Smallpox is in Diseases.

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1683 Frost Fair

1694 Death and Funeral of Queen Mary II

1711 Smallpox Epidemic

1796 Development of Smallpox Vaccine

1517 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1518. 14 Jul 1518. R. O. 4320. Pace (age 36) to WOLSEY.

Could not send by the bearer the commission signed by the King, as he is gone "in hunting." Tomorrow the King leaves for Bisham, "as it is time; for they do die in these parts in every place, not only of the small pokkes and mezils, but also of the great sickness." Wallingford, 14 July.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my Lord Cardinal's grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. Jan 1562. The (blank) day of (blank) master Recherd Alyngtun (age 27), the sune of ser Gylles Alyngtun (age 62) knyght of Cambryge-shyre, the wyche he ded of the smalle pokes.

In 1603 Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex (age 11) and Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset (age 12) were married. They were separated after the wedding given their young age. Essex went on a European tour from 1607 to 1609. When he returned she avoided him having fallen for Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset (age 16) whilst her husband was away. He was ill with smallpox. She sought an annulment with her father Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex and uncle Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton (age 62) acting for her. She maintained the marriage had not been consummated and was examined by ten matrons and two midwives who found her hymen intact. It was widely rumoured at the time that Sir Thomas Monson's (age 38) daughter was a substitute, which is possible because she had requested to be veiled during the examination "for modesty's sake". He maintained he was capable with other women, but was unable to consummate his marriage blaming her. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 41) and Catherine Knyvet Countess Suffolk (age 39). He the son of Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex and Frances Walsingham Countess Essex (age 36). They were fourth cousins.

On 09 Feb 1605 Filippo Emanuele Prince of Piedmont (age 18) died of smallpox at Valladolid. His brother Victor Amadeus I Duke of Savoy (age 17) succeeded Duke Savoy.

Diary of Anne Clifford 1617. Dec 1617. The 2nd the Child grew ill with a cough and a pain in her head so as we feared the small-pox, but it proved nothing for within 8 days she recovered. About this time Lady Rich was brought to bed of a son, her sixth child. I should have christened it, but it died in 3 or 4 days.

Diary of Anne Clifford 1617. 28 Dec 1617. The 28th I went to Church in my rich night gown and petticoat, both my women waiting upon me in their liveries, but my Lord (age 28) stayed at home. There came to dine Mrs Levisey and a great company of the neighbours to eat venison.

Now I had a great desire to have all my Father’s sea voyages written, so I did set Jones to inquire about these matters.

Note. About this time Lady Rich was brought to bed of her 1st Son [sic] at Baynard's Castle, and in a little while after fell sick of the small-pox. About this time died Jem Robins' man, but he left his master no remembrance, for they was fallen out.

Diary of Anne Clifford 1619. 10 Feb 1619. The 10th Wat. Coniston began to read St. Austin of the City of God to me, and I received a letter from Mr Davis with another enclosed in it of Ralph Conniston, whereby I perceived things went in Westmoreland as I would have them.

Note. My Lady of Suffolk at Northampton House about this time had the small-pox which spoiled that good face of hers, which had brought to others much misery and to herself greatness which ended with much unhappiness.

Diary of Anne Clifford 1619. 27 Jul 1619. The 27th about this time my Lady Bedford (age 39) had the smallpox and had them in that extremity that she lost one of her eyes. About this time my Coz. Cilifford’s wife was brought to bed at Lanesboro of a son, which lived not seven hours and was christened Francis and was buried there. The same day Lord Rutland and Lady Kath. Manners came and dined here from the Wells and in the evening went to London.

Note. This Sunday my Coz. Oldworth was true and shewed those remembrances me which are to be set up at Cheyneys for my Great Grand Father of Bedford and my Grand Father of Bedford and my Aunt Warwick. About this time my Lady Law was married to Secretary Maunton.

All this Summer Lady Penniston (age 19) was at the Wells near Tunbridge drinking the waters. This coming hither of Lady Penniston's (age 19) was much talked of abroad and my Lord (age 30) was condemned for it.

In 1620 Jane Okeover (age 46) died of smallpox. The year also reported as 1622 when her former husband remarried and 1628.

On 27 Feb 1643 Tobias Crispe (age 43) died of smallpox. He was buried at St Mildred's Church, Bread Street.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Mar 1646. We were now arrived at St. Maurice, a large handsome town and residence of the President, where justice is done. To him we presented our letter from Sion, and made known the ill usage we had received for killing a wretched goat, which so incensed him, that he swore if we would stay he would not only help us to recover our money again, but most severely punish the whole rabble; but our desire of revenge had by this time subsided, and glad we were to be gotten so near France, which we reckoned as good as home. He courteously invited us to dine with him; but we excused ourselves, and, returning to our inn, while we were eating something before we took horse, the Governor had caused two pages to bring us a present of two great vessels of covered plate full of excellent wine, in which we drank his health, and rewarded the youths; they were two vast bowls supported by two Swiss, handsomely wrought after the German manner. This civility and that of our host at Sion, perfectly reconciled us to the highlanders; and so, proceeding on our journey we passed this afternoon through the gate which divides the Valais from the Duchy of Savoy, into which we were now entering, and so, through Montei, we arrived that evening at Beveretta. Being extremely weary and complaining of my head, and finding little accommodation in the house, I caused one of our hostess's daughters to be removed out of her bed and went immediately into it while it was yet warm, being so heavy with pain and drowsiness that I would not stay to have the sheets changed; but I shortly after paid dearly for my impatience, falling sick of the smallpox as soon as I came to Geneva, for by the smell of frankincense and the tale the good woman told me of her daughter having had an ague, I afterward concluded she had been newly recovered of the smallpox. Notwithstanding this, I went with my company, the next day, hiring a bark to carry us over the lake; and indeed, sick as I was, the weather was so serene and bright, the water so calm, and air so temperate, that never had travelers a sweeter passage. Thus, we sailed the whole length of the lake, about thirty miles, the countries bordering on it (Savoy and Berne) affording one of the most delightful prospects in the world, the Alps covered with snow, though at a great distance, yet showing their aspiring tops. Through this lake, the river Rhodanus passes with that velocity as not to mingle with its exceeding deep waters, which are very clear, and breed the most celebrated trout for largeness and goodness of any in Europe. I have ordinarily seen one of three feet in length sold in the market for a small price, and such we had in the lodging where we abode, which was at the White Cross. All this while, I held up tolerably; and the next morning having a letter for Signor John Diodati, the famous Italian minister and translator of the Holy Bible into that language, I went to his house, and had a great deal of discourse with that learned person. He told me he had been in England, driven by tempest into Deal, while sailing for Holland, that he had seen London, and was exceedingly taken with the civilities he received. He so much approved of our Church-government by Bishops, that he told me the French Protestants would make no scruple to submit to it and all its pomp, had they a king of the Reformed religion as we had. He exceedingly deplored the difference now between his Majesty and the Parliament. After dinner, came one Monsieur Saladine, with his little pupil, the Earl of Caernarvon, to visit us, offering to carry us to the principal places of the town; but, being now no more able to hold up my head, I was constrained to keep my chamber, imagining that my very eyes would have dropped out; and this night I felt such a stinging about me, that I could not sleep. In the morning, I was very ill, but sending for a doctor, he persuaded me to be bled. He was a very learned old man, and, as he said, he had been physician to Gustavus the Great, King of Sweden, when he passed this way into Italy, under the name of Monsieur Gars, the initial letters of Gustavus Adolphus Rex Sueciæ, and of our famous Duke of Buckingham, on his returning out of Italy. He afterward acknowledged that he should not have bled me, had he suspected the smallpox, which broke out a day after. He afterward purged me, and applied leeches, and God knows what this would have produced, if the spots had not appeared, for he was thinking of bleeding me again. They now kept me warm in bed for sixteen days, tended by a vigilant Swiss matron, whose monstrous throat, when I sometimes awakened out of unquiet slumbers, would affright me. After the pimples were come forth, which were not many, I had much ease as to pain, but infinitely afflicted with heat and noisomeness. By God's mercy, after five weeks' keeping my chamber, I went abroad. Monsieur Saladine and his lady sent me many refreshments. Monsieur Le Chat, my physician, to excuse his letting me bleed, told me it was so burnt and vicious as it would have proved the plague, or spotted fever, had he proceeded by any other method. On my recovering sufficiently to go abroad, I dined at Monsieur Saladine's, and in the afternoon went across the water on the side of the lake, and took a lodging that stood exceedingly pleasant, about half a mile from the city for the better airing; but I stayed only one night, having no company there, save my pipe; so, the next day, I caused them to row me about the lake as far as the great stone, which they call Neptune's Rock, on which they say sacrifice was anciently offered to him. Thence, I landed at certain cherry gardens and pretty villas by the side of the lake, and exceedingly pleasant. Returning, I visited their conservatories of fish; in which were trouts of six and seven feet long, AS THEY AFFIRMED.

On 24 Jun 1649 Henry Hastings (age 19) died of smallpox.

On 29 Nov 1649 John Leventhorpe 3rd Baronet (age 20) died of smallpox unmarried at Chancery Lane [Map]. His brother Thomas Leventhorpe 4th Baronet (age 13) succeeded 4th Baronet Leventhorpe of Shingey Hall in Hertfordshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Nov 1650. I went to Monsieur Visse's, the French King's Secretary, to a concert of French music and voices, consisting of twenty-four, two theorbos, and but one bass viol, being a rehearsal of what was to be sung at vespers at St. Cecilia's, on her feast, she being patroness of Musicians. News arrived of the death of the Princess of Orange (deceased) of the smallpox. [Note. This is a transcription error - should read Prince.].

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jun 1652. About four in the afternoon, being at bowls on the green, we discovered a vessel which proved to be that in which my wife (age 17) was, and which got into the harbor about eight that evening, to my no small joy. They had been three days at sea, and escaped the Dutch fleet, through which they passed, taken for fishers, which was great good fortune, there being seventeen bales of furniture and other rich plunder, which I bless God came all safe to land, together with my wife (age 17), and my Lady Browne (age 42), her mother, who accompanied her. My wife (age 17) being discomposed by having been so long at sea, we set not forth toward home till the 14th, when, hearing the smallpox was very rife in and about London, and Lady Browne (age 42) having a desire to drink Tunbridge waters, I carried them thither, and stayed in a very sweet place, private and refreshing, and took the waters myself till the 23d, when I went to prepare for their reception, leaving them for the present in their little cottage by the Wells.

On 07 Dec 1657 Johanna Saxe Gotha (age 12) died of smallpox at Gotha.

On 31 Dec 1657 Johann Ernest Saxe Gotha (age 16) died of smallpox at Gotha.

In 1660 Bassingbourne Gawdy (age 22) died of smallpox.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's (age 19) speech, which he is to make the next apposition,-[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]-and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to-let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King, or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (age 51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the smallpox. Thence back to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard how Sir H. Vane (age 46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby [Map], as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (age 34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1660. Wednesday. Being at Will's with Captain Barker, who hath paid me £300 this morning at my office, in comes my father (age 58), and with him I walked, and leave him at W. Joyce's, and went myself to Mr. Crew's (age 62), but came too late to dine, and therefore after a game at shittle-cocks with Mr. Walgrave and Mr. Edward (age 12), I returned to my father (age 58), and taking him from W. Joyce's, who was not abroad himself, we inquired of a porter, and by his direction went to an alehouse, where after a cup or two we parted. I went towards London, and in my way went in to see Crowly, who was now grown a very great loon and very tame. Thence to Mr. Steven's with a pair of silver snuffers, and bought a pair of shears to cut silver, and so homeward again. From home I went to see Mrs. Jem, who was in bed, and now granted to have the smallpox. Back again, and went to the Coffee-house, but tarried not, and so home.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1660. Friday. Coming in the morning to my office, I met with Mr. Fage and took him to the Swan [Map]. He told me how high Haselrigge (age 59), and Morly (age 43), the last night began at my Lord Mayor's (age 27) to exclaim against the City of London, saying that they had forfeited their charter. And how the Chamberlain of the City did take them down, letting them know how much they were formerly beholding to the City, &c. He also told me that Monk's (age 51) letter that came to them by the sword-bearer was a cunning piece, and that which they did not much trust to; but they were resolved to make no more applications to the Parliament, nor to pay any money, unless the secluded members be brought in, or a free Parliament chosen. Thence to my office, where nothing to do. So to Will's with Mr. Pinkney, who invited me to their feast at his Hall the next Monday. Thence I went home and took my wife and dined at Mr. Wades, and after that we went and visited Catan. From thence home again, and my wife was very unwilling to let me go forth, but with some discontent would go out if I did, and I going forth towards Whitehall, I saw she followed me, and so I staid and took her round through Whitehall, and so carried her home angry. Thence I went to Mrs. Jem, and found her up and merry, and that it did not prove the smallpox, but only the swine-pox; so I played a game or two at cards with her. And so to Mr. Vines, where he and I and Mr. Hudson played half-a-dozen things, there being there Dick's wife and her sister. After that I went home and found my wife gone abroad to Mr. Hunt's, and came in a little after me.-So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1660. Friday. In the morning Tom that was my Lord's footboy came to see me and had 10s. of me of the money which I have to keep of his. So that now I have but 35s. more of his. Then came Mr. Hills the instrument maker, and I consulted with him about the altering my lute and my viall. After that I went into my study and did up my accounts, and found that I am about; £40 beforehand in the world, and that is all. So to my office and from thence brought Mr. Hawly home with me to dinner, and after dinner wrote a letter to Mr Downing (age 35) about his business and gave it Hawly, and so went to Mr. Gunning's (age 46) to his weekly fast, and after sermon, meeting there with Monsieur L'Impertinent, we went and walked in the park till it was dark. I played on my pipe at the Echo, and then drank a cup of ale at Jacob's. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and he with me, where I heard that some of the members of the House were gone to meet with some of the secluded members and General Monk (age 51) in the City. Hence we went to White Hall, thinking to hear more news, where I met with Mr. Hunt, who told me how Monk (age 51) had sent for all his goods that he had here into the City; and yet again he told me, that some of the members of the House had this day laid in firing into their lodgings at White Hall for a good while, so that we are at a great stand to think what will become of things, whether Monk (age 51) will stand to the Parliament or no. Hence Mons L'Impertinent and I to Harper's, and there drank a cup or two to the King (age 29), and to his fair sister Frances good health, of whom we had much discourse of her not being much the worse for the smallpox, which she had this last summer.

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (age 12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the King's (age 29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42), while I and the rest went to see the Queen (age 50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the Princess Dowager's (age 28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:-"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".

Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, Charles II (age 29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.

Note 2. Mary, Princess Royal (age 28), eldest daughter of Charles I, and widow of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1660. Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days' observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore. News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the Duke of Gloucester (age 19)1 in grey and red. My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port. So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it. They seem to be both very fine gentlemen. After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry2, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other. Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King's (age 29) health, and so likewise to the Duke's health. I took down Monsieur d'Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his. All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes. After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them. After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another. When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day's work. By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome. The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye. Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter's cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the King's (age 29) servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all. This afternoon Mr Downing (age 35) (who was knighted yesterday by the King') was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants3. By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing (age 35). My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night. This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord's order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

Note 1. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (age 19), the youngest child of Charles L, born July 6th, 16-, who, with his sister Elizabeth, was allowed a meeting with his father on the night before the King's (age 29) execution. Burnet says: "He was active, and loved business; was apt to have particular friendships, and had an insinuating temper which was generally very acceptable. The King loved him much better than the Duke of York". He died of smallpox at Whitehall, September 13th, 1660, and was buried in Henry VII's Chapel.

Note 2. William Coventry (age 32), to whom Pepys became so warmly attached afterwards, was the fourth son of Thomas, first Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper. He was born in 1628, and entered at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1642; after the Restoration he became private secretary to the Duke of York, his commission as Secretary to the Lord High Admiral not being conferred until 1664; elected M.P. for Great Yarmouth in 1661. In 1662 he was appointed an extra Commissioner of the Navy, an office he held until 1667; in 1665, knighted and sworn a Privy Councillor, and, in 1667, constituted a Commissioner of the Treasury; but, having been forbid the court on account of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham, he retired into the country, nor could he subsequently be prevailed upon to accept of any official employment. Burnet calls Sir William Coventry the best speaker in the House of Commons, and "a man of the finest and best temper that belonged to the court", and Pepys never omits an opportunity of paying a tribute to his public and private worth. He died, 1686, of gout in the stomach.

Note 3. "About midnight arrived there Mr Downing (age 35), who did the affairs of England to the Lords the Estates, in quality of Resident under Oliver Cromwell, and afterward under the pretended Parliament, which having changed the form of the government, after having cast forth the last Protector, had continued him in his imploiment, under the quality of Extraordinary Envoy. He began to have respect for the King's (age 29) person, when he knew that all England declared for a free parliament, and departed from Holland without order, as soon as he understood that there was nothing that could longer oppose the re- establishment of monarchal government, with a design to crave letters of recommendation to General Monk (age 51). This lord considered him, as well because of the birth of his wife, which is illustrious, as because Downing had expressed some respect for him in a time when that eminent person could not yet discover his intentions. He had his letters when he arrived at midnight at the house of the Spanish Embassador, as we have said. He presented them forthwith to the King (age 29), who arose from table a while after, read the letters, receiv'd the submissions of Downing, and granted him the pardon and grace which he asked for him to whom he could deny nothing. Some daies after the King (age 29) knighted him, and would it should be believed, that the strong aversions which this minister of the Protector had made appear against him on all occasions, and with all sorts of persons indifferently, even a few daies before the publick and general declaration of all England, proceeded not from any evil intention, but only from a deep dissimulation, wherewith he was constrained to cover his true sentiments, for fear to prejudice the affairs of his Majesty".-Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio, pp. 72-73.

On 10 Aug 1660 Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox (age 11) died of smallpox at Paris [Map]. He was buried in on 04 Sep 1660 in the Richmond Vault, Westminster Abbey. His first cousin Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond (age 21) succeeded 6th Duke Lennox, 3rd Duke Richmond. 4th Earl March. Elizabeth Rogers Duchess Richmond by marriage Duchess Richmond. His sister Mary Stewart Countess Arran (age 9) succeeded 5th Baroness Clifton of Leighton Bromswold in Huntingdonshire.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1660. Hugh Peters (age 62)1 is said to be taken, and the Duke of Gloucester (age 20) is ill, and it is said it will prove the small-pox.

Note 1. Hugh Peters (age 62), born at Fowey, Cornwall, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated M.A. 1622. He was tried as one of the regicides, and executed. A broadside, entitled "The Welsh Hubub, or the Unkennelling and earthing of Hugh Peters that crafty Fox", was printed October 3rd, 1660.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1660. Old East comes to me in the morning with letters, and I did give him a bottle of Northdown ale, which made the poor man almost drunk. In the afternoon my wife went to the burial of a child of my cozen Scott's, and it is observable that within this month my Aunt Wight was brought to bed of two girls, my cozen Stradwick of a girl and a boy, and my cozen Scott of a boy, and all died. In the afternoon to Westminster, where Mr. Dalton was ready with his money to pay me for my house, but our writings not being drawn it could not be done to-day. I met with Mr. Hawly, who was removing his things from Mr. Bowyer's, where he has lodged a great while, and I took him and W. Bowyer to the Swan [Map] and drank, and Mr. Hawly did give me a little black rattoon1, painted and gilt. Home by water. This day the Duke of Gloucester (age 20) died of the small-pox, by the great negligence of the doctors.

Note 1. Probably an Indian rattan cane.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1660. Sunday. To Dr. Hardy's church, and sat with Mr. Rawlinson (age 46) and heard a good sermon upon the occasion of the Duke's death. His text was, "And is there any evil in the city and the Lord hath not done it?" Home to dinner, having some sport with Win. [Hewer], who never had been at Common Prayer before. After dinner I alone to Westminster, where I spent my time walking up and down in Westminster Abbey till sermon time with Ben. Palmer and Fetters the watchmaker, who told me that my Lord of Oxford is also dead of the small-pox; in whom his family dies, after 600 years having that honour in their family and name. From thence to the Park, where I saw how far they had proceeded in the Pell-mell1, and in making a river through the Park, which I had never seen before since it was begun.

Note 1. This is the Mall in St. James's Park, which was made by Charles II., the former Mall (Pall Mall) having been built upon during the Commonwealth. Charles II also formed the canal by throwing the several small ponds into one.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Sep 1660. In the midst of all this joy and jubilee, the Duke of Gloucester (deceased) died of the smallpox, in the prime of youth, and a prince of extraordinary hopes.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1660. We rose early in the morning to get things ready for My Lord, and Mr. Sheply going to put up his pistols (which were charged with bullets) into the holsters, one of them flew off, and it pleased God that, the mouth of the gun being downwards, it did us no hurt, but I think I never was in more danger in my life, which put me into a great fright. About eight o'clock my Lord went; and going through the garden my Lord met with Mr. William Montagu (age 42), who told him of an estate of land lately come into the King's (age 30) hands, that he had a mind my Lord should beg. To which end my Lord writ a letter presently to my Lord Chancellor (age 51) to do it for him, which (after leave taken of my Lord at White Hall bridge) I did carry to Warwick House to him; and had a fair promise of him, that he would do it this day for my Lord. In my way thither I met the Lord Chancellor (age 51) and all the judges riding on horseback and going to Westminster Hall [Map], it being the first day of the term, which was the first time I ever saw any such solemnity. Having done there I returned to Whitehall, where meeting with my brother Ashwell and his cozen Sam. Ashwell and Mr. Mallard, I took them to the Leg in King Street and gave them a dish of meat for dinner and paid for it. From thence going to Whitehall I met with Catan Stirpin in mourning, who told me that her mistress was lately dead of the small pox, and that herself was now married to Monsieur Petit, as also what her mistress had left her, which was very well. She also took me to her lodging at an Ironmonger's in King Street, which was but very poor, and I found by a letter that she shewed me of her husband's to the King, that he is a right Frenchman, and full of their own projects, he having a design to reform the universities, and to institute schools for the learning of all languages, to speak them naturally and not by rule, which I know will come to nothing. From thence to my Lord's, where I went forth by coach to Mrs. Parker's with my Lady, and so to her house again. From thence I took my Lord's picture, and carried it to Mr. de Cretz to be copied. So to White Hall, where I met Mr. Spong, and went home with him and played, and sang, and eat with him and his mother. After supper we looked over many books, and instruments of his, especially his wooden jack in his chimney, which goes with the smoke, which indeed is very pretty. I found him to be as ingenious and good-natured a man as ever I met with in my life, and cannot admire him enough, he being so plain and illiterate a man as he is. From thence by coach home and to bed, which was welcome to me after a night's absence.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Dec 1660. This day died the Princess of Orange (age 29), of the smallpox, which entirely altered the face and gallantry of the whole Court.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1661. Hence to my Lady, who told me how Mr. Hetley is dead of the smallpox going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] with my Lord. My Lady went forth to dinner to her father's, and so I went to the Leg in King Street and had a rabbit for myself and my Will, and after dinner I sent him home and myself went to the Theatre [Map], where I saw "The Lost Lady", which do not please me much. Here I was troubled to be seen by four of our office clerks, which sat in the half-crown box and I in the 1s. 6d.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1661. At the office this morning. At home in the afternoon, and had notice that my Lord Hinchingbroke is fallen ill, which I fear is with the fruit that I did give them on Saturday last at my house: so in the evening I went thither and there found him very ill, and in great fear of the smallpox. I supped with my Lady, and did consult about him, but we find it best to let him lie where he do; and so I went home with my heart full of trouble for my Lord Hinchingbroke's sickness, and more for my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) himself, whom we are now confirmed is sick ashore at Alicante, who, if he should miscarry, God knows in what condition would his family be. I dined to-day with my Lord Crew, who is now at Sir H. Wright's (age 24), while his new house is making fit for him, and he is much troubled also at these things.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Aug 1661. To the Privy Seal in the morning, then to the Wardrobe to dinner, where I met my wife, and found my young Lord very ill. So my Lady intends to send her other three sons, Sidney, Oliver, and John, to my house, for fear of the small-pox.

On 17 Dec 1661 Charles Coote 1st Earl Mountrath (age 51) died of smallpox. He was buried in Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, Dublin [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. At the office I am well, though envied to the devil by Sir William Batten (age 62), who hates me to death, but cannot hurt me. The rest either love me, or at least do not show otherwise, though I know Sir W. Pen (age 42) to be a false knave touching me, though he seems fair. My father and mother well in the country; and at this time the young ladies of Hinchingbroke [Map] with them, their house having the small-pox in it. The Queene (age 54) after a long and sore sicknesse is become well again; and the King (age 33) minds his mistresse a little too much, if it pleased God! but I hope all things will go well, and in the Navy particularly, wherein I shall do my duty whatever comes of it.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1664. This day I hear young Mr. Stanly (deceased), a brave young [gentleman], that went out with young Jermin (age 28), with Prince Rupert (age 44), is already dead of the small-pox, at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]. All preparations against the Dutch; and the Duke of Yorke (age 31) fitting himself with all speed, to go to the fleete which is hastening for him; being now resolved to go in the Charles.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1665. This night my Lady Wood (age 38) died of the small-pox, and is much lamented among the great persons for a good-natured woman and a good wife, but for all that it was ever believed she was as others are. The Duke (age 31) did give us some commands, and so broke up, not taking leave of him. But the best piece of newes is, that instead of a great many troublesome Lords, the whole business is to be left with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to act as Admirall in his stead; which is a thing that do cheer my heart. For the other would have vexed us with attendance, and never done the business.

On 17 Mar 1665 Mary Gardiner (age 38) died of smallpox. On 01 Apr 1665 she was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1665. This morning I did a good piece of work with Sir W. Warren, ending the business of the lotterys, wherein honestly I think I shall get above £100. Bankert, it seems, is come home with the little fleete he hath been abroad with, without doing any thing, so that there is nobody of an enemy at sea. We are in great hopes of meeting with the Dutch East India fleete, which is mighty rich, or with De Ruyter (age 58), who is so also. Sir Richard Ford (age 51) told me this day, at table, a fine account, how the Dutch were like to have been mastered by the present Prince of Orange1 (age 14) his father to be besieged in Amsterdam, having drawn an army of foot into the towne, and horse near to the towne by night, within three miles of the towne, and they never knew of it; but by chance the Hamburgh post in the night fell among the horse, and heard their design, and knowing the way, it being very dark and rainy, better than they, went from them, and did give notice to the towne before the others could reach the towne, and so were saved. It seems this De Witt and another family, the Beckarts, were among the chief of the familys that were enemys to the Prince, and were afterwards suppressed by the Prince, and continued so till he was, as they say, poysoned; and then they turned all again, as it was, against the young Prince (age 14), and have so carried it to this day, it being about 12 and 14 years, and De Witt in the head of them.

Note 1. The period alluded to is 1650, when the States-General disbanded part of the forces which the Prince of Orange (William) wished to retain. The prince attempted, but unsuccessfully, to possess himself of Amsterdam. In the same year he died, at the early age of twenty-four; some say of the small-pox; others, with Sir Richard Ford (age 51), say of poison. B.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1665. This day I had the ill news from Dagenhams, that my poor lord of Hinchingbroke [Map] his indisposition is turned to the small-pox. Poor gentleman! that he should be come from France so soon to fall sick, and of that disease too, when he should be gone to see a fine lady (age 14), his mistresse. I am most heartily sorry for it. So late setting papers to rights, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1667. After dinner Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I to White Hall, to speak with Sir W. Coventry (age 39); and there, beyond all we looked for, do hear that the Duke of York (age 34) hath got, and is full of, the small-pox; and so we to his lodgings; and there find most of the family going to St. James's, and the gallery doors locked up, that nobody might pass to nor fro and a sad house, I am sure. I am sad to consider the effects of his death, if he should miscarry; but Dr. Frazier (age 57) tells me that he is in as good condition as a man can be in his case. The eruption appeared last night; it seems he was let blood on Friday.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1667. Up, and to the Office, where sat all the morning; and there hear the Duke of York (age 34) do yet do very well with his smallpox: pray God he may continue to do so! This morning also, to my astonishment, I hear that yesterday my Chancellor (age 58), to another of his Articles, that of betraying the King's councils to his enemies, is voted to have matter against him for an impeachment of High Treason, and that this day the impeachment is to be carried up to the House of Lords which is very high, and I am troubled at it; for God knows what will follow, since they that do this must do more to secure themselves against any that will revenge this, if it ever come in their power! At noon home to dinner, and then to my office, and there saw every thing finished, so as my papers are all in order again and my office twice as pleasant as ever it was, having a noble window in my closet and another in my office, to my great content, and so did business late, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1667. By and by I met with Mr. Wren (age 38), who tells me that the Duke of York (age 34) is in as good condition as is possible for a man, in his condition of the smallpox. He, I perceive, is mightily concerned in the business of my Chancellor (age 58), the impeachment against whom is gone up to the House of Lords; and great differences there are in the Lords' House about it, and the Lords are very high one against another.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to the Duke of York (age 34), the first time that I have seen him, or we waited on him, since his sickness; and, blessed be God! he is not at all the worse for the smallpox, but is only a little weak yet. We did much business with him, and so parted. My Lord Anglesey (age 53) told me how my Lord Northampton (age 45) brought in a Bill into the House of Lords yesterday, under the name of a Bill for the Honour and Privilege of the House, and Mercy to my Lord Clarendon (age 58): which, he told me, he opposed, saying that he was a man accused of treason by the House of Commons; and mercy was not proper for him, having not been tried yet, and so no mercy needful for him. However, the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) and others did desire that the Bill might be read; and it, was for banishing my Lord Clarendon (age 58) from all his Majesty's dominions, and that it should be treason to have him found in any of them: the thing is only a thing of vanity, and to insult over him, which is mighty poor I think, and so do every body else, and ended in nothing, I think.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1667. Up, and to the office, where very busy all the morning, and then in the afternoon I with Sir W. Pen (age 46) and Sir T. Harvy (age 42) to White Hall to attend the Duke of York (age 34), who is now as well as ever, and there we did our usual business with him, and so away home with Sir W. Pen (age 46), and there to the office, where pretty late doing business, my wife having been abroad all day with Mrs. Turner (age 44) buying of one thing or other. This day I do hear at White Hall that the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) is sick, and in danger of the smallpox.

On 06 Jan 1668 Henry Caesar (age 37) died of smallpox.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Feb 1668. After dinner we into our dining-room, and there to singing all the afternoon. (By the way, I must remember that Pegg Pen (age 17) was brought to bed yesterday of a girl; and, among other things, if I have not already set it down, that hardly ever was remembered such a season for the smallpox as these last two months have been, people being seen all up and down the streets, newly come out after the smallpox.) But though they sang fine things, yet I must confess that I did take no pleasure in it, or very little, because I understood not the words, and with the rests that the words are set, there is no sense nor understanding in them though they be English, which makes me weary of singing in that manner, it being but a worse sort of instrumental musick. We sang until almost night, and drank mighty good store of wine, and then they parted, and I to my chamber, where I did read through "L'escholle des filles", a lewd book, but what do no wrong once to read for information sake.... [Note. Missing text: (but it did hazer my prick para stand all the while, and una vez to decharger);] And after I had done it I burned it, that it might not be among my books to my shame, and so at night to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1668. Thence, by agreement, we all of us to the Blue Balls, hard by, whither Mr. Pierce also goes with us, who met us at the play, and anon comes Manuel, and his wife, and Knepp, and Harris (age 34), who brings with him Mr. Banister (age 38), the great master of musique; and after much difficulty in getting of musique, we to dancing, and then to a supper of some French dishes, which yet did not please me, and then to dance and sing; and mighty merry we were till about eleven or twelve at night, with mighty great content in all my company, and I did, as I love to do, enjoy myself in my pleasure as being the height of what we take pains for and can hope for in this world, and therefore to be enjoyed while we are young and capable of these joys. My wife extraordinary fine to-day, in her flower tabby suit, bought a year and more ago, before my mother's death put her into mourning, and so not worn till this day: and every body in love with it; and indeed she is very fine and handsome in it. I having paid the reckoning, which come to almost £4., we parted: my company and William Batelier, who was also with us, home in a coach, round by the Wall, where we met so many stops by the Watches, that it cost us much time and some trouble, and more money, to every Watch, to them to drink; this being encreased by the trouble the 'prentices did lately give the City, so that the Militia and Watches are very strict at this time; and we had like to have met with a stop for all night at the Constable's watch, at Mooregate, by a pragmatical Constable; but we come well home at about two in the morning, and so to bed. This noon, from Mrs. Williams's, my Lord Brouncker (age 48) sent to Somersett House [Map] to hear how the Duchess of Richmond (age 20) do; and word was brought him that she is pretty well, but mighty full of the smallpox, by which all do conclude she will be wholly spoiled, which is the greatest instance of the uncertainty of beauty that could be in this age; but then she hath had the benefit of it to be first married, and to have kept it so long, under the greatest temptations in the world from a King, and yet without the least imputation. This afternoon, at the play, Sir Fr. Hollis (age 25) spoke to me as a secret, and matter of confidence in me, and friendship to Sir W. Pen (age 46), who is now out of town, that it were well he were made acquainted that he finds in the House of Commons, which met this day, several motions made for the calling strictly again upon the Miscarriages, and particularly in the business of the Prises, and the not prosecuting of the first victory, only to give an affront to Sir W. Pen (age 46), whose going to sea this year do give them matter of great dislike. So though I do not much trouble myself for him, yet I am sorry that he should have this fall so unhappily without any fault, but rather merit of his own that made him fitter for this command than any body else, and the more for that this business of his may haply occasion their more eager pursuit against the whole body of the office.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1668. Up betimes, and so to the office, there to do business till about to o'clock, and then out with my wife and Deb. and W. Hewer (age 26) by coach to Common-garden Coffee-house, where by appointment I was to meet Harris (age 34); which I did, and also Mr. Cooper, the great painter, and Mr. Hales (age 68): and thence presently to Mr. Cooper's house, to see some of his work, which is all in little, but so excellent as, though I must confess I do think the colouring of the flesh to be a little forced, yet the painting is so extraordinary, as I do never expect to see the like again. Here I did see Mrs. Stewart's (age 20) picture as when a young maid, and now just done before her having the smallpox: and it would make a man weep to see what she was then, and what she is like to be, by people's discourse, now. Here I saw my Lord Generall's picture, and my Lord Arlington (age 50) and Ashly's, and several others; but among the rest one Swinfen, that was Secretary to my Lord Manchester (age 66), Lord Chamberlain, with Cooling, done so admirably as I never saw any thing: but the misery was, this fellow died in debt, and never paid Cooper (age 59) for his picture; but, it being seized on by his creditors, among his other goods, after his death, Cooper (age 59) himself says that he did buy it, and give £25 out of his purse for it, for what he was to have had but £30. Being infinitely satisfied with this sight, and resolving that my wife shall be drawn by him when she comes out of the country, I away with Harris (age 34) and Hales to the Coffee-house, sending my people away, and there resolve for Hales to begin Harris's (age 34) head for me, which I will be at the cost of.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1668. At noon dined, and then to the office all the afternoon also, and in the evening to Sir W. Coventry's (age 40), but he not within, I took coach alone to the Park, to try to meet him there, but did not; but there were few coaches, but among the few there were in two coaches our two great beauties, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) and Richmond (age 21); the first time I saw the latter since she had the smallpox. I had much pleasure to see them, but I thought they were strange one to another.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1668. Thence to White Hall to chapel, and heard the anthem, and did dine with the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) in a dirty manner as ever. All the afternoon, I sauntered up and down the house and Park. And there was a Committee for Tangier met, wherein Lord Middleton would, I think, have found fault with me for want of coles; but I slighted it, and he made nothing of it, but was thought to be drunk; and I see that he hath a mind to find fault with me and Creed, neither of us having yet applied ourselves to him about anything: but do talk of his profits and perquisites taken from him, and garrison reduced, and that it must be increased, and such things, as; I fear, he will be just such another as my Lord Tiviott and the rest, to ruin that place. So I to the Park, and there walk an hour or two; and in the King's garden, and saw the Queen (age 29) and ladies walk; and I did steal some apples off the trees; and here did see my Lady Richmond (age 21), who is of a noble person as ever I saw, but her face worse than it was considerably by the smallpox: her sister is also very handsome. Coming into the Park, and the door kept strictly, I had opportunity of handing in the little, pretty, squinting girl of the Duke of York's house, but did not make acquaintance with her; but let her go, and a little girl that was with her, to walk by themselves.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1669. Thence back to Graye's Inne: and, at the next door, at a cook's-shop of Howe's acquaintance, we bespoke dinner, it being now two o'clock; and in the meantime he carried us into Graye's Inne, to his chamber, where I never was before; and it is very pretty, and little, and neat, as he was always. And so, after a little stay, and looking over a book or two there, we carried a piece of my Lord Coke with us, and to our dinner, where, after dinner, he read at my desire a chapter in my Lord Coke about perjury, wherein I did learn a good deal touching oaths, and so away to the Patent Office; in Chancery Lane, where his brother Jacke, being newly broke by running in debt, and growing an idle rogue, he is forced to hide himself; and W. Howe do look after the Office, and here I did set a clerk to look out some things for me in their books, while W. Hewer (age 27) and I to the Crowne Offices where we met with several good things that I most wanted, and did take short notes of the dockets, and so back to the Patent Office, and did the like there, and by candle-light ended. And so home, where, thinking to meet my wife with content, after my pains all this day, I find her in her closet, alone, in the dark, in a hot fit of railing against me, upon some news she has this day heard of Deb.'s living very fine, and with black spots, and speaking ill words of her mistress, which with good reason might vex her; and the baggage is to blame, but, God knows, I know nothing of her, nor what she do, nor what becomes of her, though God knows that my devil that is within me do wish that I could. Yet God I hope will prevent me therein, for I dare not trust myself with it if I should know it; but, what with my high words, and slighting it, and then serious, I did at last bring her to very good and kind terms, poor heart! and I was heartily glad of it, for I do see there is no man can be happier than myself, if I will, with her. But in her fit she did tell me what vexed me all the night, that this had put her upon putting off her handsome maid and hiring another that was full of the small pox, which did mightily vex me, though I said nothing, and do still. So down to supper, and she to read to me, and then with all possible kindness to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1669. Thence to visit Ned Pickering (age 51) and his lady (age 36), and Creed and his wife, but the former abroad, and the latter out of town, gone to my Lady Pickering's (age 43) in Northamptonshire, upon occasion of the late death of their brother, Oliver Pickering, a youth, that is dead of the smallpox. So my wife and I to Dancre's (age 44) to see the pictures; and thence to Hyde Park, the first time we were there this year, or ever in our own coach, where with mighty pride rode up and down, and many coaches there; and I thought our horses and coach as pretty as any there, and observed so to be by others. Here staid till night, and so home, and to the office, where busy late, and so home to supper and to bed, with great content, but much business in my head of the office, which troubles me.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1669. Up; and to the Office, and my wife abroad with Mary Batelier, with our own coach, but borrowed Sir J Minnes's coachman, that so our own might stay at home, to attend at dinner; our family being mightily disordered by our little boy's falling sick the last night; and we fear it will prove the small-pox.

On 25 May 1671 Henry Wood 1st Baronet (age 73) died without male issue. Baronet Wood extinct. On 31 May 1671 he was buried at Ufford, Suffolk. His daughter Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 8) was his heir. In view of the great wealth she was to inherit she was betrothed to Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 8), an illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 30). On her father's death she went to live with Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 30). They, Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 8) and Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 8) married 1679 but she died a year later from smallpox.

On 30 Jul 1671 Louis Guise Duke Guise (age 20) died of smallpox.

In 1675 William Sarsfield died of smallpox.

In 1676 William Brydges 7th Baron Chandos (age 55) died of smallpox with no male issue. His third cousin James Brydges 8th Baron Chandos (age 33) succeeded 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley. Elizabeth Barnard Baroness Chandos (age 33) by marriage Baroness Chandos of Sudeley.

In 1678 William Dummer (age 21) died of smallpox.

In 1680 Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 17) died of smallpox. She was buried with her mother Mary Gardiner (who also died of smallpox) in Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 22 Jun 1680 Elisabeth Saxe Coburg Altenburg (age 1) died of smallpox at Gotha.

In 1681 Edward Turbeville (age 33) died of smallpox.

Frost Fair

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1683. The smallpox very prevalent and mortal; the Thames frozen.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Jan 1684. The weather continuing intolerably severe, streetes of booths were set upon the Thames; the aire was so very cold and thick, as of many yeares there had not ben the like. The smallpox was very mortal.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1684. Dr. Meggot, Deane of Winchester, preached an incomparable sermon, (the King (age 53) being now gone to Newmarket,) on 12 Heb. 15. shewing and pathetically pressing the care we ought to have least we come short of the grace of God. Afterwards I went to visite Dr. Tenison (age 47) at Kensington, whither he was retired to refresh after he had ben sick of the smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Mar 1684. Easter day. The Bp. of Rochester [Dr. Turner] (age 46) preach'd before, the King (age 53) after which his Ma*, accompanied with three of his natural sonns, the Dukes of Northumberland (age 18), Richmond, and St. Alban's (age 13) (sons of Portsmouth (age 34), Cleaveland (age 43), and Nelly (age 34)), went up to the Altar; ye three boyes entering before the King (age 53) within the railes, at the right hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. London (age 52) (who officiated), Durham (age 51), and Rochester (age 46), with the Sub-dean Dr. Holder. the King (age 53) kneeling before the Altar, zaking his offering, the Bishop first receiv'd, and then his Ma* after which he retir'd to a canopied seate on the right hand. Note, there was perfume burnt before the Office began. I had receiv'd ye Sacrament at Whitehall early with the Lords and Household, ye Bp. of London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's [Map], where Dr. Tenison (age 47) preach'd (recover'd from yc small-pox); then went againe to Whitehall as above. In the afternoone went to St. Martin's againe.

In 1685 Anne Killigrew (age 25) died of smallpox. She was buried at Savoy Chapel Royal [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1685. My daughter Mary (age 20) was taken with the smallpox, and there soon was found no hope of her recovery. A very greate affliction to me: but God's holy will be done.

10 Mar 1685. She receiv'd the blessed Sacrament; after which, disposing herselfe to suffer what God should determine to inflict, she bore the remainder of her sicknesse with extraordinary patience and piety, and more than ordinary resignation and blessed frame of mind. She died the 14th, to our unspeakable sorrow and affliction, and not to ours onely, but that of all who knew her, who were many of the best quality, greatest and most virtuous persons. The justnesse of her stature, person, comelinesse of countenance, gracefull nesse of motion, unaffected tho' more than ordinary beautifull, were the least of her ornaments compared with those of her mind. Of early piety, singularly religious, spending a part of every day in private devotion, reading and other vertuous exereises; she had collected and written out many of the most usefull and judicious periods of the books she read in a kind of common-place, as out of Dr. Hammond on the New Testament, and most of the best practical treatises. She had read and digested a considerable deale of history and of places. The French tongue was as familiar to her as English; she understood Italian, and was able to render a laudable account of what she read and observed, to which assisted a most faithful memory and discernment; and she did make very prudent and discreete reflexions upon what she had observed of the conversations among which she had at any time ben, which being continualy of persons of the best quality, she thereby improved. She had an excellent voice, to which she play'd a thorough-bass on the harpsichord, in both which she arived to that perfection, that of the schollars of those two famous masters Signors Pietro and Bartholomeo she was esteem'd the best; for the sweetnesse of her voice and management of it added such an agreeablenesse to her countenance, without any constraint or concerne, that when she sung, it was as charming to the eye as to the eare; this I rather note, because it was a universal remarke, and for which so many noble and judicious persons in musiq desired to heare her, the last being at Lord Arundel's of Wardour (see above). What shall 1 say, or rather not say, of the cheerefullness and agreeablenesse of her humour? condescending to the meanest servant in the family, or others, she still kept up respect, without the least pride. She would often reade to them, examine, instruct, and pray with them if they were sick, so as she was exceedingly beloved of every body. Piety was so prevalent an ingredient in her constitution (as I may say) that even amongst equals and superiors she no sooner became intimately acquainted, but she would endeavour to improve them, by insinuating something of religious, and that tended to bring them to a love of devotion; she had one or two confidents with whom she used to passe whole dayes In fasting, reading and prayers, especialy before the monethly communion and other solemn occasions. She abhorr'd flattery, and tho' she had aboundance of witt, the raillery was so innocent and ingenuous that it was most agreeable; she sometimes would see a play, but since the stage grew licentious, express'd herselfe weary of them, and the time spent at the theater was an unaccountable vanity. She never play'd at cards without extreame importunity and for the company, but this was so very seldome that I cannot number it among any thing she could name a fault. No one could read prose or verse better or with more judgment; and as she read, so she writ, not only most correct orthography, with that maturitie of judgment and exactnesse of the periods, choice of expressions, and familiarity of stile, that some letters of hers have astonish'd me and others to whom she has occasionally written. She had a talent of rehersing any comical part or poeme, as to them she might be decently free with was more pleasing than heard on yb theater; she daunc'd with the greatest grace I had ever seene, and so would her master say, who was Monsr Isaac; but she seldome shew'd that perfection, save in the gracefullnesse of her carriage, which was with an aire of spritely modestie not easily to be described. Nothing affected, but natural and easy as well in her deportment as in her discourse, which was always materiall, not trifling, and to which the extraordinary sweetnesse of her tone, even in familiar speaking, was very charming. Nothing was so pretty as her descending to play with little children, whom she would caresse and humour with greate delight. But she most affected to be with grave and sober men, of whom she might learne something, and improve herselfe. I have ben assisted by her in reading and praying by me; comprehensive of uncommon notions, curious of knowing every thing to some excesse, had I not sometimes repressed it. Nothing was so delightfull to her as to go into my study, where she would willingly have spent whole dayes, for as I sayd she had read aboundance of history, and all the best poets, even Terence, Plautus, Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid; all the best romances and modern poemes; she could compose happily, and put in pretty symbols, as in the Mundus Mulie bris, wherein is an enumeration of the immense variety of the modes and ornaments belonging to the sex; but all these are vaine trifles to the virtues which adorn'd her soule; she was sincerely religious, most dutifull to her parents, whom she lov'd with an affection temper'd with greate esteeme, so as we were easy and free and never were so well pleas'd as when she was with us, nor needed we other conversation; she was kind to her sisters, and was still improving them by her constant course of piety. Oh deare, sweete, and desireable child, how shall I part with all this goodness and virtue without the bittemesse of sorrow and reluctancy of a tender parent! Thy affection, duty, and love to me was that of a friend as well as a child. Nor lesse deare to thy mother, whose example and tender care of thee was unparellel'd, nor was thy returne to her lesse conspicuous; Oh ! how she mourns thy loss! how desolate hast thou left us! To the grave shall we both carry thy memory!

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1685. It was in the 19th year of her age that this sicknesse happen'd to her. An accident contributed to this disease; she had an apprehension of it in particular, and which struck her but two days before she came home, by an imprudent gentlewoman whom she went with Lady Falkland to visite, who after they had ben a good while in the house, told them she had a servant sick of the smallpox (who indeede died the next day); this my poore child acknowledg'd made an impression on her spirits. There were foure gentlemen of quality offering to treate with me about marriage, and I freely gave her her owne choice, knowing her discretion. She showed great indifference to marrying at all, for truly, says she to her mother (the other day), were I assur'd of your life and my deare father's, never would I part from you; I love you and this home, where we serve God, above all things, nor ever shall I be so happy; I know and consider the vicissitudes of the world, I have some experience of its vanities, and but for decency more than inclination, and that you judge it expedient for me, I would not change my condition, but rather add the fortune you designe me to my sisters, and keepe up the reputation of our family, This was so discreetly and sincerely utter'd that it could not but proceede from an extraordinary child, and one who lov'd her parents beyond example.

On 14 Mar 1685 Mary Evelyn (age 20) died of smallpox.

On 09 Jul 1685 John Hussey (age 26) died of smallpox.

On 27 Aug 1685 Elizabeth Evelyn (age 17) died of smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Aug 1685. My daughter Elizabeth (age 17) died of the smallpox, soon after having married a young man, nephew of Sir John Tippett, surveyor of the Navy, and one of the Commissioners. The 30th she was buried in the Church at Deptford. Thus in lesse than six moneths were we deprived of two children for our unworthinesse and causes best knowne to God, whom I beseeche from the bottome of my heart that he will give us grace to make that right use of all these chastisements, that we may become better, and entirely submitt in all things to his infinite wise disposal. Amen.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (age 52) to Portsmouth [Map], whither his Ma* (age 51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (age 34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (age 46), now wife to James Graham, Esq (age 36) of the privy purse to the King; her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Apr 1686. The Abp. of York (age 61) died of ye smallpox, aged 62, a corpulent man. He was my special loving friend, and whilst Bp. of Rochester (from whence he was translated) my excellent neighbour. He was an unexpressible losse to yc whole church, and that province especialy, he being a learned, wise, stoute, and most worthy prelate; I looke on this as a greate stroke to ye poore Church of England, now in this defecting period.

Around 18 Apr 1686 Archbishop John Dolben (age 61) died of smallpox. He had been returned from York to London when he came into contact with a person infected with small-pox. Becoming infected himself he died a few days later.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 May 1694. Lord Falkland (deceased), grandson to the learned Lord Falkland, Secretary of State to King Charles I., and slain in his service, died now of the smallpox. He was a pretty, brisk, understanding, industrious young gentleman; had formerly been faulty, but now much reclaimed; had also the good luck to marry a very great fortune, besides being entitled to a vast sum, his share of the Spanish wreck, taken up at the expense of divers adventurers. From a Scotch Viscount he was made an English Baron, designed Ambassador for Holland; had been Treasurer of the Navy, and advancing extremely in the new Court. All now gone in a moment, and I think the title is extinct. I know not whether the estate devolves to my cousin Carew. It was at my Lord Falkland's, whose lady importuned us to let our daughter be with her some time, so that that dear child took the same infection, which cost her valuable life.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Nov 1694. Visited the Bishop of Lincoln (age 58) [Tenison] newly come on the death of the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 64), who a few days before had a paralytic stroke,-the same day and month that Archbishop Sancroft was put out. A very sickly time, especially the smallpox, of which divers considerable persons died. The State lottery drawing, Mr. Cock, a French refugee, and a President in the Parliament of Paris for the Reformed, drew a lot of £1,000 per annum.

Death and Funeral of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map].

On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Tenison (age 58) preached the sermon.

She had reigned for five years. Her husband King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Dec 1694. The smallpox increased exceedingly, and was very mortal. The Queen (deceased) died of it on the 28th.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (age 44) and Princess Anne (age 29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House [Map]; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late Queen; to maintain them the King (age 44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.

In Nov 1695 John Guise 2nd Baronet (age 41) died of smallpox. He was buried in St John the Baptist's Church, Elmore. His son John Guise 3rd Baronet (age 18) succeeded 3rd Baronet Guise of Elmore in Gloucestershire.

On 25 Feb 1699 Robert Shirley (age 25) died of smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Jul 1700. The Duke of Gloucester (age 10), son of the Princess Anne of Denmark (age 35), died of the smallpox.

On 16 Sep 1700 Thomas Morgan (age 36) died of smallpox. John Morgan of Tredegar (age 29) inherited Tredegar House, Monmouthshire and estates worth £7000.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1700. Came the news of my dear grandson (age 18) (the only male of my family now remaining) being fallen ill of the smallpox at Oxford, which after the dire effects of it in my family exceedingly afflicted me; but so it pleased my most merciful God that being let blood at his first complaint, and by the extraordinary care of Dr. Mander (Head of the college and now Vice Chancellor), who caused him to be brought and lodged in his own bed and bedchamber, with the advice of his physician and care of his tutor, there were all fair hopes of his recovery, to our infinite comfort. We had a letter every day either from the Vice Chancellor himself, or his tutor.

On 08 Nov 1702 John Evelyn of Nutfield (age 25) died of smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Nov 1702. My kinsman, John Evelyn, of Nutfield (age 25), a young and very hopeful gentleman, and Member of Parliament, after having come to Wotton to see me, about fifteen days past, went to London and there died of the smallpox. He left a brother, a commander in the army in Holland, to inherit a fair estate.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1703. A famous cause at the King's Bench [Map] between Mr. Fenwick and his wife, which went for him with a great estate. The Duke of Marlborough (age 52) lost his only son (age 16) at Cambridge by the smallpox. A great earthquake at Rome, Italy, etc. A famous young woman (age 23), an Italian, was hired by our comedians to sing on the stage, during so many plays, for which they gave her £500; which part by her voice alone at the end of three scenes she performed with such modesty and grace, and above all with such skill, that there was never any who did anything comparable with their voices. She was to go home to the Court of the King of Prussia, and I believe carried with her out of this vain nation above £1,000, everybody coveting to hear her at their private houses.

On 20 Feb 1703 John Churchill (age 17) died of smallpox.

On 21 Nov 1703 Karl Frederick Saxe Coburg Altenburg (age 1) died of smallpox (possibly) at Gotha.

On 29 Nov 1703 Sophie Saxe Coburg Altenburg (age 6) died of smallpox at Gotha.

On 28 Mar 1704 Edward Ward 8th Baron Dudley 3rd Baron Ward (age 20) died of smallpox. His son  succeeded 4th Baron Ward of Birmingham, 9th Baron Sutton of Dudley posthumously.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1705. Remarkable fine weather. Agues and smallpox much in every place.

On 27 Feb 1705 Christian Saxe Coburg Altenburg was born to Frederick Saxe Coburg Altenburg II Duke Saxe Gotha Altenburg (age 28) and Magdalena Augusta Anhalt Zerbst Anhaltzerbst Duchess Saxe Gotha Altenburg at Gotha. He died of smallpox on 05 Mar 1705 at Gotha.

In 1710 Margaret Brownlow (age 23) died of smallpox. Her estate of £40,000 was divided between her four sisters: Jane Brownlow Duchess Ancaster and Kesteven, Elizabeth Brownlow Countess Exeter (age 29), Alicia Brownlow Baroness Guildford (age 26) and Eleanor Brownlow Viscountess Tyconnel (age 19).

In Jul 1710 Catherine Taylor died of smallpox.

On 27 Nov 1710 Robert Lovett (age 43) died of smallpox.

1711 Smallpox Epidemic

In 1711 Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor (age 32) died of smallpox. His brother Charles Habsburg Spain VI Holy Roman Emperor (age 26) succeeded VI Holy Roman Emperor.

On 22 Feb 1712 John Reade 3rd Baronet (age 21) died of smallpox unmarried at Rome in exile having become a Jacobite. He was buried on 11 Jun 1712 in the Brocket Chapel at St Elthreda's Church, Bishop's Hatfield. Baronet Reade of Brocket Hall in Hertfordshire extinct.

1721. An outbreak of smallpox occurred during this year in Kinder. See note below.

In 1721 Helen Froggatt (age 22) died of smallpox during an epidemic at Kinder.

On 21 May 1721 Francis Gee (age 17) died of smallpox. He was buried at St Matthew's Church, Hayfield [Map].

On 23 May 1721 Essex Finch (age 34) died of smallpox.

On 04 Jul 1721 Percy Seymour (age 25) died of smallpox.

Before 19 Aug 1721 John Booth of Kinder died of smallpox. He was buried at St Matthew's Church, Hayfield [Map]. His son Thomas Booth (age 2) inherited Booth Farm, Kinder [Map].

On 21 Sep 1721 John Froggat (age 19) died of smallpox.

On 31 Aug 1724 Louis I King Spain (age 17) died of smallpox. He was buried at the El Escorial Palace. Philippe V King Spain (age 40) returned to the Spanish throne.

On 29 Mar 1726 Dorothy Walpole Viscountess Townsend (age 39) died although the circumstances are somewhat mysterious; possibly smallpox.

On 16 Dec 1731 Robert Rochfort 1st Earl of Belvedere (age 23) and Elizabeth Tenison were married. She died a year later from smallpox.

In 1732 Elizabeth Tenison died of smallpox.

On 13 May 1737 William Wodehouse (age 31) died of smallpox without issue. He was buried in St James'.

In 23 Feb 1738 Edmund Quincy (age 56) died of smallpox.

In 1746 Elizabeth Fazakerley died of smallpox.

On 01 Apr 1750 Francis Scott (age 29) died of smallpox. He was buried at Buccleuch Crypt, St Nicholas Church, Dalkeith.

On 24 Aug 1751 James Aston 5th Baronet (age 28) died of smallpox without male issue. His fourth cousin once removed Philip Aston 6th Baronet (age 40) succeeded 6th Baronet Aston of Tixall.

On 23 Dec 1753 Thomas Gresley 5th Baronet (age 30) died of smallpox. His brother Nigel Gresley 6th Baronet (age 26) succeeded 6th Baronet Gresley of Drakelow in Derbyshire. Elizabeth Wynn Lady Gresley by marriage Lady Gresley of Drakelow in Derbyshire.

On 06 Jun 1759 Bluett Wallop (age 33) died of smallpox.

On 31 Jan 1760 Mary Radclyffe (age 46) died of smallpox in Brussels [Map].

1789. Lichfield Cathedral [Map]. Monument to Mary Wortley-Montagu née Pierrepont. Sculpted by Thomas-Henry Scheemakers (age 49).

The inscription:

Sacred to the Memory of the Right Honorable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu who happily introduced from Turkey, into this country, The Salutary Art of inoculating the Small Pox. Convinced of its efficacy she first tried it with success on her own children. And then recommended the practice of it to her fellow citizens. The by her Example and Advice we have softened the virulence and escaped the danger of of this malignant disease. To perpetuate the memory of such benevolence, and to express gratitude, for the benefit of herself received from this alleviating art. This monument is erected by Henrietta Inge (age 72) relict of Theodore William Inge Esq. and daughter to Sir John Wrottesley Baronet in the year of our lord MDCCLXXXIX [1989].

Henrietta Wrottesley: In 1717 she was born to John Wrottesley 4th Baronet and Frances Grey Lady Wrottesley. On 01 Jan 1735 Theodore William Inge Baronet and she were married. In 1790 Henrietta Wrottesley died.

Theodore William Inge Baronet: In 1711 he was born. In 1753 he died.

John Wrottesley 4th Baronet: Around 1682 he was born to Walter Wrottesley 3rd Baronet. In 1712 Walter Wrottesley 3rd Baronet died. His son John Wrottesley 4th Baronet succeeded 4th Baronet Wrottesley of Wrottesley in Staffordshire. Before 1717 John Wrottesley 4th Baronet and Frances Grey Lady Wrottesley were married. She by marriage Lady Wrottesley of Wrottesley in Staffordshire. In 1726 John Wrottesley 4th Baronet died. His son Hugh Wrottesley 5th Baronet succeeded 5th Baronet Wrottesley of Wrottesley in Staffordshire.

Development of Smallpox Vaccine

On 14 May 1796 Edward Jenner (age 46) inoculated eight year old James Phipps against smallpox using pus from the cowpos blisters of milkmaid Sarah Nelmes. He later injected the boy with variolous material without disease following. The boy's response indicated he was immune to smallpox. He then tested a further twenty-three people including his eleven month old son Robert. Within years the whole of Europe had been inoculated against smallpox.

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Scotland Volume 10 Chapter III. Donald Macdonald lived in St Kilda till he was an old man. He then went to Harris, where he was seized with the smallpox, and died there, about 133 years ago.8 The next year his clothes were brought to St Kilda by one of his relations, when the inbabitants were all seized with the disease, so that only four grown up persons were left alive on the island; but they are the descendants of this same Macdonald, who continue in the island yet.

Note 8. "133 years ago." Compare chap. xi. Macaulay's "Hist. St Kilda."