Biography of King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Paternal Family Tree: Tudor

Maternal Family Tree: Edith Stourton Baroness Beauchamp Bletsoe 1390-1441

Descendants Family Tree: King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

1437 Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

1457 Birth of King Henry VII

1458 Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1485 Execution of Roger Clifford

1485 Marriage of Ralph Scrope and Cecily York

1485 Henry Tudor lands at Mill Bay

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1486 Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

1486 Birth and Christening of Arthur Prince of Wales

1489 Yorkshire Rebellion

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1495 Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

1497 Cornish Rebellion

1497 Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

1499 Creation of Garter Knights

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1502 Trial of James Tyrrell

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1503 Marriage of James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1506 Malus Intercursus aka Evil Treaty

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Funeral of Henry VII

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1513 Battle of the Spurs

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

Death of Dowager Queen Consort Catherine of Valois

On 03 Jan 1437 [his grandmother] Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England (age 35) died at Bermondsey Abbey [Map]. She had been married aged eighteen to King Henry V of England for two years three months. Their son was [his uncle] King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 15).

After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to [his grandfather] Owen Tudor (age 37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Around Jan 1450 [his step-father] John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 7) and [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 6) were married. The date subject to debate. Papal dispensation was granted on 18 August 1450. Margaret never recognised this marriage, and considered her next husband her first; as confirmed by her 1472 will. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 40). He the son of William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) and Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 46). They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In Feb 1453 [his step-father] John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 10) and [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 9) marriage annulled.

On 01 Nov 1455 [his father] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 25) and [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 12) were married at Bletsoe Castle [Map]. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 45). He the son of Owen Tudor (age 55) and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 03 Nov 1456 [his father] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 26) died of plague at Carmarthen Castle [Map] leaving his twelve year old wife [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 13) pregnant with their child Henry Tudor, the future King Henry VII. His son Henry Tudor succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

Birth of King Henry VII

On 28 Jan 1457 King Henry VII of England and Ireland was born to the late Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 13) at Pembroke Castle [Map]. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Margaret Beaufort marries Henry Stafford

On 03 Jan 1458 [his step-father] Henry Stafford (age 33) and [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 14) were married probably at Maxstoke Castle [Map]. Her third marriage (second if you don't include the one annulled) aged fourteen and already the mother of the future King Henry VII. She had no further issue. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 48). He the son of Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 55) and Anne Neville Duchess Buckingham (age 50). They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1471 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 13) fled to Brittany [Map].

In 1471 or 1474 [his illegitimate son] Roland de Velville (age 3) was born illegitimately to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 13). His mother was an unknown Breton lady. There is not specific record of his father being King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 13)? He was a favourite of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 13).

Around 12 Jun 1472 [his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 37) and [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 29) were married. She by marriage Queen Mann, Baroness Stanley. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 62). They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward of that name the Fourth (age 40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, Edward the Prince (age 12), thirteen years of age; Richard Duke of York (age 9), two years younger; [his future wife] Elizabeth (age 17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (age 26), and mother unto the [his son] Eighth; [his future sister-in-law] Cecily (age 14) not so fortunate as fair; [his future sister-in-law] Brigette (age 2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford [Map], a house of cloistered Nuns; [his future sister-in-law] Anne (age 7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (age 10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and [his future sister-in-law] Katherine (age 3), who long time tossed in either fortune-sometime in wealth, often in adversity-at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

Buckingham's Rebellion

In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace King Richard III of England (age 30) with Henry Tudor (age 26). Richard Haute took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned. Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers (age 30) was attainted.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. For hereupon, soon after, began the conspiracy, or rather good confederation, between the Duke of Buckingham and many other gentlemen against him. The occasion whereupon the King and the Duke fell out is by different folk, different ways presented. This duke, as I have for certain been informed, as soon as the Duke of Gloucester, upon the death of King Edward, came to York and there had solemn funeral service for King Edward, sent thither, in the most secret way he could, one Percival, his trusty servant, who came to John Ward, a chamber-man of like secret trust with the Duke of Gloucester, desiring that in the most close and covert manner he might be admitted to the presence and speech of his master. And the Duke of Gloucester, informed of his desire, caused him in the dead of the night, after all other folk left, to be brought unto him in his secret chamber, where Percival, after his master's recommendation, showed him what his master had secretly sent him to show him that in this new world he could take such part as he would, and Buckingham would wait upon him with a thousand good fellows if need were. The messenger, sent back with thanks and some secret instruction of the Protector's mind, yet he met him again with further message from the Duke, his master, within a few days after at Nottingham, to where the Protector from York with many gentlemen of the north country, up to the number of six hundred horse, was coming on his way to London. And after secret meeting and communication had, at once departed. Whereupon at Northampton the Duke met with the Protector himself, with three hundred horse, and from there still continued with him, partner of all his devices, such that after his coronation they departed, as it seemed, very great friends at Gloucester.

From whence, as soon as the Duke came home, he so lightly turned from him and so highly conspired against him that a man would marvel whereof the change grew.

And surely the occasion of their variance is of different men differently reported. Some I have heard say that the Duke-a little before the coronation, among other things-required of the Protector the Duke of Hereford's lands, to which he pretended himself just inheritor. And forasmuch as the title that he claimed by inheritance was somewhat interlaced with the title to the crown by the line of King Henry VI, before deprived, the Protector conceived such indignation that he rejected the Duke's request with many spiteful and threatening words, which so wounded his heart with hatred and mistrust that he never after could endure to look aright on King Richard, but ever feared his own life, so far forth that when the Protector rode through London toward his coronation, he feigned himself sick because he would not ride with him. And the other, taking it in evil part, sent him word to rise and come ride, or he would make him be carried. Whereupon he rode on with evil will and, that notwithstanding, on the morrow rose from the feast feigning himself sick, and King Richard said it was done in hatred and contempt of him. And they say that ever after, continually, each of them lived in such hatred and distrust of other that the Duke verily looked to have been murdered at Gloucester, from which, nevertheless, he in fair manner departed.

But surely some right from those days' secrets deny this; and many right wise men think it unlikely (the deep dissimulating nature of both those men considered, and what need in that green world the Protector had of the Duke, and in what peril the Duke stood if he fell once in suspicion of the tyrant) that either the Protector would give the Duke occasion of displeasure, or the Duke the Protector occasion of mistrust. And men in fact think that, if King Richard had any such opinion conceived of the Duke, he would never have suffered him to escape his hands.

Very truth it is, the Duke was a high-minded man and could ill bear the glory of another, so that I have heard of some who said they saw it that the Duke, at such time as the crown was first set upon the Protector's head, his eye could not abide the sight thereof, but turned his head another way. But men say that he was, of truth, not well at ease, and that to King Richard was both well known and not ill taken, nor any demand of the Duke's discourteously rejected, but he with great gifts and high promises both, in most loving trusty manner departed at Gloucester. But soon after his coming home to Brecknock, having there in his custody by the commandment of King Richard, Doctor Morton, Bishop of Ely, who as you heard before was taken in the Council at the Tower, growing familiar with him, whose wisdom deceived his pride-to his own deliverance and the Duke's destruction.

The Bishop was a man of great natural wit, very well learned, and honorable in behavior, lacking no wise ways to win favor. He had been loyal to the part of King Henry while that part was in wealth, and nevertheless left it not, nor forsook it in woe, but fled the realm with the Queen and the Prince, and while King Edward had the King in prison, he never came home but to the battlefield. After this loss, and that part was utterly subdued, King Edward, for Morton's steadfast faith and wisdom, not only was content to receive him, but also wooed him to come and had him from thence forth both in secret trust and very special favor, in which he nothing deceived. For he was, as you have heard, after King Edward's death, first taken by the tyrant for his loyalty to the King, but found the means to turn this Duke to his plans, joining gentlemen together in the aid of King Henry, devising first the marriage between him and King Edward's daughter, by which he declared his faith and good service to both his masters at once, with infinite benefit to the realm, by the conjunction of those two bloods in one, whose several titles had long left the land without quiet. Afterwards, he fled the realm, went to Rome, never minding more to meddle with the world till the noble prince, King Henry the Seventh, got him home again, made him Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, whereunto the Pope joined the honor of Cardinal. Thus living many days in as much honor as one man might well wish, ended them so godly that his death, with God's mercy, well changed his life.

This man, therefore, as I was about to tell you, by long and often alternate proof, as well from prosperity as adverse fortune, had gotten by great experience, the very mother and mistress of wisdom, a deep insight in political, worldly drifts.

Whereby, perceiving now this Duke glad to come with him, he fed him with fair words and many pleasant praises. And perceiving by the process of their communications the Duke's pride now and then to let slip a little outburst of envy toward the glory of the King, and thereby feeling him easy to fall out if the matter were well handled, he craftily sought the ways to prick him forward, taking always the occasion of his coming, and so keeping himself close within his bonds that he rather seemed to follow him than to lead him.

For when the Duke first began to praise and boast of the King and show how much profit the realm should take by his reign, my Lord Morton answered, "Surely, my Lord, folly it were for me to lie, for if I would swear the contrary, your Lordship would not, I know, believe it, but that, if the world would have gone as I would have wished, King Henry's son had had the crown and not King Edward. But after God had ordered him to lose it, and King Edward to reign, I was never so mad that I would with a dead man strive against the living. So was I to King Edward faithful chaplain, and glad would have been that his child had succeeded him. However, if the secret judgment of God has otherwise provided, I propose not to spurn against a spur, nor labor to set up what God pulls down. And as for the late Protector and now King...." And even there he left off, saying that he had already meddled too much with the world and would from that day meddle with his book and his beads alone, and no further.

Then longed the Duke sore to hear what he would have said because he ended with the King and there so suddenly stopped, and so exhorted him familiarly between them to be so bold to say whatsoever he thought, whereof he faithfully promised there should never come hurt and perchance more good than he would know, and that he himself intended to use his faithful, secret advice and counsel; this counsel, he said, was the only cause for which he procured of the King to have him in his custody, where he might reckon himself at home, or else had he been put in the hands of them with whom he should not have found the like favor.

The Bishop right humbly thanked him and said, "In good faith, my Lord, I love not much to talk much of princes, as things not all out of peril even though the word be without fault-forasmuch as it shall not be taken as the party meant it, but as it pleases the prince to construe it. And ever I think on Aesop's tale, that one in which the lion had proclaimed on pain of death that no horned beast should abide in that wood. Then one who had on his forehead a lump of flesh fled away at great pace. The fox who saw him run so fast asked him why he made all that haste. And he answered: 'In faith, I neither know nor care, so I were once hence because of this proclamation made about horned beasts.'

"'What, fool!' said the fox. 'Thou may abide well enough; the lion meant not thee, for it is no horn that is on your head.'

"'No, marry,' said he. 'That know I well enough. But what if he call it a horn? Where am I then?'"

The Duke laughed merrily at the tale, and said, "My Lord, I warrant you, neither the lion nor the boar shall find any problem with anything here spoken, for it shall never come near their ear."

"In good faith, Sir," said the Bishop, "if it did, the thing that I was about to say, taken as well as before God as I meant it, could deserve but thanks. And yet taken as I know it would, might happen to turn me to little good and you to less."

Then longed the Duke yet much more to know what it was. Whereupon the Bishop said: "In good faith, my Lord, as for the late Protector, since he is now King in possession, I propose not to dispute his title. But for the welfare of this realm, whereof his Grace has now the governance and whereof I am myself one poor member, I was about to wish that to those good abilities, whereof he has already right many, little needing my praise, it might yet have pleased God for the better store to have given him some of such other excellent virtues suitable for the rule of a realm, as our Lord has planted in the person of your Grace."

On 25 Dec 1483 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 26) promised to marry [his future wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 17) at a ceremony in Rennes Cathedral [Map].

Execution of Roger Clifford

On 02 May 1485 Roger Clifford (age 48) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for supporting King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

Marriage of Ralph Scrope and Cecily York

Before 07 Aug 1485 Ralph Scrope 9th Baron Scrope Masham and [his future sister-in-law] Cecily York, daughter of Edward IV (age 16) were married. The marriage had been arranged by King Richard III of England (age 32). There had been rumours that the King was going to marry one of his nieces, [his future wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 19) or Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 16) so this marriage quelled those rumours. The marriage was annulled after the Battle of Bosworth as "as not being in the interests of the dynasty" [Note. No sources for this information.] The date of the marriage is unknown. However, see Mary Anne Everett Green Live of the Princesses of England Volume 1 Cecilia Third Daughter of Edward IV. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 48). They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Henry Tudor lands at Mill Bay

On 07 Aug 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) landed at Mill Bay Milford Haven [Map] with John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43), Richard Guildford (age 35), [his uncle] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 35), Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) all of whom were knighted.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

[his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

[his uncle] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.

Coronation of Henry VII

On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath was created 1st Earl Bath at Tower of London [Map] by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne.

On 27 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) and Robert Fitzroger 5th Baron Warkworth dined together at Lambeth Palace [Map].

On 28 Oct 1485 [his uncle] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53) was created 1st Duke Bedford by Henry VII (age 28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne. Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford (age 27) by marriage Duchess Bedford.

[his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50) was created 1st Earl Derby.

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) was created 1st Earl Devon. It is believed he was restored 11th Baron Okehampton at the same time?

Reginald Bray (age 45), John Fitzwalter, Thomas Cokesge, Roger Lewknor, Henry Haydon and John Verney were appointed Knight of the Bath.

On 29 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) processed from Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (age 37), almoner Christopher Urswick (age 37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were [his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50), John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: [his uncle] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53), created the day before, and [his step-father] John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 43).

On 30 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) was crowned VII King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 67) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 42), his mother, attended.

Robert Dymoke (age 24) attended as the Kings' Champion.

John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) carried the King's train.

Earl Richmondmerged with the Crown.

On 27 Oct 1485 Thomas Lovell was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

In 1486 John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 44) was appointed 229th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

Around 1486 John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) was appointed 228th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) and Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (age 19) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 49). He the son of Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 42). They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (age 29) and [his wife] queen Elizabeth (age 20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola, Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop. The Pope (age 54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:

Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London [Map], before James, bishop of Imola, apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (age 51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (age 29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the lady Elizabeth (age 20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV, who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (age 51).

The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:

(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (age 62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (age 56), chancellor of England, and [his uncle] Jasper duke of Bedford (age 54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (age 29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (age 51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (age 56), [his uncle] John lord de Wellys (age 36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady Elizabeth (age 20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.

(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola, apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (age 29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady Elizabeth (age 20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.

Letters and Papers 1529. After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

A set of depositions as to Catharine's marriage with Prince Arthur.

1. of George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), seneschal of the King's household, at the Coldherbar, on Monday, 28 June 1529. Is 59 years of age. Was present at the marriage of Henry VII. at Westminster, and at the creation of Arthur prince of Wales and Henry [his son] Duke of York (age 38). They were always considered as brothers, and he never heard it contradicted. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St. Paul's, in Nov. 17 Henry VII. 1521 (sic). Believes that Arthur was then 14 or more. Saw the Queen [his former wife] Elizabeth and him a month after his birth, at Winchester [Map], in 2 Henry VII. Believes that Catharine was more than 14. Thinks that Arthur must have been nearer 15 than 14. At night, with the Lord of Oxford (age 58) and others, conducted Prince Arthur to the lady [his former daughter-in-law] Catharine's (age 43) bedchamber, and left him there. Supposes that the Prince consummated the marriage,as he did so, being only 15 years when he was married. They were always considered lawfully married during the life of Prince Arthur. Saw the funeral of Prince Arthur at Worcester, and the marriage of the King and Queen at Greenwich. Cannot answer the 6th and 7th articles, but leaves them to the laws. Never heard what is contained in the 8th article. As to the 9th, knows that the King and Queen cohabited and treated each other as husband and wife, but cannot say whether lawfully or not. Can say nothing from his own knowledge as to the 10th, 11th, and 12th articles. Has made this deposition without being instructed or corrupted in any way, only for the sake of truth.

Vit. B. XII. 80. B. M.

2. of Thomas marquis of Dorset (age 52). Is 52 years of age. The 1st and 2nd articles contain the truth. Was present at the baptism of Arthur and Henry, the former at Winchester, and the latter at Greenwich. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St Paul's, on a Sunday in Nov. 1501, 17 Henry VII. Believes Arthur was about 15, for he has seen in the book in which are written the births of the King's children that he was born 20 Sept. 1486. Was present when Prince Arthur went to bed after his marriage, where the lady Catharine (age 43) lay under the coverlet, "as the manner is of Queens in that behalf." Thinks that he used the princess as his wife, for he was of a good and sanguine complexion, and they were commonly reputed as man and wife during Prince Arthur's life. As to the 5th article, he can depose nothing to the first part, as he was then prisoner at Calais; but the remainder, touching cohabitation and reputation, is true. Can say nothing to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. The 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th contain the truth, as he believes.

Vit. B. XII. 85. B. M.

3. of Sir Antony Willoughby. Has lived 15 years in Hampshire, for 12 years previously in Wiltshire. Was five years in the service of Prince Arthur, for five years before that in the service of the Bishop of Durham, and before that time in his father's household. Believes the 1st and 2nd articles to be true. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur and lady Catharine. By favor of his father, Lord Broke, steward of the King's household, was present when Prince Arthur went to bed on his marriage night in the palace of the Bishop of London. In the morning the prince, in the presence of Mores St. John, Mr. Cromer, Mr. William Woddall, Mr. Griffith Rice, and others, said to him, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain;" and afterward said openly, "Masters, it is good pastime to have a wife." He, therefore, supposes that the marriage was consummated; and he heard that they lay together the Shrovetide following at Ludlow.

Knows that they lived together as man and wife during the remainder of the Prince's life.

Believes the 5th article to be true. Can depose nothing to the 6th, 7th and 8th. Believes the 9th, 10th and 11th to be true. The 12th contains law; to which he is not bound to reply. To the second additional interrogatory he replies, that it contains the truth, for he has been present twenty times at the solemnization of marriage, and the said form of words is always used.

Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

Around Apr 1486 the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion was an armed uprising against King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29). With the failure of the plot Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 30) fled to Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 39) in Flanders.

On 08 Jul 1486 brothers Humphrey Stafford (age 60) and Thomas Stafford was executed at Tyburn [Map].

Before May 1486 Marmaduke Constable (age 29) was appointed Knight of the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29).

Birth and Christening of Arthur Prince of Wales

On 20 Sep 1486, nine months exactly after his parents married, [his son] Prince Arthur Tudor was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 20) at Winchester Priory [Map]. he was created Duke Cornwall at birth.

Around 15 Dec 1486 Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 35) was appointed 231st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29).

Around 1487 John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 54) was appointed 230th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29).

Around 1487 William Stanley (age 52) was appointed 232nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29).

In 1487 George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 27) was appointed 233rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29).

On 16 Jun 1487 George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 19) was appointed 234th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 30).

In Dec 1487 [his uncle] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 37) and [his sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 18) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Welles. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 50). He the son of Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

In 1488 [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 44) was appointed Lady of the Garter by her son King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 30).

Around 1488 [his uncle] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 38) was appointed 236th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 30).

In 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 32) was appointed 235th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 30).

On 16 Nov 1488 John Savage (age 44) was appointed 237th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 31).

Around 1489 Maximilian Habsburg I Holy Roman Emperor (age 29) was appointed 239th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 31).

Yorkshire Rebellion

In 1489 Parliament granted King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 31) £10,000 taxes to pay for his support of Anne of Brittany Queen Consort France 1477-1514's claim to the throne of Brittany [Map]. The North rebelled claiming to have already paid through local taxes.

Around 1489 Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby 9th Baron Latimer (age 37) was appointed 238th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 31).

On 28 Nov 1489 [his daughter] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 32) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 23) at Westminster Palace [Map].

In Dec 1489 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 11) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham were married. She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham. The executors of her father Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland, who had been hanged by rebels during the Northern Rebellion earlier in the year, having paid King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 32) £4000 for the privilege. His father, Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham, had been hanged for treason in 1483. She the daughter of Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland and Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland. He the son of Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford (age 31). They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1491 Thomas Wriothesley (age 3) accompanied King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 33) to Brittany [Map].

On 08 May 1491 [his son] Prince Arthur Tudor (age 4) was appointed 240th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34). at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map].

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

Hall's Chronicle 1492. This yere was borne at Grenewiche [Map] lord Henry, second son to the King (age 34), which was created duke of Yorke, and after Prince of Wales, and in conclusion succeeded his father in crown and dignity. Nowe let us return to the new found son of King Edward, conjured by men’s policies from death to life.

And first to declare his lineage and beginning, you must understad that the Duchess of Burgoyne (age 45) so nourished and brought up in the seditious and scelerate factions of false contryers and founders of discord could never cease nor be unquiet (like a viper that is ready to burst with superfluity of poison) except he should infest and unquiet the King of England, for no desert or displeasure by him to her committed, but only because he was propagate and descended of the house of Lancaster, ever being adverse and enemy to her line and lineage. For which only cause she compassed, imagined and invented how to cast a scorpion in his bosom, and to infect his whole realm with, a pestiferous discord. To the intent that he being vanquished and brought to confusion, both the boiling heat of her malicious heart might be fully satiated with his innocent blood, and also advance and prefer some darling of her faction to his Empire rule and dignity. And principally remembering that the Earl of Lincoln, which was by her set forth and al his company had small fortune and worse success in their progression and enterprise, contrary to her hope and expectation, she like a dog reverting to her olde vomit, began to devise and spin a new web, like a spider that daily weaves when his caul is torn. And as the devil provides venomous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espied a certain young man of visage beautiful, of countenance demure, of with subtle crafty and pregnant, called Peter Warbreck. And for his dastard cowardness of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkin Warbreck (age 17), according to the Dutch phrase, which change the name of Peter to Pekin, to younglings of no strength nor courage for their timorous hearts and pusillanimity. Which young man travelling many countries, could speak English and many other languages, and for his basenes of stock and birth was known of none almost, and only for the gain of his living from his childhood was of necessity, compelled to seek and frequent diverse realms and regions. Therefore the duches (age 45) thinking to have gotten God by the foot, when she had the devil by the taile, and adjudging this young man to be a mete organ to convey her purpose, and one not unlike to be duke of Yorke, son to her brother King Edward, which was called Richard, kept him a certain space with her privately, and him with such diligence instructed, both of the secretes and common affaires of the realm of England, and of the lineage, descent and order of the House of Yorke, that he like a good scholar not forgetting his lesson could tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficulty or sign of any subornation and besides, he kept such a princely countenance, and so counterfeit a Majesty Royal, that all men in manner did firmly believe that he was extracted of the noble house and family of the Dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift given to that noble progeny as of nature in the root planted that all the sequel of that line and stock did study and devise how to be equivalent in honour and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.

On 28 Jun 1491 [his son] Henry VIII was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 1492. This yeare the Kinge (age 34) went to Calis [Map] with a great armiei againste France, but the peace was made without battell.k.

Note i. 25,000 foot and 1,600 horse.

Note k. By the terms of this treaty, known as the Peace of Estaples, the French King engaged to pay 745,000 crowns down and 52,000 crowns yearly under the name of pension.

On 02 Jul 1492 [his daughter] Elizabeth Tudor was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 35) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 26).

Hall's Chronicle 1492. In this very seasonCharles the French King (age 22), received lady Anne (age 15) as his pupil into his hands, and with great solemnity her espoused, having with her for her dower the whole country of Brittany. And so by this means the Britons became subject to the French King. Maximilian (age 33), being certified of this, fell into a great rage and agony, for it he was not content with the forsaking and refusing of his daughter lady Margaret (age 12), but also had taken and ravished away from him his assured wife lady Anne duchess of Brittany (age 15). And calling upon God for vengeance and punishment for such an heinous and execrable fact, cried out and railed on him, wishing him a thousand deaths. Yet after that he was pacified, and came to himself again, and had gathered his wits together, he thought it was most expedient to vindicate and revenge his honour and dignity so manifestly touched, with the dint of sword. And being in this mind, sent certain Ambassadors to King Henry (age 35) with his letters, desiring him with all diligence to prepare an army, and he himself would do likewise, to invade the French Kings realms with fire, sword and blood.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. While the commissioners were thus consulting on the marches of France, the King of England (age 35), as you have heard, was arrived at Calais [Map], where he prepared all things necessary for such a journey. And from thence he removed in four battles, near to the town of Boulogne  [Map], and there pitched his tents before the town, in a place propitious and convenient and determined to gene a great assault to the town. In the which fortress was such a garrison of warlike soldiers, that valiantly defended the town, and the same so replenished with artillery, and munitions of war, that the loss of the Englishmen assaulting the toun, should be greater damage to the realm of England, then the conquering and gaining of the same should be emolument or profit. Howbeit the King’s daily shot, razed and defaced the walls of the said town: but when every man was pressed and ready to give the assault, a sudden rumour rose in the army, that a peace was by the commissioners taken and concluded, which brute as it was pleasant and mellifluous to the Frenchmen, so it was to the English nation bitter, sore and dolorous because they were pressed and ready at all times to set on their enemies, and refused never to attempt any enterprise, which might seem either to be for their laud or profit: they were in great fumes, angry and evil content, railing and murmuring amongst themselves, that the occasion of so glorious a victory to them manifestly offered, was by certain conditions to no man, nor yet to the King commodious or profitable, refused, put by and shamefully slacked: But above all other diverse lords and captains, encouraged with desire of fame and honour, trusting in this journey to have won their spurs, which for to set themselves and their band the more gorgeously forward had mutuate [borrowed], and borrowed diverse and sundry sums of money, and for the repayment of the same, had mortgaged and impignorated [pawned] their lands and possessions, sore grudged and lamented this sudden peace, and return of them unthought of, and spoke largely against the Kinge’s doings, saying and affirming, that he as a man fearing and dreading the force and puissance of his enemies, had concluded an inconvenient peace without cause or reason: But the King as a wise man and most prudent prince, to assuage the indignation and pacify the murmur of the people, declared what damage and detriment, what loss and perdition of many noble Captains and strong soldiers must of necessity happen and ensue at the assault of a town, and especially when it is so well fortified with men and munitions, as the town of Boulogne at that present time was: protesting farther, that he might be justly accused and condemned of iniquity and untruth, except he did prefer the safeguard of their lives, before his own wealth, health and advantage.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. The King of England (age 35), maturely considering that Brittainy was clearly lost, and in manner irrecuperable, being now adjoined to the crown of France by marriage, which duchy, his whole mind was to defend, protect and confirm, and that Maximilian what for lack of money, and what for mistrust that he had in his own subjects, lay still like a dormouse nothing doing, perceiving also that it should be both to his people profitable, and to him great honour to determine this war without loss or bloodshed, appointed for commissioners the bishop of Exceter (age 40), and Gyles Lord Daubeney (age 41) to passe the seas to Calais [Map], to come with the Lord Cordes of articles of peace to be agreed upon and concluded.

When the commissioners were once met, they so ingeniously and effectively proceeded in, their great affairs, that they agreed that an amity and peace should be assented to and concluded, so that the conditions of the league should be equal, indifferent and acceptable to both parts as after shall be declared.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. he had thus gathered and assembled his army, he sailed to Calais [Map] the sixth day of October, and there encamped himself, tarrying there a certain space to see his men harnessed and apparelled, that neither weapon nor any engine necessary for his journey should be neglected. At which place all the army had knowledge by the Ambassadors, which were newly returned out of Flanders (for they did not know of it before) that Maximilian could make no preparation for lack of money, and therefore there was no succour to be expected at his hand. At the which report, the Englishmen were nothing abashed nor dismayed, trusting so much to their own puissance and company: but yet they marvelled and wondered greatly that heard it related, that Maximilian receiving such great villainy not long before at the hand of King Charles, was not present to prick them forward, to cry and call, to move and excite the Englishmen, ye and if he had had six hundred bodies to put them all in hazard, rather than to leave the Englishmen, now setting upon his daily enemies and deadly adversaries. Albeit Maximilian lacked no heart and good will to be revenged, yet he lacked substance to continue war, for he could neither have money nor men of the drunken Flemings nor yet of the cracking Brabanders, so ungrateful people were they to their sovereign Lord.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. After that, all this army was arrayed and even ready to set forward whereof were chieftains and leaders, [his uncle] Jasper Duke of Bedford (age 61), and  John, Earl of Oxford (age 50) beside other the King (age 35) sent Christopher Urswick (age 44) almoner, and syr John Wriothesley knight to Maximilia (age 33), to certify him that the King (age 35) was all in a readiness, and would shortly arrive in the continent land, as soon as he were advertised that Maximilian (age 33) and his men, were ready and prepared to join with him. The Ambassadors sailed into Flanders, and after their message done, they sent two letters in all hast to King Henry (age 35), the which not only sore unquieted and vexed him, but also caused him to take more thought, care and study on him then he did before: for they declared that no prince could be more unprovided or more destitute of men and armure, no more lacking all things, appertaining to war than was Maximilian (age 33), and that he lay lurking in a corner, sore sick of the flux of the purse, so that he had neither men, horses, munitions, armour nor money, nevertheless his mind and will was good, if his power and ability had been correspondent and therefore there was no trust to be put in his aide or puissance. Their letters both appalled and made sorrowful the King of England (age 35), which like a prudent prince did well consider and ponder, that it were both jeopardous and costly, for him alone to enterprise so great a war. And on the other part, if he should desist and leave of his pretended purpose, all me might call him coward and recreant prince. Beside this, he thought that his own nation would not take his tarrying at home in good nor favourable part, considering that syth they had given so large money for the preparation of all things necessary and convenient for the same, they might conceive in their heads and imagine, that under colour and pretence of a dissimulated war he had exacted of the notable sums of money, and now the treasure was once paid, then the war was done, and his coffers well enriched, and the commons impoverished. So that at this time he doubted and cast perils on every side and part, and beside this he was not a little sorry that Maximilia (age 33) author of this war did absent himself and defraud him of his society and assistance. And while he studied and mused what counsel he should best take in such a doubtful and sudden case, he like a grave prince, remembering the saying of the wise man, work by counsel and thou shall not repent the, assembled together all his lords and other of his private counsel, by whose minds it was concluded and determined, that he should manfully and courageously persevere and precede in this broached and begun enterprise, recording well with themselves, and affirming plainly that all chivalry and martial prowess, the more difficult and heard that it is to attain to, the more renowned is the glory, and the fame more immortal of the vanquisher and obtainer. Therefore by this counsel of his friends and senate, he made Proclamation that every man should set forward into France, and yet not opening how Judasly Maximilian had deceived him, least that they knowing the whole fact, should not be so courageous to go toward that battle and precede forward on their journey. And therefore, to provide and force all perils and dangers that might accidentally ensue, he so strengthened, multiplied and augmented his army in such number before he took ship, that he with his own power might discourage and overcome the whole puissance of his adversaries.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. King Henry (age 35) hearing of this, and putting no diffidence in the promise of Maximilian (age 33), whom he knew to have a deadly hatred and lodge grudge against the French King (age 22), caused a muster to be made in all the parts of his realm, and put his men of war in a readiness armed and weaponed according to their feats: beside this he rigged, manned and vittalled his navy ready to set forward every hour, and sent couriers into every shire to accelerate and hast the soldiers to the sea side. After the message was declared, there came without any delay an huge army of men, as well of the low sort and commonalty as other noble men, harnessed and armed to battle, partly glad to help their price and to do him service and partly to buckle with the Frenchmen, with whom the Englishmen very willingly desire to cope and fight in open battle. And immediately, as monicion was given, every man with his band of soldiers repaired to London.

In 1493 Edmund Compton died. His son William Compton (age 11) became as ward of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 35) who appointed him Page to [his son] Prince Henry (age 1) to whom he became a close friend.

In 1493 James Ormond was knighted by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 35).

In 1493 Alfonso II King Naples (age 44) was appointed 242nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 35).

Around 1494 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 35) was appointed 241st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 36).

Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

In 1495 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 37) arranged marriages for two of the daughters of King Edward IV of England his [his wife] wife's (age 28) sisters).

On 04 Feb 1495 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 22) and [his sister-in-law] Anne York (age 19) were married. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England. He the son of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 52) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 51).

On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke, fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th, the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in Fstamfordhis tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay [Map], a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the King (age 38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (age 38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the [his wife] Quene (age 29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the [his mother] Kinges moder (age 51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord [his son] Prince (age 8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord [his son] Henry Duke of Yorke (age 3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay [Map] in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond, than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damask browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare [Map] a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion [Map] two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Brigitte (age 14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Cecill (age 26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Anne (age 19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Kateryn (age 15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (age 50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 50).

Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (age 24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son Humfrey (age 21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son William (age 17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion, a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede [Map] unto the colege of Fodringhey [Map]. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay [Map] for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (age 63), Sir Reignolde Bray (age 55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede [Map] the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

On 14 Sep 1495 [his daughter] Elizabeth Tudor (age 3) died.

On 18 Mar 1496 [his daughter] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 39) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 30).

1497 Cornish Rebellion

Around Apr 1497 Cornish rose in rebellion against taxes being raised by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 40) to support his wars against Scotland and against changes to the operation and privileges of the Cornish tin mining industry. The rebel army of 15,000 sought to replace Henry's ministers who they saw as responsible for the taxation: Cardinal John Morton (age 77) and Reginald Bray (age 57), the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The army travelled from Cornwall through Devon and Somerset attempting, unsuccessfully, to recruit more men. At Wells, Somerset [Map] they were joined by James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley, 4th Baron Tuchet (age 34) who took on command. The rebel army then travelled through Salisbury and Winchester, Hampshire [Map].

When Henry became aware of the rebel army he diverted his main army led by Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 45) to meet the rebels. Daubeny's army camped at Hounslow Heath [Map] on 13 Jun 1497.

Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

On 17 Jun 1497 the Cornish rebel army was destroyed at the Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge.

Richard Guildford (age 47) was created Knight Banneret.

Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire (age 27), Henry Willoughby (age 46), Edward Belknapp of Blackfriars in London and Thomas Fiennes 8th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 25) fought at Deptford, Kent [Map].

Giles Brugge 6th Baron Chandos (age 35), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 32), Robert Sheffield (age 36), Edward Stanhope 1462-1487, John Peche (age 47) and Robert Constable (age 19) were knighted by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 40).

Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 40) commanded.

James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley, 4th Baron Tuchet (age 34) was captured by Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 19).

On 04 Oct 1497 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 40) received the surrender of the Cornish Army at Taunton, Somerset [Map].

On 09 Feb 1498 [his uncle] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 48) died in London. Viscount Welles extinct. His will reads ...

In the name of oure Lorde Jeshu, Amen. I, John, Viscounte lorde Wellis (age 48), uncle to the Kynge (age 41), oure soveraigne lorde, and brodre to the right noble prynces, [his mother] Margaret, countes of Richemond (age 54), naturall and dere modre to oure said soveregne lord, beyng of goode and hole memory, ye viij daie of February, the yere of oure Lorde God 1498, and in the xiiij yere of the regne of our saide soverayne lorde, make this my testament. My bodie to be buried in suche place as [to] the kynge (age 41), the [his wife] quene (age 31), my lady, his moder (age 54), and my lady, my [his sister-in-law] wife (age 28), shalbe thought, most convenyent, and the costis and charge of the same burying, the obsequyes, masses, funeralles and all oder thynges therto convenyent and necessarie. And also I remyt the makyng of my tumbe to the ordre and discrecionn of my saide soverayne lady the quene (age 31), my lady his modre, and my wife (age 28). And after these charges and costis aforesaid had and done, I will that all the dettis nowe by me dewe or to be dewe be treuly contented and paied. And I will that to the honour of Almighty God in the aulter afore which my bodie shall next lie my executors shall delyver a pair of candelstickes of silver, a masse booke covered with clothe of goolde, a chales of silver and gilte, a vestament of blewe velvet enbrodered with my armes, a pair of litle cruettes of silver and parcellis gilte, and a crosse of silver p[arcell] gilt, which 1 will do remayne there to serve Almyghty God with for ever and in noo oder place. Also I geve and bequethe to my dere beloved lady and wife Cecille (age 28), for terme of her life, all my castelles, manors, landes and tenements, aswell suche as I have purchased as all odre duryng only her life, whome I trust above all oder, that if my goodes and catallis wilnot suffice for the performance of this my laste will, that she will thenne of the revenues of the profittes of my inheritance perform this my laste will. Also I will that a preste be founde for ever after my said wifes decease to sey masse daily for my sowle and all Cristen sowles at the said aulter of the yerely revenues of my purchased landes, and over which my saide lady hath promysed me faithfully to purchase to the same entent if my saide purchased landes suffice not therto. And I will yt suche residue as shall fortune to be of my goodes that my saide dere beloved lady aud wife have theym to her owne use. And I make executors the saide Cecill (age 28), my dere beloved wife, and Sr Raynold Bray (age 58), knyght, and in my mooste humble wise beseche my said soverayne lorde the kyng and the quenes grace, my lady the kynges modre, to be supervisours.

On 11 Sep 1498 Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire (age 28) entertained King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 41) at Drayton House, Northamptonshire [Map].

1499 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1499 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 41) created a number of Garter Knights ...

243rd Edward Poynings (age 40).

244th John King Denmark Norway and Sweden (age 43).

245th Gilbert Talbot (age 47).

246th [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 7).

247th Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 20).

248th Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 20).

249th Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester (age 39). The date sometimes given as 1496?

250th Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 28).

251st Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu.

252nd Thomas Lovell.

253rd Richard Pole (age 37).

On 21 Feb 1499 [his son] Edmund Tudor 1st Duke Somerset was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 42) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 33) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map] being their sixth child. On 24 Feb 1499 he was christened at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map]. His godparents were [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 55), Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 21) and Bishop Richard Foxe (age 51), then Bishop of Durham. He is believed to have been was created 1st Duke Somerset on the same day although there is no documentation.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 28 Nov 1499 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 24) was executed at Tower Hill [Map].

Earl Warwick, Baron Montagu forfeit.

Documentation held in Spain apparently describes [his future daughter-in-law] Catherine of Aragon's (age 13) parents Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 47) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 48) expressing concern that Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 24) was a potential claimant to throne, and being reluctant for their daughter to marry [his son] Arthur Prince of Wales (age 13) whilst there was a threat to his (age 13) accession causing King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 42) to use Perkin Warbreck's (deceased) attempted escape with Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 24) as a means to an end.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 1501. This yeare the Kinge (age 43) buylded new his manner at Sheene,d and chaunged the name and named it Richmonde [Map];e and buylded new his place, called the Baynards Castle [Map], in London; and repayred his place in Greenewich [Map], with muche new buyldinge.f

Note d. Stow has placed this paragraph under the year 1507, being the twenty-second year of Henry's reign.

Note e. After his own title.

Note f. Greenwich [Map] has much favoured by Henry VII (age 43) and here his son, afterwards Henry VIII (age 9) was born.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

On 14 Nov 1501 [his son] Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and [his daughter-in-law] Catherine of Aragon (age 15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Henry Deane assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (age 51) and a further eighteen bishops. She wore a white satin dress with a farthingale and over her head wore a veil of fine silk trimmed with gold and pearls. She would, eight years later, marry his younger brother [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 10) - see Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 49) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 50). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 44) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 35). They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Prince Henry (age 10) who escorted her up the aisle and gave her away.

[his sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 24) was Chief Answerer.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 18) and Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) attended.

Thomas Englefield was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Immediately after their marriage Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and Catherine of Aragon (age 15) resided at Tickenhill Manor, Bewdley [Map] for a month. Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow, Shropshire [Map].

Around 1502 William Pole (age 24) was imprisoned for allegedly plotting against King Henry VII (age 44) with his brothers Edmund (age 31) and Richard (age 22), who fled the country in 1501, after their conspiracy was detected. William Pole (age 24) remained in prison for thrity-seven years, dying in 1539.

Around 1502 Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 24) was appointed 256th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 44).

Around 1502 Reginald Bray (age 62) was appointed 255th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 44).

Trial of James Tyrrell

On 02 May 1502 James Tyrrell (age 47) confessd to the murder of the Princes in the Tower at Guildhall [Map] during the Trial of James Tyrrell attended by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 45) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36).

Around 1503 Thomas Kymbe and [his sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 33) were married. The marriage and their issue were not recognised by the Crown. She was banished from court and deprived of the possessions inherited from her second husband's will. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England.

Around 1503 Richard Guildford (age 53) was appointed 254th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 45).

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

On 02 Feb 1503 [his daughter] Katherine Tudor was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 46) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36) at the Tower of London [Map]. She died eight days later on 10 Feb 1503.

On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36) died from childbirth.

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excellent and most Christen Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London [Map] the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.

Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.

Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 08 Mar 1503... and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure and the Kinge (age 46) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere [Map].

Marriage of James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor

On 08 Aug 1503 [his son-in-law] King James IV of Scotland (age 30) and [his daughter] Margaret Tudor (age 13) were married at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 60) and James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran (age 28) were present. She the daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 46) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. He the son of King James III of Scotland and Margaret Oldenburg Queen Consort Scotland. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Cuthbert Cunningham 3rd Earl Glencairn (age 27) was restored 3rd Earl Glencairn.

Around 1504 Guidabaldo Montefeltro (age 31) was appointed 259th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 46).

Around 1504 Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl of Kildare (age 47) was appointed 258th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 46).

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

Grafton's Chronicle. 18 Feb 1504. In which yeare the eighteenth day of February, the King (age 47) at his Palace of Westminster, with all solemnity created his only son [his son] Henry Prince of Wales (age 12), Earl of Chester, &c. which noble youngling succeded his father, not only in the inheritance and regality, but also was to him equal in honour, fame, learning and policy.

In 1505 Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 56) was appointed 262nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 47)..

In 1505 Richard Grey 3rd Earl Kent (age 24) was appointed 260th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 47).

On 22 Apr 1505 Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 26) was appointed 261st Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 48).

Around 1506 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 27) was appointed 257th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 48).

Malus Intercursus aka Evil Treaty

Around Feb 1506 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 27) was blown off course whilst travelling to Castile to claim his inheritance. He landed in England where he became the guest of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 49) who negociated the Malus Intercursus Treaty as part of the conditions of his release. The Treaty include favourable commercial terms by removing all duties on English exports, and the marriage of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 49) with Philip's sister Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias (age 26) (which didn't take place). Most importantly it secured the return of Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 35) who was Philip's (age 27) prisoner. Edmund Pole was immediately imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] and executed seven years later.

In 1507 Thomas Brandon was appointed 263rd Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 49).

On 24 Aug 1507 [his former sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 38) died.

In 1508 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 7) was appointed 264th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 50).

Letters and Papers 1509. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (age 52):

At his manor of Richmond, Surrey [Map] March 24 Henry VII., the King (age 52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.

Desires to be buried at Westminster [Map], where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame [his grandmother] Catharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel [Map] which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, £5,000, by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.

His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all £250 and shall distribute 2,£000 in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,£250 with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.

His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (age 59), Richard bp of Winchester (age 61), the bps of London and Rochester (age 39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (age 66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (age 49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (age 44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thomas Lovell, Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (age 59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (age 47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.

His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.

Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.

For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.

Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,£000 upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark [Map], and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.

To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the [his son] Prince (age 17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Henry VII. for the fulfilment of his will.

Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.

Bequest of a dote of 50,£000 for the marriage of [his daughter] Lady Mary (age 13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (age 9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Henry VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (age 17), his Council and our said executors.".

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace [Map]. His son [his son] Henry VIII  (age 17) succeeded VIII King England. Duke York and Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 21 Apr 1509. This yeare, in Aprill, died King Henry the Vllth (age 52) at Richmond [Map] and his Sonne [his son] King Henry the VIII (age 17) was proclaymed Kinge on St Georges dayeg 1508 [1509], in the same moneth.

Note g. We should here read St George's Eve, 22nd April, 1509, from which day Henry Vlll reckoned his regnal years. Stow, however, says that Henry was not proclaimed till the 24th.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley (age 21), who wasn't present, made a drawing of the death of Henry VII (deceased). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:

Bishop Richard Foxe (age 61).

Two tonsured clerics.

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 22).

Richard Weston of Sutton Place (age 44).

Richard Clement of Ingham Mote (age 27).

Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey.

John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex.

Physician holding urine bottle.

William Tyler.

Hugh Denys.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) closing the King's eyes. There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.

The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy argent & gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagenet with white border ie Holland 2&3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville (age 41) daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu. It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19). William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) was the childhood companion of [his son] Henry VIII (age 17).

Physician holding urine bottle.

Richard Weston of Sutton Place: He and Anne Sandys were married. In 1465 he was born. In 1541 he died.

Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey: From 1486 he was appointed Governor of Jersey. In May 1513 he died in Bermondsey Abbey.

Funeral of Henry VII

On 11 May 1509 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (deceased) was buried in the King Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey [Map]. Henry Willoughby (age 58) and Anthony Wingfield (age 22) attended. The ladies given mantelets and kerchiefs were as follows:

Household of Mary Tudor:

[his daughter] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 13).

[his former sister-in-law] Catherine York Countess Devon (age 29).

Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex (age 30). Possibly Margaret Whetehill.

Anne Percy (age 65) or Anne Percy Countess Arundel (age 23).

Elizabeth Hussey Countess Kent.

Eleanor Pole (age 47).

Mary Brandon.

Elizabeth Empson.

Mary Scrope (age 33).

Jane Popincourt.

Alice Vaux.

Household of the Princess of Wales Catherine of Aragon:

[his former daughter-in-law] Catherine of Aragon (age 23).

Agnes or Inez Vanegas.

Maria de Salinas Baroness Willoughby (age 19).

Household of Margaret Beaufort the King's Mother:

[his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 65).

Joan Vaux "Mother Guildford" (age 46).

Mary Hussey Baroness Willoughby Eresby (age 25).

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck (age 50) is believed to have painted the portrait of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley (age 48) and Richard Empson (age 60) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for constructive treason for having carried out King Henry VII's rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

Battle of the Spurs

On 16 Aug 1513 [his son] Henry VIII (age 22) fought at Thérouanne [Map] during the Battle of the Spurs.

Henry's army included George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) (commanded), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 36), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 43), Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu, John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and Anthony Wingfield (age 26). John "Tilbury Jack" Arundell (age 18), William Compton (age 31), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 48) and William Hussey (age 41) was knighted by King Henry VII of England and Ireland. Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 56) and Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 46) was created Knight Banneret.

Louis I d'Orléans Duc de Longueville 1480-1516 was captured.

Arthur Hopton (age 24) was knighted for his bravery.

Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Before 1528 William Carey (age 28) was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In 1539 Richard Manners (age 30) was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1562 the New Years Gift Giving was held. Those who gave gifts provide an interesting who's who of the Elizabethan Court soon after Elizabeth I's Coronation. Queen Elizabeth (age 28) was present since a number are described as "With the Qene her Majestie."

For 'dimy' read 'demi' ie half-sovereigns.

Neweeyeur's Gyftes gevon to the Quene her Majestie by those Parsons whose Names hereafter ensue, the first of January, the Yere above wrytten.

By the Lady Margaret Strainge (age 22), a little round mounte of golde to conteyne a pomaunder in it. With the Qene her Majestie. Note. Lady Margaret Strange married Henry Stanley Lord Strange (age 30) on 07 Feb 1555. In 1561 he had not succeeded to Earldom of Derby and was known by the courtesy title Lord Strange. She is listed first since she was one of the few remaining direct descendants of Henry VII, being a great-granddaughter by his daughter [his daughter] Mary Tudor. Margaret Clifford (age 22) was first in line to succeed in 1568 but died in 1596 before Elizabeth I.

Dukes, Marquises and Earls.

By the Duke of Norfolke (age 25), in a purse of purple silke and golde knit, in sundry coynes of golde £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Winchester (age 79), High Threasourer of Englande, in a purse of crymsen satten, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Northampton (age 50), in a purse of crymsen silke and gold knit, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Arundell (age 49), Lord Steward, in a paper, in angels, £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Shrewesburye (age 34), in a red silke purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Darbye (age 52), in a purse of crymsen satten, embraudered with golde, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Pembroke (age 61), in a purse of black silk and silver knit, in new angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Bedforde (age 35), in a purse of black silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Rutlande (age 35), in a purse of red silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraigns and angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Huntingdon, in a red silk purse, in angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Westmerlande (age 37), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Oxforde (age 46), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Northumberlande (age 34), in a purse of black silke and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d. With the Quene her Highness.

By the Earle of Warwike (age 32), a smocke wrought with black silk, a peire of slevis, and a partelett wrought with gold, silver, and black silke. Delivered to the Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Viscounte Mountague (age 33), in a purse of cloth of golde, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Bishops. The list of Bishops ends with "With her said Majestie"; unclear whether this refers to all the Bishops listed.

By the Archbusshop of Caunterbury (age 57), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £40 0s 0d.

By the Archbusshop of York (age 61), in soveraigns £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Duresme (age 42), in a purse of crymson silk and gold knytt, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Ely (age 69), in a red vellat purse, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Wynchester (age 52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt and set with pearles, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of London (age 43), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Salisbury (age 39), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Worcester (age 43), in a black vellat purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lyncoln (age 42), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chychester (age 64), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Norwich (age 50), in a blew silk purse £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Hereforde (age 52), in a green silk purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lychfield and Coventry (age 48), in a red satten purse, in angells £13 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Rochester (age 48), in a red purse, in gold £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Saint Davies (age 55), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Bathe, in a purse of red silk, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Exetour, in a blew silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Peterborowe, in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chester, in a red purse, in angells and soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Duchesses and Countesses.

By the Duchess of Norfolke (age 22), in a prse of crymsen silk and gold knyt, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Duchess of Somerset (age 65), in a purse of silver and black silk, in royalls and ducketts £14 0s 0d. Probably the Dowager Duchess of Somerset since her husband Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset had been executed in 1552, and their children disinherited as a result.

By the Countess of Surrey, in a purse of tawny silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Dowager since her husband Henry Howard 1516-1547, by courtesy Earl Surrey, had been executed in 1547.

By the Countess of Pembroke (age 38), in a cherry bag of crymsen satten, in new angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Bedford (age 36), in a purse of crymsen silk and silver knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Darby (age 51), in a purse of crymson sattin embrodred with gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Oxford (age 36), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury, Dowager (age 62), in a purse of black silk knytt, in dimy soveraignes £12 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury (age 37), in a red silk purse knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon, Dowager (age 51), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon (age 24), in a red purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Northumberland (age 24), in a purse of black silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Rutland (age 29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

Viscountesses.

By the Vicountess Hereford, Dowager (age 42), six hankercheffes edged with gold delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Vicountess Mountague (age 24), in a purse of cloth of gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Lordes.

By the Lorde Keeper of the Great Seale, Bacon (age 51), in a purse of silver knytt, in angells £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Pagett (age 56), in a greene purse in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Clynton, Lord Admyrall (age 50), in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Riche (age 65), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde North (age 66), in a purse of purple silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Lumley (age 29), in a paper, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Hastings of Loughboro (age 41), in a red silk purse, in French crowns £13 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Stafford (age 60), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Windsor (age 30), in a purse of crymsn silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

by Lorde John Graye (age 38), a haunce pott of allabaster garnished with silver gilt. Delivered in charge to John Asteley, Esq Master and Threasourer of her Highnes Jewels and Plate. Lord John Grey assumed to be a courtesy title his father being Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset.

By the Lorde Barkeley (age 27), in a red purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Mountejoye (age 29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Abergavennye (age 36), in a purse of red silke, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Scrowpe (age 28), in a purse of blak silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Caree of Hundesdon (age 35), in a purse of crymsen silk, in double ducketts £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Strainge (age 30), in a purse of red silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Lord Strange being the courtesy title for the Earldom of Derby. He wouldn't inherit until 1572.

By the Lorde Darcey of Chichey (age 30), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes, £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shefild (age 24), in a red silk purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shandowes (age 40), in a blak silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Ladyes.

By the Baroness Howarde (age 47), in a purse of crymsen silk and knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Clinton (age 35), a peire of sleevis of gold, pulled out with lawne. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Baroness Genevillet, in gold £6 13s 4d.

By the Lady Barkeley (age 24), Lord Barkeley's wife, in gold £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Mountejoye (age 30), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Abergavenny, in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Caree of Hundesdon (age 33), in a blak purse knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Taylboyes, Sir Peter Carewe's (age 48) wyfe, in a purse of blak silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Cobham (age 23), a partelett and a peire of sleeves of sypers wrought with silver and blak silke. Re-delivered to herself.

By the Lady Dakers (age 21), a warming ball of gold, per oz. 3 oz. dim. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shefilde (age 20), a paire of sleeves wrought with fringe of blak silk and lozeng of gold. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Margaret Baroness Scrope (age 18), in a purse of blak silk and silver, in angells £7 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shandowes (age 38), a peire of sleeves and a partlett of gold and silver knytt, cawle fashion. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Lady Knowlles (age 38), a feyne carpett of needleworke, theverende frienged and buttoned with gold and silk. Delivered to John Torneworth, Groom of the Privy Chamber.

By the Lady Butler, in a little white purse, in French crowns £6 0s 0d. With her said Majestie. Unclear as to who Lady Butler refers to.

By the Lady Raclyef, a peire of sleeves of cameryk, all over sett with purle, and two sweet bags. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy. [Possibly Richard Wigmore?]

A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the great hall at Fotheringhay [Map], with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution..

THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (age 44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.

First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (age 54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (age 46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Hall [Map], at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (age 44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (age 44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (age 44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.

Then she turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (age 54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do.".

Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (age 54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted.".

"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion.".

Then the Earl of Kent (age 46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (age 53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (age 53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-removed], and descended from the blood of Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married Francis II King France King Consort Scotland], and the anointed Queen of Scotland.".

Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.

After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (age 54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (age 46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall [Map], with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (age 46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.

Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (age 44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (age 46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (age 44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (age 53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.

Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (age 42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (age 42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (age 42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (age 42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), perceiving her so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (age 42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion.".

Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (age 42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (age 44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (age 44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (age 42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (age 53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She confessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (age 46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins.".

Her prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.".

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (age 44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (age 44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr. Dean (age 42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (age 46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.".

Then one of the executioners pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (age 46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

1667. Remigius van Leemput (age 59). Copy (for which he received £150) of Hans Holbein's "Whitehall Mural" of [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland, King Henry VII of England and Ireland, [his former wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England and Queen Jane Seymour. The original was destroyed in a fire in 1698.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Polydore Vergil. A rumor came to Flanders that Peter had achieved nothing, but rather was in chains, and this brought Princess Margaret many tears, for she had spent many fearful nights waiting news of his doings. Having done these things with success, Henry, not unaware that the greatest enticement to wrongdoing is the hope of impunity, quickly held an inquisition so that he might henceforth keep his subjects loyal more easily. He discovered that there were many men, both in Devonshire and Someret, who had helped the Cornishmen with their money and provisions when they were undertaking this war, and afterwards when they were routed and fleeing homeward. And he decided to mulct these people of as much as they could pay, in proportion to the gravity of their offence. He assigned this responsibility to Sir Amyas Powlet, who soon thereafter was given Robert Scherburn, Dean of St. Paul's, as a colleague. They first swept like a gale through the fortunes of virtual the inhabitants of both counties, so that no man implicated in that capital affair could evade his deserved punishment. But they dealt more mildly with many men who had committed their misdeeds out of fear or compulsion, rather than free will.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. There are many features of interest in the old house [Map]. In the Great Hall there is a blocked-up entrance to an underground passage through which despatches were carried in the Civil War; and there is a hiding-place large enough to hold twenty people. Henry VII slept at Deene, when as Earl of Richmond he rode to Bosworth Field; the room is known as "the King's Room", and the Royal arms are sculptured over the fireplace. The Tapestry Room has a fine ceiling, and is the room always reserved for Royal guests, the last visitors who occupied it being the sons of the Infanta Eulalia, Don Alphonso and his brother, who stayed at Deene in 1907. They both thoroughly enjoyed the shooting, and used to telegraph the bags to King Alfonso, who wired that he was not having anything like such good sport !

Polydore Vergil. While staying at Exeter, Devon [Map], the king scarcely imagined he had conquered or had removed all occasion for rebellion, unless he were to lay his hands on Peter, the head man of that plague. First he surrounded the asylum [Map] by two squadrons of horse so that no hope of escape would remain for Peter. Then, proposing a pardon and amnesty for everything he had done, he sent trusty messengers to make trial of the young man, to see if he would submit. Peter, now lacking in hope, lacking a home, lacking a fortune, when he saw he was enmeshed in these supreme difficulties because he was relying on that desperadoes' refuge, and calculated that all future ability gain to success had slipped through his hands, and had heard that a pardon was being offered, at length, relying on the faith of the nation, voluntarily came out of the asylum, and placed himself in Henry's power. And so this great rising was suddenly put down. Having waged this war with success and wonderfully happy, the king went to London. Wherever he went, men came running to have a look at Peter, a source of wonderment for everybody. For he, a foreign-born man relying on nothing else but the recommendation of his betters (although it was proclaimed otherwise), had dared cause trouble for such a great kingdom with his pranks and by his wily schemes, and had led so many people and sovereigns to believe the lies he had said about himself, not without their great harm.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. In the mean season these news were related to Charles the Freeh King, then being in displeasure with King Henry, which without delay sent for Perkin into Ireland to the intent to send him against the King of England, which was invading France (as you before have heard). This Fleming Perkin was not a little joyful of this message, thinking by this only request to be exalted into heaven, when he was called to the familiarity and acquaintance of Kings and Princes. And so with all diligence sailed into France, with a very small navy, not so small as smally furnished. And coming to the King’s presence was of him royally accepted, and after a princely fashion entertained, and had a guard to him assigned, whereof was governor the Lord Congreshal. And to him at Paris [Map] resorted Sir George Neville bastard, Syr John Taylor, Rowland Robinson and an hundred English rebels. But after that a peace, as before is said was appointed and concluded betwixt him and the King of England, the aid King Charles dismissed the young man, and would no longer keep him. But some men say which were there attending on him, that he fearing that King Charles, would deliver him to the King of England, beguiled the lord Congreshal, and fled away from Paris by night. But whether he departed without the French King’s consent or dis-assent, he demeaned in his expectation, and in manner in despair, returned again to the Lady Margaret his first foolish foundation.

Perkin Warbreck Plot

Polydore Vergil. Learning that Peter had decamped, Henry sent out horsemen in every direction to follow him and seek his capture, but he, having covered most of the distance, was not seen before he reached the asylum. But not so his captains, who were taken in mid-flight and brought to the king. And the mob, when they could not see Peter nor his captains' standards, having no idea where he was, whether he had been killed by some trick or had fled, were unsure of what counsel to take or what was best to do. In the end, learning of his shameful flight, everybody, immediately unhinged by their common evil, their common fear, their common danger, cast aside their weapons and began to hold up their hands, and out of his kindness the king readily forgave them. Being a victor without having had a fight, he went to Exeter, Devon [Map], where he praised the citizenry for having done its duty and extended his thanks, and while there he presided over the execution of some of the Cornishmen responsible for the recent rising. Meanwhile the king's horsemen rode as far as St. Michael's Mount, and there they found Peter's wife Catherine and brought her captive to the king. Henry, marveling at the woman's beauty, thought she was not plunder for soldiers, but worthy of an emperor, and forthwith sent her to the queen at London with an escort of honorable matrons, as a sure harbinger of the victory he had won.

Polydore Vergil. Learning of his enemies' departure, Henry headed straight for Taunton, Somerset [Map]. Duke Edward of Buckingham arrived there, a young man endowed with great spirit and virtue of character, and he was followed by a host of right noble knights with armor and all the other things requisite for warfare. In that number were Giles Briggs, Alexander Baynham, Maurice Berkeley, Robert Tames, John Guise, Robert Point, Henry Vernon, John Mortimer, Thomas Tremayle, Edward Sutton, Amyas Powlet, John Bicknell, John Sapcot, Hugh Luterell, John Wadham and his son Nicholas, John Speck, Richard Beauchamp of St. Amand, Francis Cheney, Rogerd Tokett, Thomas Long, Nicholas Lattimer, John d'Urbeville, William Storton, Roger Newberg, William Martin, Thomas Lind, Henry Rogers, Walter Hungerford, John Semery, Edward Carell, Maurice Borroughs, William Norris, John Langford, Richard Corbett, Thomas Blount, Richard Lacon, Thomas Cornwallis, and many other excellent soldiers. Meanwhile, when the king had come up, either to avoid delaying the fight or fearing the fortune of war, he sent ahead Robert Lord Broke, Richard Thomas, and Giles Daubney to begin the battle, while he followed after, so that, when he saw the battle begin, he could either come to the aid of his men or launch a simultaneous attack on the enemy rear. But the king's plan was unnecessary. For Peter was so far from standing his ground, that after he learned the enemy were in arms, he furtively slipped away in the night and quickly fled to the asylum at Beaulieu Abbey [Map]. Whether he did this out of cowardice (with which he was well supplied), or because he suspected trickery, is not known, but it is well enough agreed that it was a good thing for the king that he was not compelled to come to blows with the Cornishmen, whose strength was so enhanced by despair that they had all determined on conquering or dying to the last man in that battle.

Polydore Vergil. Hearing the news, the king was no slower in leading an army to Exeter, Devon [Map] than the situation required. He sent ahead a goodly number of light horse to let everyone know of his approach. For meanwhile, under the leadership of Edward Courteney Earl of Devonshire and his son William, an excellent and very brave young man, every noble hastened to come to the aid of Exeter, Devon [Map] with a great company of soldiers. Among these were Thomas Trenchard, Edmund Carew, Thomas Fulford, William Courteney, John Halliwell, John Croker, Walter Courteney, Peter Edgercombe, and William St. Maurice. When these things came to Peter's ears, he abandoned the siege and removed to Taunton, Somerset [Map], the nearest town. There he reviewed his army and drew it up for the coming battle, although it later came to light that he had no great trust in that army. A goodly part were armed only with swords, otherwise unarmed, and ignorant of how to fight.

Polydore Vergil. But, whichever it was, while he lingered in Ireland in a fever of uncertainty, reliable messengers informed him that the Cornishmen, undeterred by their recent disaster, were still badly affected towards Henry and ready to take up arms once more to avenge the wrong. And so, thinking it would be useful not to ignore this proffered opportunity, went flying to them without delay. He solicited them, he incited them, he promised them such great things that a stroke he was hailed as their leader, with all men shouting they would obey his commands. Restored to good hope by these things, Peter decided that nothing should be done rashly. First he should go in all directions, gaining power over fortified places that could serve for his protection. Then, having increased his forces, he should attack all who offered resistance. Adopting this strategy, he attacked and besieged Exeter, Devon [Map]. Since he lacked artillery to batter down its walls, he only sought to smash its gates opens, and with great vigor he began to pound them with stones, pry at them with steel, heap them with wood, and set them afire. At first, the townsmen, seeing the walls surrounded by the enemy at one point, and a fire to be started at another, were afraid. But they immediately let down messengers from the walls during the night, who were to inform the king. Then they courageously decided to fight fire with fire and, since the bars of the gates were already shattered, they added their own wood to the fire, so that the flames raging on either side would both prevent the enemy from coming within and their own citizens from leaving. And meanwhile they themselves dug ditches inside in front of the entry days and made earthworks. Thus all of the besiegers' efforts around the gates came to naught, and fire rescued the citizenry from fire. Then Peter, of necessity breaking off the fight at the gates, attacked the city at various points where it seemed weaker, and, bringing up ladders, frequently tried to take the walls, suffering great losses. Meanwhile he hoped that the burghers would be overwhelmed either by fear or want of provisions, could be impelled to surrender.

Polydore Vergil. King James of Scotland did not break his word. Now being dead sure that he had been the victim of a fraud, he summoned Peter Warbeck and, gently reminding him of all the benefits he had conferred, urged him to migrate to some other country where he could live in peace until a better opportunity for conducting his business offered itself. For he himself had been obliged to make peace with the King of England, and because of the affinity he enjoyed with the king and valued so highly, it was scarcely possible that in the future he could take up arms in Peter's name, as he had gladly done at the beginning when he hoped that Peter would be furnished with timely help by his English friends. But since this expectation had proved to be in vain, he told him he should not take this delay amiss, for it might turn out to be helpful for him in his affliction. Saying these and similar things, he told Peter to go elsewhere. And he, learning the king's will, was devastated by this desertion, now seeing that there was nothing left for him among the Scots. Although he was not able to requite the many benefits he had received from them, nevertheless, so as not to appear to be an ingrate, he accepted the king's command calmly, and a few days later took his wife and left for Ireland, with the idea of returning to Margaret in Flanders, or of attaching himself to the Cornishmen.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. When King Henry was returned into England, he first of all things elected into the Society of Sainct George, vulgarly called the Order of the Garter, Alphose duke of Calabria son, according to his desire which Alphonse was son and heir to Ferdinand King of Naples,and after King of the same realm, until he was overcome by King Charles. And after, the King sent Christopher Urswick, Ambassador with the garter, collar, mantel, and other habiliments appertaining to the companions of the said noble order. Which Ambassador arriving at Napels, delivered to the duke the whole habile, with all the ceremonies and due circumstances thereunto belonging which duke very reverently received it, and with more reverence requested himself with the same in a solemn presence, thinking that by this apparel and investiture, he was made a friend and companion in order with the King of England, whose friendship obtained, he feared nothing the assaults or invasions of his enemies. And this was the cause that he desired so much to be companion of that noble order, firmly believing that the King of England sovereign of that order, should be aider and maintainer of him against the French King, whom he knew would passe the mountains and make war on him. But this custom of assistance in orders was, either never begun, or before clearly abolished: For in our time there have bene many noble men of Italy, companions as well of the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, as of the order of Saint Michael in France, that have bene banished and profligate from their natural country, and yet have not been aided by the sovereign nor companions of the same order. For surely the statutes and ordinances of all the said orders do not oblige and bind them to that case, but in certain points. After this the duke dismissed the Ambassador, rewarding him most princely.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. Whiche (as the Kinge certified the Mayre of London by his letters the ninth day of November) amounted to the sum of vii C xlv M ducats, which is in sterling money I C Ixxxvi M ii C I l, and also should yearly for a certain space pay or cause to be paid for the money that the King of England had sent and expended in the tuycion [constitution?] and aide of the Britons 25,000 crowns, which yearly tribute, the French King afterward vexed and troubled with the wars of Italy, yearly satisfied, contented and paid, even to the time of his son King Henry the 7th to the intent to pay the whole duty and tribute, and for the further conservation and establishing of the league and amity between both the realms.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. When he had thus prudently consolate and appeased the minds of his men of war, he returned back again with his whole army, to the toun of Caieys [Map], where he began to smell certain secret smoke, which was like to turn to a great flame, without it were well watched and politicly seen to. For by the crafty invention and devilish imagination of that pestiforous serpent lady Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, a new idol was set up in Flanders, and called Richard Plantagenet, second son to King Edward the 4th as though he had bene resuscitate from death to life, which sudden news more stack and fretted in his stomach, then the battle which now was set late forward and more pain he had (not without great jeopardy of himself) to appease and quench this new sprung conspiracy, then in making peace with the French King his enemy. And so he was content to accept and receive (and not to offer and give) the honest conditions of peace of his enemy proffered and oblated, except he would at one time make war, be the at home in his own country, and also in foreign and external nations. Wherefore King Henry foreseeing all these things before (and not without great counsel) concluded with the French King, to the intent that he being delivered of al outward enmity might the more quickly provide for the civil and domestical commotions, which he perceived well to be budding out. The conclusion of the peace was thus, y the peace should continue both their lives, and that the French King should pay to King Henry a certain sum of money in hand, according as the commissioners should appoint for his charges sustained in his journey:

Hall's Chronicle 1492. The duches thinking every hour from his departure a whole year, until such time she heard from him, and effectively desiring to know which way Lady Fortune turned her wheel, hearing him to be repudiate and abjected out of the French court, was in a great agony and much amazed and more appalled. But when she was ascertained of his arrival in Flanders, she no less revived, then he that bathe instead of the sword of execution, a pardon and restoration of his life and degree to him delivered and showed. And at his coming to her presence, she received him with such gladness, with such rejoicing and such comfort (as indeed she could dissemble alone above all other) as though she had never seen nor known him before, or as he were newly cropped out of his mother’s lap again, that what in trust to prefer him to the pre-eminence by her imagined, and what for the hope that she had to destroy King Henry, she fell into such an unmeasurable joy, that she had almost lost her wit and senses. And that this her gladness might be notified and made appear unto every man, she first rejoiced of her nephew’s health and welfare. And secondly she much thrusted and sore longed, not once, but diverse and sundry times in open audience, and in solemn presence to hear him declare and show by what meanes he was preserved from death and destruction, and in what countries he had wandered and sought friendship. And finally, by what chance of fortune he came to her court and presence. To the intent that by the open declaration of these feigned fantasies, the people might be persuaded to give credit and belief, that he was the true begotten son of her brother King Edward. And after this she assigned him a guard of thirty persons in murray and blue, and highly honoured him as a great estate and called him the White Rose, Prince of England.

1492 Siege of Boulogne

Hall's Chronicle 1492. Shortely after that King Henry had tarried a convenient space, he transfreted [crossed the sea] and arrived at Douer [Map], and so came to his manor of Greenwich [Map]. And this was the yere of our Lord a. M.CCCC.xciii. and the 7th yere of his troublesome reign. Also in this sojourning and be beseiging of Boulogne (which I’ve spoken of before) there was few or none killed, saving only John Savage knight, which going privately out of his pavilion with Sir John Riseley, rode about the walls to view and see their strength, was suddenly intercepted and taken of his enemies. And he being inflamed with ire, although he were captive, of his high courage disdained to be taken of such villains, defended his life to the utmost and was manfully (I will not say wilfully) slain and oppressed, albeit Sir John Riseley fled from them and escaped their danger.

Henry Willoughby was appointed Knight of the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Edward Neville was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. When this diabolical Duchess had framed her cloth mete for the market, and imagined that all things was ready and prepared for the confusion of King Henry, suddenly she was informed that the said King of England prepared a puissant army aganst Charles the French King. Then she considering the opportunity of the time, as who would say, a time wished and a day desired to achieve and bring to passe her olde malicious and cantarde inventions, which always nothing less minded than peace and tranquility, and nothing more desired than dissention, civil war and destruction of King Henry. Wherefore she sent Perkyn Werbeck, her new invented Mawmet first into Portugal, and so craftily into the realm of Ireland, to the intent that he being both witty and wily might move, inveigle and provoke the rude and rustic Irish nation (being more of nature euclyived [?] to rebellion then to reasonable order) to a new conflict and a seditious commotion. This worshipful Perkin, arriving in Ireland, whether it were more by his crafty wit, or by the malicious and beastly exhortation of the saltiage Irish governors, within short space entered so far into their favours, and so seriously persuaded and allured them to his purpose, that the greatest lords and princes of the country, adhibited such faith and credit to his words, as that thing had bene true in deed, which he untruly with false demonstrations set forth and divulged. And as though he had bene the very son of King Edward, they honoured, exalted and applauded him with all reverence and due honour, promising to him aid, comfort and assistance of all things to the feat of war, necessary and appertaining.

King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

King John "The Good" II of France 1319-1364

Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France 1315-1349

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Kings Wessex: Great x 13 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King Gwynedd King Powys

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 14 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 9 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 3 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 11 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 9 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great Grand Son of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France

Royal Descendants of King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland x 1

King Henry VIII of England and Ireland x 1

Mary Tudor Queen Consort France x 1

Ancestors of King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Great x 1 Grandfather: Maredudd Tudor 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: Owen Tudor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Father: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

GrandMother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

King Henry VII of England and Ireland 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Mother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Beauchamp 3rd Baron Beauchamp Bletsoe 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandMother: Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Edith Stourton Baroness Beauchamp Bletsoe 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England