on as decisive of that war. The French General, St. Ruth, who had been so cruel to the poor Protestants in France, was slain, with divers of the best commanders; nor was it cheap to us, having 1,000 killed, but of the enemy 4,000 or 5,000.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Siege of Limerick

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1690. The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (age 39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (age 41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

On 21 Aug 1690 John Margetson (age 34) died at Limerick, County Limerick during the Siege of Limerick.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Storming of Cork

On 09 Oct 1690 Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 27) was killed at Cork [Map] during the Storming of Cork. His son Charles Fitzroy 2nd Duke Grafton (age 6) succeeded 2nd Duke Grafton, 2nd Earl Euston, 2nd Viscount Ipswich, 2nd Baron Sudbury.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Apr 1691. This night, a sudden and terrible fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery at Whitehall [Map] to the water side, beginning at the apartment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (age 41) [Note. Not clear why 'late' since Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 41) died in 1734; possibly relates to her fall from grace following the death of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland] (which had been pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who debauched both King Charles II and others, and were his destruction.

The King (age 40) returned out of Holland just as this accident happened-Proclamation against the Papists, etc.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Battle of Aughrim

On 12 Jul 1691 John Hamilton was killed in action fighting for the Jacobites at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

Theobald Dillon 7th Viscount Dillon was killed at Aughrim, County Galway during the Battle of Aughrim.

Walter Bellew 2nd Baron Bellew fought and where he was severely wounded and taken prisoner.

Calendars. 18 Apr 1693. Whitehall. Proceedings upon the petition of Helen, Viscountess Kenmare. Shows that upon settlements made by her father and mother, she had, before the wars in Ireland, several lands and tenements in counties Kerry, Cork, and Limerick, to the value of 1,400l. per ann.; that likewise upon her marriage with Nicholas Browne (age 33), esq., now Viscount Kenmare, a jointure was settled and secured to her of 500l. per annum out of the said Lord Kenmare's estate; and that both her husband's and her own estate are seized upon the attainder of her said husband, who was made prisoner of war at Aughrim and afterwards discharged upon the Articles of Limerick. The petitioner prays for a reasonable maintenance out of her own and her husband's estate for the support of herself and her children. Referred to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. [Ibid., p. 473.]

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York

On 24 Jan 1692 Shubael Dummer (age 56) was killed at York, York County, Maine during the Candlemas Massacre aka Raid on York.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, William III Creation of New Lords

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1692. Lord Marlborough (age 41) having used words against the King (age 41), and been discharged from all his great places, his wife (age 31) was forbidden the Court, and the Princess of Denmark (age 27) was desired by the Queen (age 29) to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court to Sion house [Map]. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel (age 53), Sir William Fermor (age 43), etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The Duke of Norfolk (age 37) does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue

Evelyn's Diary. 15 May 1692. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now married to Sir Cyril Wyche (age 60), Secretary of State for Ireland. After all our apprehensions of being invaded, and doubts of our success by sea, it pleased God to give us a great naval victory, to the utter ruin of the French fleet, their admiral and all their best men-of-war, transport-ships, etc.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Turkish Fleet Disaster

On 01 Mar 1694 the Turkish Fleet was lost in a severe storm off Gibralter. Sussex sank with the loss of five hundred men.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1694. Came the dismal news of the disaster befallen our Turkey fleet by tempest, to the almost utter ruin of that trade, the convoy of three or four men-of-war, and divers merchant ships, with all their men and lading, having perished.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Glencoe Massacre

In 1695 John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale (age 69) ordered an inquiry into the Glencoe Massacre.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Battle of Steenkerque

On 03 Aug 1692 George Hamilton was killed in action at Steenkerque during the Battle of Steenkerque.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Battle of Marsaglia

On 04 Oct 1693 Charles Schomberg 2nd Duke Schomberg (age 48) fought for Spain and Savoy at Marsaglia during the Battle of Marsaglia: Spain and Savoy.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Death and Funeral of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map].

On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Tenison (age 58) preached the sermon.

She had reigned for five years. Her husband King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Dec 1694. The smallpox increased exceedingly, and was very mortal. The Queen (deceased) died of it on the 28th.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Mar 1695. I went to see the ceremony. Never was so universal a mourning; all the Parliament men had cloaks given them, and four hundred poor women; all the streets hung and the middle of the street boarded and covered with black cloth. There were all the nobility, mayor, aldermen, judges, etc.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1695. I supped at the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry's (age 67), who related to me the pious behavior of the Queen in all her sickness, which was admirable. She never inquired of what opinion persons were, who were objects of charity; that, on opening a cabinet, a paper was found wherein she had desired that her body might not be opened, or any extraordinary expense at her funeral, whenever she should die. This paper was not found in time to be observed. There were other excellent things under her own hand, to the very least of her debts, which were very small, and everything in that exact method, as seldom is found in any private person. In sum, she was such an admirable woman, abating for taking the Crown without a more due apology, as does, if possible, outdo the renowned Queen Elizabeth.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, Nine Year's War

In Jan 1695 James Killigrew was killed during the Nine Year's War.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (age 45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais [Map], an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the Duke of Berwick (age 25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (age 62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (age 45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (age 46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1696. Divers of the conspirators tried and condemned. Vesuvius breaking out, terrified Naples. Three [Note. Robert Charnock, Edward King, and Thomas Keys] of the unhappy wretches, whereof one was a priest, were executed for intending to assassinate the King; they acknowledged their intention, but acquitted King James of inciting them to it, and died very penitent. Divers more in danger, and some very considerable persons.

On 18 Mar 1696 Robert Charnock (age 33) was hanged for his involvement in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

In Apr 1696 John Friend Jacobite and William Parkyns (age 47) were executed for taking part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Apr 1696. The quarters of Sir William Perkins (deceased) and Sir John Friend, lately executed on the plot, with Perkins's (deceased) head, were set up at Temple Bar, a dismal sight, which many pitied. I think there never was such at Temple Bar till now, except once in the time of King Charles II, namely, of Sir Thomas Armstrong.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Apr 1696. Great offense taken at the three ministers who absolved Sir William Perkins (deceased) and Friend at Tyburn [Map]. One of them (Snatt) was a son of my old schoolmaster. This produced much altercation as to the canonicalness of the action.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (age 46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James (age 62), which he presumed to present to King William (age 45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved Queen's own father.

On 25 Nov 1696 Michael Biddulph 2nd Baronet (age 42) and Richard Dowdeswell of Pull Court, Bushley, Worcestershire (age 43) voted for the attainder of John Fenwick 3rd Baronet (age 51).

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jan 1697. The severe frost and weather relented, but again froze with snow. Conspiracies continue against King William. Sir John Fenwick (age 52) was beheaded..

On 28 Jan 1697 John Fenwick 3rd Baronet (age 52) was beheaded for his part in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III. He was buried at St Martin in the Fields [Map]. Baronet Fenwick of Fenwick in Northumberland extinct. He was the last person to be executed under an Act of Attainder.

Robert Burdett 3rd Baronet (age 57) had spoken against the attainder in Parliament.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 May 1696. I went to London to meet my son (age 41), newly come from Ireland, indisposed. Money still continuing exceedingly scarce, so that none was paid or received, but all was on trust, the mint not supplying for common necessities. The Association with an oath required of all lawyers and officers, on pain of Praemunire, whereby men were obliged to renounce King James as no rightful king, and to revenge King William's death, if happening by assassination. This to be taken by all the Counsel by a day limited, so that the Courts of Chancery and King's Bench hardly heard any cause in Easter Term, so many crowded to take the oath. This was censured as a very entangling contrivance of the Parliament in expectation, that many in high office would lay down, and others surrender. Many gentlemen taken up on suspicion of the late plot, were now discharged out of prison.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1696 Oath of Association

Evelyn's Diary. 13 May 1696. I went to London to meet my son (age 41), newly come from Ireland, indisposed. Money still continuing exceedingly scarce, so that none was paid or received, but all was on trust, the mint not supplying for common necessities. The Association with an oath required of all lawyers and officers, on pain of Praemunire, whereby men were obliged to renounce King James as no rightful king, and to revenge King William's death, if happening by assassination. This to be taken by all the Counsel by a day limited, so that the Courts of Chancery and King's Bench hardly heard any cause in Easter Term, so many crowded to take the oath. This was censured as a very entangling contrivance of the Parliament in expectation, that many in high office would lay down, and others surrender. Many gentlemen taken up on suspicion of the late plot, were now discharged out of prison.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace

On 04 Jan 1698 Whitehall Palace [Map] was burned to the ground. The only remaining building was the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jan 1698. Whitehall [Map] burned, nothing but walls and ruins left. See 1698 Burning of Whitehall Palace.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1685-1699 Glorious Revolution, 1698 General Election

In 1698 Thomas Coke (age 23) was elected MP Derby at the 1698 General Election which seat he held until Dec 1701.