Culture, General Things, Coins

Coins is in General Things.

1503 Funeral of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Culture, General Things, Coins, Angel

Angel. French Angelot, or ange. An English gold coin introduced by Edward IV in 1465

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. 24 Feb 1503. On the morne anon after vi of the Clock began the laudes Sungen by the kings Chappell Then the Deane and the other laides which were rcdy by vii of the Clock.

Then began our lady Masse Songen by the Byshopp of Lincolne th' Abbott of Winchcombe gospeller and doctor Hatton Epistoler in the absence of the priour of Crychurch alt that Masse the lady Katheriu accompanied as before led by the Marquis and th' Earle of Darby And the lady Marqucsse the Elder bare her traine and all th' other ladies accompanied her and none offred but she alone at that Masse a piece of iij5 iiijd in gold.

That done the ladies went to a Chappell ordeyned for the same intent to refresh them then they returned to the second Masse.

The second masse of the Try ny tie Songen by the Byshop of Sailsbury ij Abbotts were gospeller and Epistoler att that Masse none offered but she led accompanied as before And then she offred a piece of Gold v9 an huisher alwaies supporting her traine.

The third Masse of Requiem song by the Byshop of Lincolne an Abbott Gospeller And priour Epistoler And att that masse th' aforesaid lady accompanied with other ladies and all the Nobles offred an noble for the Masse penny And after her sister Anne And she offred for themselfs Then the Lady Marquis And the lady Elizabeth Stafford and so in order all the ladies mourners.

Item to expresse more plainly the Offring of the said 3d Masse that is to wete that the lady Katherine cheif mourner accompanied with divers noble ladies assysted and her trayne borne by the noble persons as aforesaid so going up to the offringe and there offered an Angell for the Masse pennye and in the same order brought dovvne again to the head of the hearse then was her trayne layd downe and none assistance she with the lady Anne her sister went up again and offered for themselves Then the lady Marquesse and the lady Elizebeth Stafford and so in order all the ladyes mourners ij and ij together that is to say groats a piece.

After them the plats went up and the Earles on there left syde the plats offred at the high ater then Temporalls to the Byshop next th' Earles the Maior of London.

Then the Barons.

Then the Cheif Justice.

Then the Knights of the Garter not lords and some other knights for the body and Counsellours.

Then the Aldermen of London in asrnuch as by there gvilege they repsent the state of Barrens.

Then the other knights.

Then the Esquires for the body.

Then the oder Esquires officers.

Then the other gentlemen in great number.

And after th' offring of money there were offered to the Corps by the laides xxxvij palls in manner as followeth first the lady Montjoy a pall delivered to her at the quier dore by a gent huisher and when she came to the feete of the Corps there stood two officers of Armes after that she had done her obey sauce and kissed it and layd it along the Corps In likewise the lady Dacre of the south offred another which the said officers layde a Crosse over that other and lykewise these laides offred palls whose names follow.

The lady Fitzwater.

The lady Gordon.

The lady Scrope,

The lady Powys.

The lady Clifford,

The lady Daubeny.

The lady vicountesse Lisley ij.

The lady Anne Percy.

The lady Lucey of Montague.

The lady Herbard.

The countess of Essex iij.

The lady Elizebeth Stafford iij.

The lady marquisse iiij.

Every of the Queens sisters instead of Dutchesses v which all were layde acrosse over the Corps.

All the Ceremony of that offring doone to the sermon said by the said lord Richard Fitzjames Byshopp of Rochester which tooke to his anteme Misere mei misere mei saltern vos amici mei quia manus Dm tetigit me he spake these wordes in the name of England and the lovers and friends of the same seing the great losse of that vertuous Queene and that noble prince and th' Arch Byshop of Canterbury.

The Masse done a mynister of the Church tooke away the palls.

Then the ladyes depted.

After whose depture the Image with the Crowne and the rich robes were had to a secret place to St Edwards shrine.

Then all the Prelates wilh the kings Chappell came about the hearse and the grave was opened and hallowed by the Byshop of London and after many oraisons and seremonies the Chest layd in the grave.

Incontinent her Chamberlaine brake the staffe of his office and cast it into the grave and so did the gentlemans ushers there then there was weeping and sorrowing and so degted.

On whose soule God have mereye Amen.

That masse season there was a great Dole of groates to every man and woman.

Item grater almes given to bed-rid folks lazars blynde folkes and others.

Item every place of the fryers of London had v marke xx schochins and certain torches.

Item every parish Church of London and the suburbs had vj schochins and a noble some two torches and some one.

Item every colledge hospittall and oder had armes besydes them that were sent and geuen into the Gun try to the nomber in all passed ij thousand Ix and x.

Item Banners in all xxviij.

Item Pencells ij c. and od.

Item the greatest ly very of black gowns that ever was given in our days.

Item the hearse was curiously wrought Avith Imagery wele garnished with banners banner rolles pencells Cloth of Majestye and valence with the fringe accordinge the nomber of lights upon the said hearse passed a thousand a hundred and vj.

Item the vauts and the Crosse of me Church was hanged with black Cloth above the which were ij c. and Ixxiij tags of ij Ib. a piece garnished with scochins and bolles of white and greene.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Nov 1526. This yeare, in November, the Kinge enhaunsed his coyne,c that is to saye, the riall at 11s 3d, the angell 7s 6d, the halfe riall and halfe angell after the rate; allso he made a new coyne which was a George noble at 6s 8d and a crowne of the duble rose at 5', and valued an ownce sylver fyne sterlinge at 3s 8d; and allso made new grotes and halfe grotts after the rate.

Note c. By reason of the good weight and low valuation of the English coin, merchants daily carried orer great store, because the same was much enhanced there; so that to meet with this inconvenience, as it was said, proclamation was made in the month of September, the sixth day, throughout England, that the angel should go for 7s 4d, the royal for 11s, and the crown for 4s, 4d. And, on the 5th of November following, again by proclamation, the angel was enhanced to 7s 6d, and so every ounce of gold should be 46s, and an ounce of silyer at 3s 9d. in value. — Stow, p. 526.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1660. By water with Mr. Hill towards my Lord's lodging and so to my Lord. With him to Whitehall, where I left him and went to Mr. Holmes to deliver him the horse of Dixwell's that had staid there fourteen days at the Bell. So to my Lord's lodgings, where Tom Guy came to me, and there staid to see the King touch people for the King's (age 30) evil. But he did not come at all, it rayned so; and the poor people were forced to stand all the morning in the rain in the garden. Afterward he touched them in the Banquetting-house1.

Note 1. This ceremony is usually traced to Edward the Confessor, but there is no direct evidence of the early Norman kings having touched for the evil. Sir John Fortescue, in his defence of the House of Lancaster against that of York, argued that the crown could not descend to a female, because the Queen is not qualified by the form of anointing her, used at the coronation, to cure the disease called the King's (age 30) evil. Burn asserts, "History of Parish Registers", 1862, p. 179, that "between 1660 and 1682, 92,107 persons were touched for the evil". Everyone coming to the court for that purpose, brought a certificate signed by the minister and churchwardens, that he had not at any time been touched by His Majesty. The practice was supposed to have expired with the Stuarts, but the point being disputed, reference was made to the library of the Duke of Sussex, and four several Oxford editions of the Book of Common Prayer were found, all printed after the accession of the house of Hanover, and all containing, as an integral part of the service, "The Office for the Healing". The stamp of gold with which the King crossed the sore of the sick person was called an angel, and of the value of ten shillings. It had a hole bored through it, through which a ribbon was drawn, and the angel was hanged about the patient's neck till the cure was perfected. The stamp has the impression of St. Michael the Archangel on one side, and a ship in full sail on the other. "My Lord Anglesey had a daughter cured of the King's (age 30) evil with three others on Tuesday".-MS. Letter of William Greenhill to Lady Bacon, dated December 31st, 1629, preserved at Audley End. Charles II. "touched" before he came to the throne. "It is certain that the King hath very often touched the sick, as well at Breda, where he touched 260 from Saturday the 17 of April to Sunday the 23 of May, as at Bruges and Bruxels, during the residence he made there; and the English assure... it was not without success, since it was the experience that drew thither every day, a great number of those diseased even from the most remote provinces of Germany".-Sir William Lower's Relation of the Voiage and Residence which Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, p. 78. Sir William Lower gives a long account of the touching for the evil by Charles before the Restoration.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1665. After dinner to billiards, where I won an angel1, and among other sports we were merry with my pretending to have a warrant to Sir W. Hickes (who was there, and was out of humour with Sir W. Doyly's (age 51) having lately got a warrant for a leash of buckes, of which we were now eating one) which vexed him, and at last would compound with me to give my Lord Bruncker (age 45) half a buck now, and me a Doe for it a while hence when the season comes in, which we agreed to and had held, but that we fear Sir W. Doyly (age 51) did betray our design, which spoiled all; however, my Lady Batten invited herself to dine with him this week, and she invited us all to dine with her there, which we agreed to, only to vex him, he being the most niggardly fellow, it seems, in the world. Full of good victuals and mirth we set homeward in the evening, and very merry all the way.

Note 1. A gold coin, so called because it bore the image of an angel, varying in value from six shillings and eightpence to ten shillings.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jul 1667. Lord's Day. Up betimes, and all the morning, and then to dinner with my wife alone, and then all the afternoon in like manner, in my chamber, making up my Tangier accounts and drawing a letter, which I have done at last to my full content, to present to the Lords Commissioners for Tangier tomorrow; and about seven at night, when finished my letter and weary, I and my wife and Mercer up by water to Barne Elmes, where we walked by moonshine, and called at Lambeth, and drank and had cold meat in the boat, and did eat, and sang, and down home, by almost twelve at night, very fine and pleasant, only could not sing ordinary songs with the freedom that otherwise I would. Here Mercer tells me that the pretty maid of the Ship tavern I spoke of yesterday is married there, which I am glad of. So having spent this night, with much serious pleasure to consider that I am in a condition to fling away an angell1 in such a refreshment to myself and family, we home and to bed, leaving Mercer, by the way, at her own door.

Note 1. The angel coin was so called from the figure of the Archangel Michael in conflict with the dragon on the obverse. On the reverse was a representation of a ship with a large cross as a mast. The last angel coined was in Charles I's reign, and the value varied from 6s. 8d. to 10s.

Vesta Monumenta. 1734. Plate 1.43. The golden seal of Edmund, King of Sicily, between 1254 and 1261, a royal of Edward the Black Prince around 1364, a chaise of Edward the Black Prince around 1363), a salute of Henry VI around 1423), an angelot of Henry VI around 1427), a rose noble of Henry VII between 1485 and 1489, a silver jeton of Perkin Warbeck, Pretender around 1494), and a Tournay groat of Henry VIII around 1514. Engraving by George Vertue (age 50) after his own drawings. 459 x 273 mm.

Pepy's Diary. 12th Office Day. This noon I expected to have had my cousin Snow and my father come to dine with me, but it being very rainy they did not come. My brother Tom came to my house with a letter from my brother John, wherein he desires some books: Barthol. Anatom., Rosin. Rom. Antiq., and Gassend. Astronom., the last of which I did give him, and an angel1 against my father buying of the others. At home all the afternoon looking after my workmen, whose laziness do much trouble me. This day the Parliament adjourned.

Note 1. A gold coin varying in value at different times from 6s. 8d. to 10s.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. And thys yere was hyt ordaynyd that the noubylle of vj s. viij d. shulde goo for viij s. iiij d. And a newe cane was made. Fyrste they made an Angylle and hit went for vj s. viij d., and halfe ande Angyl for xl d.; but they made non farthyngysa of that gold. And thenne they made a gretter cune and namyd hyt a ryalle, and that wentte for xs., and halfe the ryalle for vs., and the farthynge for ij s. vj d. And they made newe grotys not soo goode as the olde, bat they were worthe iiij d. And then sylvyr rosse to a grytter pryce, for an unce of sylvyr was sette at iij s., and better of sum sylvyr. But at the be-gynnynge of thys mony men grogyd passynge sore, for they couthe not rekyn that gold not so quyckely as they dyd the olde golde. And men myght goo thoroughe owte a strete or thoroughe a hoole parysche or that he myght chonge hit. And sum men sayd that the newe golde was not soo good as the olde golde was, for it was alayyd.

Note a. That is to say, no quarter angels.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Crown

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Nov 1526. This yeare, in November, the Kinge enhaunsed his coyne,c that is to saye, the riall at 11s 3d, the angell 7s 6d, the halfe riall and halfe angell after the rate; allso he made a new coyne which was a George noble at 6s 8d and a crowne of the duble rose at 5', and valued an ownce sylver fyne sterlinge at 3s 8d; and allso made new grotes and halfe grotts after the rate.

Note c. By reason of the good weight and low valuation of the English coin, merchants daily carried orer great store, because the same was much enhanced there; so that to meet with this inconvenience, as it was said, proclamation was made in the month of September, the sixth day, throughout England, that the angel should go for 7s 4d, the royal for 11s, and the crown for 4s, 4d. And, on the 5th of November following, again by proclamation, the angel was enhanced to 7s 6d, and so every ounce of gold should be 46s, and an ounce of silyer at 3s 9d. in value. — Stow, p. 526.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1662. And after a great dinner and much discourse, we arose and took leave, and home to the business of my office, where I thank God I take delight, and in the evening to my lodging and to bed. Among other discourse, speaking concerning the great charity used in Catholic countrys, Mr. Ashburnham did tell us, that this last year, there being great want of corn in Paris, and so a collection made for the poor, there was two pearls brought in, nobody knew from whom (till the Queen (age 23), seeing them, knew whose they were, but did not discover it), which were sold for 200,000 crownes.

Vesta Monumenta. 1731. Plate 1.20: Engravings of: A silver crown of Henry VIII around 1545, a Coronation 1547 Medal of Edward VI, a 1589 "Dangers Averted" or "Armada Medal" of Elizabeth I, the Phoenix Jewel (c. 1570-1580) of Elizabeth I from around 1570-1580 along with the motto from a 1574 silver medal of the same, and a struck gold medal of James I commemorating the 1604 Peace with Spain. Engraving by George Vertue (age 47) after his own drawings

Vesta Monumenta. 1739. Plate 1.56. Thirteen coins minted by English monarchs between the fourteenth and the early-seventeenth centuries: a gold quarter florin of King Edward III, around 1344, a gold escu of King Edward III (after 1337), a half groat of Edward III, before 1369, a half groat of Edward the Black Prince, around 1368-1372, a groat of Edward the Black Prince (c. 1362-72), a gold angel of Henry VI (c. 1470), a quadruple noble of Henry VII, Type 4 (c. 1503-04), a Tournay groat of Henry VIII (c. 1514), a George noble of Henry VIII (c. 1526-29), a sovereign in crown gold of Elizabeth I (c. 1565), a pattern piece for a gold crown of Edward VI (c. 1547), a pattern sixpence of Elizabeth I (1575), and a Portcullis crown of Elizabeth I (c. 1601). Engraving by George Vertue (age 55) after his own drawings.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Crown 1551

by 1551, silver was being used to produce crowns, although gold was sometimes still used. The silver crown was quite large, being about 38mm and weighing about one ounce. Around that time many Europeans countries had similar sized silver coins which made them good for international trade as they were essentially interchangeable.

The metal used was 92.5% silver and the rest copper so as to make the coin harder. This hardness, together with a milled edge, made 'clipping' (which was cutting slices off the edge to steal some free silver) more difficult.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 16 Dec 1551. Item the xvj. day was a proclamacion for the new qwyne that no man [should speak ill o]f it, for because that the pepulle sayd dyvers that ther was the ragyd staffea it.

Note a. One of the many intimations of the unpopularity of the duke of Northumberland (age 47), whose badge was the ragged staff.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Cruzado

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1662. Up early about business and then to the Wardrobe with Mr. Moore, and spoke to my Lord about the exchange of the crusados1 into sterling money, and other matters.

Note 1. Cruzado, a Portuguese coin of 480 reis. It is named from a cross which it bears on one side, the arms of Portugal being on the other. It varied in value at different periods from 2s. 3d. to 4s.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. After office done, I went down to the Towre Wharf [Map], where Mr. Creed and Shepley was ready with three chests of the crusados, being about £6000, ready to bring to shore to my house, which they did, and put it in my further cellar, and Mr. Shepley took the key. I to my father and Dr. Williams and Tom Trice, by appointment, in the Old Bayly, to Short's, the alehouse, but could come to no terms with T. Trice.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1662. In the evening with Mr. Moore to Backwell's with another 1,200 crusados and saw them weighed, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1662. To dinner, and found Dr. Thos. Pepys at my house; but I was called from dinner by a note from Mr. Moore to Alderman Backwell's (age 44), to see some thousands of my Lord's crusados weighed, and we find that 3,000 come to about £530 or 40 generally.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1662. Home to dinner, where I found Mr. Moore, and he and I cast up our accounts together and evened them, and then with the last chest of crusados to Alderman Backwell's (age 44), by the same token his lady going to take coach stood in the shop, and having a gilded glassfull of perfumed comfits given her by Don Duarte de Silva, the Portugall merchant, that is come over with the Queen (age 23), I did offer at a taste, and so she poured some out into my hand, and, though good, yet pleased me the better coming from a pretty lady.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1662.Then he and I to Alderman Backwell's (age 44) and did the like there, and I gave one receipt for all the money I have received thence upon the receipt of my Lord's crusados. Then I went to the Exchange [Map], and hear that the merchants have a great fear of a breach with the Spaniard; for they think he will not brook our having Tangier, Dunkirk, and Jamaica; and our merchants begin to draw home their estates as fast as they can.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Farthing

Farthing. A coin worth one quarter of a penny.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Sep 1560. The xxvij day of September was a proclamassyon that the best testons should goo for no more but iiijd. [a piece]; and the testons of the lyone, the flowre de lusse, and the harpe [but] for ij pens q.; and a penny iij fardynges; and ob hopene and a fardyng.

Note. P. 243. Reduction of the coinage. On this subjeet see Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, vol. ii. pp. 135–142, Burgon's Life of Sir Thomas Gresham, vol. i. pp. 354–360, and the Zurich Letters, 1st Series, p. 93.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. After dinner came in Captain Grove, and he and I alone to talk of many things, and among many others of the Fishery, in which he gives the such hopes that being at this time full of projects how to get a little honestly, of which some of them I trust in God will take, I resolved this afternoon to go and consult my Lord Sandwich (age 38) about it, and so, being to carry home Mrs. Hunt, I took her and my wife by coach and set them at Axe Yard [Map], and I to my Lord's and thither sent for Creed and discoursed with him about it, and he and I to White Hall, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and my Lord met me very fortunately, and wondered first to see me in my perruque, and I am glad it is over, and then, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) being gone, I took my Lord aside, who do give me the best advice he can, and telling me how there are some projectors, by name Edward Ford (age 58), who would have the making of farthings1, and out of that give so much to the King (age 33) for the maintenance of the Fishery; but my Lord do not like that, but would have it go as they offered the last year, and so upon my desire he promises me when it is seasonable to bring me into the commission with others, if any of them take, and I perceive he and Mr. Coventry (age 35) are resolved to follow it hard.

Note 1. Edward Ford (age 58), son of Sir William Ford of Harting, born at Up Park in 1605. "After the Restoration he invented a mode of coining farthings. Each piece was to differ minutely from another to prevent forgery. He failed in procuring a patent for these in England, but obtained one for Ireland. He died in Ireland before he could carry his design into execution, on September 3rd, 1670" ("Dictionary of National Biography ").

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1664. Up and, to the office, where sat busy all morning, dined at home and after dinner to Fishmonger's Hall, where we met the first time upon the Fishery Committee, and many good things discoursed of concerning making of farthings, which was proposed as a way of raising money for this business, and then that of lotterys1, but with great confusion; but I hope we shall fall into greater order. So home again and to my office, where after doing business home and to a little musique, after supper, and so to bed.

Note 1. Among the State Papers is a "Statement of Articles in the Covenant proposed by the Commissioners for the Royal Fishing to, Sir Ant. Desmarces & Co. in reference to the regulation of lotteries; which are very unreasonable, and of the objections thereto" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1663-64, p. 576).

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1664. Up, and at the office all the morning, and at noon to Mr. Cutler's, and there dined with Sir W. Rider and him, and thence Sir W. Rider and I by coach to White Hall to a Committee of the Fishery; there only to hear Edward Ford's (age 59) proposal about farthings, wherein, O God! to see almost every body interested for him; only my Lord Annesly (age 43), who is a grave, serious man. My Lord Barkeley (age 62) was there, but is the most hot, fiery man in discourse, without any cause, that ever I saw, even to breach of civility to my Lord Anglesey (age 50), in his discourse opposing to my Lord's. At last, though without much satisfaction to me, it was voted that it should be requested of the King (age 34), and that Edward Ford's (age 59) proposal is the best yet made.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Florin

Florin. The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533. Original the 'fiorino d'oro' of the Republic of Florence if Florence gold.

On 11 May 1395 Gian Galeazzo Visconti 1st Duke Milan (age 43) was created 1st Duke Milan by Wenceslaus IV of Behemia King Romans (age 34) for 100,000 florins. Caterina Visconti Duke Milan (age 34) by marriage Duchess Milan.

Froissart. 1397. The sultan Bajazet (age 37), having had every thing respecting the ransom of his French prisoners settled to his satisfaction, resolved on allowing them more liberty, for indeed they were now no longer prisoners, and invited them to his presence before the departure of the ambassadors, to show them the magnificence of his establishments. They were said to be very grand indeed; and immense numbers were daily attendant on his person. He sent some of his principal lords to invite the count de Nevers (age 25) and his companions to the castle, where he received and entertained them handsomely: he ordered all things they might want to be delivered out to them by his officers, as was the usual custom of his court. The sultan conversed daily with the count de Nevers (age 25), by means of an interpreter, and paid him much respect, for he knew that he was, or would be, a very great lord in France, by the great exertions that were made, and the large sum paid for his ransom, which was enough to satisfy his avarice, having securities for the amount of one million of florins. The other French lords were equally astonished with the count de Nevers (age 25) at the power and state of Bajazet (age 37). He was attended by such numbers, that they were always encamped, for no town could lodge them; and the expense must have been very great to supply so many with food. It was surprising where such quantities came from, notwithstanding the natives of warm climates are very temperate in their diet, eating but little meat, living on spices and sugar, of which they have abundance, as well as goats' milk, the common beverage of the Turks and Saracens, and they have plenty of bread made of millet.

Froissart. 1398. When the emperor (age 29) paid his first visit to the king of France (age 29), the great lords beforementioned went to seek him at the abbey of Saint Remy, and conducted him in great state to the palace. On the two monarchs meeting, they paid many compliments to each other, as they knew well how to do, especially the king of France, for the Germans are a rude unmannered race, except in what regards their personal advantage, and in this they are active and expert enough. The lords of both countries who were present made acquaintance together, with many outward signs of satisfaction: and the king of France entertained the whole at dinner, of which I will mention some particulars. At the top of the king's table was seated the patriarch of Jerusalem: next to him the emperor, then the king of France, and the king of Navarre (age 37): no more were at this table. At the others were seated the lords from Germany; and they were waited on by the lords of France, for none of them sat down. The dukes of Berry (age 57), Bourbon, and the count de St. Pol, with other great barons, placed the dishes, and served the king's table. The duke of Orleans (age 25) supplied the company with such quantities of plates of gold and silver as though they had been made of wood. The dinner was splendid, and abundantly well served, and deserving of remembrance. I was told that the king made a present to the emperor of all the gold and silver plate that was used, as well as what was on the side-board, with all the tapestry and ornaments of the apartment whither the emperor retired after dinner to partake of wine and spices. This gift was estimated at two hundred thousand florins; and the other Germans were presented with magnificent gifts of gold and silver plate. The Germans, and other strangers who had come thither to view the feast, greatly wondered at the wealth and power of France.

In 1427 Francesco di Simone Tornabuoni was the sixth largest tax payer in Florence, Italy; 46,320 florins.

On 04 Jun 1469 Lorenzo de Medici (age 20) and Clarice Orsini (age 19) were married. The marriage had been arranged by his mother Lucrezia Tornabuoni (age 41). Her dowry was 6000 florins.

Froissart. The speech of the ambassadors from the king of Hungary was very agreeable to the French lords. They answered by the lord de Rochefort, who, in the name of all, said "that they were very sensible of this mark of kindness from the king of Hungary, who, to oblige his cousin the count de Nevers, offered to sell his inheritance to aid them; that this was not an offer to be refused, nor the friendship and courtesy forgotten; that the count desired to have a little time to consider of his answer to the king." This was agreed to; and, within a few days, the ambassadors were told by the count de Nevers, that it would be very unbecoming him to pledge or sell the inheritance of another; but that, if it were agreeable to them who had such powers, to prevail on the Venetians to advance, on the security of these rents, a sufficient sum for the count de Nevers' daily expenses, and to enable him to acquit himself of the thirty thousand florins the grand prior of Aquitaine had lent him with so much generosity in the island of Rhodes, he should consider it as a great favour, and most kindly thank the king of Hungary and his council for so doing."

Froissart. The different negociations and embassies had called for large sums, and, though the ransom was but two hundred thousand florins to Bajazet, yet the other costs and expenses amounted to as much more, as was declared by those through whose hands the money passed; and without this sum their liberty would never have been obtained. It was matter of much consideration how this money was to be raised; for neither the duke nor duchess were inclined to abate anything of their state, which was very magnificent. It was resolved by his council to lay a tax on all the towns under his obedience, more especially those of Flanders; for they abounded in wealth, from their commerce, and therefore the greater load was laid on them, that the count de Nevers might be at liberty to quit Venice. When the matter was mentioned to the townsmen of Ghent, they readily declared their willingness to present their young lord fifty thousand florins to aid him in his ransom. Bruges, Mechlin, Antwerp, Ypres, Courtray, and the other towns in Flanders, expressed their readiness to assist in the ransom of the count de Nevers. The duke and duchess of Burgundy were well pleased at these answers, and returned their warm acknowledgments to the magistrates of the different towns in Flanders, and to those of Artois and Burgundy, who had testified equally good inclinations.

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section XIII. The "metal for the Queen's image," (I translate the words of the record) was bought of William Sprot and John de Ware, to whom £50 and afterwards 50 marks were paid for it. Flemish coin was bought to supply the gold for the gilding. The quantity was 476 florins, which were bought at different times at 2s. 6d. each. Sixty-eight florins more were bought apparently for the same purpose.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Guineas

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1668. By and by I met with Mr. Brisband; and having it in my mind this Christmas to (do what I never can remember that I did) go to see the manner of the gaming at the Groome-Porter's, I having in my coming from the playhouse stepped into the two Temple-halls, and there saw the dirty 'prentices and idle people playing; wherein I was mistaken, in thinking to have seen gentlemen of quality playing there, as I think it was when I was a little child, that one of my father's servants, John Bassum, I think, carried me in his arms thither. I did tell Brisband of it, and he did lead me thither, where, after staying an hour, they begun to play at about eight at night, where to see how differently one man took his losing from another, one cursing and swearing, and another only muttering and grumbling to himself, a third without any apparent discontent at all: to see how the dice will run good luck in one hand, for half an hour together, and another have no good luck at all: to see how easily here, where they play nothing but Guinnys, a £100 is won or lost: to see two or three gentlemen come in there drunk, and putting their stock of gold together, one 22 pieces, the second 4, and the third 5 pieces; and these to play one with another, and forget how much each of them brought, but he that brought the 22 thinks that he brought no more than the rest: to see the different humours of gamesters to change their luck, when it is bad, how ceremonious they are as to call for new dice, to shift their places, to alter their manner of throwing, and that with great industry, as if there was anything in it: to see how some old gamesters, that have no money now to spend as formerly, do come and sit and look on, as among others, Sir Lewis Dives (age 69), who was here, and hath been a great gamester in his time: to hear their cursing and damning to no purpose, as one man being to throw a seven if he could, and, failing to do it after a great many throws, cried he would be damned if ever he flung seven more while he lived, his despair of throwing it being so great, while others did it as their luck served almost every throw: to see how persons of the best quality do here sit down, and play with people of any, though meaner; and to see how people in ordinary clothes shall come hither, and play away 100, or 2 or 300 Guinnys, without any kind of difficulty: and lastly, to see the formality of the groome-porter, who is their judge of all disputes in play and all quarrels that may arise therein, and how his under-officers are there to observe true play at each table, and to give new dice, is a consideration I never could have thought had been in the world, had I not now seen it. And mighty glad I am that I did see it, and it may be will find another evening, before Christmas be over, to see it again, when I may stay later, for their heat of play begins not till about eleven or twelve o'clock; which did give me another pretty observation of a man, that did win mighty fast when I was there. I think he won £100 at single pieces in a little time. While all the rest envied him his good fortune, he cursed it, saying, "A pox on it, that it should come so early upon me, for this fortune two hours hence would be worth something to me, but then, God damn me, I shall have no such luck". This kind of prophane, mad entertainment they give themselves. And so I, having enough for once, refusing to venture, though Brisband pressed me hard, and tempted me with saying that no man was ever known to lose the first time, the devil being too cunning to discourage a gamester; and he offered me also to lend me ten pieces to venture; but I did refuse, and so went away, and took coach and home about 9 or to at night, where not finding my wife come home, I took the same coach again, and leaving my watch behind me for fear of robbing, I did go back and to Mrs. Pierce's, thinking they might not have broken up yet, but there I find my wife newly gone, and not going out of my coach spoke only to Mr. Pierce in his nightgown in the street, and so away back again home, and there to supper with my wife and to talk about their dancing and doings at Mrs. Pierce's to-day, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1668. Valentine's Day. Up, being called up by Mercer, who come to be my Valentine, and so I rose and my wife, and were merry a little, I staying to talk, and did give her a Guinny in gold for her Valentine's gift. There comes also my cozen Roger Pepys (age 50) betimes, and comes to my wife, for her to be his Valentine, whose Valentine I was also, by agreement to be so to her every year; and this year I find it is likely to cost £4 or £5 in a ring for her, which she desires. Cozen Roger (age 50) did come also to speak with Sir W. Pen (age 46), who was quoted, it seems, yesterday by Sir Fr. Hollis (age 25) to have said that if my Lord Sandwich (age 42) had done so and so, we might have taken all the Dutch prizes at the time when he staid and let them go. But Sir W. Pen (age 46) did tell us he should say nothing in it but what would do my Lord honour, and he is a knave I am able to prove if he do otherwise. He gone, I to my Office, to perfect my Narrative about prize-goods; and did carry it to the Commissioners of Accounts, who did receive it with great kindness, and express great value of, and respect to me: and my heart is at rest that it is lodged there, in so full truth and plainness, though it may hereafter prove some loss to me. But here I do see they are entered into many enquiries about prizes, by the great attendance of commanders and others before them, which is a work I am not sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1668. Up, and all the morning sitting at the office, where every body grown mighty cautious in what they do, or omit to do, and at noon comes Knepp, with design to dine with Lord Brouncker (age 48), but she being undressed, and there being: much company, dined with me; and after dinner I out with her, and carried her to the playhouse; and in the way did give her five guineas as a fairing, I having given her nothing a great while, and her coming hither sometimes having been matter of cost to her, and so I to St. James's, but missed of the Duke of York (age 34), and so went back to the King's playhouse, and saw "Rollo, Duke of Normandy", which, for old acquaintance, pleased me pretty well, and so home and to my business,. and to read again, and to bed. This evening Batelier comes to tell me that he was going down to Cambridge to my company, to see the Fair, which vexed me, and the more because I fear he do know that Knepp did dine with me to-day1.

Note 1. And that he might tell Mrs. Pepys. B.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1668. So to supper, and the boy to read to me, and so to bed. This day I met Mr. Moore in the New Exchange, and had much talk of my Lord's concernments. This day also come out first the new five-pieces in gold, coined by the Guiny Company; and I did get two pieces of Mr. Holder1. 22nd. Up, and to the Office, where sitting all the morning at noon, home to dinner, with my people, and so to the Office again, where busy all the afternoon, and in the evening spent my time walking in the dark, in the garden, to favour my eyes, which I find nothing but ease to help. In the garden there comes to me my Lady Pen (age 44) and Mrs. Turner (age 45) and Markham, and we sat and talked together, and I carried them home, and there eat a bit of something, and by and by comes Sir W. Pen (age 47), and eat with us, and mighty merry-in appearance, at least, he being on all occasions glad to be at friendship with me, though we hate one another, and know it on both sides. They gone, Mrs. Turner (age 45) and I to walk in the garden.... So led her home, and I back to bed. This day Mr. Wren (age 39) did give me, at the Board, Commissioner Middleton's answer to the Duke of York's (age 34) great letter; so that now I have all of them.

Note 1. Guineas took their name from the gold brought from Guinea by the African Company in 1663, who, as an encouragement to bring over gold to be coined, were permitted by their charter from Charles II to have their stamp of an elephant upon the coin. When first coined they were valued at 20s., but were worth 30s. in 1695. There were likewise fivepound pieces, like the guinea, with the inscription upon the rim.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Jacobus

Jacobus. A gold coin of the value of twenty-five shillings, called after James I, in whose reign it was first coined.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1662. So to my office and did a little business, and so home and to bed. I talked to my brother to-day, who desires me to give him leave to look after his mistress still; and he will not have me put to any trouble or obligation in it, which I did give him leave to do. I hear to-day how old rich Audley is lately dead, and left a very great estate, and made a great many poor familys rich, not all to one. Among others, one Davis, my old schoolfellow at Paul's, and since a bookseller in Paul's Church Yard: and it seems do forgive one man £60,000 which he had wronged him of, but names not his name; but it is well known to be the scrivener in Fleet Street, at whose house he lodged. There is also this week dead a poulterer, in Gracious Street, which was thought rich, but not so rich, that hath left £800 per annum, taken in other men's names, and 40,000 Jacobs1 in gold.

Note 1. A jacobus was a gold coin of the value of twenty-five shillings, called after James I, in whose reign it was first coined.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Jeton

Jeton. Tokens or coin-like medals produced across Europe from the 13th through the 18th centuries.

Vesta Monumenta. 1734. Plate 1.43. The golden seal of Edmund, King of Sicily, between 1254 and 1261, a royal of Edward the Black Prince around 1364, a chaise of Edward the Black Prince around 1363), a salute of Henry VI around 1423), an angelot of Henry VI around 1427), a rose noble of Henry VII between 1485 and 1489, a silver jeton of Perkin Warbeck, Pretender around 1494), and a Tournay groat of Henry VIII around 1514. Engraving by George Vertue (age 50) after his own drawings. 459 x 273 mm.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Louis

Grammont. The Chevalier de Grammont had given orders that fifteen hundred louis should be expended upon it; but the Duke of Guise, who was his friend, to oblige him, laid out two thousand. All the court was in admiration at the magnificence of the present; and the king, charmed with the Chevalier's attention to everything which could afford him pleasure, failed not to acknowledge it: he would not, however, accept a present of so much value, but upon condition that the Chevalier should not refuse another from him.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Noble

Between 1344 and 1346, the second coinage (1344-1346) of King Edward III, the Noble, the first English gold coin produced in quantity, was intoduced.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1412. And the same yere the kyng (age 44) let make to be smetyn newe nowblys, but they were of lasse wyght thenne was the olde nobylle by the paysse of an halpeny wyght, soo that a nobylle shuld wey but iiij d. and halfe a peny, and that l. nowblys shulde make a pounde of Troye wyght.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Nov 1526. This yeare, in November, the Kinge enhaunsed his coyne,c that is to saye, the riall at 11s 3d, the angell 7s 6d, the halfe riall and halfe angell after the rate; allso he made a new coyne which was a George noble at 6s 8d and a crowne of the duble rose at 5', and valued an ownce sylver fyne sterlinge at 3s 8d; and allso made new grotes and halfe grotts after the rate.

Note c. By reason of the good weight and low valuation of the English coin, merchants daily carried orer great store, because the same was much enhanced there; so that to meet with this inconvenience, as it was said, proclamation was made in the month of September, the sixth day, throughout England, that the angel should go for 7s 4d, the royal for 11s, and the crown for 4s, 4d. And, on the 5th of November following, again by proclamation, the angel was enhanced to 7s 6d, and so every ounce of gold should be 46s, and an ounce of silyer at 3s 9d. in value. — Stow, p. 526.

Calendars. 30 Sep 1670. [Unknown] to the Navy Commissioners. We have noticed a paper on the Treasury Office door in Broad Street, that all seamen who were discharged before Dec. 1665 are to bring in their tickets this day, and that only they, their wives, brothers, or sisters, are to attend to receive the money, otherwise the tickets will be detained and the persons punished. Such limitations have often been published to small purpose, and it is well known that, notwithstanding such provisoes, much water goes beside the mill. The paper so affixed on the doors will serve only to adopt your clerks and others to be wives, brethren, and sisters of the persons to whom such tickets belong as shall be brought in, and from 5s. to 8s. in the pound will still be paid as formerly on such tickets, as you and the authors of such restrictions know.

What is it to you, or what prejudice is it to the nation, if you pay to such as present them, provided they give security that the seamen who did the service shall never demand the money for them? You may be sure they did not part with their tickets without some consideration, and if it was only 10s. in the pound, they who pleasured them ran a great adventure as to their own interest, and showed more charity than those who cry out against them and make laws to afflict them, to which end the inquisition [Committee of Accounts] at Brooke House was erected, and the money spent by those Commissioners would have paid many a poor man's ticket. We know several that have at small rates supplied the seamen in their necessities, and some who have accommodated their friends, in whose hands they left their concerns while again at sea, without 1s. profit, and who are yet unpaid, because they will not allow 5s. or 6s. in the pound on the amount by them disbursed for little or no profit.

We have heard many seamen wish they had allowed 10s., or a noble in the pound at first, to have had ready money. You may notice that for years your clerks could not honestly have lived at the rate they do upon their salaries.

We hear that many great ships have to be provided by the spring, but where are your men? or if they were all before you, what encouragement have they to go, or to show themselves valiant, when they have but small hopes of receiving their pay on their return now, when they were so shamefully neglected at the first engagement, when above two millions were ordered for the service? And what encouragement have their friends to supply them again, who have suffered so deeply for pleasuring them before? As we see and know more than you do, we advise you to pay all the arrears, whoever brings the tickets, provided they be known persons, or give security that the owners of the tickets shall not demand it again. Noted as picked up in the Navy Office by Capt. Shales, and delivered by him to Lord B[rouncker] (age 50), then in the office, 4 Oct. [14 pages. S.P. Dom., Car. IT. 285, No. 154.]

Vesta Monumenta. 1734. Plate 1.43. The golden seal of Edmund, King of Sicily, between 1254 and 1261, a royal of Edward the Black Prince around 1364, a chaise of Edward the Black Prince around 1363), a salute of Henry VI around 1423), an angelot of Henry VI around 1427), a rose noble of Henry VII between 1485 and 1489, a silver jeton of Perkin Warbeck, Pretender around 1494), and a Tournay groat of Henry VIII around 1514. Engraving by George Vertue (age 50) after his own drawings. 459 x 273 mm.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. And thys yere was hyt ordaynyd that the noubylle of vj s. viij d. shulde goo for viij s. iiij d. And a newe cane was made. Fyrste they made an Angylle and hit went for vj s. viij d., and halfe ande Angyl for xl d.; but they made non farthyngysa of that gold. And thenne they made a gretter cune and namyd hyt a ryalle, and that wentte for xs., and halfe the ryalle for vs., and the farthynge for ij s. vj d. And they made newe grotys not soo goode as the olde, bat they were worthe iiij d. And then sylvyr rosse to a grytter pryce, for an unce of sylvyr was sette at iij s., and better of sum sylvyr. But at the be-gynnynge of thys mony men grogyd passynge sore, for they couthe not rekyn that gold not so quyckely as they dyd the olde golde. And men myght goo thoroughe owte a strete or thoroughe a hoole parysche or that he myght chonge hit. And sum men sayd that the newe golde was not soo good as the olde golde was, for it was alayyd.

Note a. That is to say, no quarter angels.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Penates

Penates. Roman coins with the heads of deities known and Dei Penates.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Pistolle

Pistolle is the French name given to a Spanish gold coin in use from 1537; it was a double escudo, the gold unit.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1561. The xiiij day of November ther was a procla[mation] of gold and sylver that none shuld be take[n be]twyn man and man butt the Frenche crowne and the Borgo[ndian] crowne and the Flemyche, and that phystelars and Spa[nish] ryalles shuld not goo, butt to cum to the Towre [Map] ther to have wheth for wheth [weight for weight], gold and sylver.

Note. P. 272. Proclamation on foreign coins. This proclamation was dated the 15th of Nov. 1561, and is extant among the collection in the Society of Antiquaries' library. It is curious as representing in woodcuts the counterfeit angels of Tournay and Holland, in comparison with a genuine angel of Henry VIII. (See Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, sub anno.) The same proclamation is noticed in a Norwich Chronicle as follows:

"This year, upon sunday the 23d of November, there was sent from the Queen a Proclamation to be published, that pistoles and other foreign crowns of gold and silver, only French crowns excepted, should not pass from man to man as current money, but as bullion be brought into the Tower, there to have as much as they are worth." Papers of the Norwich and Norfolk Archæol. Soc. vol. i. p. 145.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1662. Within all day long, helping to put up my hangings in my house in my wife's chamber, to my great content. In the afternoon I went to speak to Sir J. Minnes (age 63) at his lodgings, where I found many great ladies, and his lodgings made very fine indeed. At night to supper and to bed: this night having first put up a spitting sheet, which I find very convenient. This day come the King's pleasure-boats from Calais, with the Dunkirk money, being 400,000 pistolles.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1666. So home and late at the office, and then home, and there found Mr. Batelier and his sister Mary, and we sat chatting a great while, talking of witches and spirits, and he told me of his own knowledge, being with some others at Bourdeaux, making a bargain with another man at a taverne for some clarets, they did hire a fellow to thunder (which he had the art of doing upon a deale board) and to rain and hail, that is, make the noise of, so as did give them a pretence of undervaluing their merchants' wines, by saying this thunder would spoil and turne them. Which was so reasonable to the merchant, that he did abate two pistolls per ton for the wine in belief of that, whereas, going out, there was no such thing. This Batelier did see and was the cause of to his profit, as is above said.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Real

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Nov 1526. This yeare, in November, the Kinge enhaunsed his coyne,c that is to saye, the riall at 11s 3d, the angell 7s 6d, the halfe riall and halfe angell after the rate; allso he made a new coyne which was a George noble at 6s 8d and a crowne of the duble rose at 5', and valued an ownce sylver fyne sterlinge at 3s 8d; and allso made new grotes and halfe grotts after the rate.

Note c. By reason of the good weight and low valuation of the English coin, merchants daily carried orer great store, because the same was much enhanced there; so that to meet with this inconvenience, as it was said, proclamation was made in the month of September, the sixth day, throughout England, that the angel should go for 7s 4d, the royal for 11s, and the crown for 4s, 4d. And, on the 5th of November following, again by proclamation, the angel was enhanced to 7s 6d, and so every ounce of gold should be 46s, and an ounce of silyer at 3s 9d. in value. — Stow, p. 526.

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. And thys yere was hyt ordaynyd that the noubylle of vj s. viij d. shulde goo for viij s. iiij d. And a newe cane was made. Fyrste they made an Angylle and hit went for vj s. viij d., and halfe ande Angyl for xl d.; but they made non farthyngysa of that gold. And thenne they made a gretter cune and namyd hyt a ryalle, and that wentte for xs., and halfe the ryalle for vs., and the farthynge for ij s. vj d. And they made newe grotys not soo goode as the olde, bat they were worthe iiij d. And then sylvyr rosse to a grytter pryce, for an unce of sylvyr was sette at iij s., and better of sum sylvyr. But at the be-gynnynge of thys mony men grogyd passynge sore, for they couthe not rekyn that gold not so quyckely as they dyd the olde golde. And men myght goo thoroughe owte a strete or thoroughe a hoole parysche or that he myght chonge hit. And sum men sayd that the newe golde was not soo good as the olde golde was, for it was alayyd.

Note a. That is to say, no quarter angels.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Rose Pence

Rose Pence. English pennies with a new rose design issued to a debased standard under Edward VI and Mary, but later banned from currency, though still being permitted to circulate in Ireland.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Sep 1556. The xix day of September was proclamyd in London by a xij of the cloke, the crear havyng the quen('s) selle [seal], that rosse pense [rose pence] shullde nott be taken after the cry was mad, butt in Yrland to be taken for pense.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Shilling

Shilling. A silver coin of the Kingdom of England, when first introduced known as the testoon.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Spanish Real

Spanish Real. Meaning Royal.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1561. The xiiij day of November ther was a procla[mation] of gold and sylver that none shuld be take[n be]twyn man and man butt the Frenche crowne and the Borgo[ndian] crowne and the Flemyche, and that phystelars and Spa[nish] ryalles shuld not goo, butt to cum to the Towre [Map] ther to have wheth for wheth [weight for weight], gold and sylver.

Note. P. 272. Proclamation on foreign coins. This proclamation was dated the 15th of Nov. 1561, and is extant among the collection in the Society of Antiquaries' library. It is curious as representing in woodcuts the counterfeit angels of Tournay and Holland, in comparison with a genuine angel of Henry VIII. (See Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, sub anno.) The same proclamation is noticed in a Norwich Chronicle as follows:

"This year, upon sunday the 23d of November, there was sent from the Queen a Proclamation to be published, that pistoles and other foreign crowns of gold and silver, only French crowns excepted, should not pass from man to man as current money, but as bullion be brought into the Tower, there to have as much as they are worth." Papers of the Norwich and Norfolk Archæol. Soc. vol. i. p. 145.

Culture, General Things, Coins, Testern

Testern. This coin was formally named the Testern but came to be known as "Portcullis Money" due to its Portcullis design.

Henry Machyn's Diary. The viij day of July [1551] was a plage, and a proclamasyon that [a testern shou]ld be but ixd, and a grot iijd; and anodur proclamasyon cam [out the] xviij day of August, that testerns cryd at vjd a pese; a grot [at ijd]; ijd but jd; and a jd ob.; and a alpeny a fardyng.

Note. Proclamations for depreciation of the coinage. Printed copies of these proclamations are in the collection in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, and their substance is stated in Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, 4to. 1817, ii. 107. Mr. Ruding, in a note in that page, throws some discredit on king Edward's accuracy as to dates in his Diary; but on that point it may be remarked that the proclamations were clearly prepared by the privy council some days before it was thought proper to make them public. The proclamation which according to the present diary was made known in London on the 8th of July, is printed with a blank date, "the of June."

A remarkable example of the effect produced by this depreciation of the currency is given in the account of Arden's murder in the Wardmote book of Feversham. The proceeds of the murderers' effects, after the payment of expenses, amounted "after the old rate," to 120l. "whereof there was lost by abasing or fall of the said money 60l." In consequence of this act of government rumours were current that further abasements were contemplated; and "By the letteres from London" it was reported "that on the 25. daye of July, or on St. James' daye, was a proclamation declaringe it was not the kinge nor his counseles intente to altere or abase any more his coynes yet; for heare wee greate rumors that in all haste, and that prively, the kinge and counsell was busye aboute the alteringe thearof, to be done out of hand, whearuppon many men wane their debts, which else would not have byn payde this vij. yeares." (MS. Harl. 353, f. 107.)

In the journals of the Privy Council are frequent entries relative to the prosecution of persons guilty of predicting further depreciations.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Sep 1556. The xxj day of September was a grett rumor in London abowtte stesturns [testerns] in Chepe, Belynggatt, Leydynhalle, Nuwgatt markett, amonge markett folke and meyllmen, by noythe [naughty] parsuns [persons], and that my lord mayre and the ij shreyffes was fayne to go in-to the marketts for (to) sett pepull in a stay, and so to Nuwgatt markett, and ther sold melle for ....