Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused is in 1536-Death of Catherine of Aragon and Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused, Marriage to Jane Seymour.
It pleased you to write to me of your good will to my preferment. Various offenders have been committed to the Tower, among others Master Henry Norris (age 54), who has various rooms in the parts about me near Windsor, for which I hope you will have me in remembrance. He has the Little Park, the Park of Holy John (Foly John), Perlam (Perlaunt) Park, and the room of the Black Rod, in Windsor Castle, which I shall be glad to have, as I have 14 children.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Mr. Secretary. Endd.
Have come to Lambeth, according to Mr. Secretary's letters, to know your Grace's pleasure. Dare not, contrary to the said letters, presume to come to your presence, but of my bounden duty I beg you "somewhat to suppress the deep sorrows of your Grace's heart," and take adversity patiently. Cannot deny that you have great causes of heaviness, and that your honor is highly touched. God never sent you a like trial; but if He find you no less patient and thankful than when all things succeeded to your wish, I suppose you never did thing more acceptable to Him. You will give Him occasion to increase His benefits, as He did to Job. If the reports of the Queen (age 35) be true, they are only to her dishonor, not yours. I am clean amazed, for I had never better opinion of woman; but I think your Highness would not have gone so far if she had not been culpable. I was most bound to her of all creatures living, and therefore beg that I may, with your Grace's favor, wish and pray that she may declare herself innocent. Yet if she be found guilty, I repute him not a faithful subject who would not wish her punished without mercy. "And as I loved her not a little for the love which I judged her to bear towards God and His Gospel, so if she be proved culpable there is not one that loveth God and His Gospel that ever will favor her, but must hate her above all other; and the more they favor the Gospel the more they will hate her, for then there was never creature in our time that so much slandered the Gospel; and God hath sent her this punishment for that she feignedly hath professed his Gospel in her mouth and not in heart and deed." And though she have so offended, yet God has shown His goodness towards your Grace and never offended you. "But your Grace, I am sure, knowledgeth that you have offended Him." I trust, therefore, you will bear no less zeal to the Gospel than you did before, as your favor to the Gospel was not led by affection to her. Lambeth, 3 May.
Since writing, my lords Chancellor, Oxford, Sussex, and my Lord Chamberlain of your Grace's house, sent for me to come to the Star Chamber, and there declared to me such things as you wished to make me privy to. For this I am much bounden to your Grace. They will report our conference. I am sorry such faults can be proved against the Queen as they report.
Hol. Mutilated. Endd.
On my Lord of Norfolk (age 63) and the King's Council departing from the Tower, I went before the Queen (age 35) into her lodging. She said unto me, "Mr. Kingston (age 60), shall I go into a dungeon?" I said, "No, Madam. You shall go into the lodging you lay in at your coronation." "It is too g[ood] for me, she said; Jesu have mercy on me;" and kneeled down, weeping a [good] pace, and in the same sorrow fell into a great laughing, as she has done many times since. "She desyred me to move the Kynges hynes that she [might] have the sacarment in the closet by hyr chamber, that she my[ght pray] for mercy, for I am as clere from the company of man as for s[in as I] am clear from you, and am the Kynges trew wedded wyf. And then s[he said], Mr. Kynston, do you know wher for I am here? and I sayd, Nay. And th[en she asked me], When saw you the Kynge? and I sayd I saw hym not syns I saw [him in] the Tylte Yerde. And then, Mr. K., I pray you to telle me wher my [Lord, my fa]der [Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 59)], ys? And I told hyr I saw hym afore dyner in the Cort. O[where is m]y sweet broder (age 33)? I sayd I left hym at York Place; and so I dyd. I [hear say, sai]d she, that I shuld be accused with iij. men; and I can say [no more but] nay, withyowt I shuld oppen my body. And ther with opynd her gown. O, No[res] (age 54), hast thow accused me? Thow ar in the Towre with me, [and thow and I shall] dy together; and, Marke (age 24), thow art here to. O, my mother (age 56), [thou wilt die with] sorow; and myche lamented my lady of Worceter (age 34), for by c[ause that her child di]d not store in hyre body. And my wyf sayd, what shuld [be the cause? And she sai]d, for the sorow she toke for me. And then she sayd, Mr. [Kyngston (age 60), shall I die with]yowt justes? And I sayd, the porest sugett the Ky[ng hath, hath justice. And t]her with she lawed. Alle thys sayinges was yesterny[ght] .... and thys mornyng dyd talke with Mestrys Co[fyn. And she said, Mr. Norr]es Henry Norreys (age 54) dyd say on Sunday last unto the Quenes am[ner that he would s]vere for the Quene that she was a gud woman. [And then said Mrs.] Cofyn (age 36), Madam, Why shuld ther be hony seche maters [spoken of? Marry,] sayd she, I bad hym do so: for I asked hym why he [did not go through with] hys maryage, and he made ansure he wold tary [a time. Then I said, Y]ou loke for ded men's showys, for yf owth ca[m to the King but good], you would loke to have me. And he sayd yf he [should have any such thought] he wold hys hed war of. And then she sayd [she could undo him if she wou]ld; and ther with thay felle yowt, bot .... and sayd on Wysson Twysday last .... that Nores (age 54) cam more .. age and further ....NOTEXT
"Wher I was commaunded to charge the gentelwomen that gyfes thayr atendans apon the Quene, that ys to say thay shuld have now (i.e., no) commynycasion with hyr in lese my William Kingston (age 60) and wyf (age 60) ware present; and so I dyd hit, notwithstandynge it canot be so, for my Lady Bolen and Mestrys Cofyn (age 36) lyes on the Quenes palet, and I and my wyf at the dore with yowt, so at thay must nedes talke at be within; bot I have every thynge told me by Mestrys Cofyn (age 36) that she thinkes met for you to know, and tother ij. gentelweymen lyes withyowt me, and as I may knowe t[he] Kynges plesure in the premysses I shalle folow. From the Towre, thys morny[ng].
"Sir, syns the makynge of thys letter the Quene spake of Wes[ton [Francis Weston (age 25)], saying that she] had spoke to hym bycause he did love hyr kynswoman [Mrs. Skelton, and] sayd he loved not hys wyf (age 22), and he made ansere to hyr [again that h]e loved wone in hyr howse better then them bothe. And [the Queen (age 35) said, Who is] that? It ys yourself. And then she defyed hym, as [she said to me]. William Kyngston (age 60)."
"Sir, the Quene hathe meche desyred to have here in the closet the sacarment and also hyr amner, who she supposeth to be devet, for won owre she ys determyned to dy and the next owre meche contrary to that. Yesterday after your departynge I sent for my wyf and also for Mestrys Coffyn to know how the had done that day; thay sayd she had bene very mery, and made a gret dyner, and yet sone after she called for hyr supper, havynge marvelle wher I was alle day. And after supper she sent for me; and at my comynge she sayd, Wher have you bene alle day? And I mad ansure I had bene with prisoners. So, she sayd, I thowth I hard Mr. Tresure[r]. I ansured he was not here. Then she began talke, and sayd I was creuely handeled a .... a Greweche with the Kynges consell with my Lord of Norfolke, that he sayd Tut, [tut, tut!], and shakyng hyr hed iii. or iiij. tymes, and as for master Tresurer he was in the [forest of Windsor; y]ou know what she meynes by that; and named Mr. Controler to be a very ge[ntleman. But s]he to be a Quene, and creuely handeled as was never sene; bot I th[ink the King d]ose it to prove me;—and dyd lawth with alle and was very mery. And then s[he said, I shall have ju]stes. And then I sayd, Have now dowt therin. Then she sayd, Yf hony man acuse [me I can say but n]ay; and thay can bringe now wytnes; and she had talked with the gentel .... sayd I knew at Markes (age 24) comynge to the Towre that nyght. I reysayved .... at it was X. of the cloke or he ware welle loged; and then she sayd .... e knew of Nores (age 54) goynge to the Towre, and then she sayd I hold .... next yf it had bene leyd she had wone; and then she sayd, I wo[uld to God I had m]y bysshoppys, for thay wold alle go to the Kynge for me, for I thy[nk the most part of] Yngland prays for me. and yf I dy you shalle se the grettes[t punishment for me] within thys vij. yere that ever cam to Yngland. And the[n, she said, shall I be in Heaven, for] I have done mony gud dedys in my days, bot zit I thynke [much unkindness in the] Kynge to put seche abowt me as I never loved. I showe[d her that the Kyng took them] to be honest and gud wemmen. Bot I wold have had [of my own privy cham]bre weche I favor most, &c. Will'm Kyngston (age 60)."
Hol. Add.: To Master Secretory. Endd.
"After your departynge yesterday Greneway, gentelman yssher, cam to .... Mr. Caro and Master Bryan commaunded hym in the Kynges name to my .... Ratchfort (age 33) from my Lady hys wyf (age 31) and the message was now more .... se how he dyd and also she wold humly sut unto the Kynges hy[nes] .... for hyr husband, and so he gaf hyr thankes and desyred me to kno .... tyme he shuld cum affore the Kynges consell, for I thynk I .... cum forthe tylle I cum to my jogement, wepynge very .... I departed from hym, and when I cam to the chambre the .... of me and sent for me, and sayd, I here say my Lord my .... here; it ys trowth, sayd I. I am very glad, sayd s[he] .... bothe be so ny to gether, and I showed hyr here was .... Weston (age 25) and Brerton, and she made very gud contenans .... I also sayd Mr. Page and Wyet (age 15) wase mo then she sayd he ha .... one hys fyst tother day and ys here now bot ma .... I shalle desyre you to bayre a letter from me .... [to Master] Secretory. And then I sayd, Madam, telle it me by [word of mouth, and I] wille do it. And so gaf me thankes, sayinge I ha[ve much marvel] that the Kynges conselle commes not to me and thys .... [she] sayd we shuld have now rayne tyll she ware [delivered out] of the Towre. I pray you it may be shortly, by [cause, said I, of the] fayre wether; you know what I mayne. The Que[ne said unto me that same] nyght that the Kyng wyst what he dyd w[hen he put such] ij. abowt hyr as my Lady Boleyn and Mestres [Cofyn; for] [Margaret Dymoke (age 36)] thay cowd tell her now thynge of my [Lord her father (age 59), nor] nothynge ellys, bot she defyed them alle. [But then upon this my Lady Boleyn (age 35)] sayd to hyr, Seche desyre as you have h[ad to such tales] hase browthe you to thys, and then sayd [Mrs. Stoner, Mark (age 24)] ys the worst cherysshe of hony m[an in the house, for he w]ayres yernes. She sayd that was [because he was no gen]telman; bot he wase never in [my chamber but at Winchester, and there] she sent for hym to pl[ay on the virginals, for there my] logynge wa[s above the King's] .... for I never spake with hym syns bot upon Saterday before Mayday; and then I fond hym standyng in the ronde wyndo in my chambre of presens. And I asked why he wase so sad, and he ansured and sayd it was now mater; and then she sayd, You may not loke to have me speke to you as I shuld do to a nobulle man by cause you be an inferor [pe]rson. No, no, madam, a loke sufficed me, and thus fare you welle. [Sh]e hathe asked my wyf whether hony body makes thayr beddes, [and m]y wyf (age 60) ansured and sayd, Nay, I warant you; then she say[d tha]y myght make balettes well now, bot ther ys non bot .... de that can do it. Yese, sayd my wyf (age 60), Master Wyett by .... sayd trew .... my Lorde my broder wille dy .... ne I am sure thys was as .... tt downe to dener thys day.
William Kyngston (age 60).
There is much communication that no man will confess anything against her, but only Marke (age 24) of any actual thing. It would, in my foolish conceit, much touch the King's honor if it should no further appear. I cannot believe but that the other two are as f[ully] culpable as he, but they keep each other's counsel. I think much of the communication which took place on the last occasion between the Queen (age 35) and Master Norres (age 54). Mr. Almoner [told] me that I might speak with Mr. S[ecretary] and you, and more plainly express my opinion in case they have confessed "like wret .... all things as they should do than my n .... at a point." I have mused much at [the conduct] of Mrs. Margery, who hath used her[self] strangely toward me of late, being her friend as I have been. There has been great friendship of late between the Queen and her. I hear further that the Queen standeth stiffly in her opinion, that she wi[ll not be convicted], which I think is in the trust that she [hath in the o]ther two. I will gladly wait upon you. Greenwich, .... morning. Signed.
Asks her to speak to her husband (age 72) that the bearer may have the next vacant soldier's room. Is sure there is no need to write the news, for all the world knows them by this time. Today Mr. Norres (age 54), Mr. Weston (age 25), William a Brearton, Markes (age 24), and Lord Rochforde (age 33) were indicted, and on Friday they will be arraigned at Westminster. The Queen herself will be condemned by Parliament. Wednesday, 10 May.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: At Calais.
Letters 1536. 11 May 1536. R. O. 843. Sir William Poulet to Cromwell.
My Lord of Norfolk showed me that he had no knowledge that the indictment was found, and asked me whether the parties should proceed to their trial or not. I told him I knew not. As to Commissioners he said he knew not how many were required, nor whether they ought to be barons or not. Therefore he could not tell whom to name; and if he knew, yet he would name none till he learned the King's pleasure. So he willed me to advertise you. Hampton Court, Thursday night. Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.
Letters 1536. 11 May 1536. 908. On the 11th were condemned as traitors Master Norreys (age 54), the King's chief butler, (sommelier de corps) Master Weston (age 25), who used to lie with the King, Master Brereton, gentleman of the Chamber, and the groom (varlet de chambre) [Mark Smeaton (age 24)], of whom I wrote to your Majesty by my man. Only the groom (age 24) confessed that he had been three times with the said putain and Concubine (age 35). The others were condemned upon presumption and certain indications, without valid proof or confession.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. King's Bench Records In The Public Record Office. Baga De Secretis. Pouch VIII.
This Pouch is indorsed "Sessiones Comitatuum Middlesexise et Kanciee primo tent apud villam Westmonasterii in comitatu Middlesexiæ coram Thoma Audeley, milite, Cancellario Angliæ et aliis &c. et secundo tent' apud Depford in comitatu Kanciæ coram Johanne Baldewyn, milite, et aliis, anno regni regis Henrici Octavi vicesimo octavo."
Trial and conviction of Mark Smeaton, Henry Noreys, William Bryerton, and Sir Francis Weston. Adultery with Queen Anne Boleyn. - Special Sessions of Oyer and Terminer, 12 May, 1536, 28 Hen.
I delivered your letter to Mr. Secretary, who promises to be your very friend. I could not see the King, but delivered his letter through Sir John Russell, who promises to consult with Mr. Secretary on your behalf; but there is no time to make suit till the matters now in hand be overblown. As to the friar (Mr. Secretary would they were all at the Devil), he shall be rid, but it will be tomorrow ere I have the letter for his despatch, which Goodall will bring, who will depart tomorrow night. You may tell Mr. Porter, Mr. Treasurer will meddle with no matter till this business be rid. Today Mr. Norrys (age 54), Weston (age 25), Bryerton, and Markes (age 24) have been arraigned, and are judged to be drawn, hanged, and quartered. They shall die tomorrow or Monday. Anne the queen (age 35), and her brother (age 33), shall be arraigned in the Tower, some think tomorrow, but on Monday at furthest, and that they will suffer there immediately "for divers considerations, which are not yet known." Mr. Payge and Mr. W[y]at (age 15) are in the Tower, but it is thought without danger of life, though Mr. Payge is banished the King's court for ever. A new Parliament is summoned to commence on Thursday in Whitsun week. Walter Skynner comes over to your Lordship with my Lord Chancellor's letters, to summon you and lord Grey, but you will not go without further licence. Here is one Hall, serjeant-at-arms, who desires much to speak with Mr. Degory Graynfyld. London, 12 May.
Mr. Rossell sent his servant, the bearer, to me while I was writing. Please write some kind letter to Mr. Russell and Mr. Hennage, and write again to Mr. Secretary. Hol., p. 1. Add.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster [Map]g Sir Frances Weston (age 25), knight, Henrie Norrisy (age 54) esquier, Brerton, and Markes (age 24), being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamberh, and their condemned of high treason against the Kinge (age 44) for using fornication with Queene Anne (age 35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent [burned] before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (age 48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme..
Note g. They were tried by a Commission of Oyer and Terminer in Westminster Hall, after having been twice indicted. True bills were found by the two grand juries of the counties of Kent and Middlesex, the crimes they were charged with being said to be done in both counties.
Note h. Sir Francis Western and William Brereton, esq. of the King's Privy Chamber. Henry Norris, Groom of the Stole, and one Mark Smeton, a musician.
On behalf of the bearer, who has been sore troubled to his utter undoing unless Lisle will make him a victualler in his retinue. Today Mr. Norres (age 54) and such other as you know are cast, and the Queen (age 35) shall go to her judgment on Monday next. I have delivered the King your letters. I wonder your Lordship did not write to me that I might have made suit for you. Westm., 12 May. Signed. P. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.
Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex to Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Thomas Earl of Wiltshire (age 59), Rob. Earl of Sussex, William lord Sandys, Thomas Crumwell (age 51), chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.NOTEXT
ii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the grand jury at Westminster on Wednesday, 10 May next. Dated 9 May 28 Henry VIII.—Grand jury panel annexed, 16 sworn.
iii. Indictment found in Middlesex against Anne Boleyn (age 35), &c. as in No. 876, with marginal note stating that it was sent before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as steward of England, hac vice, as regards all matters touching the Queen and Lord Rochford (age 33).NOTEXT
iv. The justices' precept to the constable of the Tower to bring up Sir Francis Weston (age 25), Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Mark Smeton (age 24), at Westminster, on Friday next after three weeks of Easter. Westm., 10 May 28 Henry VIII.—With reply of the Constable endorsed.
v. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the petty jury for the trial of Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Sir Francis Weston [here follows an erasure which evidently contained the name of Mark Smeaton (age 24)]. Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.—With panel annexed.
vi. Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Kent, to Sir Thomas Audeley (age 48), Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Rob. Earl of Sussex, Thomas Crumwell, chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lyster, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.NOTEXT
vii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Kent for the return of the grand jury at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May. Endd. by Sir Edward Wotton, sheriff.—Panel of grand jury annexed.
viii. Indictment found in Kent, as in No. 876, with memorandum in margin, as in section iii.
ix. Record of the sessions holden Friday after three weeks of Easter 28 Henry VIII. before the above justices. Noreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24) were brought up in the custody of the constable of the Tower, when Smeton (age 24) pleaded guilty of violation and carnal knowledge of the Queen, and put himself in the King's mercy. Noreys, Bryerton, and Weston pleaded Not guilty. The jury return a verdict of Guilty, and that they have no lands, goods, or chattels.
Judgment against all four as in cases of treason; execution to be at Tyburn.
The above file of documents is endorsed: "Sessiones Comitatuum Middlesexiæ et Kanciæ primo tentæ apud villam Westmonasterii in comitatu Midd. coram Thoma Audeley, milite, Cancellario Angliæ, et aliis, &c., et secundo tentæ apud Depford in comitatu Kanciæ coram Johanne Baldewyn, milite et aliis, anno regni Regis Henrici VIII. vicesimo octavo."
Here is no good to be done, neither with the King nor with any of his Council, till matters now had in hand be fully achieved. Mr. Secretary had no leisure to despatch the letter for the Friar's delivery. It is useless suing to Mr. Treasurer till he have more leisure. It is believed this matter will be rid by the end of next week. Here are so many tales I cannot tell what to write. This day, some say, young Weston (age 25) shall scape, and some that none shall die but the Queen (age 35) and her brother (age 33); others, that Wyat (age 15) and Mr. Payge are as like to suffer as the others. The saying now is that those who shall suffer shall die when the Queen and her brother go to execution; but I think they shall all suffer. If any escape, it will be young Weston (age 25), for whom importunate suit is made. It is rumoured that Harry Webbe has been taken in the West country, and put in hold for the same cause. By Wednesday [May 17] all will be known. Sir Thomas Cheyne (age 51) is named Lord Warden, some say by Mr. Secretary's preferment. My Lord of Richmond (age 16) is Chamberlain of Chester and N. Wales, and Mr. Harry Knyvet, Constable of Beaumaris. If Mr. Secretary keep promise your Lordship shall have something. Today Mr. Russell was in very sad communication with Mr. Whethill. I fear I have taken a wrong pig by the ear, but I shall know by his preferring of your affairs ere long. Mr. Brian is chief gentleman of the privy chamber, and shall keep the table. There is plain saying that the King will assign the groom of the stole from time to time at his pleasure. I trust you will remember Mr. Secretary with wine and letters, and also Mr. Hennage. The King comes not to Dover at this time. There shall be both burgesses and knights of the shire for Calais. Give credence to Goodall, and keep secret what he tells you. London, 13 May. Hol., p. 1. Add.
I perceive by Raynold Carnaby that there is supposed a pre-contract between the Queen (age 35) and me; "whereupon I was not only heretofore examined upon my oath before the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, but also received the blessed sacrament upon the same before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) and other the King's highness' council learned in the spiritual law, assuring you, Mr. Secretary, by the said oath and blessed body, which afore I received and hereafter intend to receive, that the same may be to my damnation if ever there were any contract or promise of marriage between her and me." Newington Green, 13 May 28 Henry VIII. Signed. Mutilated. Add.NOTEXT
Letters 1536. 14 May 1536. Add. MS. 25,114, f. 160. B. M. 873. Cromwell to Gardiner and Wallop.
The King has deferred answering their letters sent by Salisbury till the arrival of the bailly of Troyes. Has to inform them, however, of a most detestable scheme, happily discovered and notoriously known to all men. They may have heard the rumour of it. Will express to them, however, some part of the coming out, and of the King's proceeding. The Queen's (age 35) incontinent living was so rank and common that the ladies of her privy chamber could not conceal it. It came to the ears of some of the Council, who told his Majesty, although with great fear, as the case enforced. Certain persons of the privy chamber and others of her side were examined, and the matter appeared so evident that, besides that crime, "there brake out a certain conspiracy of the King's death, which extended so far that all we that had the examination of it quaked at the danger his Grace was in, and on our knees gave him (God ?) laud and praise that he had preserved him so long from it." Certain men were committed to the Tower, viz., Marks (age 24) and Norris (age 54) and the Queen's brother (age 33); then she herself was apprehended and committed to the same place; after her Sir Francis Weston (age 25) and Thomas Brereton [A mistake for William?]. Norris, Weston, Brereton, and Marks are already condemned to death, having been arraigned at Westminster on Friday last. The Queen and her brother are to be arraigned tomorrow, and will undoubtedly go the same way. "I write no particularities; the things be so abominable that I think the like was never heard. Gardiner will receive £200 of the £300 that were out amongst these men, notwithstanding great suit hath been made for the whole; which though the King's highness might give in this case, yet his Majesty doth not forget your service; and the third £100 is bestowed of the Vicar of Hell (age 46), upon [whom]1 though it be some charge unto you, his Highness trusteth ye will think it well bestowed." From the Rolls in haste, 14 May.
P.S.—Wallop will not be forgotten, though Cromwell cannot tell at present how much he is to have. The King is highly pleased with the services of both. Signed.
Pp. 3. In Wriothesley's hand. Add. Endd.
Note 1. This word seems to be omitted. The despatch must have been hurriedly written, and two or three verbal errors have been overlooked.
Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. 908. On the 15th the said Concubine and her brother (age 33) were condemned of treason by all the principal lords of England, and the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) pronounced sentence. I am told the Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) was quite as ready to assist at the judgment as he had done at the condemnation of the other four. Neither the putain (age 35) nor her brother (age 33) was brought to Westminster like the other criminals. They were condemned within the Tower, but the thing was not done secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present. What she was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris (age 54) to marry after the King's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted to mean that she had poisoned the late Queen and intrigued to do the same to the Princess. These things she totally denied, and gave to each a plausible answer. Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston (age 25), as she had often done to other young gentlemen. She was also charged, and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the King and his dress, and that she showed in various ways she did not love the King but was tired of him. Her brother was charged with having cohabited with her by presumption, because he had been once found a long time with her, and with certain other little follies. To all he replied so well that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted, especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.NOTEXT
I must not omit, that among other things charged against him as a crime was, that his sister (age 35) had told his wife (age 31) that the King "nestoit habile en cas de soy copuler avec femme, et quil navoit ne vertu ne puissance1." This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with a warning not to repeat it. But he immediately declared the matter, in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the King's issue. He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question whether his sister's daughter was the King's child. To which he made no reply. They were judged separately, and did not see each other. The Concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which was to be burnt or beheaded at the King's pleasure, she preserved her composure, saying that she held herself "pour toute saluee de la mort2," and that what she regretted most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the King, were to die for her. She only asked a short space for shrift (pour disposer sa conscience3). Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death. He only begged the King that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid out of his goods.
Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the putain, there are some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and people speak variously of the King; and it will not pacify the world when it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Mrs. Jane Semel (age 27). Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the King, having received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the arrest of the putain; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies, sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river. Most part of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as showing his delight at getting rid of a "maigre vieille et mechante bague4," with hope of change, which is a thing specially agreeable to this King. He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the Bishop of Carlisle, and showed an extravagant joy, as the said Bishop came to tell me next morning, who reported, moreover, that the King had said to him, among other things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him; and, so saying, the King drew from his bosom a little book written in his own hand, but the Bishop did not read the contents. It may have been certain ballads that the King has composed, at which the putain and her brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great crime.
Note 1. "was not skilful in case of copulating with a woman, and that he had neither virtue nor power".
Note 2. "for every death salute".
Note 3. to dispose of one's conscience.
Note 4. skinny old nasty ring
Note 5. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.
1. Patent appointing the said Duke steward of England hac vice for the trial of queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.
2. Mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thos. Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex, to return all indictments found against queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.
3. Similar mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners for Kent. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.
4. Mandate to Sir William Kyngestone, constable of the Tower, to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) before the Lord High Steward when required. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.
5. The Lord High Steward issued his precept, 13 May, to Sir John Baldewyn and his fellows in Middlesex, to return the indictments at the Tower before him on Monday, 15 May, and a similar precept to Sir J. Baldewyn, Luke, and his fellows in Kent; a third precept to the constable of the Tower to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) that day before him; and a fourth to Ralph Felmyngham, serjeant-at-arms, to summon such and so many lords of the kingdom, peers of the said queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33), by whom the truth may appear.
The justices bring in the indictments for Middlesex and Kent, Sir William Kingston (age 60) produces the prisoners, and Ralph Felmyngham declares that he has summoned the peers. Proclamation being then made, the peers answer to their names; viz., Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter, William Earl of Arundel, John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 34), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Edward Earl of Derby (age 27), Henry Earl of Worcester, Thomas Earl of Rutland (age 44), Rob. Earl of Sussex, George Earl of Huntingdon, John lord Audeley, Thos. lord La Ware, Henry lord Mountague, Henry lord Morley, Thos. lord Dacre, George lord Cobham, Henry lord Maltravers, Edward lord Powes, Thos. lord Mount Egle, Edward lord Clynton, William lord Sandes, Andrew lord Wyndesore, Thos. lord Wentworth, Thos. lord Burgh, and John lord Mordaunt.
7. Indictment found at Westminster on Wednesday next after three weeks of Easter, 28 Henry VIII.1 before Sir John Baldwin, &c., by the oaths of Giles Heron, Roger More, Richard Awnsham, Thos. Byllyngton, Gregory Lovell, Jo. Worsop, William Goddard, William Blakwall, Jo. Wylford, William Berd, Henry Hubbylthorn, William Hunyng, Rob. Walys, John England, Henry Lodysman, and John Averey; who present that whereas queen Anne has been the wife of Henry VIII. for three years and more, she, despising her marriage, and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust, did falsely and traitorously procure by base conversations and kisses, touchings, gifts, and other infamous incitations, divers of the King's daily and familiar servants to be her adulterers and concubines, so that several of the King's servants yielded to her vile provocations; viz., on 6th Oct. 25 Henry VIII., at Westminster, and divers days before and after, she procured, by sweet words, kisses, touches, and otherwise, Henry Noreys, of Westminster, gentle man of the privy chamber, to violate her, by reason whereof he did so at Westminster on the 12th Oct. 25 Henry VIII.; and they had illicit intercourse at various other times, both before and after, sometimes by his procurement, and sometimes by that of the Queen. Also the Queen, 2 Nov. 27 Henry VIII. and several times before and after, at Westminster, procured and incited her own natural brother, George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, alluring him with her tongue in the said George's mouth, and the said George's tongue in hers, and also with kisses, presents, and jewels; whereby he, despising the commands of God, and all human laws, 5 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., violated and carnally knew the said Queen, his own sister, at Westminster; which he also did on divers other days before and after at the same place, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 3 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and after, at Westminster, procured one William Bryerton, late of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so on 8 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, in the parish of Lytel Hampton, and on several other days before and after, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 8 May 26 Henry VIII., and at other times before and since, procured Sir Fras. Weston, of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, &c., whereby he did so on the 20 May, &c. Also the Queen, 12 April 26 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, at Westminster, procured Mark Smeton (age 24), groom of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so at Westminster, 26 April 27 Henry VIII.
Moreover, the said Lord Rochford (age 33), Norreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24), being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, could not endure any of them to converse with any other woman, without showing great displeasure; and on the 27 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., and other days before and after, at Westminster, she gave them great gifts to encourage them in their crimes. And further the said Queen and these other traitors, 31 Oct. 27 Henry VIII., at Westminster, conspired the death and destruction of the King, the Queen often saying she would marry one of them as soon as the King died, and affirming that she would never love the King in her heart. And the King having a short time since become aware of the said abominable crimes and treasons against himself, took such inward displeasure and heaviness, especially from his said Queen's malice and adultery, that certain harms and perils have befallen his royal body.
And thus the said Queen and the other traitors aforesaid have committed their treasons in contempt of the Crown, and of the issue and heirs of the said King and Queen.
8. Record of indictment and process before Baldewyn, Luke, and others, in co. Kent.
The indictment found at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May 28 Henry VIII., is precisely similar in character to the Middlesex indictment, except as regards times and places; viz., that the Queen at Estgrenewyche, 12 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, allured one Henry Noreys, late of Est Grenewyche, to violate her, whereby he did so on the 19 Nov., &c.; that on 22 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers other days, at Eltham, she allured George Boleyn, Lord Rochford (age 33), &c., whereby he did so, 29 Dec., &c.; that on the 16 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers, &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured one William Bryerton, late of Est Grenewyche, &c., whereby he did so, 27 Nov., &c.; that on the 6 June 26 Henry VIII., &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Sir Fras. Weston, &c., whereby he did so, 20 June, &c.; that on the 13 May 26 Henry VIII. &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Mark Smeton (age 24), &c., whereby he did so, 19 May 26 Henry VIII.
And further that the said Boleyn, &c. grew jealous of each other; and the Queen, to encourage them, at Eltham, 31 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers times before and since, made them presents, &c.; that the Queen and the others, 8 Jan. 27 Henry VIII., conspired the King's death, &c., and that she promised to marry one of the traitors whenever the King was dead, affirming she would never love him, &c.
And afterwards, Monday, 15 May, queen Anne comes to the bar before the Lord High Steward in the Tower, in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), pleads not guilty, and puts herself on her peers; whereupon the said Duke of Suffolk (age 52), marquis of Exeter, and other peers, are charged by the High Steward to say the truth; and being examined from the lowest peer to the highest, each of them severally saith that she is guilty.
Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then, at the King's command, to the Green within the Tower, and there to be burned or beheaded as shall please the King.
The same day, Lord Rochford (age 33) is brought before the High Steward in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), and pleads not guilty. The peers are charged, with the exception of the Earl of Northumberland (age 34), who was suddenly taken ill, and each of them severally saith that he is guilty.
Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then drawn through the city of London, to the gallows at Tyburn, &c., as usual in high treason.
R. O. 2. Originals of the above indictments, commission to the Lord High Steward, mandates and precept, with the original panel of peers. Several of these documents are a good deal injured.
Note 1. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of the Pub. Records, App. ii. 243. The whole of the proceedings are printed by Mr. Hamilton in the Appendix to Vol. I. of Wriothesley's Chronicle.
Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. Hannaert has written to Granvelle on the 9th that he had just heard that the king of England's Concubine (age 35) had been surprised in bed with the King's organist (age 24). If this be so, as it is very probable that God has permitted it after her damnable life, we think the King will be more inclined to treat, especially as regards our cousin; but you must use great dexterity lest the King intend a marriage in France, and that he should rather choose one of his own subjects, either the one with whom he is in love or some other. We trust that if there be anything in it you will let us know with diligence. We send letters of credence for you for the dukes of Richmond, Norfolk, and Suffolk, and also for Cromwell, such as you will see by the copies. Pontremulo, 15 May 1536.
P.S.—Since the above was written your man George has arrived, who confirms the news touching the King's Concubine (age 35), and, as we suppose that the King will put her and her accomplices to death and take another wife, as he is of amorous complexion and always desires to have a male child, and as on the side of France they will not fail to offer him a match, you will suggest, when you can, to him or Cromwell, a marriage with the Infanta of Portugal, daughter of our sister the queen of France, who has 400,000 ducats dowry by testament. Another marriage might be arranged for the Infant Don Loys of Portugal, our brother-in-law, with the princess of England. You must point out to them that these matches would be very expedient, both to remove past scruples and to promote strict amity between us, him, and Portugal, and would be very advantageous to England in case the King should have a male child by this marriage, as he may reasonably hope from the youth and bringing up of the Infanta. If you see the King not inclined to these marriages you might propose one between the King and our niece, the duchess dowager of Milan, a beautiful young lady, well brought up and with a good dowry; treating at the same time of the other marriage between Don Loys and our cousin. But we should greatly prefer the former match with the Infanta, for the good of both, and in order to be able to dispose of our niece of Milan otherwise. Bersel, 15 May 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.
Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.NOTEXT
The jurors were:
Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).
Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).
Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).
George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).
Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).
John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).
Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).
Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).
Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).
John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).
Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).
Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).
Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).
William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 60).
Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel (age 24).
Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).
Edward Powers Lord Powers.
William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).
Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).
George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).
She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.
After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.
Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 May 1536. After this, immediately the Lord of Rocheforde (age 33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower [Map] from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume [Map], and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London.NOTEXT
I have received three sundry letters from you and a token by Petly. As to lord Daubny, your counsel advise you by no means to procure any proviso against him, but to get some of his familiar friends to inform you of his intentions, and if he purpose to sell any lands which should descend to Mr. Basset he can be stopped. But if you prefer having a proviso by Act I will endeavour to obtain it. I think Mr. Geo. Rolles dissembleth not; if he do, he is a very fine fox. He and Mr. Degory, and two of my lord Dawbney's counsel, were yesterday reasoning in Westminster Hall concerning Calstok and Lamkessey, but they could show nothing of the manner in which Mr. Basset was made sure of the annuity of 26s. 8d., and deferred that to my lord Dawbney's coming; but if Mr. Cobbleyghe keep promise you need not fear the wood sale. As to the warren and free market you wrote of, I hope ere long to espy a time, but I wish my Lord's suit were first at a point. I have shown Bery my mind about your weir,—to make it up as all other be made. I have bespoken two dozen bowls which will be sent by Hugh Colton, and I will procure for you some lanards if they can be got. I am glad you have pleased Campion. As for salt fish, you will not believe how dear it is, both ling and haberden. I have delivered Thorne's letter at his brother's house. As to the confession of the Queen and others, they said little or nothing; but what was said was wondrous discreetly spoken. "The first accuser, the lady Worcester (age 34), and Nan Cobham with one maid mo; but the lady Worcester (age 34) was the first ground." London, 24 May.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
I received your letter by my fellow Fyssher. Touching your weir Mr. Dygory is determined to do as much as the statute will bear, and as others do to theirs. This is Popley's counsel. As to your warren and free market I will set forth the same when I spy a time convenient. Mr. Degory and Bury have this day gone to Devonshire. Your woman shall be sent by Whitsunday, and shall bring with her the extract of Anthony Huse's cushion, to whose wife I will give your Ladyship's thanks. At Mr. Treasurer's coming I shall deliver him the puncheon of wine, and report by my next if it was thankfully received. If your Ladyship send Mr. Basset 5 marks or 4l. he will keep it as wisely as if he were 20 years older; but as he is to return after Whitsuntide you need not send it till then. My Lord never wrote to me for bows. You will receive by Petley 1,000 pins that Bury delivered me. I have written your Ladyship all that your counsel can yet say about lord Dawbny. London, 25 May.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: In Calais.
Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536A. dd. MS. 28,588, f. 284. B. M. 1043. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.
The prayers of the late Queen of England and the Holy Martyrs have prevailed. The King's mistress (deceased) had six lovers, one being her own brother (deceased). Another, a musician [Mark Smeaton (deceased)], seeing that he was less favoured, discovered the fact to the King, first asking for pardon and his life. Now they are all taken it is found to be true. Her father (age 59), who was innocent, approved her condemnation. She was sentenced, first to be degraded from being Queen, then beheaded and burnt, seeing the others suffer the same death, with the exception of the one who revealed the crime. It was proved at the trial that she had behaved in this way before the conception of the child which the King thought to be his. It is intended to declare the child not to be the King's. Images have been restored and purgatory is preached again.
The cardinal of Burgos told him that a saint, who was martyred at the beginning of her tyrannical exaltation, prophesied that Anne (deceased) would be burnt to death.
It is said that the process against her states that she poisoned the Queen. The King is enamoured of another lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)]. Rome, 2 June 1536.
Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.
The History of England under Henry VIII 1542. The King yet not satisfied thus, for more authorizing his Proceeding, referred the Businesse to the Parliament sitting the 16 of January, 1541. Where upon Petition of both houses, that hee would not vex himself, but give his Royall assent to what they should doe, they had leave to proceed, and together thanks given them that they took his forrow to be theirs. Hereupon they attainted the Queen and the Lady Jane Rochfort, as also Culpeper, Derrham &c. And so the Queen and Lady Jane Rochfort (Wife to the late Lord Rockford, and noted to be a particular instrument in the death of Queen Anne) were brought to the Tower, and after confession of their faults, had their heads cut off.