Biography of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672

Paternal Family Tree: Montagu

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1664 Comet

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

1665 Battle of Vågen

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1672 Battle of Solebay

In 1619 [his father] Sidney Montagu (age 38) and [his mother] Paulina Pepys (age 37) were married.

On 27 Jul 1625 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich was born to Sidney Montagu (age 44) and Paulina Pepys (age 43).

On 16 Nov 1641 [his mother] Paulina Pepys (age 60) died. She was buried at All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map].

On 07 Nov 1642 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 17) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 17) were married.

On 17 Jan 1644 [his father] Sidney Montagu (age 63) and [his step-mother] Anne Isham were married. He died a month later.

On 25 Feb 1644 [his father] Sidney Montagu (age 63) died. He was buried at All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map].

On 03 Jan 1648 [his son] Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 22) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 23) at Hinchinbrooke.

In 1649 [his daughter] Paulina Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 23) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 24).

Around 1650 Peter Lely (age 31). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 24).

Around 1650 [his brother-in-law] Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew (age 26) and Mary Townshend were married. She the daughter of Roger Townshend 1st Baronet and Mary Vere Countess of Westmoreland (age 42).

On 28 Jul 1650 [his son] Sidney Wortley-Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 25) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 25).

Around 1655 [his son] Dean John Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 29) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 30).

Around 1655 [his son] Oliver Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 29) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 30).

Around 1658 [his son] Charles John Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 32) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 33).

On 23 Mar 1658 Henry Wright 1st Baronet (age 21) and [his sister-in-law] Ann Crew Lady Wright were married at the Church of St Giles in the Fields.

Around Jun 1659 John Creed of Oundle in Cambridgeshire accompanied Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 33) on the Baltic voyage as Admiral's secretary and Deputy-Treasurer of the fleet.

In 1660 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 34) was appointed 460th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1660. Wednesday Early came Mr. Vanly to me for his half-year's rent, which I had not in the house, but took his man to the office and there paid him. Then I went down into the Hall [Map] and to Will's, where Hawly brought a piece of his Cheshire cheese, and we were merry with it. Then into the Hall [Map] again, where I met with the Clerk and Quarter Master of my Lord's (age 34) troop, and took them to the Swan [Map] and gave them their morning's draft, they being just come to town. Mr. Jenkins shewed me two bills of exchange for money to receive upon my Lord's and my pay. It snowed hard all this morning, and was very cold, and my nose was much swelled with cold. Strange the difference of men's talk! Some say that Lambert must of necessity yield up; others, that he is very strong, and that the Fifth-monarchy-men [will] stick to him, if he declares for a free Parliament. Chillington was sent yesterday to him with the vote of pardon and indemnity from the Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1660. Saturday. At my office as I was receiving money of the probate of wills, in came Mrs. Turner (age 37), Theoph. (age 8), Madame Morrice, and Joyce, and after I had done I took them home to my house and Mr. Hawly came after, and I got a dish of steaks and a rabbit for them, while they were playing a game or two at cards. In the middle of our dinner a messenger from Mr. Downing came to fetch me to him, so leaving Mr. Hawly there, I went and was forced to stay till night in expectation of the French Embassador, who at last came, and I had a great deal of good discourse with one of his gentlemen concerning the reason of the difference between the zeal of the French and the Spaniard. After he was gone I went home, and found my friends still at cards, and after that I went along with them to Dr. Whores (sending my wife (age 19) to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem's to a sack-posset), where I heard some symphony and songs of his own making, performed by Mr. May, Harding, and Mallard. Afterwards I put my friends into a coach, and went to Mrs. Jem's, where I wrote a letter to my Lord by the post, and had my part of the posset which was saved for me, and so we went home, and put in at my Lord's (age 34) lodgings, where we staid late, eating of part of his turkey pie, and reading of Quarles' Emblems. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's (age 19) speech, which he is to make the next apposition,-[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]-and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to-let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King, or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (age 51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the smallpox. Thence back to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard how Sir H. Vane (age 46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby [Map], as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (age 34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1660. Saturday. Nothing to do at our office. Thence into the Hall, and just as I was going to dinner from Westminster Hall with Mr. Moore (with whom I had been in the lobby to hear news, and had spoke with Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper (age 38) about my Lord's (age 34) lodgings) to his house, I met with Captain Holland, who told me that he hath brought his wife to my house, so I posted home and got a dish of meat for them. They staid with me all the afternoon, and went hence in the evening. Then I went with my wife, and left her at market, and went myself to the Coffee-house, and heard exceeding good argument against Mr. Harrington's (age 49) assertion, that overbalance of propriety [i.e., property] was the foundation of government. Home, and wrote to Hinchinbroke, and sent that and my other letter that missed of going on Thursday last. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1660. After that we all went to my Lord's (age 34), whither came afterwards Mr. Harrison, and by chance seeing Mr. Butler coming by I called him in and so we sat drinking a bottle of wine till night. At which time Mistress Ann [Note. Probably [his daughter] Anne Montagu, daughter of Sir Edward Montagu, and sister to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem] came with the key of my Lord's study for some things, and so we all broke up and after I had gone to my house and interpreted my Lord's (age 34) letter by his character [Note. The making of ciphers was a popular amusement about this time. Pepys made several for Montagu, Downing, and others.] I came to her again and went with her to her lodging and from thence to [his father-in-law] Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I advised with him what to do about my Lord's (age 34) lodgings and what answer to give to Sir Ant. Cooper (age 38) and so I came home and to bed. All the world is at a loss to think what Monk (age 51) will do: the City saying that he will be for them, and the Parliament saying he will be for them.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1660. Thursday. This morning I was sent for to Mr Downing (age 35), and at his bed side he told me, that he had a kindness for me, and that he thought that he had done me one; and that was, that he had got me to be one of the Clerks of the Council; at which I was a little stumbled, and could not tell what to do, whether to thank him or no; but by and by I did; but not very heartily, for I feared that his doing of it was but only to ease himself of the salary which he gives me. After that Mr. Sheply staying below all this time for me we went thence and met Mr. Pierce, so at the Harp and Ball drank our morning draft and so to Whitehall where I met with Sir Ant. Cooper (age 38) and did give him some answer from my Lord and he did give us leave to keep the lodgings still. And so we did determine thereupon that Mr. Sheply might now go into the country and would do so to-morrow. Back I went by Mr Downing's (age 35) order and staid there till twelve o'clock in expectation of one to come to read some writings, but he came not, so I staid all alone reading the answer of the Dutch Ambassador to our State, in answer to the reasons of my Lord's (age 34) coming home, which he gave for his coming, and did labour herein to contradict my Lord's (age 34) arguments for his coming home. Thence to my office and so with Mr. Sheply and Moore, to dine upon a turkey with [his daughter] Mrs. Jem, and after that Mr. Moore and I went to the French Ordinary, where Mr Downing (age 35) this day feasted Sir Arth. Haselrigge (age 59), and a great many more of the Parliament, and did stay to put him in mind of me. Here he gave me a note to go and invite some other members to dinner tomorrow. So I went to White Hall, and did stay at Marsh's, with Simons, Luellin, and all the rest of the Clerks of the Council, who I hear are all turned out, only the two Leighs, and they do all tell me that my name was mentioned the last night, but that nothing was done in it. Hence I went and did leave some of my notes at the lodgings of the members and so home. To bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1660. Friday. In the morning I went to Mr Downing's (age 35) bedside and gave him an account what I had done as to his guests, land I went thence to my Lord Widdrington (age 60) who I met in the street, going to seal the patents for the judges to-day, and so could not come to dinner. I called upon Mr. Calthrop (age 36) about the money due to my Lord. Here I met with Mr. Woodfine and drank with him at Sun in Chancery Lane and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where at the lobby I spoke with the rest of my guests and so to my office. At noon went by water with Mr. Maylard and Hales to Swan in Fish Street at our Goal Feast, where we were very merry at our Jole of Ling, and from thence after a great and good dinner Mr. Falconberge would go drink a cup of ale at a place where I had like to have shot at a scholar that lay over the house of office. Thence calling on Mr. Stephens and Wootton (with whom I drank) about business of my Lord's (age 34) I went to the Coffee Club where there was nothing done but choosing of a Committee for orders. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] where Mrs. Lane and the rest of the maids had their white scarfs, all having been at the burial of a young bookseller in the Hall1.

Note 1. These stationers and booksellers, whose shops disfigured Westminster Hall down to a late period, were a privileged class. In the statutes for appointing licensers and regulating the press, there is a clause exempting them from the pains and penalties of these obnoxious laws.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1660 Saturday. Up early in finishing my accounts and writing to my Lord and from thence to my Lord's (age 34) and took leave of Mr. Sheply and possession of all the keys and the house. Thence to my office for some money to pay Mr. Sheply and sent it him by the old man. I then went to Mr Downing (age 35) who chid me because I did not give him notice of some of his guests failed him but I told him that I sent our porter to tell him and he was not within, but he told me that he was within till past twelve o'clock. So the porter or he lied. Thence to my office where nothing to do. Then with Mr. Hawly, he and I went to [his father-in-law] Mr. Crew's (age 62) and dined there. Thence into London, to Mr. Vernon's and I received my £25 due by bill for my troopers' pay. Then back again to Steadman's. At the Mitre, in Fleet street, in our way calling on Mr. Fage, who told me how the City have some hopes of Monk (age 51). Thence to the Mitre [Map], where I drank a pint of wine, the house being in fitting for Banister (age 30) to come hither from Paget's. Thence to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem and gave her £5. So home and left my money and to Whitehall where Luellin and I drank and talked together an hour at Marsh's and so up to the clerks' room, where poor Mr. Cook, a black man, that is like to be put out of his clerk's place, came and railed at me for endeavouring to put him out and get myself in, when I was already in a good condition. But I satisfied him and after I had wrote a letter there to my Lord, wherein I gave him an account how this day Lenthall (age 68) took his chair again, and [the House] resolved a declaration to be brought in on Monday next to satisfy the world what they intend to do. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1660. Tuesday. In the morning to my office, where, after I had drank my morning draft at Will's with Ethell and Mr. Steven's, I went and told part of the excise money till twelve o'clock, and then called on my wife and took her to Mr. Pierces, she in the way being exceedingly troubled with a pair of new pattens, and I vexed to go so slow, it being late. There when we came we found Mrs. Carrick very fine, and one Mr. Lucy, who called one another husband and wife, and after dinner a great deal of mad stir. There was pulling off Mrs. bride's and Mr. bridegroom's ribbons1; with a great deal of fooling among them that I and my wife did not like. Mr. Lucy and several other gentlemen coming in after dinner, swearing and singing as if they were mad, only he singing very handsomely. There came in afterwards Mr. Southerne, clerk to Mr. Blackburne, and with him Lambert, lieutenant of my Lord's (age 34) ship, and brought with them the declaration that came out to-day from the Parliament, wherein they declare for law and gospel, and for tythes; but I do not find people apt to believe them. After this taking leave I went to my father's (age 59), and my wife staying there, he and I went to speak with Mr. Crumlum (in the meantime, while it was five o'clock, he being in the school, we went to my cozen Tom Pepys' shop, the turner in Paul's Churchyard, and drank with him a pot of ale); he gave my father (age 59) directions what to do about getting my brother an exhibition, and spoke very well of my brother. Thence back with my father (age 59) home, where he and I spoke privately in the little room to my sister Pall about stealing of things as my wife's (age 19) scissars and my maid's book, at which my father (age 59) was much troubled. Hence home with my wife and so to Whitehall, where I met with Mr. Hunt's and Luellin, and drank with them at Marsh's, and afterwards went up and wrote to my Lord by the post. This day the Parliament gave order that the late Committee of Safety should come before them this day se'nnight, and all their papers, and their model of Government that they had made, to be brought in with them. So home and talked with my wife about our dinner on Thursday.

Note 1. The scramble for ribbons, here mentioned by Pepys in connection with weddings (see also January 26th, 1661, and February 8th, 1663), doubtless formed part of the ceremony of undressing the bridegroom, which, as the age became more refined, fell into disuse. All the old plays are silent on the custom; the earliest notice of which occurs in the old ballad of the wedding of Arthur O'Bradley, printed in the Appendix to "Robin Hood", 1795, where we read ... "Then got they his points and his garters, And cut them in pieces like martyrs; And then they all did play For the honour of Arthur O'Bradley"..

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1660. Wednesday. Called up early to Mr Downing (age 35); he gave me a Character, such a one as my Lord's (age 34), to make perfect, and likewise gave me his order for £500 to carry to Mr. Frost, which I did and so to my office, where I did do something about the character till twelve o'clock. Then home find found my wife and the maid at my Lord's (age 34) getting things ready against to-morrow. I went by water to my Uncle White's' to dinner, where I met my father (age 59), where we alone had a fine jole of Ling to dinner. After dinner I took leave, and coming home heard that in Cheapside there had been but a little before a gibbet set up, and the picture of Huson1 hung upon it in the middle of the street. I called at Paul's Churchyard, where I bought Buxtorf's Hebrew Grammar; and read a declaration of the gentlemen of Northampton which came out this afternoon. Thence to my father's (age 59), where I staid with my mother a while and then to [his father-in-law] Mr. Crew's (age 62) about a picture to be sent into the country, of Mr. Thomas Crew, to Lord. So [to] my [his sister-in-law] Lady Wright to speak with her, but she was abroad, so Mr. Evans, her butler, had me into his buttery, and gave me sack and a lesson on his lute, which he played very well. Thence I went to Lord's (age 34) and got most things ready against tomorrow, as fires and laying the cloth, and my wife was making of her tarts and larding of her pullets till eleven o'clock. This evening Mr Downing (age 35) sent for me, and gave me order to go to Mr. Jessop for his papers concerning his dispatch to Holland which were not ready, only his order for a ship to transport him he gave me. To my Lord's (age 34) again and so home with my wife, tired with this day's work.

Note 1. John Hewson, who, from a low origin, became a colonel in the Parliament army, and sat in judgment on the King: he escaped hanging by flight, and died in 1662, at Amsterdam. A curious notice of Hewson occurs in Rugge's "Diurnal", December 5th, 1659, which states that "he was a cobbler by trade, but a very stout man, and a very good commander; but in regard of his former employment, they [the city apprentices] threw at him old shoes, and slippers, and turniptops, and brick-bats, stones, and tiles".... "At this time [January, 1659-60] there came forth, almost every day, jeering books: one was called 'Colonel Hewson's Confession; or, a Parley with Pluto,' about his going into London, and taking down the gates of Temple-Bar". He had but one eye, which did not escape the notice of his enemies. B.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1660. To Lord's (age 34) lodging again and sat by the great log, it being now a very good fire, with my wife, and ate a bit and so home.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1660. Thursday. To my office for £20 to carry to Mr Downing (age 35), which I did and back again. Then came Mr. Frost to pay Mr Downing (age 35) his £500, and I went to him for the warrant and brought it Mr. Frost. Called for some papers at Whitehall for Mr Downing (age 35), one of which was an Order of the Council for £1800 per annum, to be paid monthly; and the other two, Orders to the Commissioners of Customs, to let his goods pass free. Home from my office to Lord's (age 34) lodgings where my wife had got ready a very fine dinner-viz. a dish of marrow bones; a leg of mutton; a loin of veal; a dish of fowl, three pullets, and two dozen of larks all in a dish; a great tart, a neat's tongue, a dish of anchovies; a dish of prawns and cheese.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1660. Saturday. I went to Mr Downing (age 35) and carried him three characters, and then to my office and wrote another, while Mr. Frost staid telling money. And after I had done it Mr. Hawly came into the office and I left him and carried it to Mr Downing (age 35), who then told me that he was resolved to be gone for Holland this morning. So I to my office again, and dispatch my business there, and came with Mr. Hawly to Mr Downing's (age 35) lodging, and took Mr. Squib from White Hall in a coach thither with me, and there we waited in his chamber a great while, till he came in; and in the mean time, sent all his things to the barge that lay at Charing-Cross Stairs. Then came he in, and took a very civil leave of me, beyond my expectation, for I was afraid that he would have told me something of removing me from my office; but he did not, but that he would do me any service that lay in his power. So I went down and sent a porter to my house for my best fur cap, but he coming too late with it I did not present it to him. Thence I went to Westminster Hall [Map], and bound up my cap at Mrs. Michell's, who was much taken with my cap, and endeavoured to overtake the coach at the Exchange [Map] and to give it him there, but I met with one that told me that he was gone, and so I returned and went to Heaven1, where Luellin and I dined on a breast of mutton all alone, discoursing of the changes that we have seen and the happiness of them that have estates of their own, and so parted, and I went by appointment to my office and paid young Mr. Walton £500; it being very dark he took £300 by content. He gave me half a piece and carried me in his coach to St. Clement's [Map], from whence I went to [his father-in-law] Mr. Crew's (age 62) and made even with Mr. Andrews, and took in all my notes and gave him one for all. Then to my [his sister-in-law] Lady Wright and gave her Lord's (age 34) letter which he bade me give her privately. So home and then to Will's for a little news, then came home again and wrote to Lord, and so to Whitehall and gave them to the post-boy. Back again home and to bed.

Note 1. A place of entertainment within or adjoining Westminster Hall [Map]. It is called in "Hudibras", "False Heaven, at the end of the Hall". There were two other alehouses near Westminster Hall, called Hell and Purgatory. "Nor break his fast In Heaven and Hell". Ben Jonson's Alchemist, act V. SC. 2.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1660. In the morning I fell to my lute till 9 o'clock. Then to my Lord's (age 34) lodgings and set out a barrel of soap to be carried to Mrs. Ann. Here I met with Nick Bartlet, one that had been a servant of my Lord's at sea and at Harper's gave him his morning draft. So to my office where I paid; 1200l. to Mr. Frost and at noon went to Will's to give one of the Excise office a pot of ale that came to-day to tell over a bag of his that wanted; 7l. in it, which he found over in another bag. Then home and dined with my wife (age 19) when in came Mr. Hawly newly come from shipboard from his master, and brought me a letter of direction what to do in his lawsuit with Squib about his house and office. After dinner to Westminster Hall [Map], where all we clerks had orders to wait upon the Committee, at the Star Chamber that is to try Colonel Jones, and were to give an account what money we had paid him; but the Committee did not sit to-day. Hence to Will's, where I sat an hour or two with Mr. Godfrey Austin, a scrivener in King Street.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1660. So after drinking with Mr. Spicer, who had received £600 for me this morning, I went to Capt. Stone and with him by coach to the Temple Gardens (all the way talking of the disease of the stone), where we met Mr. Squib, but would do nothing till to-morrow morning. Thence back on foot home, where I found a letter from my Lord in character [Note. Private cryptic code. Ed.], which I construed, and after my wife had shewn me some ribbon and shoes that she had taken out of a box of Mr. Montagu's which formerly Mr. Kipps had left here when his master was at sea, I went to [his father-in-law] Mr. Crew (age 62) and advised with him about it, it being concerning my Lord's (age 34) coming up to Town, which he desires upon my advice the last week in my letter. Thence calling upon Mrs. Ann I went home, and wrote in character to my Lord in answer to his letter. This day Mr. Crew's (age 62) told me that my Lord St. John (age 61) is for a free Parliament, and that he is very great with Monk (age 51), who hath now the absolute command and power to do any thing that he hath a mind to do. Mr. Moore told me of a picture hung up at the Exchange of a great pair of buttocks shooting of a turd into Lawson's mouth, and over it was wrote "The thanks of the house". Boys do now cry "Kiss my Parliament, instead of Kiss my [rump]", so great and general a contempt is the Rump come to among all the good and bad.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1660. Wednesday. Called up in the morning by Captain Holland and Captain Cuttance, and with them to Harper's, thence to my office, thence with Mr. Hill of Worcestershire to Will's, where I gave him a letter to Nan Pepys, and some merry pamphlets against the Rump to carry to her into the country. So to [his father-in-law] Mr. Crew's (age 62), where the dining room being full, Mr. Walgrave [Note. Believed to be a son of John Crew 1st Baron Crew (age 62) and [his mother-in-law] Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew (age 58) although there is no record of such person] and I dined below in the buttery by ourselves upon a good dish of buttered Salmon. Thence to Hering' the merchant about my Lord's (age 34) Worcester money and back to Paul's Churchyard, where I staid reading in Fuller's (age 51) History of the Church of England an hour or two, and so to my father's (age 59), where Mr. Hill came to me and I gave him direction what to do at Worcester about the money. Thence to my [his sister-in-law] Lady Wright's and gave her a letter from my Lord privily. So to [his daughter] Mrs. Jem and sat with her, who dined at Mr. Crew's (age 62) to-day, and told me that there was at her coming away at least forty gentlemen (I suppose members that were secluded, for Mr. Walgrave told me that there were about thirty met there the last night) came dropping in one after another thither. Thence home and wrote into the country against to-morrow by the carrier and so to bed. At my father's (age 59) I heard how my cousin Kate Joyce had a fall yesterday from her horse and had some hurt thereby. No news to-day, but all quiet to see what the Parliament will do about the issuing of the writs to-morrow for filling up of the House, according to Monk's (age 51) desire.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Apr 1660. [Pepys's guess at E. Montagu's business is confirmed by Clarendon's account of his employment of him to negotiate with Lord Sandwich (age 34) on behalf of the King. ("History of the Rebellion", book xvi.)-Notes and Queries, vol. x. p. 3-M. B.]

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1660. This morning came on board Mr. Pinkney and his son, going to the King with a petition finely writ by Mr. Whore, for to be the King's (age 29) embroiderer; for whom and Mr. Saunderson (age 74) I got a ship. This morning come my Lord Winchelsea and a great deal of company, and dined here. In the afternoon, while my Lord and we were at musique in the great cabin below, comes in a messenger to tell us that [his son] Mr. Edward Montagu (age 12), [Sir Edward Montagu's eldest son, afterwards second Earl of Sandwich, called by Pepys "The child".] my Lord's son, was come to Deal, Kent [Map], who afterwards came on board with Mr. Pickering (age 42) with him. The child was sick in the evening. At night, while my Lord was at supper, in comes my Lord Lauderdale and Sir John Greenville, who supped here, and so went away. After they were gone, my Lord called me into his cabin, and told me how he was commanded to set sail presently for the King1, and was very glad thereof, and so put me to writing of letters and other work that night till it was very late, he going to bed. I got him afterwards to sign things in bed. After I had done some more work I to bed also.

Note 1. Ordered that General Montagu (age 34) do observe the command of His Majesty for the disposing of the fleet, in order to His Majesty's returning home to England to his kingly government: and that all proceedings in law be in His Majesty's name. Rugge's Diurnal. B.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1660. Note. In the "Notices of Popular Histories", printed for the Percy Society, there is a curious woodcut representing the interior of a barber's shop, in which, according to the old custom, the person waiting to be shaved is playing on the "ghittern" till his turn arrives. Decker also mentions a "barber's cittern", for every serving-man to play upon. This is no doubt "the barber's music" with which Lord Sandwich (age 34) entertained himself. B.

1660 July Creation of Peerages

In Jul 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration ...

2nd. Maurice Berkeley 3rd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 32) was created 1st Baronet Berkeley of Bruton in Somerset. Anne Lee Viscountess Fitzhardinge (age 37) by marriage Lady Berkeley of Bruton in Somerset.

4th. Thomas Myddelton 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Myddelton of Chirk Castle.

6th. Varney Noel 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Noel.

7th. George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51) was created 1st Duke Albemarle, 1st Earl Torrington in Devon. Anne Clarges Duchess Albermarle (age 41) by marriage Duchess Albemarle.

12th. Robert Hales 1st Baronet (age 50) was created 1st Baronet Hales of Beakesbourne in Kent.

12th. Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 34) was created 1st Earl Sandwich. [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 35) by marriage Countess Sandwich.

14th. Elizabeth Feilding Countess Guildford was created 1st Earl Guildford by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). The peerage for life.

18th. Samuel Morland 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Morland of Sulhamstead Banister. Susanne de Milleville Lady Morland by marriage Lady Morland of Sulhamstead Banister.

23rd. Henry Vernon 1st Baronet (age 55) was created 1st Baronet Vernon of Hodnet in Shropshire.

23rd. John Aubrey 1st Baronet (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Aubrey of Llantrithyd in Glamorganshire.

On 02 Jul 1660 [his sister-in-law] Samuel Crew died of spotted fever.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1660. At home, and at the office, and in the garden walking with both Sir Williams all the morning. After dinner to Whitehall to Mr. Dalton, and with him to my house and took away all my papers that were left in my closet, and so I have now nothing more in the house or to do with it. We called to speak with my Landlord Beale, but he was not within but spoke with the old woman, who takes it very ill that I did not let her have it, but I did give her an answer. From thence to Sir G. Downing (age 35) and staid late there (he having sent for me to come to him), which was to tell me how my Lord Sandwich (age 35) had disappointed him of a ship to bring over his child and goods, and made great complaint thereof; but I got him to write a letter to Lawson (age 45), which it may be may do the business for him, I writing another also about it. While he was writing, and his Lady and I had a great deal of discourse in praise of Holland. By water to the Bridge, and so to Major Hart's lodgings in Cannon-street, who used me very kindly with wine and good discourse, particularly upon the ill method which Colonel Birch (age 45) and the Committee use in defending of the army and the navy; promising the Parliament to save them a great deal of money, when we judge that it will cost the King more than if they had nothing to do with it, by reason of their delays and scrupulous enquirys into the account of both. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1660. With Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) by water to White Hall, where a meeting of the Dukes of York and Albemarle, my Lord Sandwich (age 35) and all the principal officers, about the Winter Guard, but we determined of nothing. To my Lord's, who sent a great iron chest to White Hall; and I saw it carried, into the King's (age 30) closet, where I saw most incomparable pictures. Among the rest a book open upon a desk, which I durst have sworn was a reall book, and back again to my Lord, and dined all alone with him, who do treat me with a great deal of respect; and after dinner did discourse an hour with me, and advise about some way to get himself some money to make up for all his great expenses, saying that he believed that he might have any thing that he would ask of the King. This day Mr. Sheply and all my Lord's goods came from sea, some of them laid of the Wardrobe and some brought to my Lord's house. From thence to our office, where we met and did business, and so home and spent the evening looking upon the painters that are at work in my house. This day I heard the Duke speak of a great design that he and my Lord of Pembroke have, and a great many others, of sending a venture to some parts of Africa to dig for gold ore there. They intend to admit as many as will venture their money, and so make themselves a company. £250 is the lowest share for every man. But I do not find that my Lord do much like it. At night Dr. Fairbrother (for so he is lately made of the Civil Law) brought home my wife by coach, it being rainy weather, she having been abroad today to buy more furniture for her house.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1660. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 59) with Colonel Birch (age 45) to Deptford, to pay off two ships. Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I staid to do business, and afterwards together to White Hall, where I went to my Lord, and found him in bed not well, and saw in his chamber his picture1, very well done; and am with child2 till I get it copied out, which I hope to do when he is gone to sea.

Note 1. Peter Lely (age 42). Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 35) in his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

Note 2. A figurative expression for an eager longing desire, used by Udall and by Spenser. The latest authority given by Dr. Murray in the "New English Dictionary", is Bailey in 1725.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1660. This morning came the carpenters to make me a door at the other side of my house, going into the entry, which I was much pleased with. At noon my wife and I walked to the Old Exchange, and there she bought her a white whisk1 and put it on, and I a pair of gloves, and so we took coach for Whitehall to Mr. Fox's (age 33), where we found Mrs. Fox within, and an alderman of London paying £1000 or £1500 in gold upon the table for the King, which was the most gold that ever I saw together in my life. Mr. Fox (age 33) came in presently and did receive us with a great deal of respect; and then did take my wife and I to the Queen's (age 50) presence-chamber; where he got my wife placed behind the Queen's (age 50) chair, and I got into the crowd, and by and by the Queen (age 50) and the two Princesses came to dinner. The Queen (age 50) a very little plain old woman, and nothing more in her presence in any respect nor garb than any ordinary woman. The Princess of Orange I had often seen before. The Princess Henrietta is very pretty, but much below my expectation; and her dressing of herself with her hair frized short up to her ears, did make her seem so much the less to me. But my wife standing near her with two or three black patches on, and well dressed, did seem to me much handsomer than she. Dinner being done, we went to Mr. Fox's (age 33) again, where many gentlemen dined with us, and most princely dinner, all provided for me and my friends, but I bringing none but myself and wife, he did call the company to help to eat up so much good victuals. At the end of dinner, my Lord Sandwich's (age 35) health was drunk in the gilt tankard that I did give to Mrs. Fox the other day. After dinner I had notice given me by Will my man that my Lord did inquire for me, so I went to find him, and met him and the Duke of York (age 27) in a coach going towards Charing Cross. I endeavoured to follow them but could not, so I returned to Mr. Fox (age 33), and after much kindness and good discourse we parted from thence. I took coach for my wife and me homewards, and I light at the Maypole in the Strand, and sent my wife home. I to the new playhouse and saw part of the "Traitor", a very good Tragedy; Mr. Moon did act the Traitor very well. So to my Lord's, and sat there with my Lady a great while talking. Among other things, she took occasion to inquire (by Madame Dury's late discourse with her) how I did treat my wife's father and mother. At which I did give her a good account, and she seemed to be very well opinioned of my wife. From thence to White Hall at about 9 at night, and there, with Laud the page that went with me, we could not get out of Henry the Eighth's gallery into the further part of the boarded gallery, where my Lord was walking with my Lord Ormond; and we had a key of Sir S. Morland's, but all would not do; till at last, by knocking, Mr. Harrison the door-keeper did open us the door, and, after some talk with my Lord about getting a catch to carry my Lord St. Albans a goods to France, I parted and went home on foot, it being very late and dirty, and so weary to bed.

Note 1. A gorget or neckerchief worn by women at this time. "A woman's neck whisk is used both plain and laced, and is called of most a gorget or falling whisk, because it falleth about the shoulders". -Randle Hohnt (quoted by Planche).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1660. That being done I went to my Lord's (age 35), where I found him private at cards with my Lord Lauderdale (age 44) and some persons of honour. So Mr. Shepley and I over to Harper's, and there drank a pot or two, and so parted. My boy taking a cat home with him from my Lord's, which Sarah had given him for my wife (age 20) we being much troubled with mice.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1661. Lord's Day. Before I rose, letters come to me from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], telling me that the Princess (age 16) is now well, and my Lord Sandwich (age 35) set sail with the Queen (age 51) and her yesterday from thence for France.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1661. To church again, a good sermon of Mr. Mills, and after sermon Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I an hour in the garden talking, and he did answer me to many things, I asked Mr. Coventry's (age 33) opinion of me, and Sir W. Batten's (age 60) of my Lord Sandwich (age 35), which do both please me. Then to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), where very merry, and here I met the Comptroller (age 50) and his lady and daughter (the first time I ever saw them) and Mrs. Turner (age 38), who and her husband supped with us here (I having fetched my wife thither), and after supper we fell to oysters, and then Mr. Turner went and fetched some strong waters, and so being very merry we parted, and home to bed. This day the parson read a proclamation at church, for the keeping of Wednesday next, the 30th of January, a fast for the murther of the late King.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1661. By coach to Whitehall with Colonel Slingsby (age 50) (carrying Mrs. Turner (age 38) with us) and there he and I up into the house, where we met with Sir G. Carteret (age 51): who afterwards, with the Duke of York (age 27), my Lord Sandwich (age 35), and others, went into a private room to consult: and we were a little troubled that we were not called in with the rest. But I do believe it was upon something very private. We staid walking in the gallery; where we met with Mr. Slingsby, that was formerly a great friend of Mons. Blondeau, who showed me the stamps of the King's new coyne; which is strange to see, how good they are in the stamp and bad in the money, for lack of skill to make them. But he says Blondeau will shortly come over, and then we shall have it better, and the best in the world1.

Note 1. Peter Blondeau, medallist, was invited to London from Paris in 1649, and appointed by the Council of State to coin their money; but the moneyers succeeded in driving him out of the country. Soon after the Restoration he returned, and was appointed engineer to the mint.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1661. Sir Wm. Pen (age 39) and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 35) by coach in the morning to see him, but he takes physic to-day and so we could not see him. So he went away, and I with Luellin to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cockpit [Map], where he did lie of old, and there we drank, and from thence to W. Symons where we found him abroad, but she, like a good lady, within, and there we did eat some nettle porrige, which was made on purpose to-day for some of their coming, and was very good. With her we sat a good while, merry in discourse, and so away, Luellin and I to my Lord's, and there dined. He told me one of the prettiest stories, how Mr. Blurton, his friend that was with him at my house three or four days ago, did go with him the same day from my house to the Fleet tavern by Guildhall [Map], and there (by some pretence) got the mistress of the house into their company, and by and by Luellin calling him Doctor she thought that he really was so, and did privately discover her disease to him, which was only some ordinary infirmity belonging to women, and he proffering her physic, she desired him to come some day and bring it, which he did.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. In which it is impossible to relate the glory of this day, expressed in the clothes of them that rid, and their horses and horses clothes, among others, my Lord Sandwich's (age 35). Embroidery and diamonds were ordinary among them. The Knights of the Bath was a brave sight of itself; and their Esquires, among which Mr. Armiger was an Esquire to one of the Knights. Remarquable were the two men that represent the two Dukes of Normandy and Aquitane. The Bishops come next after Barons, which is the higher place; which makes me think that the next Parliament they will be called to the House of Lords. My Lord Monk (age 52) rode bare after the King, and led in his hand a spare horse, as being Master of the Horse. The King, in a most rich embroidered suit and cloak, looked most noble. Wadlow1, the vintner, at the Devil [Map]; in Fleetstreet, did lead a fine company of soldiers, all young comely men, in white doublets. There followed the Vice-Chamberlain, Sir G. Carteret (age 51), a company of men all like Turks; but I know not yet what they are for.

Note 1. Simon Wadlow was the original of "old Sir Simon the king", the favourite air of Squire Western in "Tom Jones". "Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers, Cries old Sim, the king of skinkers". Ben Jonson, Verses over the door into the Apollo.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. Then the Duke (age 27), and the King with a scepter (carried by my Lord Sandwich (age 35)) and sword and mond1 before him, and the crown too. The King in his robes, bare-headed, which was very fine. And after all had placed themselves, there was a sermon and the service; and then in the Quire at the high altar, the King passed through all the ceremonies of the Coronacon, which to my great grief I and most in the Abbey could not see.

Note 1. Mond or orb of gold, with a cross set with precious stones, carried by the Duke of Buckingham (age 33).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jun 1661. This day Mr. Holden sent me a bever, which cost me £4 5s1.

Note 1. Whilst a hat (see January 28th, 1660-61, ante) cost only 35s. See also Lord Sandwich's (age 35) vexation at his beaver being stolen, and a hat only left in lieu of it, April 30th, 1661, ante; and April 19th and 26th, 1662, Post. B.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1661. At the office this morning. At home in the afternoon, and had notice that my Lord Hinchingbroke is fallen ill, which I fear is with the fruit that I did give them on Saturday last at my house: so in the evening I went thither and there found him very ill, and in great fear of the smallpox. I supped with my Lady, and did consult about him, but we find it best to let him lie where he do; and so I went home with my heart full of trouble for my Lord Hinchingbroke's sickness, and more for my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) himself, whom we are now confirmed is sick ashore at Alicante, who, if he should miscarry, God knows in what condition would his family be. I dined to-day with my Lord Crew, who is now at Sir H. Wright's (age 24), while his new house is making fit for him, and he is much troubled also at these things.

On 20 Aug 1661 [his daughter] Catherine Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 36) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 36).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1661. At night at home I found a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 36), who is now very well again of his feaver, but not yet gone from Alicante, where he lay sick, and was twice let blood. This letter dated the 22nd July last, which puts me out of doubt of his being ill. In my coming home I called in at the Crane tavern at the Stocks by appointment, and there met and took leave of Mr. Fanshaw, who goes to-morrow and Captain Isham (age 33) toward their voyage to Portugal. Here we drank a great deal of wine, I too much and Mr. Fanshaw till he could hardly go. So we took leave one of another.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1661. Thus ends the month. My maid Jane newly gone, and Pall left now to do all the work till another maid comes, which shall not be till she goes away into the country with my mother. Myself and wife in good health. My Lord Sandwich (age 36) in the Straits and newly recovered of a great sickness at Alicante. My father gone to settle at Brampton, and myself under much business and trouble for to settle things in the estate to our content. But what is worst, I find myself lately too much given to seeing of plays, and expense, and pleasure, which makes me forget my business, which I must labour to amend. No money comes in, so that I have been forced to borrow a great deal for my own expenses, and to furnish my father, to leave things in order. I have some trouble about my brother Tom (age 27), who is now left to keep my father's trade, in which I have great fears that he will miscarry for want of brains and care. At Court things are in very ill condition, there being so much emulacion, poverty, and the vices of drinking, swearing, and loose amours, that I know not what will be the end of it, but confusion. And the Clergy so high, that all people that I meet with do protest against their practice. In short, I see no content or satisfaction any where, in any one sort of people. The Benevolence1 proves so little, and an occasion of so much discontent every where; that it had better it had never been set up. I think to subscribe £20. We are at our Office quiet, only for lack of money all things go to rack. Our very bills offered to be sold upon the Exchange [Map] at 10 per cent. loss. We are upon getting Sir R. Ford's (age 47) house added to our Office. But I see so many difficulties will follow in pleasing of one another in the dividing of it, and in becoming bound personally to pay the rent of £200 per annum, that I do believe it will yet scarce come to pass. The season very sickly every where of strange and fatal fevers.

Note 1. A voluntary contribution made by the subjects to their sovereign. Upon this occasion the clergy alone gave £33,743: See May 31st, 1661.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1661. Dined at home, and then with my wife to the Wardrobe, where my [his wife] Lady's (age 36) [his daughter] child was christened (my Lord Crew and his Lady, and my Baroness Montagu, my Lord's mother-in-law, were the witnesses), and named Katherine1 (the Queen elect's (age 22) name); but to my and all our trouble, the Parson of the parish christened her, and did not sign the child with the sign of the cross.

Note 1. Lady Katherine Montagu, youngest daughter of Lord Sandwich (age 36), married, first, Nicholas Bacon, eldest son and heir of Sir Nicholas Bacon, K.B., of Shrubland Hall, co. Suffolk; and, secondly, the Rev. Balthazar Gardeman. She died January 15th, 1757, at ninety-six years, four months. B.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1661. This morning up by moon-shine, at 5 o'clock, to White Hall, to meet Mr. Moore at the Privy Seal, but he not being come as appointed, I went into King Street to the Red Lyon' to drink my morning draft, and there I heard of a fray between the two Embassadors of Spain and France; and that, this day, being the day of the entrance of an Embassador from Sweden, they intended to fight for the precedence! Our King, I heard, ordered that no Englishman should meddle in the business1, but let them do what they would. And to that end all the soldiers in the town were in arms all the day long, and some of the train-bands in the City; and a great bustle through the City all the day. Then I to the Privy Seal, and there Mr. Moore and a gentleman being come with him, we took coach (which was the business I come for) to Chelsy, to my Lord Privy Seal, and there got him to seal the business. Here I saw by day-light two very fine pictures in the gallery, that a little while ago I saw by night; and did also go all over the house, and found it to be the prettiest contrived house that ever I saw in my life. So to coach back again; and at White Hall light, and saw the soldiers and people running up and down the streets. So I went to the Spanish Embassador's and the French, and there saw great preparations on both sides; but the French made the most noise and vaunted most, the other made no stir almost at all; so that I was afraid the other would have had too great a conquest over them. Then to the Wardrobe, and dined there, end then abroad and in Cheapside hear that the Spanish hath got the best of it, and killed three of the French coach-horses and several men, and is gone through the City next to our King's coach; at which, it is strange to see how all the City did rejoice. And indeed we do naturally all love the Spanish, and hate the French. But I, as I am in all things curious, presently got to the water-side, and there took oars to Westminster Palace, thinking to have seen them come in thither with all the coaches, but they being come and returned, I ran after them with my boy after me through all the dirt and the streets full of people; till at last, at the Mewes, I saw the Spanish coach go, with fifty drawn swords at least to guard it, and our soldiers shouting for joy. And so I followed the coach, and then met it at York House [Map], where the embassador lies; and there it went in with great state. So then I went to the French house, where I observe still, that there is no men in the world of a more insolent spirit where they do well, nor before they begin a matter, and more abject if they do miscarry, than these people are; for they all look like dead men, and not a word among them, but shake their heads. The truth is, the Spaniards were not only observed to fight most desperately, but also they did outwitt them; first in lining their own harness with chains of iron that they could not be cut, then in setting their coach in the most advantageous place, and to appoint men to guard every one of their horses, and others for to guard the coach, and others the coachmen. And, above all, in setting upon the French horses and killing them, for by that means the French were not able to stir. There were several men slain of the French, and one or two of the Spaniards, and one Englishman by a bullet. Which is very observable, the French were at least four to one in number, and had near 100 case of pistols among them, and the Spaniards had not one gun among them; which is for their honour for ever, and the others' disgrace. So, having been very much daubed with dirt, I got a coach, and home where I vexed my wife in telling of her this story, and pleading for the Spaniards against the French. So ends this month; myself and family in good condition of health, but my head full of my Lord's and my own and the office business; where we are now very busy about the business of sending forces to Tangier2, and the fleet to my Lord of Sandwich, who is now at Lisbon to bring over the Queen, who do now keep a Court as Queen of England. The business of Argier hath of late troubled me, because my Lord hath not done what he went for, though he did as much as any man in the world could have done. The want of money puts all things, and above all things the Nary, out of order; and yet I do not see that the King takes care to bring in any money, but thinks of new designs to lay out money.

Note 1. The Comte de Brienne insinuates, in his "Memoirs", that Charles purposely abstained from interfering, in the belief that it was for his interest to let France and Spain quarrel, in order to further his own designs in the match with Portugal. Louis certainly held that opinion; and he afterwards instructed D'Estrades to solicit from the English court the punishment of those Londoners who had insulted his ambassador, and to demand the dismissal of De Batteville. Either no Londoner had interfered, or Louis's demand had not in England the same force as in Spain; for no one was punished. The latter part of his request it was clearly not for Charles to entertain, much less enforce. B.

Note 2. This place so often mentioned, was first given up to the English fleet under Lord Sandwich (age 36), by the Portuguese, January 30th, 1662; and Lord Peterborough left governor, with a garrison. The greatest pains were afterwards taken to preserve the fortress, and a fine mole was constructed at a vast expense, to improve the harbour. At length, after immense sums of money had been wasted there, the House of Commons expressed a dislike to the management of the garrison, which they suspected to be a nursery for a popish army, and seemed disinclined to maintain it any longer. The king consequently, in 1683, sent Lord Dartmouth to bring home the troops, and destroy the works; which he performed so effectually, that it would puzzle all our engineers to restore the harbour. It were idle to speculate on the benefits which might have accrued to England, by its preservation and retention; Tangier fell into the hands of the Moors, its importance having ceased, with the demolition of the mole. Many curious views of Tangier were taken by Hollar, during its occupation by the English; and his drawings are preserved in the British Museum. Some have been engraved by himself; but the impressions are of considerable rarity. B.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1661. To Westminster Hall [Map] by water in the morning, where I saw the King (age 31) going in his barge to the Parliament House; this being the first day of their meeting again. And the Bishops, I hear, do take their places in the Lords House this day. I walked long in the Hall, but hear nothing of news, but what Ned Pickering (age 43) tells me, which I am troubled at, that Sir J. Minnes (age 62) should send word to the King (age 31), that if he did not remove all my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) captains out of this fleet, he believed the King (age 31) would not be master of the fleet at its coming again: and so do endeavour to bring disgrace upon my Lord. But I hope all that will not do, for the King (age 31) loves him.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1661. At home all the morning; at noon Will brought me from Whitehall, whither I had sent him, some letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 36), from Tangier; where he continues still, and hath done some execution upon the Turks, and retaken an Englishman from them, of one Mr. Parker's, a merchant in Marke-lane. In the afternoon Mr. Pett (age 51) and I met at the office; there being none more there than we two I saw there was not the reverence due to us observed, and so I took occasion to break up and took Mr. Gawdon along with me, and he and I (though it rained) were resolved to go, he to my Lord Treasurer's and I to the Chancellor's with a letter from my Lord to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1661. So by coach home, and to supper, and to bed, having staid up till 12 at night writing letters to my Lord Sandwich (age 36) and all my friends with him at sea, to send to-morrow by Mons. Eschar, who goes tomorrow post to the Downs to go along with the fleet to Portugall.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1661. And so back again to Westminster Hall [Map], and thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) lodging, where I met my wife (who had been to see Mrs. Hunt who was brought to bed the other day of a boy), and got a joint of meat thither from the Cook's, and she and I and Sarah dined together, and after dinner to the Opera, where there was a new play ("Cutter of Coleman Street")1, made in the year 1658, with reflections much upon the late times; and it being the first time, the pay was doubled, and so to save money, my wife and I went up into the gallery, and there sat and saw very well; and a very good play it is. It seems of Cowly's (age 43) making. From thence by coach home, and to bed.

Note 1. Cutter, an old word for a rough swaggerer: hence the title of Cowley's (age 43) play. It was originally called "The Guardian", when acted before Prince Charles at Trinity College, Cambridge, on March 12th, 1641.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1662. This morning came my cozen Thos. Pepys the Executor, to speak with me, and I had much talk with him both about matters of money which my Lord Sandwich (age 36) has of his and I am bond for, as also of my uncle Thomas, who I hear by him do stand upon very high terms.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1662. Thence to supper with my wife to Sir W. Pen's (age 40), his daughter being come home to-day, not being very well, and so while we were at supper comes Mr. Moore with letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 36), speaking of his lying still at Tangier, looking for the fleet; which, we hope, is now in a good way thither.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1662. Within all the morning and at the office. At noon my wife and I (having paid our maid Nell her whole wages, who has been with me half a year, and now goes away for altogether) to the Wardrobe, where my Lady and company had almost dined. We sat down and dined. Here was Mr. Herbert (age 22), son to Sir Charles Herbert, that lately came with letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 36) to the King (age 31). After some discourse we remembered one another to have been together at the tavern when Mr. Fanshaw took his leave of me at his going to Portugall with Sir Richard.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1662. At the office good part of the morning, and then about noon with my wife on foot to the Wardrobe. My wife went up to the dining room to my [his daughter] Lady Paulina (age 13), and I staid below talking with Mr. Moore in the parley, reading of the King's and Chancellor's late speeches at the proroguing of the Houses of Parliament. And while I was reading, news was brought me that my Lord Sandwich (age 36) is come and gone up to my Lady, which put me into great suspense of joy, so I went up waiting my Lord's coming out of my Lady's chamber, which by and by he did, and looks very well, and my soul is glad to see him. He very merry, and hath left the King (age 31) and Queen (age 23) at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and is come up to stay here till next Wednesday, and then to meet the King (age 31) and Queen (age 23) at Hampton Court [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1662. That the Juego de Toros is a simple sport, yet the greatest in Spain. That the Queen (age 23) hath given no rewards to any of the captains or officers, but only to my Lord Sandwich (age 36); and that was a bag of gold, which was no honourable present, of about £1400 sterling. How recluse the Queen (age 23) hath ever been, and all the voyage never come upon the deck, nor put her head out of her cabin; but did love my Lord's musique, and would send for it down to the state-room, and she sit in her cabin within hearing of it. That my Lord was forced to have some clashing with the Council of Portugall about payment of the portion, before he could get it; which was, besides Tangier and a free trade in the Indys, two millions of crowns, half now, and the other half in twelve months. But they have brought but little money; but the rest in sugars and other commoditys, and bills of exchange.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1662. My Lord Sandwich (age 36) is lately come with the Queen (age 23) from sea, very well and in good repute.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1662. Coming home to-night, I met with Will. Swan, who do talk as high for the Fanatiques as ever he did in his life; and do pity my Lord Sandwich (age 36) and me that we should be given up to the wickedness of the world; and that a fall is coming upon us all; for he finds that he and his company are the true spirit of the nation, and the greater part of the nation too, who will have liberty of conscience in spite of this "Act of Uniformity", or they will die; and if they may not preach abroad, they will preach in their own houses. He told me that certainly Sir H. Vane (deceased) must be gone to Heaven, for he died as much a martyr and saint as ever man did; and that the King (age 32) hath lost more by that man's death, than he will get again a good while. At all which I know not what to think; but, I confess, I do think that the Bishops will never be able to carry it so high as they do.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1662. At noon to the Exchange [Map] to meet Dr. Williams, who sent me this morning notice of his going into the country tomorrow, but could not find him, but meeting with Frank Moore, my Lord Lambeth's man formerly, we, and two or three friends of his did go to a tavern, and there they drank, but I nothing but small beer. In the next room one was playing very finely of the dulcimer, which well played I like well, but one of our own company, a talking fellow, did in discourse say much of this Act against Seamen1, for their being brought to account; and that it was made on purpose for my Lord Sandwich (age 36), who was in debt £100,000, and hath been forced to have pardon oftentimes from Oliver for the same: at which I was vexed at him, but thought it not worth my trouble to oppose what he said, but took leave and went home, and after a little dinner to my office again, and in the evening Sir W. Warren came to me about business, and that being done, discoursing of deals, I did offer to go along with him among his deal ships, which we did to half a score, where he showed me the difference between Dram, Swinsound, Christiania, and others, and told me many pleasant notions concerning their manner of cutting and sawing them by watermills, and the reason how deals become dearer and cheaper, among others, when the snow is not so great as to fill up the values that they may pass from hill to hill over the snow, then it is dear carriage. From on board he took me to his yard, where vast and many places of deals, sparrs, and bulks, &c., the difference between which I never knew before, and indeed am very proud of this evening's work. He had me into his house, which is most pretty and neat and well furnished. After a glass, not of wine, for I would not be tempted to drink any, but a glass of mum, I well home by water, but it being late was forced to land at the Custom House and so home and to bed, and after I was a-bed, letters came from the Duke for the fitting out of four ships forthwith from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] (I know not yet for what) so I was forced to make Will get them wrote, and signed them in bed and sent them away by express. And so to sleep.

Note 1. In 1662 was passed "An Act for providing of carriage by land and by water for the use of His Majesty's Navy and Ordinance" (13-14 Gar. II, cap. 20), which gave power for impressing seamen, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1662. So Mr. Coventry (age 34) to London, and Pett and I to the Pay, where Sir Williams both were paying off The Royal James still, and so to dinner, and to the Pay again, where I did relieve several of my Lord Sandwich's (age 36) people, but was sorry to see them so peremptory, and at every word would, complain to my Lord, as if they shall have such a command over my Lord.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1662. Among my workmen early: then to the office, and there I had letters from the Downs from Mr. Coventry (age 34); who tells me of the foul weather they had last Sunday, that drove them back from near Boulogne, whither they were going for the Queen (age 52), back again to the Downs, with the loss of their cables, sayles, and masts; but are all safe, only my Lord Sandwich (age 36), who went before with the yachts; they know not what is become of him, which do trouble me much; but I hope he got ashore before the storm begun; which God grant!

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1662. At night home, and late packing up things in order to their going to Brampton to-morrow, and so to bed, quite out of sorts in my mind by reason that the weather is so bad, and my house all full of wet, and the trouble of going from one house to another to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) upon every occasion. Besides much disturbed by reason of the talk up and down the town, that my Lord Sandwich (age 36) is lost; but I trust in God the contrary.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jul 1662. Up early this morning sending the things to the carrier's, and my boy, who goes to-day, though his mistress do not till next Monday. All the morning at the office, Sir W. Batten (age 61) being come to town last night. I hear, to my great content, that my Lord Sandwich (age 36) is safe landed in France.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1662. So I took leave of her and walked to the waterside, and there took boat for the Tower; hearing that the Queen-Mother (age 52) is come this morning already as high as Woolwich, Kent [Map]: and that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) was with her; at which my heart was glad, and I sent the waterman, though yet not very certain of it, to my wife to carry news thereof to my Lady.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1662. Up early, and to my office, where Cooper came to me and begun his lecture upon the body of a ship, which my having of a modell in the office is of great use to me, and very pleasant and useful it is. Then by water to White Hall, and there waited upon my Lord Sandwich (age 37); and joyed him, at his lodgings, of his safe coming home after all his danger, which he confesses to be very great. And his people do tell me how bravely my Lord did carry himself, while my Lord Crofts (age 51) did cry; and I perceive it is all the town talk how poorly he carried himself. But the best was of one Mr. Rawlins, a courtier, that was with my Lord; and in the greatest danger cried, "God damn me, my Lord, I won't give you three-pence for your place now". But all ends in the honour of the pleasure-boats; which, had they not been very good boats, they could never have endured the sea as they did.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1662. And so to dinner to Trinity House, Deptford [Map], and thence by his coach towards White Hall; but there being a stop at the Savoy, we 'light and took water, and my Lord Sandwich (age 37) being out of town, we parted there, all the way having good discourse, and in short I find him the most ingenuous person I ever found in my life, and am happy in his acquaintance and my interest in him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1662. After sitting, Sir G. Carteret (age 52) and I walked a good while in the garden, who told me that Sir W. Batten (age 61) had made his complaint to him that some of us had a mind to do him a bad turn, but I do not see that Sir George (age 52) is concerned for him at all, but rather against him. He professes all love to me, and did tell me how he had spoke of me to my Lord Chancellor (age 53), and that if my Lord Sandwich (age 37) would ask my Lord Chancellor (age 53), he should know what he had said of me to him to my advantage, of which I am very glad, and do not doubt that all things will grow better and better every day for me.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Aug 1662. Up early, and to my office, and thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), whom I found in bed, and he sent for me in. Among other talk, he do tell me that he hath put me into commission with a great many great persons in the business of Tangier, which is a very great honour to me, and may be of good concernment to me.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1662. Up betimes at my lodging and to my office and among my workmen, and then with Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Sir W. Pen (age 41) by coach to St. James's, this being the first day of our meeting there by the Duke's (age 28) order; but when we come, we found him going out by coach with his Duchess (age 25), and he told us he was to go abroad with the Queen (age 23) to-day (to Durdans, it seems, to dine with my Lord Barkeley (age 34), where I have been very merry when I was a little boy); so we went and staid a little at Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who is gone to wait upon the King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) today.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1662. Up betimes and among my workmen, and among them all the morning till noon, and then to my Lord Crew's, and there dined alone with him, and among other things he do advise me by all means to keep my Lord Sandwich (age 37) from proceeding too far in the business of Tangier. First, for that he is confident the King (age 32) will not be able to find money for the building the Mole; and next, for that it is to be done as we propose it by the reducing of the garrison; and then either my Lord must oppose the Duke of York (age 28), who will have the Irish regiment under the command of Fitzgerald continued, or else my Lord Peterborough (age 40), who is concerned to have the English continued, and he, it seems, is gone back again merely upon my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) encouragement.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1662. My condition at present is this: I have long been building, and my house to my great content is now almost done. But yet not so but that I shall have dirt, which troubles me too, for my wife has been in the country at Brampton these two months, and is now come home a week or two before the house is ready for her. My mind is somewhat troubled about my best chamber, which I question whether I shall be able to keep or no. I am also troubled for the journey which I must needs take suddenly to the Court at Brampton, but most of all for that I am not provided to understand my business, having not minded it a great while, and at the best shall be able but to make a bad matter of it, but God, I hope, will guide all to the best, and I am resolved to-morrow to fall hard to it. I pray God help me therein, for my father and mother and all our well-doings do depend upon my care therein. My Lord Sandwich (age 37) has lately been in the country, and very civil to my wife, and hath himself spent some pains in drawing a plot of some alterations in our house there, which I shall follow as I get money. As for the office, my late industry hath been such, as I am become as high in reputation as any man there, and good hold I have of Mr. Coventry (age 34) and Sir G. Carteret (age 52), which I am resolved, and it is necessary for me, to maintain by all fair means. Things are all quiett, but the King poor, and no hopes almost of his being otherwise, by which things will go to rack, especially in the Navy. The late outing of the Presbyterian clergy by their not renouncing the Covenant as the Act of Parliament commands, is the greatest piece of state now in discourse. But for ought I see they are gone out very peaceably, and the people not so much concerned therein as was expected. My brother Tom (age 28) is gone out of town this day, to make a second journey to his mistress at Banbury, of which I have good expectations, and pray God to bless him therein. My mind, I hope, is settled to follow my business again, for I find that two days' neglect of business do give more discontent in mind than ten times the pleasure thereof can repair again, be it what it will.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1662. Up and to the office, where we sat till noon, and then to dinner, and Mr. Moore came and dined with me, and after dinner to look over my Brampton papers, which was a most necessary work, though it is not so much to my content as I could wish. I fear that it must be as it can, and not as I would. He being gone I to my workmen again, and at night by coach towards Whitehall took up Mr. Moore and set him at my Lord's, and myself, hearing that there was a play at the Cockpit [Map] (and my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who came to town last night, at it), I do go thither, and by very great fortune did follow four or five gentlemen who were carried to a little private door in a wall, and so crept through a narrow place and come into one of the boxes next the King's, but so as I could not see the King (age 32) or Queene (age 52), but many of the fine ladies, who yet are really not so handsome generally as I used to take them to be, but that they are finely dressed. Here we saw "The Cardinall", a tragedy I had never seen before, nor is there any great matter in it. The company that came in with me into the box, were all Frenchmen that could speak no English, but Lord! what sport they made to ask a pretty lady that they got among them that understood both French and English to make her tell them what the actors said.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. At Woolwich, Kent [Map] we mustered the yard, and then to the Hart to dinner, and then to the Rope-yard [Map], where I did vex Sir W. Pen (age 41) I know to appear so well acquainted, I thought better than he, in the business of hemp; thence to Deptford, and there looked over several businesses, and wakened the officers there; so walked to Redriffe [Map], and thence, landing Sir W. Pen (age 41) at the Tower, I to White Hall with Mr. Coventry (age 34), and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, but my Lord was not within, being at a ball this night with the King (age 32) at my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) at next door.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. Then we fell to reading of a book which I saw the other day at my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), intended for the late King, finely bound up, a treatise concerning the benefit the Hollanders make of our fishing, but whereas I expected great matters from it, I find it a very impertinent [book], and though some things good, yet so full of tautologies, that we were weary of it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1662. Up and by water to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and was with him a good while in his chamber, and among other things to my extraordinary joy, he did tell me how much I was beholding to the Duke of York (age 28), who did yesterday of his own accord tell him that he did thank him for one person brought into the Navy, naming myself, and much more to my commendation, which is the greatest comfort and encouragement that ever I had in my life, and do owe it all to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) goodness and ingenuity. I was glad above measure of this.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1662. Up early about my business to get me ready for my journey. But first to the office; where we sat all the morning till noon, and then broke up; and I bid them adieu for a week, having the Duke's leave got me by Mr. Coventry (age 34). To whom I did give thanks for my newes yesterday of the Duke's words to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) concerning me, which he took well; and do tell me so freely his love and value of me, that my mind is now in as great a state of quiett as to my interest in the office, as I could ever wish to be. I should this day have dined at Sir W. Pen's (age 41) at a venison pasty with the rest of our fellows, but I could not get time, but sent for a bit home, and so between one and two o'clock got on horseback at our back gate, with my man Will with me, both well-mounted on two grey horses. We rode and got to Ware, Hertfordshire [Map] before night; and so resolved to ride on to Puckeridge, which we did, though the way was bad, and the evening dark before we got thither, by help of company riding before us; and among others, a gentleman that took up at the same inn, the Falcon, with me, his name Mr. Brian, with whom I supped, and was very good company, and a scholar. He tells me, that it is believed the Queen (age 23) is with child, for that the coaches are ordered to ride very easily through the streets.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1662. Then to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) by water, and told him how well things do go in the country with me, of which he was very glad, and seems to concern himself much for me.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1662. Up, and carrying my wife and her brother to Covent Garden [Map], near their father's new lodging, by coach, I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who receives me now more and more kindly, now he sees that I am respected in the world; and is my most noble patron. Here I staid and talked about many things, with my Lord and Mr. Povy (age 48), being there about Tangier business, for which the Commission is a taking out. Hence (after talking with Mr. Cooke, whom I met here about Mrs. Butler's portion, he do persist to say that it will be worth £600 certain, when he knows as well as I do now that it is but £400, and so I told him, but he is a fool, and has made fools of us).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. After dinner he and I into another room over a pot of ale and talked. He showed me our commission, wherein the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), Lord Peterborough (age 40), Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir William Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir William Rider, Mr. Cholmley, Mr. Povy (age 48), myself, and Captain Cuttance, in this order are joyned for the carrying on the service of Tangier, which I take for a great honour to me.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. Afterwards he told me of poor Mr. Spong, that being with other people examined before the King (age 32) and Council (they being laid up as suspected persons; and it seems Spong is so far thought guilty as that they intend to pitch upon him to put to the wracke or some other torture), he do take knowledge of my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and said that he was well known to Mr. Pepys. But my Lord knows, and I told him, that it was only in matter of musique and pipes, but that I thought him to be a very innocent fellow; and indeed I am very sorry for him. After my Lord and I had done in private, we went out, and with Captain Cuttance and Bunn did look over their draught of a bridge for Tangier, which will be brought by my desire to our office by them to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who now-a-days calls me into his chamber, and alone did discourse with me about the jealousy that the Court have of people's rising; wherein he do much dislike my Lord Monk's (age 53) being so eager against a company of poor wretches, dragging them up and down the street; but would have him rather to take some of the greatest ringleaders of them, and punish them; whereas this do but tell the world the King's fears and doubts.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1662. I have also a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 37) desiring me upon matters of concernment to be with him early tomorrow morning, which I wonder what it should be.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. Could sleep but little to-night for thoughts of my business. So up by candlelight and by water to Whitehall, and so to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who was up in his chamber and all alone, did acquaint me with his business; which was, that our old acquaintance Mr. Wade (in Axe Yard [Map]) hath discovered to him £7,000 hid in the Tower, of which he was to have two for discovery; my Lord himself two, and the King (age 32) the other three, when it was found; and that the King's warrant runs for me on my Lord's part, and one Mr. Lee for Sir Harry Bennet (age 44), to demand leave of the Lieutenant of the Tower for to make search. After he had told me the whole business, I took leave and hastened to my office, expecting to be called by a letter from my Lord to set upon the business, and so there I sat with the officers all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. But, Lord! to see what a young simple fantastique coxcombe is made Deputy Governor, would make one mad; and how he called out for his night-gown of silk, only to make a show to us; and yet for half an hour I did not think he was the Deputy Governor, and so spoke not to him about the business, but waited for another man; at last I broke our business to him; and he promising his care, we parted. And Mr. Leigh and I by coach to White Hall, where I did give my Lord Sandwich (age 37) an account of our proceedings, and some encouragement to hope for something hereafter, and so bade him good-night, and so by coach home again, where to my trouble I found that the painter had not been here to-day to do any thing, which vexes me mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1662. I am now also busy in a discovery for my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and Sir H. Bennett (age 44) by Mr. Wade's means of some of Baxter's [Barkstead] money hid in one of his cellars in the Tower. If we get it it may be I may be 10 or £20 the better for it. I thank God I have no crosses, but only much business to trouble my mind with. In all other things as happy a man as any in the world, for the whole world seems to smile upon me, and if my house were done that I could diligently follow my business, I would not doubt to do God, and the King (age 32), and myself good service.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), from whom I receive every day more and more signs of his confidence and esteem of me. Here I met with Pierce the chyrurgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) is with child; but though it be the King's, yet her Lord (age 28) being still in town, and sometimes seeing of her, though never to eat or lie together, it will be laid to him. He tells me also how the Duke of York (age 29) is smitten in love with my Lady Chesterfield (age 22)1 (a virtuous lady, daughter to my Lord of Ormond (age 52)); and so much, that the Duchess of York (age 25) hath complained to the King (age 32) and her father (age 53) about it, and my Lady Chesterfield (age 22) is gone into the country for it. At all which I am sorry; but it is the effect of idleness, and having nothing else to employ their great spirits upon.

Note 1. Lady Elizabeth Butler (age 22), daughter of James Butler (age 52), first Duke of Ormond, second wife of Philip Stanhope (age 28), second Earl of Chesterfield. She died July, 1665 (see "Memoires de Grammont", chap. viii.). Peter Cunningham thinks that this banishment was only temporary, for, according to the Grammont Memoirs, she was in town when the Russian ambassador was in London, December, 1662, and January, 1662- 63. "It appears from the books of the Lord Steward's office... that Lord Chesterfield (age 28) set out for the country on the 12th May, 1663, and, from his 'Short Notes' referred to in the Memoirs before his Correspondence, that he remained at Bretby, in Derbyshire, with his wife, throughout the summer of that year" ("Story of Nell Gwyn", 1852, p. 189).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1662. Up betimes and to set my workmen to work, and then a little to the office, and so with Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and myself by coach to White Hall, to the Duke (age 29), who, after he was ready, did take us into his closett. Thither come my Lord General Monk (age 53), and did privately talk with the Duke (age 29) about having the life-guards pass through the City today only for show and to fright people, for I perceive there are great fears abroad; for all which I am troubled and full of doubt that things will not go well. He being gone, we fell to business of the Navy. Among other things, how to pay off this fleet that is now come from Portugall; the King (age 32) of Portugall sending them home, he having no more use for them, which we wonder at, that his condition should be so soon altered. And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country. Having done here I went by my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who was not at home, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where full of term, and here met with many about business, among others my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), who is all for a composition with my uncle Thomas, which upon any fair terms I am for also and desire it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple [Map] and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change [Map], and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt [Map], and we had excellent places, and saw the King (age 32), Queen (age 23), Duke of Monmouth (age 13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1662. Thence the King (age 32) to Woolwich, Kent [Map], though a very cold day; and the Duke (age 29) to White Hall, commanding us to come after him, which we did by coach; and in his closett, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) being there, did discourse with us about getting some of this money to pay off the Fleets, and other matters; and then away hence, and, it being almost dinner time, I to my Lord Crew's, and dined with him, and had very good discourse, and he seemed to be much pleased with my visits.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1662. Up and to the office all the morning, and at noon with the rest, by Mr. Holy, the ironmonger's invitation, to the Dolphin, to a venison pasty, very good, and rare at this time of the year, and thence by coach with Mr. Coventry (age 34) as far as the Temple [Map], and thence to Greatorex's (age 37), where I staid and talked with him, and got him to mend my pocket ruler for me, and so by coach to my Lord's lodging, where I sat with Mr. Moore by appointment, making up accounts for my Lord Sandwich (age 37), which done he and I and Capt. Ferrers and W. Howe very merry a good while in the great dining room, and so it being late and my Lord not coming in, I by coach to the Temple [Map], and thence walked home, and so to my study to do some business, and then home and to bed. Great talk among people how some of the Fanatiques do say that the end of the world is at hand, and that next Tuesday is to be the day. Against which, whenever it shall be, good God fit us all.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1662. A very hard frost; which is news to us after having none almost these three years. Up and to Ironmongers' Hall by ten o'clock to the funeral of Sir Richard Stayner. Here we were, all the officers of the Navy, and my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who did discourse with us about the fishery, telling us of his Majesty's resolution to give £200 to every man that will set out a Busse1; and advising about the effects of this encouragement, which will be a very great matter certainly. Here we had good rings, and by and by were to take coach; and I being got in with Mr. Creed into a four-horse coach, which they come and told us were only for the mourners, I went out, and so took this occasion to go home. Where I staid all day expecting Gosnell's coming, but there came an excuse from her that she had not heard yet from her mother, but that she will come next week, which I wish she may, since I must keep one that I may have some pleasure therein.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Nov 1662. Before I went to the office my wife's brother did come to us, and we did instruct him to go to Gosnell's and to see what the true matter is of her not coming, and whether she do intend to come or no, and so I to the office; and this morning come Sir G. Carteret (age 52) to us (being the first time we have seen him since his coming from France): he tells us, that the silver which he received for Dunkirk did weigh 120,000 weight. Here all the morning upon business, and at noon (not going home to dinner, though word was brought me that Will. Joyce was there, whom I had not seen at my house nor any where else these three or four months) with Mr. Coventry (age 34) by his coach as far as Fleet Street, and there stepped into Madam Turner's (age 39), where was told I should find my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), and with him to the Temple [Map], but not having time to do anything I went towards my Lord Sandwich's (age 37). (In my way went into Captn. Cuttance's coach, and with him to my Lord's.) But the company not being ready I did slip down to Wilkinson's, and having not eat any thing to-day did eat a mutton pie and drank, and so to my Lord's, where my Lord and Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir Wm. Darcy, one Mr. Parham (a very knowing and well-spoken man in this business), with several others, did meet about stating the business of the fishery, and the manner of the King's giving of this £200 to every man that shall set out a new-made English Busse by the middle of June next. In which business we had many fine pretty discourses; and I did here see the great pleasure to be had in discoursing of publique matters with men that are particularly acquainted with this or that business. Having come to some issue, wherein a motion of mine was well received, about sending these invitations from the King (age 32) to all the fishing-ports in general, with limiting so many Busses to this, and that port, before we know the readiness of Members, we parted, and I walked home all the way, and having wrote a letter full of business to my father, in my way calling upon my cozen Turner and Mr. Calthrop (age 38) at the Temple [Map], for their consent to be my arbitrators, which they are willing to. My wife and I to bed pretty pleasant, for that her brother brings word that Gosnell, which my wife and I in discourse do pleasantly call our Marmotte, will certainly come next week without fail, which God grant may be for the best.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1662. Up and by coach with Sir John Minnes (age 63) and Sir W. Batten (age 61) to White Hall to the Duke's chamber, where, as is usual, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and all of us, after his being ready, to his closett, and there discoursed of matters of the Navy, and here Mr. Coventry (age 34) did do me the great kindness to take notice to the Duke (age 29) of my pains in making a collection of all contracts about masts, which have been of great use to us.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1662. Thence I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), to Mr. Moore, to talk a little about business; and then over the Parke (where I first in my life, it being a great frost, did see people sliding with their skeates1, which is a very pretty art), to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber to St. James's, where we all met to a venison pasty, and were very merry, Major Norwood being with us, whom they did play upon for his surrendering of Dunkirk. Here we staid till three or four o'clock; and so to the Council Chamber, where there met the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), my Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir Win. Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir W. Rider, myself, and Captain Cuttance, as Commissioners for Tangier. And after our Commission was read by Mr. Creed, who I perceive is to be our Secretary, we did fall to discourse of matters: as, first, the supplying them forthwith with victualls; then the reducing it to make way for the money, which upon their reduction is to go to the building of the Mole; and so to other matters, ordered as against next meeting.

Note 1. Iron skates appear to have been introduced by the Dutch, as the name certainly was; but we learn from Fitzstephen that bone skates (although not so called) were used in London in the twelfth century.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1662. Then to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and there spent the rest of the morning in making up my Lord's accounts with Mr. Moore, and then dined with Mr. Moore and Battersby his friend, very well and merry, and good discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1662. So back and to his closett, whither my Lord Sandwich (age 37) comes, and there Mr. Coventry (age 34) and we three had long discourse together about the matters of the Navy; and, indeed, I find myself more and more obliged to Mr. Coventry (age 34), who studies to do me all the right he can in every thing to the Duke (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1662. So to the office, and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 34) in his coach to St. James's, with great content and pride to see him treat me so friendly; and dined with him, and so to White Hall together; where we met upon the Tangier Commission, and discoursed many things thereon; but little will be done before my Lord Rutherford comes there, as to the fortification or Mole. That done, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and I walked together a good while in the Matted Gallery, he acquainting me with his late enquiries into the Wardrobe business to his content; and tells me how things stand. And that the first year was worth about £3000 to him, and the next about as much; so that at this day, if he were paid, it will be worth about £7000 to him. But it contents me above all things to see him trust me as his confidant: so I bid him good night, he being to go into the country, to keep his Christmas, on Monday next. So by coach home and to my office, being post night, and then home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1662. Thence walked to White Hall, and there to chappell, and from thence up stairs, and up and down the house and gallerys on the King's and Queen's (age 24) side, and so through the garden to my Lord's lodgings, where there was Mr. Gibbons (age 47), Madge, and Mallard, and Pagett; and by and by comes in my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and so we had great store of good musique.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1662. By and by comes in my simple Lord Chandois (age 41), who (my Lord Sandwich (age 37) being gone out to Court) began to sing psalms, but so dully that I was weary of it. At last we broke up; and by and by comes in my Lord Sandwich (age 37) again, and he and I to talk together about his businesses, and so he to bed and I and Mr. Creed and Captain Ferrers fell to a cold goose pye of Mrs. Sarah's, heartily, and so spent our time till past twelve o'clock, and then with Creed to his lodgings, and so with him to bed, and slept till

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1662. So to my brother's and shoemaker, and so to my Lord Crew's, and dined alone with him, and after dinner much discourse about matters. Upon the whole, I understand there are great factions at Court, and something he said that did imply a difference like to be between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), in case the Queen (age 24) should not be with child. I understand, about this bastard (age 13)1. He says, also, that some great man will be aimed at when Parliament comes to sit again; I understand, the Chancellor (age 53) and that there is a bill will be brought in, that none that have been in arms for the Parliament shall be capable of office. And that the Court are weary of my Lord Albemarle (age 54) and Chamberlin (age 60). He wishes that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) had some good occasion to be abroad this summer which is coming on, and that my [his son] Lord Hinchingbroke (age 14) were well married, and [his son] Sydney (age 12) had some place at Court. He pities the poor ministers that are put out, to whom, he says, the King (age 32) is beholden for his coming in, and that if any such thing had been foreseen he had never come in.

Note 1. James Crofts (age 13), son of Charles II by Lucy Walter, created Duke of Monmouth (age 13) in 1663, Duke of Buccleuch in 1673, when he took the name of Scott.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. The Bishopps are high, and go on without any diffidence in pressing uniformity; and the Presbyters seem silent in it, and either conform or lay down, though without doubt they expect a turn, and would be glad these endeavours of the other Fanatiques would take effect; there having been a plot lately found, for which four have been publickly tried at the Old Bayley and hanged. My Lord Sandwich (age 37) is still in good esteem, and now keeping his Christmas in the country; and I in good esteem, I think, as any man can be, with him. Mr. Moore is very sickly, and I doubt will hardly get over his late fit of sickness, that still hangs on him. In fine, for the good condition of myself, wife, family, and estate, in the great degree that it is, and for the public state of the nation, so quiett as it is, the Lord God be praised!

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1663. Thence to my Lord's lodging, where Mr. Hunt and Mr. Creed dined with us, and were very merry. And after dinner he and I to White Hall, where the Duke (age 29) and the Commissioners for Tangier met, but did not do much: my Lord Sandwich (age 37) not being in town, nobody making it their business. So up, and Creed and I to my wife again, and after a game or two at cards, to the Cockpitt [Map], where we saw "Claracilla", a poor play, done by the King's house (but neither the King (age 32) nor Queen (age 24) were there, but only the Duke (age 29) and Duchess (age 25), who did show some impertinent and, methought, unnatural dalliances there, before the whole world, such as kissing, and leaning upon one another); but to my very little content, they not acting in any degree like the Duke's people.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1663. So to my office, however, to set down my last three days' journall, and writing to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) to give him an account of Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) being come home, and to my father about my sending him some wine and things this week, for his making an entertainment of some friends in the country, and so home. This night making an end wholly of Christmas, with a mind fully satisfied with the great pleasures we have had by being abroad from home, and I do find my mind so apt to run to its old want of pleasures, that it is high time to betake myself to my late vows, which I will to-morrow, God willing, perfect and bind myself to, that so I may, for a great while, do my duty, as I have well begun, and increase my good name and esteem in the world, and get money, which sweetens all things, and whereof I have much need.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1663. Waking in the morning, my wife I found also awake, and begun to speak to me with great trouble and tears, and by degrees from one discourse to another at last it appears that Sarah has told somebody that has told my wife of my meeting her at my brother's and making her sit down by me while she told me stories of my wife, about her giving her scallop to her brother, and other things, which I am much vexed at, for I am sure I never spoke any thing of it, nor could any body tell her but by Sarah's own words. I endeavoured to excuse my silence herein hitherto by not believing any thing she told me, only that of the scallop which she herself told me of. At last we pretty good friends, and my wife begun to speak again of the necessity of her keeping somebody to bear her company; for her familiarity with her other servants is it that spoils them all, and other company she hath none, which is too true, and called for Jane to reach her out of her trunk, giving her the keys to that purpose, a bundle of papers, and pulls out a paper, a copy of what, a pretty while since, she had wrote in a discontent to me, which I would not read, but burnt. She now read it, and it was so piquant, and wrote in English, and most of it true, of the retiredness of her life, and how unpleasant it was; that being wrote in English, and so in danger of being met with and read by others, I was vexed at it, and desired her and then commanded her to tear it. When she desired to be excused it, I forced it from her, and tore it, and withal took her other bundle of papers from her, and leapt out of the bed and in my shirt clapped them into the pocket of my breeches, that she might not get them from me, and having got on my stockings and breeches and gown, I pulled them out one by one and tore them all before her face, though it went against my heart to do it, she crying and desiring me not to do it, but such was my passion and trouble to see the letters of my love to her, and my Will wherein I had given her all I have in the world, when I went to sea with my Lord Sandwich (age 37), to be joyned with a paper of so much disgrace to me and dishonour, if it should have been found by any body. Having torn them all, saving a bond of my uncle Robert's, which she hath long had in her hands, and our marriage license, and the first letter that ever I sent her when I was her servant1, I took up the pieces and carried them into my chamber, and there, after many disputes with myself whether I should burn them or no, and having picked up, the pieces of the paper she read to-day, and of my Will which I tore, I burnt all the rest, and so went out to my office troubled in mind.

Note 1. The usual word at this time for a lover. We have continued the correlative term "mistress", but rejected that of "servant".

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1663. After dinner comes a footman of my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) (my Lord being come to town last night) with a letter from my father, in which he presses me to carry on the business for Tom with his late mistress, which I am sorry to see my father do, it being so much out of our power or for his advantage, as it is clear to me it is, which I shall think of and answer in my next.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. Thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and with him in his coach to White Hall, and first I to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (being come now from Hinchingbrooke), and after talking a little with him, he and I to the Duke's chamber, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and he and I into the Duke's closett and Sir J. Lawson (age 48) discoursing upon business of the Navy, and particularly got his consent to the ending some difficulties in Mr. Creed's accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1663. Up and to White Hall, and while the Duke (age 29) is dressing himself I went to wait on my Lord Sandwich (age 37), whom I found not very well, and Dr. Clerke with him. He is feverish, and hath sent for Mr. Pierce to let him blood, but not being in the way he puts it off till night, but he stirs not abroad to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1663. Up and by water with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to White Hall, drinking a glass of wormewood wine at the Stillyard [Map], and so up to the Duke, and with the rest of the officers did our common service; thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), but he was in bed, and had a bad fit last night, and so I went to, Westminster Hall [Map], it being Term time, it troubling me to think that I should have any business there to trouble myself and thoughts with. Here I met with Monsieur Raby, who is lately come from France. (he) tells me that my [his son] Lord Hinchingbroke (age 15) and his brother do little improve there, and are much neglected in their habits and other things; but I do believe he hath a mind to go over as their tutour, and so I am not apt to believe what he says therein. But I had a great deal of very good discourse with him, concerning the difference between the French and the Pope, and the occasion, which he told me very particularly, and to my great content; and of most of the chief affairs of France, which I did enquire: and that the King (age 32) is a most excellent Prince, doing all business himself; and that it is true he hath a mistress, Mademoiselle La Valiere (age 18), one of the Princess Henriette's women, that he courts for his pleasure every other day, but not so as to make him neglect his publique affairs. He tells me how the King (age 32) do carry himself nobly to the relations of the dead Cardinall1, and will not suffer one pasquill to come forth against him; and that he acts by what directions he received from him before his death.

Note 1. Cardinal Mazarin died March 9th, 1661.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1663. So to dinner and abroad with my wife, carrying her to Unthank's, where she alights, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), whom I find missing his ague fit to-day, and is pretty well, playing at dice (and by this I see how time and example may alter a man; he being now acquainted with all sorts of pleasures and vanities, which heretofore he never thought of nor loved, nor, it may be, hath allowed) with Ned Pickering (age 45) and his page Laud.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1663. After dinner walked to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and staid with him in the chamber talking almost all the afternoon, he being not yet got abroad since his sickness. Many discourses we had; but, among others, how Sir R. Bernard is turned out of his Recordership of Huntingdonby the Commissioners for Regulation, &c., at which I am troubled, because he, thinking it is done by my Lord Sandwich (age 37), will act some of his revenge, it is likely, upon me in my business, so that I must cast about me to get some other counsel to rely upon.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1663. Thence, after dinner, to the Temple [Map], to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), where met us my uncle Thomas and his son; and, after many high demands, we at last came to a kind of agreement upon very hard terms, which are to be prepared in writing against Tuesday next. But by the way promising them to pay my cozen Mary's' legacys at the time of her marriage, they afterwards told me that she was already married, and married very well, so that I must be forced to pay it in some time. My cozen Roger (age 45) was so sensible of our coming to agreement that he could not forbear weeping, and, indeed, though it is very hard, yet I am glad to my heart that we are like to end our trouble. So we parted for to-night, and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and there staid, there being a Committee to sit upon the contract for the Mole, which I dare say none of us that were there understood, but yet they agreed of things as Mr. Cholmely (age 30) and

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1663. Lord's Day. Up, and it being a very great frost, I walked to White Hall, and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) by the fireside till chapel time, and so to chappell, where there preached little Dr. Duport, of Cambridge, upon Josiah's words,-"But I and my house, we will serve the Lord". But though a great scholler, he made the most flat dead sermon, both for matter and manner of delivery, that ever I heard, and very long beyond his hour, which made it worse.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1663. So home to dinner, my wife and I upon a couple of ducks, and then by coach to the Temple [Map], where my uncle Thomas, and his sons both, and I, did meet at my cozen Roger's (age 45) and there sign and seal to an agreement. Wherein I was displeased at nothing but my cozen Roger's (age 45) insisting upon my being obliged to settle upon them as the will do all my uncle's estate that he has left, without power of selling any for the payment of debts, but I would not yield to it without leave of selling, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) himself and my cozen Thos. Pepys being judges of the necessity thereof, which was done. One thing more that troubles me was my being forced to promise to give half of what personal estate could be found more than £372, which I reported to them, which though I do not know it to be less than what we really have found, yet he would have been glad to have been at liberty for that, but at last I did agree to it under my own handwriting on the backside of the report I did make and did give them of the estate, and have taken a copy of it upon the backside of one that I have. All being done I took the father and his son Thos. home by coach, and did pay them £30, the arrears of the father's annuity, and with great seeming love parted, and I presently to bed, my head akeing mightily with the hot dispute I did hold with my cozen Roger (age 45) and them in the business.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1663. Up and by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 63) to White Hall, and, after we had done our usual business with the Duke (age 29), to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and by his desire to Sir W. Wheeler (age 52), who was brought down in a sedan chair from his chamber, being lame of the gout, to borrow £1000 of him for my Lord's occasions, but he gave me a very kind denial that he could not, but if any body else would, he would be bond with my Lord for it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who though he has been abroad again two or three days is falling ill again, and is let blood this morning, though I hope it is only a great cold that he has got. It was a great trouble to me (and I had great apprehensions of it) that my Lord desired me to go to Westminster Hall [Map], to the Parliament-house door, about business; and to Sir Wm. Wheeler (age 52), which I told him I would do, but durst not go for fear of being taken by these rogues; but was forced to go to White Hall and take boat, and so land below the Tower at the Iron-gate [Map]; and so the back way over Little Tower Hill [Map]; and with my cloak over my face, took one of the watermen along with me, and staid behind a wall in the New-buildings behind our garden, while he went to see whether any body stood within the Merchants' Gate, under which we pass to go into our garden, and there standing but a little dirty boy before the gate, did make me quake and sweat to think he might be a Trepan1. But there was nobody, and so I got safe into the garden, and coming to open my office door, something behind it fell in the opening, which made me start. So that God knows in what a sad condition I should be in if I were truly in the condition that many a poor man is for debt: and therefore ought to bless God that I have no such reall reason, and to endeavour to keep myself, by my good deportment and good husbandry, out of any such condition.

Note 1. TT. Trickster.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1663. Thence he and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who continues troubled with his cold. Our discourse most upon the outing of Sir R. Bernard, and my Lord's being made Recorder of Huntingdon [Map] in his stead, which he seems well contented with, saying, that it may be for his convenience to have the chief officer of the town dependent upon him, which is very true.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who continues with a great cold, locked up; and, being alone, we fell into discourse of my uncle the Captain's death and estate, and I took the opportunity of telling my Lord how matters stand, and read his will, and told him all, what a poor estate he hath left, at all which he wonders strangely, which he may well do.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1663. Thence I went to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who I found very ill, and by his cold being several nights hindered from sleep, he is hardly able to open his eyes, and is very weak and sad upon it, which troubled me much. So after talking with Mr. Cooke, whom I found there, about his folly for looking and troubling me and other friends in getting him a place (that is, storekeeper of the Navy at Tangier) before there is any such thing, I returned to the Hall, and thence back with the two knights home again by coach, where I found Mr. Moore got abroad, and dined with me, which I was glad to see, he having not been able to go abroad a great while. Then came in Mr. Hawley and dined with us, and after dinner I left them, and to the office, where we sat late, and I do find that I shall meet with nothing to oppose my growing great in the office but Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is now well again, and comes into the office very brisk, and, I think, to get up his time that he has been out of the way by being mighty diligent at the office, which, I pray God, he may be, but I hope by mine to weary him out, for I am resolved to fall to business as hard as I can drive, God giving me health. At my office late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1663. This evening Mr. Povy (age 49) was with me at my office, and tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) is this day so ill that he is much afeard of him, which puts me to great pain, not more for my own sake than for his poor family's.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who is gone to Sir W. Wheeler's (age 52) for his more quiet being, where he slept well last night, and I took him very merry, playing at cards, and much company with him.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1663. After dinner up to my Lord, there being Mr. Kumball. My Lord, among other discourse, did tell us of his great difficultys passed in the business of the Sound, and of his receiving letters from the King (age 32) there, but his sending them by Whetstone was a great folly; and the story how my Lord being at dinner with Sydney, one of his fellow plenipotentiarys and his mortal enemy, did see Whetstone, and put off his hat three times to him, but the fellow would not be known, which my Lord imputed to his coxcombly humour (of which he was full), and bid Sydney take notice of him too, when at the very time he had letters in his pocket from the King (age 32), as it proved afterwards. And Sydney afterwards did find it out at Copenhagen, the Dutch Commissioners telling him how my Lord Sandwich (age 37) had hired one of their ships to carry back Whetstone to Lubeck, he being come from Flanders from the King (age 32). But I cannot but remember my Lord's aequanimity in all these affairs with admiration.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1663. Lord's Day. Being sent to by Sir J. Minnes (age 64) to know whether I would go with him to White Hall to-day, I rose but could not get ready before he was gone, but however I walked thither and heard Dr. King (age 71), Bishop of Chichester, make a good and eloquent sermon upon these words, "They that sow in tears, shall reap in joy". Thence (the chappell in Lent being hung with black, and no anthem sung after sermon, as at other times), to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) at Sir W. Wheeler's (age 52). I found him out of order, thinking himself to be in a fit of an ague, but in the afternoon he was very cheery. I dined with Sir William, where a good but short dinner, not better than one of mine commonly of a Sunday.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1663. So home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and I and her woman by coach to Westminster, where being come too soon for the Christening we took up Mr. Creed and went out to take some ayre, as far as Chelsey and further, I lighting there and letting them go on with the coach while I went to the church expecting to see the young ladies of the school, Ashwell desiring me, but I could not get in far enough, and so came out and at the coach's coming back went in again and so back to Westminster, and led my wife and her to Captain Ferrers, and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and with him talking a good while; I find the Court would have this Indulgence go on, but the Parliament are against it. Matters in Ireland are full of discontent.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1663. Thence to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and who should I meet at the door but Major Holmes (age 41). He would have gone away, but I told him I would not spoil his visitt, and would have gone, but however we fell to discourse and he did as good as desire excuse for the high words that did pass in his heat the other day, which I was willing enough to close with, and after telling him my mind we parted, and I left him to speak with my Lord, and I by coach home, where I found Will Howe come home to-day with my wife, and staid with us all night, staying late up singing songs, and then he and I to bed together in Ashwell's bed and she with my wife. This the first time that I ever lay in the room. This day Greatorex (age 38) brought me a very pretty weather-glass for heat and cold1. 24th. Lay pretty long, that is, till past six o'clock, and them up and W. Howe and I very merry together, till having eat our breakfast, he went away, and I to my office.

Note 1. The thermometer was invented in the sixteenth century, but it is disputed who the inventor was. The claims of Santorio are supported by Borelli and Malpighi, while the title of Cornelius Drebbel is considered undoubted by Boerhaave. Galileo's air thermometer, made before 1597, was the foundation of accurate thermometry. Galileo also invented the alcohol thermometer about 1611 or 1612. Spirit thermometers were made for the Accademia del Cimento, and described in the Memoirs of that academy. When the academy was dissolved by order of the Pope, some of these thermometers were packed away in a box, and were not discovered until early in the nineteenth century. Robert Hooke describes the manufacture and graduation of thermometers in his "Micrographia" (1665).

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1663. Thence to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who I found very merry and every day better and better.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1663. Thence away back again by water to Whitehall, and there to the Tangier Committee, where we find ourselves at a great stand; the establishment being but £70,000 per annum, and the forces to be kept in the town at the least estimate that my Lord Rutherford can be got to bring it is £53,000. The charge of this year's work of the Mole will be £13,000; besides £1000 a-year to my Lord Peterborough (age 41) as a pension, and the fortifications and contingencys, which puts us to a great stand, and so unsettled what to do therein we rose, and I to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37), whom I found merry at cards, and so by coach home, and after supper a little to my office and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office. By and by to Lombard Street [Map] by appointment to meet Mr. Moore, but the business not being ready I returned to the office, where we sat a while, and, being sent for, I returned to him and there signed to some papers in the conveying of some lands mortgaged by Sir Rob. Parkhurst in my name to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), which I having done I returned home to dinner, whither by and by comes Roger Pepys (age 45), Mrs. Turner (age 40) her daughter, Joyce Norton, and a young lady, a daughter of Coll. Cockes, my uncle Wight, his wife and Mrs. Anne Wight. This being my feast, in lieu of what I should have had a few days ago for my cutting of the stone, for which the Lord make me truly thankful. Very merry at, before, and after dinner, and the more for that my dinner was great, and most neatly dressed by our own only maid. We had a fricasee of rabbits and chickens, a leg of mutton boiled, three carps in a dish, a great dish of a side of lamb, a dish of roasted pigeons, a dish of four lobsters, three tarts, a lamprey pie (a most rare pie), a dish of anchovies, good wine of several sorts, and all things mighty noble and to my great content.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1663. Thence leaving them I made an excuse and away home, and took my wife by coach and left her at Madam Clerk's, to make a visit there, and I to the Committee of Tangier, where I found, to my great joy, my Lord Sandwich (age 37), the first time I have seen him abroad these some months, and by and by he rose and took leave, being, it seems, this night to go to Kensington or Chelsey, where he hath taken a lodging for a while to take the ayre. We staid, and after business done I got Mr. Coventry (age 35) into the Matted Gallery and told him my whole mind concerning matters of our office, all my discontent to see things of so great trust carried so neglectfully, and what pitiful service the Controller and Surveyor make of their duties, and I disburdened my mind wholly to him and he to me his own, many things, telling me that he is much discouraged by seeing things not to grow better and better as he did well hope they would have done. Upon the whole, after a full hour's private discourse, telling one another our minds, we with great content parted, and with very great satisfaction for my [having] thus cleared my conscience, went to Dr. Clerk's and thence fetched my wife, and by coach home. To my office a little to set things in order, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1663. Home to dinner, and after dinner, intending to go to Chelsey to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), my wife would needs go with me, though she walked on foot to Whitehall. Which she did and staid at my Lord's lodgings while Creed and I took a turn at Whitehall, but no coach to be had, and so I returned to them and sat talking till evening, and then got a coach and to Gray's Inn walks, where some handsome faces, and so home and there to supper, and a little after 8 o'clock to bed, a thing I have not done God knows when. Coming home to-night, a drunken boy was carrying by our constable to our new pair of stocks to handsel them, being a new pair and very handsome.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1663. Up by five o'clock and to my office, where hard at work till towards noon, and home and eat a bit, and so going out met with Mr. Mount my old acquaintance, and took him in and drank a glass or two of wine to him and so parted, having not time to talk together, and I with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to the Stillyard [Map], and there eat a lobster together, and Wyse the King's fishmonger coming in we were very merry half an hour, and so by water to Whitehall, and by and by being all met we went in to the Duke and there did our business and so away, and anon to the Tangier Committee, where we had very fine discourse from Dr. Walker and Wiseman, civilians, against our erecting a court-merchant at Tangier, and well answered in many things by my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (whose speaking I never till now observed so much to be very good) and Sir R. Ford (age 49).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, met to pass Mr. Pitt's (anon Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) Secretary and Deputy Treasurer) accounts for the voyage last to the Streights, wherein the demands are strangely irregular, and I dare not oppose it alone for making an enemy and do no good, but only bring a review upon my Lord Sandwich (age 37), but God knows it troubles my heart to see it, and to see the Comptroller (age 64), whose duty it is, to make no more matter of it. At noon home for an hour to dinner, and so to the office public and private till late at night, so home to supper and bed with my father.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. At noon we rose, Sir W. Batten (age 62) ashamed and vexed, and so home to dinner, and after dinner walked to the old Exchange [Map] and so all along to Westminster Hall [Map], White Hall, my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, and going by water back to the Temple [Map] did pay my debts in several places in order to my examining my accounts tomorrow to my great content. So in the evening home, and after supper (my father at my brother's) and merrily practising to dance, which my wife hath begun to learn this day of Mr. Pembleton1, but I fear will hardly do any great good at it, because she is conceited that she do well already, though I think no such thing.

Note 1. Pembleton, the dancing-master, made Pepys very jealous, and there are many allusions to him in the following pages. His lessons ceased on May 27th.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1663. So home and all to dinner, and then would have gone by coach to have seen my Lord Sandwich (age 37) at Chelsey if the man would have taken us, but he denying it we staid at home, and I all the afternoon upon my accounts, and find myself worth full £700, for which I bless God, it being the most I was ever yet worth in money.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, where doing business alone a good while till people came about business to me. Will Griffin tells me this morning that Captain Browne, Sir W. Batten's (age 62) brother-in-law, is dead of a blow given him two days ago by a seaman, a servant of his, being drunk, with a stone striking him on the forehead, for which I am sorry, he having a good woman and several small children. At the office all the morning, at noon dined at home with my wife, merry, and after dinner by water to White Hall; but found the Duke of York (age 29) gone to St. James's for this summer; and thence with Mr. Coventry (age 35), to whose chamber I went, and Sir W. Pen (age 42) up to the Duke's closett. And a good while with him about our Navy business; and so I to White Hall, and there alone a while with my Lord Sandwich (age 37) discoursing about his debt to the Navy, wherein he hath given me some things to resolve him in.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. The Queen (age 24), my Lord tells me, he thinks he hath incurred some displeasure with, for his kindness to his neighbour, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). My Lord tells me he hath no reason to fall for her sake, whose wit, management, nor interest, is not likely to hold up any man, and therefore he thinks it not his obligation to stand for her against his own interest. The Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 35) my Lord says he is very well with, and fears not but they will show themselves his very good friends, specially at this time, he being able to serve them, and they needing him, which he did not tell me wherein. Talking of the business of Tangier, he tells me that my Lord Tiviott is gone away without the least respect paid to him, nor indeed to any man, but without his commission; and (if it be true what he says) having laid out seven or eight thousand pounds in commodities for the place; and besides having not only disobliged all the Commissioners for Tangier, but also Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) the other day, who, speaking in behalf of Colonel Fitz-Gerald, that having been deputy-governor there already, he ought to have expected and had the governorship upon the death or removal of the former governor. And whereas it is said that he and his men are Irish, which is indeed the main thing that hath moved the King (age 32) and Council to put in Tiviott to prevent the Irish having too great and the whole command there under Fitz-Gerald; he further said that there was never an Englishman fit to command Tangier; my Lord Tiviott answered yes, that there were many more fit than himself or Fitz-Gerald either. So that Fitz-Gerald being so great with the Duke of York (age 29), and being already made deputy-governor, independent of my Lord Tiviott, and he being also left here behind him for a while, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) do think that, putting all these things together, the few friends he hath left, and the ill posture of his affairs, my Lord Tiviott is not a man of the conduct and management that either people take him to be, or is fit for the command of the place. And here, speaking of the Duke of York (age 29) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33), my Lord tells me that he do very much admire the good management, and discretion, and nobleness of the Duke, that whatever he may be led by him or Mr. Coventry (age 35) singly in private, yet he did not observe that in publique matters, but he did give as ready hearing and as good acceptance to any reasons offered by any other man against the opinions of them, as he did to them, and would concur in the prosecution of it. Then we came to discourse upon his own sea accompts, and came to a resolution what and how to proceed in them; wherein he resolved, though I offered him a way of evading the greatest part of his debt honestly, by making himself debtor to the Parliament, before the King's time, which he might justly do, yet he resolved to go openly and nakedly in it, and put himself to the kindness of the King (age 32) and Duke, which humour, I must confess, and so did tell him (with which he was not a little pleased) had thriven very well with him, being known to be a man of candid and open dealing, without any private tricks or hidden designs as other men commonly have in what they do.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. Up betimes, and after having at my office settled some accounts for my Lord Sandwich (age 37), I went forth, and taking up my father at my brother's, took coach and towards Chelsey, 'lighting at an alehouse near the Gatehouse at Westminster to drink our morning draught, and so up again and to Chelsey, where we found my Lord all alone at a little table with one joynt of meat at dinner; we sat down and very merry talking, and mightily extolling the manner of his retirement, and the goodness of his diet, which indeed is so finely dressed: the mistress of the house, Mrs. Becke, having been a woman of good condition heretofore, a merchant's wife, and hath all things most excellently dressed; among others, her cakes admirable, and so good that my Lord's words were, they were fit to present to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). From ordinary discourse my Lord fell to talk of other matters to me, of which chiefly the second part of the fray, which he told me a little while since of, between Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) and himself, which is that after that he had since been with him three times and no notice taken at all of any difference between them, and yet since that he hath forborn coming to him almost two months, and do speak not only slightly of my Lord every where, but hath complained to my Chancellor (age 54) of him, and arrogated all that ever my Lord hath done to be only by his direction and persuasion. Whether he hath done the like to the King (age 32) or no, my Lord knows not; but my Lord hath been with the King (age 32) since, and finds all things fair; and my Chancellor (age 54) hath told him of it, but with so much contempt of Mr. Montagu, as my Lord knows himself very secure against any thing the fool can do; and notwithstanding all this, so noble is his nature, that he professes himself ready to show kindness and pity to Mr. Montagu on any occasion. My Lord told me of his presenting Sir H. Bennet (age 45) with a gold cupp of £100, which he refuses, with a compliment; but my Lord would have been glad he had taken it, that he might have had some obligations upon him which he thinks possible the other may refuse to prevent it; not that he hath any reason to doubt his kindness.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1663. The talk being done, we fell off to White Hall, leaving the King (age 32) in the Park, and going back, met the Duke going towards St. James's to meet us. So he turned back again, and to his closett at White Hall; and there, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) present, we did our weekly errand, and so broke up; and I down into the garden with my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (after we had sat an hour at the Tangier Committee); and after talking largely of his own businesses, we begun to talk how matters are at Court: and though he did not flatly tell me any such thing, yet I do suspect that all is not kind between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), and that the King's fondness to the little Duke (age 14) do occasion it; and it may be that there is some fear of his being made heir to the Crown. But this my Lord did not tell me, but is my guess only; and that my Chancellor (age 54) is without doubt falling past hopes.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Thence to Mr. Coventry (age 35); and sitting by his bedside, he did tell me that he sent for me to discourse upon my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) allowances for his several pays, and what his thoughts are concerning his demands; which he could not take the freedom to do face to face, it being not so proper as by me: and did give me a most friendly and ingenuous account of all; telling me how unsafe, at this juncture, while every man's, and his actions particularly, are descanted upon, it is either for him to put the Duke upon doing, or my Lord himself to desire anything extraordinary, 'specially the King (age 32) having been so bountifull already; which the world takes notice of even to some repinings. All which he did desire me to discourse with my Lord of; which I have undertook to do. We talked also of our office in general, with which he told me that he was now-a-days nothing so satisfied as he was wont to be. I confess I told him things are ordered in that way that we must of necessity break in a little time a pieces.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Thence walked to Westminster, and there up and down in the Hall and the Parliament House all the morning; at noon by coach to my Lord Crew's, hearing that Lord Sandwich (age 37) did dine there; where I told him what had passed between Mr. Coventry (age 35) and myself; with which he was contented, though I could perceive not very well pleased. And I do believe that my Lord do find some other things go against his mind in the House; for in the motion made the other day in the House by my Lord Bruce, that none be capable of employment but such as have been loyal and constant to the King (age 32) and Church, the General [Monk] and my Lord were mentioned to be excepted; and my Lord Bruce did come since to my Lord, to clear himself that he meant nothing to his prejudice, nor could it have any such effect if he did mean it. After discourse with my Lord; to dinner with him; there dining there my Lord Montagu of Boughton, Northamptonshire, Mr. William Montagu (age 45) his brother, the Queen's Sollicitor, &c., and a fine dinner. Their talk about a ridiculous falling-out two days ago at my Lord of Oxford's (age 36) house, at an entertainment of his, there being there my Lord of Albemarle (age 54), Lynsey (age 55), two of the Porters, my Lord Bellasses (age 48), and others, where there were high words and some blows, and pulling off of perriwiggs; till my Lord Monk (age 54) took away some of their swords, and sent for some soldiers to guard the house till the fray was ended. To such a degree of madness the nobility of this age is come!

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1663. Up and after taking leave of Sir W. Batten (age 62), who is gone this day towards Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] (to little purpose, God knows) upon his survey, I home and spent the morning at dancing; at noon Creed dined with us and Deane (age 29) of Woolwich, and so after dinner came Mr. Howe, who however had enough for his dinner, and so, having done, by coach to Westminster, she to Mrs. Clerke and I to St. James's, where the Duke being gone down by water to-day with the King (age 32) I went thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, where Mr. Howe and I walked a while, and going towards Whitehall through the garden Dr. Clerk and Creed called me across the bowling green, and so I went thither and after a stay went up to Mrs. Clerke who was dressing herself to go abroad with my wife.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1663. By and by, out comes my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and he and I talked a great while about his business, of his accounts for his pay, and among other things he told me that this day a vote hath passed that the King's grants of land to my Lord Monk (age 54) and him should be made good; which pleases him very well. He also tells me that things don't go right in the House with Mr. Coventry (age 35); I suppose he means in the business of selling of places; but I am sorry for it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1663. So by and by to dinner, and then carried my wife and Ashwell to St. James's, and there they sat in the coach while I went in, and finding nobody there likely to meet with the Duke, but only Sir J. Minnes (age 64) with my Lord Barkely (age 61) (who speaks very kindly, and invites me with great compliments to come now and then and eat with him, which I am glad to hear, though I value not the thing, but it implies that my esteem do increase rather than fall), and so I staid not, but into the coach again, and taking up my wife's taylor, it raining hard, they set me down, and who should our coachman be but Carleton the Vintner, that should have had Mrs. Sarah, at Westminster, my Chancellor's (age 54), and then to Paternoster Row [Map]. I staid there to speak with my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and in my staying, meeting Mr. Lewis Phillips of Brampton, he and afterwards others tell me that news came last night to Court, that the King of France (age 24) is sick of the spotted fever, and that they are struck in again; and this afternoon my Lord Mandeville (age 29) is gone from the King (age 32) to make him a visit; which will be great news, and of great import through Europe.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1663. Thence by water to Chelsey, all the way reading a little book I bought of "Improvement of Trade", a pretty book and many things useful in it. So walked to Little Chelsey, where I found my Lord Sandwich (age 37) with Mr. Becke, the master of the house, and Mr. Creed at dinner, and I sat down with them, and very merry.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1663. Both at and after dinner we had great discourses of the nature and power of spirits, and whether they can animate dead bodies; in all which, as of the general appearance of spirits, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) is very scepticall. He says the greatest warrants that ever he had to believe any, is the present appearing of the Devil1 in Wiltshire, much of late talked of, who beats a drum up and down. There are books of it, and, they say, very true; but my Lord observes, that though he do answer to any tune that you will play to him upon another drum, yet one tune he tried to play and could not; which makes him suspect the whole; and I think it is a good argument. Sometimes they talked of handsome women, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) saying that there was no beauty like what he sees in the country-markets, and specially at Bury, in which I will agree with him that there is a prettiest women I ever saw. My Lord replied thus: "Sir John, what do you think of your neighbour's wife?" looking upon me. "Do you not think that he hath a great beauty to his wife? Upon my word he hath". Which I was not a little proud of.

Note 1. In 1664, there being a generall report all over the Kingdom of Mr. Monpesson his house being haunted, which hee himself affirming to the King (age 33) and Queene (age 53) to be true, the King (age 33) sent the Lord Falmouth, and the Queene (age 53) sent mee, to examine the truth of; but wee could neither see nor heare anything that was extraordinary; and about a year after, his Majesty told me that hee had discovered the cheat, and that Mr. Monpesson, upon his Majesty sending for him, confessed it to him. And yet Mr. Monpesson, in a printed letter, had afterwards the confidence to deny that hee had ever made any such confession" ("Letters of the Second Earl of Chesterfield", p. 24, 1829, 8vo.). Joseph Glanville published a relation of the famous disturbance at the house of Mr. Monpesson, at Tedworth, Wilts, occasioned by the beating of an invisible drum every night for a year. This story, which was believed at the time, furnished the plot for Addison's play of "The Drummer", or the "Haunted House". In the "Mercurius Publicus", April 16-23, 1663, there is a curious examination on this subject, by which it appears that one William Drury, of Uscut, Wilts, was the invisible drummer. B.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1663. Anon went with money to my tar merchant to pay for the tar, which he refuses to sell me; but now the master is come home, and so he speaks very civilly, and I believe we shall have it with peace. I brought back my money to my office, and thence to White Hall, and in the garden spoke to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who is in his gold-buttoned suit, as the mode is, and looks nobly. Captain Ferrers, I see, is come home from France. I only spoke one word to him, my Lord being there. He tells me the young gentlemen are well there; so my Lord went to my Lord Albemarle's (age 54) to dinner, and I by water home and dined alone, and at the office (after half an hour's viallin practice after dinner) till late at night, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1663. He tells me, too, that he hath lately been observed to tack about at Court, and to endeavour to strike in with the persons that are against the Chancellor (age 54); but this he says of him, that he do not say nor do anything to the prejudice of the Chancellor (age 54). But he told me that the Chancellor (age 54) was rising again, and that of late Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) business and employment hath not been so full as it used to be while the Chancellor (age 54) stood up. From that we discoursed of the evil of putting out men of experience in business as the Chancellor (age 54), and from that to speak of the condition of the King's party at present, who, as the Papists, though otherwise fine persons, yet being by law kept for these fourscore years out of employment, they are now wholly uncapable of business; and so the Cavaliers for twenty years, who, says he, for the most part have either given themselves over to look after country and family business, and those the best of them, and the rest to debauchery, &c.; and that was it that hath made him high against the late Bill brought into the House for the making all men incapable of employment that had served against the King (age 33). Why, says he, in the sea-service, it is impossible to do any thing without them, there being not more than three men of the whole King's side that are fit to command almost; and these were Captain Allen (age 51), Smith, and Beech; and it may be Holmes, and Utber, and Batts might do something. I desired him to tell me if he thought that I did speak anything that I do against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) out of ill will or design. He told me quite the contrary, and that there was reason enough. After a good deal of good and fine discourse, I took leave, and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) house, where I met my Lord, and there did discourse of our office businesses, and how the Duke do show me kindness, though I have endeavoured to displease more or less of my fellow officers, all but Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Pett; but it matters not. Yes, says my Lord, Sir J. Minnes (age 64), who is great with the Chancellor (age 54); I told him the Chancellor (age 54) I have thought was declining, and however that the esteem he has among them is nothing but for a jester or a ballad maker; at which my Lord laughs, and asks me whether I believe he ever could do that well.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1663. So he and I to the Park, where we understand that the King (age 33) and Duke (age 29) are gone out betimes this morning on board the East India ships lately come in, and so our meeting appointed is lost. But he and I walked at the further end of the Park, not to be observed, whither by and by comes my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and he and we walked two hours and more in the Park and then in White Hall Gallery, and lastly in White Hall garden, discoursing of Mr. Creed's accounts, and how to answer the Treasurer's (age 56) objections. I find that the business is £500 deep, the advantage of Creed, and why my Lord and I should be concerned to promote his profit with so much dishonour and trouble to us I know not, but however we shall do what we can, though he deserves it not, for there is nothing even to his own advantage that can be got out of him, but by mere force. So full of policy he is in the smallest matters, that I perceive him to be made up of nothing but design.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1663. At noon Creed comes to me, who tells me how well he has sped with Sir G. Carteret (age 53) after all our trouble, that he had his tallys up and all the kind words possible from him, which I believe is out of an apprehension what a fool he has made of himself hitherto in making so great a stop therein. But I find, and so my Lord Sandwich (age 37) may, that Sir G. Carteret (age 53) had a design to do him a disgrace, if he could possibly, otherwise he would never have carried the business so far after that manner, but would first have consulted my Lord and given him advice what to do therein for his own honour, which he thought endangered. Creed dined with me and then walked a while, and so away, and I to my office at my morning's work till dark night, and so with good content home. To supper, a little musique, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1663. Thence to my Lord Crew's. My Lord not being come home, I met and staid below with Captain Ferrers, who was come to wait upon my Lady Jemimah to St. James's, she being one of the four ladies that hold up the mantle at the christening this afternoon of the Duke's (age 29) child (a boy). In discourse of the ladies at Court, Captain Ferrers tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is now as great again as ever she was; and that her going away was only a fit of her own upon some slighting words of the King (age 33), so that she called for her coach at a quarter of an hour's warning, and went to Richmond; and the King (age 33) the next morning, under pretence of going a-hunting, went to see her and make friends, and never was a-hunting at all. After which she came back to Court, and commands the King (age 33) as much as ever, and hath and doth what she will. No longer ago than last night, there was a private entertainment made for the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) at the Duke of Buckingham's (age 35), and she: was not invited: but being at my Lady Suffolk's (age 41), her aunt's (where my Lady Jemimah and Lord Sandwich (age 37) dined) yesterday, she was heard to say, "Well; much good may it do them, and for all that I will be as merry as they:" and so she went home and caused a great supper to be prepared. And after the King (age 33) had been with the Queen (age 24) at Wallingford House, he came to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and was there all night, and my Lord Sandwich (age 37) with him, which was the reason my Lord lay in town all night, which he has not done a great while before. He tells me he believes that, as soon as the King (age 33) can get a husband for Mrs. Stewart (age 16) however, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) nose will be out of joynt; for that she comes to be in great esteem, and is more handsome than she. I found by his words that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) finds some pleasure in the country where he now is, whether he means one of the daughters of the house or no I know not, but hope the contrary, that he thinks he is very well pleased with staying there, but yet upon breaking up of the Parliament, which the King (age 33) by a message to-day says shall be on Monday next, he resolves to go.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1663. So he concluded, that for the better proceeding of justice he did think fit to make this a Session, and to prorogue them to the 16th of March next. His speech was very plain, nothing at all of spirit in it, nor spoke with any; but rather on the contrary imperfectly, repeating many times his words though he read all which I was sorry to see, it having not been hard for him to have got all the speech without book. So they all went away, the King (age 33) out of the House at the upper end, he being by and by to go to Tunbridge [Map] to the Queen (age 24); and I in the Painted Chamber [Map] spoke with my Lord Sandwich (age 38) while he was putting off his robes, who tells me he will now hasten down into the country, as soon as he can get some money settled on the Wardrobe.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1663. Thence to my office doing business, and at noon to my viall maker's, who has begun it and has a good appearance, and so to the Exchange [Map], where I met James Pearce Surgeon, who tells me of his good luck to get to be Groom of the Privy Chamber to the Queen (age 24), and without my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) help; but only by his good fortune, meeting a man that hath let him have his right for a small matter, about £60, for which he can every day have £400.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1663. Hither came W. Howe about business, and he and I had a great deal of discourse about my Lord Sandwich (age 38), and I find by him that my Lord do dote upon one of the daughters of Mrs. [Becke] where he lies, so that he spends his time and money upon her. He tells me she is a woman of a very bad fame and very impudent, and has told my Lord so, yet for all that my Lord do spend all his evenings with her, though he be at court in the day time, and that the world do take notice of it, and that Pickering (age 45) is only there as a blind, that the world may think that my Lord spends his time with him when he do worse, and that hence it is that my Lord has no more mind to go into the country than he has. In fine, I perceive my Lord is dabbling with this wench, for which I am sorry, though I do not wonder at it, being a man amorous enough, and now begins to allow himself the liberty that he says every body else at Court takes.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1663. By and by by water to White Hall, and so to St. James's, and anon called into the Duke's (age 29) chamber, and being dressed we were all as usual taken in with him and discoursed of our matters, and that being done, he walked, and I in the company with him, to White Hall, and there he took barge for Woolwich, Kent [Map], and, I up to the Committee of Tangier, where my Lord Sandwich (age 38), pay Lord Peterborough (age 41), (whom I have not seen before since his coming back,) Sir Wm. Compton (age 38), and Mr. Povy (age 49). Our discourse about supplying my Lord Teviott with money, wherein I am sorry to see, though they do not care for him, yet they are willing to let him for civility and compliment only have money almost without expecting any account of it; but by this means, he being such a cunning fellow as he is, the King (age 33) is like to pay dear for our courtiers' ceremony.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1663. After dinner altered our design to go to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and put it off to to-morrow morning, and so went all to Greenwich, Kent [Map] (Mrs. Waith excepted, who went thither, but not to the same house with us, but to her father's, that lives there), to the musique-house, where we had paltry musique, till the master organist came, whom by discourse I afterwards knew, having employed him for my Lord Sandwich (age 38), to prick out something (his name Arundell), and he did give me a fine voluntary or two, and so home by water, and at home I find my girl that run away brought by a bedel of St. Bride's Parish, and stripped her and sent her away, and a newe one come, of Griffin's helping to, which I think will prove a pretty girl. Her name, Susan, and so to supper after having this evening paid Mr. Hunt £3 for my viall (besides the carving which I paid this day 10s. for to the carver), and he tells me that I may, without flattery, say, I have as good a Theorbo viall and viallin as is in England. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Aug 1663. Up very early, and my joyners came to work. I to Mr. Moore; from him came back home again, and drew up an account to my Lord, and that being done met him at my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), where I was a good while alone with my Lord; and I perceive he confides in me and loves me as he uses to do, and tells me his condition, which is now very well all I fear is that he will not live within compass, for I am told this morning of strange dotages of his upon the slut at Chelsea, even in the presence of his daughter, my Lady Jem, and Mrs. Ferrets, who took notice of it. There come to him this morning his prints of the river Tagus and the City of Lisbon, which he measured with his own hand, and printed by command of the King (age 33). My Lord pleases himself with it, but methinks it ought to have been better done than by jobing. Besides I put him upon having some took off upon white sattin, which he ordered presently. I offered my Lord my accounts, and did give him up his old bond for £500 and took a new one of him for £700, which I am by lending him more money to make up: and I am glad of it. My Lord would have had me dine with him, but I had a mind to go home to my workmen, and so took a kind good bye of him, and so with Creed to St. James's, and, missing Mr. Coventry (age 35), walked to the New Exchange, and there drank some whey, and so I by water home, and found my closett at my office made very clean and neat to my mind mightily, and home to dinner, and then to my office to brush my books, and put them and my papers in order again, and all the afternoon till late at night doing business there, and so home to supper, and then to work in my chamber, making matters of this day's accounts clear in my books, they being a little extraordinary, and so being very late I put myself to bed, the rest being long ago gone.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1663. This noon came Jane Gentleman to serve my wife as her chamber mayde. I wish she may prove well. So ends this month, with my mind pretty well in quiett, and in good disposition of health since my drinking at home of a little wine with my beer; but no where else do I drink any wine at all. The King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) and the Court at the Bath, Somerset [Map], my Lord Sandwich (age 38) in the country newly gone.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1663. And so I to my Lord Crew's, thinking to have dined there, but it was too late, and so back and called at my brother's and Mr. Holden's about several businesses, and went all alone to the Black Spread Eagle [Map] in Bride Lane, and there had a chopp of veale and some bread, cheese, and beer, cost me a shilling to my dinner, and so through Fleet Ally, God forgive me, out of an itch to look upon the sluts there, against which when I saw them my stomach turned, and so to Bartholomew Fayre, where I met with Mr. Pickering, and he and I to see the Monkeys at the Dutch house, which is far beyond the other that my wife and I saw the other day; and thence to see the dancing on the ropes, which was very poor and tedious. But he and I fell in discourse about my Lord Sandwich (age 38). He tells me how he is sorry for my Lord at his being at Chelsey, and that his but seeming so to my Lord without speaking one word, had put him clear out of my Lord's favour, so as that he was fain to leave him before he went into the country, for that he was put to eat with his servants; but I could not fish from him, though I knew it, what was the matter; but am very sorry to see that my Lord hath thus much forgot his honour, but am resolved not to meddle with it. The play being done, I stole from him and hied home, buying several things at the ironmonger's-dogs, tongs, and shovels-for my wife's closett and the rest of my house, and so home, and thence to my office awhile, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1663. So home to dinner with my wife, who is over head and eares in getting her house up, and so to the office, and with Mr. Lewes, late, upon some of the old victuallers' accounts, and so home to supper and to bed, up to our red chamber, where we purpose always to lie. This day I received a letter from Mr. Barlow, with a Terella1, which I had hoped he had sent me, but to my trouble I find it is to present from him to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), but I will make a little use of it first, and then give it him.

Note 1. Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S., has kindly supplied me with the following interesting note on the terrella (or terella): The name given by Dr. William Gilbert, author of the famous treatise, "De Magnete" (Lond. 1600), to a spherical loadstone, on account of its acting as a model, magnetically, of the earth; compass-needles pointing to its poles, as mariners' compasses do to the poles of the earth. The term was adopted by other writers who followed Gilbert, as the following passage from Wm. Barlowe's "Magneticall Advertisements" (Lond. 1616) shows: "Wherefore the round Loadstone is significantly termed by Doct. Gilbert Terrella, that is, a little, or rather a very little Earth: For it representeth in an exceeding small model (as it were) the admirable properties magneticall of the huge Globe of the earth" (op. cit, p. 55). Gilbert set great store by his invention of the terrella, since it led him to propound the true theory of the mariners' compass. In his portrait of himself which he had painted for the University of Oxford he was represented as holding in his hand a globe inscribed terella. In the Galileo Museum in Florence there is a terrella twenty-seven inches in diameter, of loadstone from Elba, constructed for Cosmo de' Medici. A smaller one contrived by Sir Christopher Wren (age 39) was long preserved in the museum of the Royal Society (Grew's "Rarities belonging to the Royal Society", p. 364). Evelyn was shown "a pretty terrella described with all ye circles and skewing all y magnetic deviations" (Diary, July 3rd, 1655).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1663. Up with pain, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) by coach to the Temple [Map], and then I to my brother's, and up and down on business, and so to the New Exchange, and there met Creed, and he and I walked two or three hours, talking of many businesses, especially about Tangier, and my Lord Tiviot's bringing in of high accounts, and yet if they were higher are like to pass without exception, and then of my Lord Sandwich (age 38) sending a messenger to know whether the King (age 33) intends to come to Newmarket, Suffolk, as is talked, that he may be ready to entertain him at Hinchingbroke [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1663. Thence with Sheply to Huntingdon [Map] to the Crown, and there did sit and talk, and eat a breakfast of cold roast beef, and so he to St. Ives Market, and I to Sir Robert Bernard's for council, having a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 38) to that end. He do give it me with much kindness in appearance, and upon my desire do promise to put off my uncle's admittance, if he can fairly, and upon the whole do make my case appear better to me than my cozen Roger (age 46) did, but not so but that we are liable to much trouble, and that it will be best to come to an agreement if possible. With my mind here also pretty well to see things proceed so well I returned to Brampton, and spent the morning in looking over papers and getting my copies ready against to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1663. Thence, having my belly full, away on foot to my brother's, all along Thames Streete, and my belly being full of small beer, I did all alone, for health's sake, drink half a pint of Rhenish wine at the Still-yard [Map], mixed with beer. From my brother's with my wife to the Exchange [Map], to buy things for her and myself, I being in a humour of laying out money, but not prodigally, but only in clothes, which I every day see that I suffer for want of, I so home, and after a little at my office, home to supper and to bed. Memorandum: This morning one Mr. Commander, a scrivener, came to me from Mr. Moore with a deed of which. Mr. Moore had told me, that my Lord had made use of my name, and that I was desired by my Lord to sign it. Remembering this very well, though understanding little of the particulars, I read it over, and found it concern Sir Robt. Bernard and Duckinford, their interest in the manor of Brampton. So I did sign it, declaring to Mr. Commander that I am only concerned in having my name at my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) desire used therein, and so I sealed it up after I had signed and sealed the deed, and desired him to give it so sealed to Mr. Moore. I did also call at the Wardrobe this afternoon to have told Mr. Moore of it, but he was not within, but knowing Mr. Commander to have the esteem of a good and honest man with my Lord Crew, I did not doubt to intrust him with the deed after I had signed it. This evening after I came home I begun to enter my wife in arithmetique, in order to her studying of the globes, and she takes it very well, and, I hope, with great pleasure, I shall bring her to understand many fine things.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1663. Waked about one o'clock in the morning.... My wife being waked rung her bell, and the mayds rose and went to washing, we to sleep again till 7 o'clock, and then up, and I abroad to look out Dr. Williams, but being gone out I went to Westminster, and there seeing my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) footman knew he was come to town, and so I went in and saw him, and received a kind salute from him, but hear that my father is very ill still.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. After dinner came in Captain Grove, and he and I alone to talk of many things, and among many others of the Fishery, in which he gives the such hopes that being at this time full of projects how to get a little honestly, of which some of them I trust in God will take, I resolved this afternoon to go and consult my Lord Sandwich (age 38) about it, and so, being to carry home Mrs. Hunt, I took her and my wife by coach and set them at Axe Yard [Map], and I to my Lord's and thither sent for Creed and discoursed with him about it, and he and I to White Hall, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and my Lord met me very fortunately, and wondered first to see me in my perruque, and I am glad it is over, and then, Sir G. Carteret (age 53) being gone, I took my Lord aside, who do give me the best advice he can, and telling me how there are some projectors, by name Edward Ford (age 58), who would have the making of farthings1, and out of that give so much to the King (age 33) for the maintenance of the Fishery; but my Lord do not like that, but would have it go as they offered the last year, and so upon my desire he promises me when it is seasonable to bring me into the commission with others, if any of them take, and I perceive he and Mr. Coventry (age 35) are resolved to follow it hard.

Note 1. Edward Ford (age 58), son of Sir William Ford of Harting, born at Up Park in 1605. "After the Restoration he invented a mode of coining farthings. Each piece was to differ minutely from another to prevent forgery. He failed in procuring a patent for these in England, but obtained one for Ireland. He died in Ireland before he could carry his design into execution, on September 3rd, 1670" ("Dictionary of National Biography ").

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. The Duke of Monmouth (age 14) is to have part of the Cockpitt [Map] new built for lodgings for him, and they say to be made Captain of the Guards in the room of my Lord Gerard (age 45). Having thus talked with him, there comes into the Hall Creed and Ned Pickering (age 45), and after a turne or two with them, it being noon, I walked with them two to the King's Head ordinary, and there we dined; little discourse but what was common, only that the Duke of Yorke (age 30) is a very, desperate huntsman, but I was ashamed of Pickering, who could not forbear having up my Lord Sandwich (age 38) now and then in the most paltry matters abominable.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. He tells me that the King (age 33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (age 33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (age 33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (age 33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (age 33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (age 42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (age 54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (age 33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (age 33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (age 14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Nov 1663. He gone, I to the office again a little, and so to bed. This morning I sent Will with my great letter of reproof to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), who did give it into his owne hand. I pray God give a blessing to it, but confess I am afeard what the consequence may be to me of good or bad, which is according to the ingenuity that he do receive it with. However, I am satisfied that it will do him good, and that he needs it: MY LORD, I do verily hope that neither the manner nor matter of this advice will be condemned by your Lordship, when for my defence in the first I shall allege my double attempt, since your return from Hinchinbroke, of doing it personally, in both of which your Lordship's occasions, no doubtfulnesse of mine, prevented me, and that being now fearful of a sudden summons to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], for the discharge of some ships there, I judge it very unbecoming the duty which every bit of bread I eat tells me I owe to your Lordship to expose the safety of your honour to the uncertainty of my return. For the matter, my Lord, it is such as could I in any measure think safe to conceal from, or likely to be discovered to you by any other hand, I should not have dared so far to owne what from my heart I believe is false, as to make myself but the relater of other's discourse; but, sir, your Lordship's honour being such as I ought to value it to be, and finding both in city and court that discourses pass to your prejudice, too generally for mine or any man's controllings but your Lordship's, I shall, my Lord, without the least greatening or lessening the matter, do my duty in laying it shortly before you. People of all conditions, my Lord, raise matter of wonder from your Lordship's so little appearance at Court: some concluding thence their disfavour thereby, to which purpose I have had questions asked me, and endeavouring to put off such insinuations by asserting the contrary, they have replied, that your Lordship's living so beneath your quality, out of the way, and declining of Court attendance, hath been more than once discoursed about the King (age 33). Others, my Lord, when the chief ministers of State, and those most active of the Council have been reckoned up, wherein your Lordship never used to want an eminent place, have said, touching your Lordship, that now your turn was served, and the King (age 33) had given you a good estate, you left him to stand or fall as he would, and, particularly in that of the Navy, have enlarged upon your letting fall all service there. Another sort, and those the most, insist upon the bad report of the house wherein your Lordship, now observed in perfect health again, continues to sojourne, and by name have charged one of the daughters for a common courtizan, alleging both places and persons where and with whom she hath been too well known, and how much her wantonnesse occasions, though unjustly, scandal to your Lordship, and that as well to gratifying of some enemies as to the wounding of more friends I am not able to tell. Lastly, my Lord, I find a general coldness in all persons towards your Lordship, such as, from my first dependance on you, I never yet knew, wherein I shall not offer to interpose any thoughts or advice of mine, well knowing your Lordship needs not any. But with a most faithful assurance that no person nor papers under Heaven is privy to what I here write, besides myself and this, which I shall be careful to have put into your owne hands, I rest confident of your Lordship's just construction of my dutifull intents herein, and in all humility take leave, may it please your Lordship, Your Lordship's most obedient Servant, S. P.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1663. Thence to the Temple [Map], and there visited my cozen Roger Pepys (age 46) and his brother Dr. John, a couple, methinks, of very ordinary men, and thence to speak [with] Mr. Moore, and met him by the way, who tells me, to my great content, that he believes my letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 38) hath wrought well upon him, and that he will look after himself and his business upon it, for he begins already to do so. But I dare not conclude anything till I see him, which shall be to-morrow morning, that I may be out of my pain to know how he takes it of me. He and I to the Coffee-house, and there drank and talked a little, and so I home, and after a little at my office home to supper and to bed, not knowing how to avoid hopes from Mr. Moore's words to-night, and yet I am fearful of the worst.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1663. Up, and as soon as I could to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) lodgings, but he was gone out before, and so I am defeated of my expectation of being eased one way or other in the business of my Lord. But I went up to Mr. Howe, who I saw this day the first time in a periwigg, which becomes him very well, and discoursed with him. He tells me that my Lord is of a sudden much changed, and he do believe that he do take my letter well. However, we do both bless God that it hath so good an effect upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. Up and to Sir G. Carteret's (age 53) house, and with him by coach to Whitehall. He uses me mighty well to my great joy, and in our discourse took occasion to tell me that as I did desire of him the other day so he desires of me the same favour that we may tell one another at any time any thing that passes among us at the office or elsewhere wherein we are either dissatisfied one with another, and that I should find him in all things as kind and ready to serve me as my own brother. This methinks-was very sudden and extraordinary and do please me mightily, and I am resolved by no means ever to lose him again if I can. He told me that he did still observe my care for the King's service in my office. He set me down in Fleet Street [Map] and thence I by another coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there I did present him Mr. Barlow's "Terella", with which he was very much pleased, and he did show me great kindnesse, and by other discourse I have reason to think that he is not at all, as I feared he would be, discontented against me more than the trouble of the thing will work upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. I left him in good humour, and I to White Hall, to the Duke of York (age 30) and Mr. Coventry (age 35), and there advised about insuring the hempe ship at 12 per cent., notwithstanding her being come to Newcastle [Map], and I do hope that in all my three places which are now my hopes and supports I may not now fear any thing, but with care, which through the Lord's blessing I will never more neglect, I don't doubt but to keep myself up with them all. For in the Duke (age 30), and Mr. Coventry (age 35), my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I place my greatest hopes, and it pleased me yesterday that Mr. Coventry (age 35) in the coach (he carrying me to the Exchange [Map] at noon from the office) did, speaking of Sir W. Batten (age 62), say that though there was a difference between them, yet he would embrace any good motion of Sir W. Batten (age 62) to the King's advantage as well as of Mr. Pepys' or any friend he had. And when I talked that I would go about doing something of the Controller's work when I had time, and that I thought the Controller would not take it ill, he wittily replied that there was nothing in the world so hateful as a dog in the manger.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1663. Up and at the office sat all the morning, and at noon by Mr. Coventry's (age 35) coach to the 'Change [Map], and after a little while there where I met with Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who tells me for good newes that my Lord Sandwich (age 38) is resolved to go no more to Chelsy, and told me he believed that I had been giving my Lord some counsel, which I neither denied nor affirmed, but seemed glad with him that he went thither no more, and so I home to dinner, and thence abroad to Paul's Church Yard, and there looked upon the second part of Hudibras, which I buy not, but borrow to read, to see if it be as good as the first, which the world cry so mightily up, though it hath not a good liking in me, though I had tried by twice or three times reading to bring myself to think it witty.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. At White Hall we met the Duke (age 30) in the Matted Gallery, and there he discoursed with us; and by and by my Lord Sandwich (age 38) came and stood by, and talked; but it being St. Andrew's, and a collar-day, he went to the Chappell, and we parted.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. Anon he and I to the Temple [Map] and there parted, and I to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 46), whom I met going to his chamber; he was in haste, and to go out of town tomorrow. He tells me of a letter from my father which he will keep to read to me at his coming to town again. I perceive it is about my father's jealousys concerning my wife's doing ill offices with me against him only from the differences they had when she was there, which he very unwisely continues to have and troubles himself and friends about to speak to me in, as my Lord Sandwich (age 38), Mr. Moore, and my cozen Roger (age 46), which vexes me, but I must impute it to his age and care for my mother and Pall and so let it go.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1663. We staid till night, and then Mr. Coventry (age 35) away, and by and by I home to my office till 9 or 10 at night, and so home to supper and to bed after some talke and Arithmetique with my poor wife, with whom now-a-days I live with great content, out of all trouble of mind by jealousy (for which God forgive me), or any other distraction more than my fear of my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) displeasure.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1663. After done there Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Captain Allen (age 51) and I by coach to the Temple [Map], where I 'light, they going home, and indeed it being my trouble of mind to try whether I could meet with my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and try him to see how he will receive me.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1663. Anon came my Lord Sandwich (age 38), and then we fell to our business at the Committee about my Lord Tiviott's accounts, wherein I took occasion to speak now and then, so as my Lord Sandwich (age 38) did well seem to like of it, and after we were up did bid me good night in a tone that, methinks, he is not so displeased with me as I did doubt he is; however, I will take a course to know whether he be or no.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1663. Then, my Lord Sandwich (age 38) being there, we all went into the Duke's closet and did our business. But among other things, Lord! what an account did Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) make of the pulling down and burning of the head of the Charles, where Cromwell was placed with people under his horse, and Peter, as the Duke called him, is praying to him; and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) would needs infer the temper of the people from their joy at the doing of this and their building a gibbet for the hanging of his head up, when God knows, it is even the flinging away of £100 out of the King's purse, to the building of another, which it seems must be a Neptune.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1663. Thence I through White Hall only to see what was doing, but meeting none that I knew I went through the garden to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) lodging, where I found my Lord got before me (which I did not intend or expect) and was there trying some musique, which he intends for an anthem of three parts, I know not whether for the King's chapel or no, but he seems mighty intent upon it. But it did trouble me to hear him swear before God and other oathes, as he did now and then without any occasion, which methinks did so ill become him, and I hope will be a caution for me, it being so ill a thing in him. The musique being done, without showing me any good or ill countenance, he did give me his hat and so adieu, and went down to his coach without saying anything to me.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1663. He being gone I mightily pleased with his discourse, by which I always learn something, I to read a little in Rushworth, and so home to supper to my wife, it having been washing day, and so to bed, my mind I confess a little troubled for my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) displeasure. But God will give me patience to bear since it rises from so good an occasion.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1663. So to White Hall, and there by order found some of the Commissioners of Tangier met, and my Lord Sandwich (age 38) among the rest, to whom I bowed, but he shewed me very little if any countenance at all, which troubles me mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1663. Up betimes, my wife having a mind to have gone abroad with me, but I had not because of troubling me, and so left her, though against my will, to go and see her father and mother by herself, and I straight to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there I had a pretty kind salute from my Lord, and went on to the Duke's (age 30), where my fellow officers by and by came, and so in with him to his closet, and did our business, and so broke up, and I with Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, and there spoke with Clerk our Solicitor about Field's business, and so parted, and I to Mrs. Turner's (age 40), and there saw the achievement pretty well set up, and it is well done.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1663. Thence, having enough of it, by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), where I find him within with Captain Cooke (age 47) and his boys, Dr. Childe (age 57), Mr. Madge, and Mallard, playing and singing over my Lord's anthem which he hath made to sing in the King's Chappell: my Lord saluted me kindly and took me into the withdrawing-room, to hear it at a distance, and indeed it sounds very finely, and is a good thing, I believe, to be made by him, and they all commend it. And after that was done Captain Cooke (age 47) and his two boys did sing some Italian songs, which I must in a word say I think was fully the best musique that I ever yet heard in all my life, and it was to me a very great pleasure to hear them.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1663. Up betimes and my wife; and being in as mourning a dress as we could, at present, without cost, put ourselves into, we by Sir W. Pen's (age 42) coach to Mrs. Turner's (age 40), at Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, where I find my Lord's coach and six horses. We staid till almost eleven o'clock, and much company came, and anon, the corps being put into the hearse, and the scutcheons set upon it, we all took coach, and I and my wife and Auditor Beale in my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) coach, and went next to Mrs. Turner's (age 40) mourning coach, and so through all the City and Shoreditch, I believe about twenty coaches, and four or five with six and four horses. Being come thither, I made up to the mourners, and bidding them a good journey, I took leave and back again, and setting my wife into a hackney out of Bishopsgate Street, I sent her home, and I to the 'Change [Map] and Auditor Beale about his business.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1663. Up betimes and by coach to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), who I met going out, and he did aske me how his cozen, my wife; did, the first time he hath done so since his being offended, and, in my conscience, he would be glad to be free with me again, but he knows not how to begin. So he went out, and I through the garden to Mr. Coventry (age 35), where I saw Mr. Ch. Pett (age 43) bringing him a modell, and indeed it is a pretty one, for a New Year's gift; but I think the work not better done than mine. With him by coach to London, with good and friendly discourse of business and against Sir W. Batten (age 62) and his foul dealings.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. And first I bless God I do, after a large expense, even this month, by reason of Christmas, and some payments to my father, and other things extraordinary, find that I am worth in money, besides all my household stuff, or any thing of Brampton, above £800, whereof in my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) hand, £700, and the rest in my hand. So that there is not above £5 of all my estate in money at this minute out of my hands and my Lord's. For which the good God be pleased to give me a thankful heart and a mind careful to preserve this and increase it. I do live at my lodgings in the Navy Office, my family being, besides my wife and I, Jane Gentleman, Besse, our excellent, good-natured cookmayde, and Susan, a little girle, having neither man nor boy, nor like to have again a good while, living now in most perfect content and quiett, and very frugally also; my health pretty good, but only that I have been much troubled with a costiveness which I am labouring to get away, and have hopes of doing it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1664. Up betimes, and my wife being ready, and her mayd Besse and the girl, I carried them by coach and set them all down in Covent Garden [Map] and there left them, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) lodgings, but he not being up, I to the Duke's (age 30) chamber, and there by and by to his closett, where since his lady was ill, a little red bed of velvet is brought for him to lie alone, which is a very pretty one.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1664. Up (my underlip being mightily swelled, I know not how but by overrubbing it, it itching) and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon I home to dinner, and by discourse with my wife thought upon inviting my Lord Sandwich (age 38) to a dinner shortly. It will cost me at least ten or twelve pounds; but, however, some arguments of prudence I have, which however I shall think again upon before I proceed to that expence.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1664. Thence home, and there found Ashwell come to see my wife (we having called at her lodging the other, day to speak with her about dressing my wife when my Lord Sandwich (age 38) dines here), and is as merry as ever, and speaks as disconcerned for any difference between us on her going away as ever.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. By and by came by Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so we broke off; and he and I took a turn or two and so parted, and then my Lord Sandwich (age 38) came upon me, to speak with whom my business of coming again to-night to this ende of the town chiefly was, in order to the seeing in what manner he received me, in order to my inviting him to dinner to my house, but as well in the morning as now, though I did wait upon him home and there offered occasion of talk with him, yet he treated me, though with respect, yet as a stranger, without any of the intimacy or friendship which he used to do, and which I fear he will never, through his consciousness of his faults, ever do again. Which I must confess do trouble me above anything in the world almost, though I neither do need at present nor fear to need to be so troubled, nay, and more, though I do not think that he would deny me any friendship now if I did need it, but only that he has not the face to be free with me, but do look upon me as a remembrancer of his former vanity, and an espy upon his present practices, for I perceive that Pickering to-day is great with him again, and that he has done a great courtesy for Mr. Pierce, the chirurgeon, to a good value, though both these and none but these did I mention by name to my Lord in the business which has caused all this difference between my Lord and me. However, I am resolved to forbear my laying out my money upon a dinner till I see him in a better posture, and by grave and humble, though high deportment, to make him think I do not want him, and that will make him the readier to admit me to his friendship again, I believe the soonest of anything but downright impudence, and thrusting myself, as others do, upon him, which yet I cannot do, not [nor] will not endeavour.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. Home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and I by water, which we have not done together many a day, that is not since last summer, but the weather is now very warm, and left her at Axe Yard [Map], and I to White Hall, and meeting Mr. Pierce walked with him an hour in the Matted Gallery; among other things he tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23) is not at all set by by the King (age 33), but that he do doat upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16) only; and that to the leaving of all business in the world, and to the open slighting of the Queene (age 54); that he values not who sees him or stands by him while he dallies with her openly; and then privately in her chamber below, where the very sentrys observe his going in and out; and that so commonly, that the Duke (age 30) or any of the nobles, when they would ask where the King (age 33) is, they will ordinarily say, "Is the King (age 33) above, or below?" meaning with Mrs. Stewart (age 16): that the King (age 33) do not openly disown my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23), but that she comes to Court; but that my Lord FitzHarding (age 34) and the Hambletons1, and sometimes my Lord Sandwich (age 38), they say, have their snaps at her. But he says my Lord Sandwich (age 38) will lead her from her lodgings in the darkest and obscurest manner, and leave her at the entrance into the Queene's (age 54) lodgings, that he might be the least observed; that the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) the King (age 33) do still doat on beyond measure, insomuch that the King (age 33) only, the Duke of York (age 30), and Prince Rupert (age 44), and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), do now wear deep mourning, that is, long cloaks, for the Duchesse of Savoy; so that he mourns as a Prince of the Blood, while the Duke of York (age 30) do no more, and all the nobles of the land not so much; which gives great offence, and he says the Duke of York (age 30) do consider. But that the Duke of York (age 30) do give himself up to business, and is like to prove a noble Prince; and so indeed I do from my heart think he will. He says that it is believed, as well as hoped, that care is taken to lay up a hidden treasure of money by the King (age 33) against a bad day, pray God it be so! but I should be more glad that the King (age 33) himself would look after business, which it seems he do not in the least.

Note 1. The three brothers, George Hamilton, James Hamilton (age 34), and the Count Antoine Hamilton (age 18), author of the "Memoires de Grammont"..

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. Up and by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and after long staying till his coming down (he not sending for me up, but it may be he did not know I was there), he came down, and I walked with him to the Tennis Court, and there left him, seeing the King (age 33) play.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1664. So home after business done at my office, to supper, and then to the globes with my wife, and so to bed. Troubled a little in mind that my Lord Sandwich (age 38) should continue this strangeness to me that methinks he shows me now a days more than while the thing was fresh.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1664. Up and by coach to Whitehall to my Lord's lodgings, and seeing that knowing that I was in the house, my Lord did not nevertheless send for me up, I did go to the Duke's lodgings, and there staid while he was making ready, in which time my Lord Sandwich (age 38) came, and so all into his closet and did our common business, and so broke up, and I homeward by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 63), and staid at Warwick Lane and there called upon Mr. Commander and did give him my last will and testament to write over in form, and so to the 'Change [Map], where I did several businesses.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1664. Up, and by coach called upon Mr. Phillips, and after a little talk with him away to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), but he being gone abroad, I staid a little and talked with Mr. Howe, and so to Westminster in term time, and there met Mr. Pierce, who told me largely how the King (age 33) still do doat upon his women, even beyond all shame; and that the good Queen (age 25) will of herself stop before she goes sometimes into her dressing-room, till she knows whether the King (age 33) be there, for fear he should be, as she hath sometimes taken him, with Mrs. Stewart (age 16); and that some of the best parts of the Queen's (age 25) joynture are, contrary to faith, and against the opinion of my Lord Treasurer (age 56) and his Council, bestowed or rented, I know not how, to my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 34) and Mrs. Stewart (age 16), and others of that crew that the King (age 33) do doat infinitely upon the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), apparently as one that he intends to have succeed him. God knows what will be the end of it!

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1664. Up, and by coach to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), to his new house, a fine house, but deadly dear, in Lincoln's Inne Fields, where I found and spoke a little to him. He is high and strange still, but did ask me how my wife did, and at parting remembered him to his cozen, which I thought was pretty well, being willing to flatter myself that in time he will be well again.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1664. After dinner I to the office, where we should have met upon business extraordinary, but business not coming we broke up, and I thither again and took my wife; and taking a coach, went to visit my Ladys Jemimah and Paulina Montagu, and Mrs. Elizabeth Pickering (age 22), whom we find at their father's new house1 in Lincolne's Inn Fields; but the house all in dirt. They received us well enough; but I did not endeavour to carry myself over familiarly with them; and so after a little stay, there coming in presently after us my Lady Aberguenny (age 34) and other ladies, we back again by coach, and visited, my wife did, my she cozen Scott, who is very ill still, and thence to Jaggard's again, where a very good supper and great store of plate; and above all after supper Mrs. Jaggard did at my entreaty play on the Vyall, but so well as I did not think any woman in England could and but few Maisters, I must confess it did mightily surprise me, though I knew heretofore that she could play, but little thought so well.

Note 1. The Earl of Sandwich had just moved to a house in Lincoln's Inn Fields. Elizabeth Dickering (age 22), who afterwards married John Creed, was niece to Lord Sandwich (age 38).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. Thence to White Hall (where my Lord Sandwich (age 38) was, and gave me a good countenance, I thought), and before the Duke (age 30) did our usual business, and so I about several businesses in the house, and then out to the Mewes with Sir W. Pen (age 42). But in my way first did meet with W. Howe, who did of himself advise me to appear more free with my Lord and to come to him, for my own strangeness he tells me he thinks do make my Lord the worse.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1664. Up, my eye mightily out of order with the rheum that is fallen down into it, however, I by coach endeavoured to have waited on my Lord Sandwich (age 38), but meeting him in Chancery Lane [Map] going towards the City I stopped and so fairly walked home again, calling at St. Paul's Churchyarde, and there looked upon a pretty burlesque poem, called "Scarronides, or Virgile Travesty"; extraordinary good.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. Up, my eye being pretty well, and then by coach to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), with whom I spoke, walking a good while with him in his garden, which and the house is very fine, talking of my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, wherein he is concerned both for the foolery as also inconvenience which may happen upon my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) ill-stating of his matters, so as to have his gaine discovered unnecessarily. We did talk long and freely that I hope the worst is past and all will be well. There were several people by trying a new-fashion gun1 brought my Lord this morning, to shoot off often, one after another, without trouble or danger, very pretty.

Note 1. Many attempts to produce a satisfactory revolver were made in former centuries, but it was not till the present one that Colt's revolver was invented. On February 18th, 1661, Edward, Marquis of Worcester (age 61), obtained Letters Patent for "an invencon to make certeyne guns or pistolls which in the tenth parte of one minute of an houre may, with a flaske contrived to that purpose, be re-charged the fourth part of one turne of the barrell which remaines still fixt, fastening it as forceably and effectually as a dozen thrids of any scrue, which in the ordinary and usual way require as many turnes". On March 3rd, 1664, Abraham Hill obtained Letters Patent for a "gun or pistoll for small shott, carrying seaven or eight charges of the same in the stocke of the gun"..

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. So home to dinner, and my uncle Wight (age 62) coming in he along with my wife and I by coach, and setting him down by the way going to Mr. Maes we two to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) to visit my Lady, with whom I left my wife discoursing, and I to White Hall, and there being met by the Duke of Yorke (age 30), he called me to him and discoursed a pretty while with me about the new ship's dispatch building at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and talking of the charge did say that he finds always the best the most cheape, instancing in French guns, which in France you may buy for 4 pistoles, as good to look to as others of 16, but not the service. I never had so much discourse with the Duke (age 30) before, and till now did ever fear to meet him. He found me and Mr. Prin (age 64) together talking of the Chest money, which we are to blame not to look after.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1664. Up and to the office, where all the morning doing business, and at noon to the 'Change [Map] and there very busy, and so home to dinner with my wife, to a good hog's harslet1, a piece of meat I love, but have not eat of I think these seven years, and after dinner abroad by coach set her at Mrs. Hunt's and I to White Hall, and at the Privy Seale I enquired, and found the Bill come for the Corporation of the Royall Fishery; whereof the Duke of Yorke (age 30) is made present Governor, and several other very great persons, to the number of thirty-two, made his assistants for their lives: whereof, by my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) favour, I am one; and take it not only as a matter of honour, but that, that may come to be of profit to me, and so with great content went and called my wife, and so home and to the office, where busy late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. Harslet or haslet, the entrails of an animal, especially of a hog, as the heart, liver, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1664. Up and by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), who not being up I staid talking with Mr. Moore till my Lord was ready and come down, and went directly out without calling for me or seeing any body. I know not whether he knew I was there, but I am apt to think not, because if he would have given me that slighting yet he would not have done it to others that were there. So I went back again doing nothing but discoursing with Mr. Moore, who I find by discourse to be grown rich, and indeed not to use me at all with the respect he used to do, but as his equal. He made me known to their Chaplin, who is a worthy, able man.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1664. By and by into his closet and did our business with him. But I did not speed as I expected in a business about the manner of buying hemp for this year, which troubled me, but it proceeds only from my pride, that I must needs expect every thing to be ordered just as I apprehend, though it was not I think from my errour, but their not being willing to hear and consider all that I had to propose. Being broke up I followed my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and thanked him for his putting me into the Fishery, which I perceive he expected, and cried "Oh!" says he, "in the Fishery you mean. I told you I would remember you in it", but offered no other discourse. But demanding whether he had any commands for me, methought he cried "No!" as if he had no more mind to discourse with me, which still troubles me and hath done all the day, though I think I am a fool for it, in not pursuing my resolution of going handsome in clothes and looking high, for that must do it when all is done with my Lord.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1664. Up, and walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38); and there spoke with him about W. Joyce, who told me he would do what was fit in so tender a point. I can yet discern a coldness in him to admit me to any discourse with him.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1664. I home, and immediately dressing myself, by coach with my wife to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), but they having dined we would not 'light but went to Mrs. Turner's (age 41), and there got something to eat, and thence after reading part of a good play, Mrs. The., my wife and I, in their coach to Hide Parke, where great plenty of gallants, and pleasant it was, only for the dust. Here I saw Mrs. Bendy, my Lady Spillman's faire daughter that was, who continues yet very handsome. Many others I saw with great content, and so back again to Mrs. Turner's (age 41), and then took a coach and home. I did also carry them into St. James's Park and shewed them the garden.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1664. Home to dinner, where I and my wife much troubled about my money that is in my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) hand, for fear of his going to sea and be killed; but I will get what of it out I can. All the afternoon, not being well, at my office, and there doing much business, my thoughts still running upon a warr and my money. At night home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1664. Thence down with Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Sir W. Rider, who was there (going along with us from the East Indya house to-day) to discourse of my Lord Peterborough's (age 42) accounts, and then walked over the Parke, and in Mr. Cutler's coach with him and Rider as far as the Strand, and thence I walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), where by agreement I met my wife, and there dined with the young ladies; my Lady, being not well, kept her chamber. Much simple discourse at table among the young ladies.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1664. Up, and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and coming a little too early, I went and saw W. Joyce, and by and by comes in Anthony, they both owning a great deal of kindness received from me in their late business, and indeed I did what I could, and yet less I could not do. It has cost the poor man above £40; besides, he is likely to lose his debt.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1664. Thence, after long staying to speak with my Lord Sandwich (age 38), at last he coming out to me and speaking with me about business of my Lord Peterborough (age 42), I by coach home to the office, where all the afternoon, only stept home to eat one bit and to the office again, having eaten nothing before to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1664. By and by my Lord Sandwich (age 38) came forth, and called me to him: and we fell into discourse a great while about his business, wherein he seems to be very open with me, and to receive my opinion as he used to do; and I hope I shall become necessary to him again. He desired me to think of the fitness, or not, for him to offer himself to go to sea; and to give him my thoughts in a day or two.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1664. Whitsunday. King's Birth and Restauration day. Up, and having received a letter last night desiring it from Mr. Coventry (age 36), I walked to St. James's, and there he and I did long discourse together of the business of the office, and the warr with the Dutch; and he seemed to argue mightily with the little reason that there is for all this. For first, as to the wrong we pretend they have done us: that of the East Indys, for their not delivering of Poleron, it is not yet known whether they have failed or no; that of their hindering the Leopard cannot amount to above £3,000 if true; that of the Guinny company, all they had done us did not amount to above £200 or £300 he told me truly; and that now, from what Holmes, without any commission, hath done in taking an island and two forts, hath set us much in debt to them; and he believes that Holmes will have been so puffed up with this, that he by this time hath been enforced with more strength than he had then, hath, I say, done a great deale more wrong to them. He do, as to the effect of the warr, tell me clearly that it is not any skill of the Dutch that can hinder our trade if we will, we having so many advantages over them, of winds, good ports, and men; but it is our pride, and the laziness of the merchant. He seems to think that there may be some negotiation which may hinder a warr this year, but that he speaks doubtfully as unwilling I perceive to be thought to discourse any such thing. The main thing he desired to speake with me about was, to know whether I do understand my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) intentions as to going to sea with this fleete; saying, that the Duke (age 30), if he desires it, is most willing to it; but thinking that twelve ships is not a fleete fit for my Lord to be troubled to go out with, he is not willing to offer it to him till he hath some intimations of his mind to go, or not. He spoke this with very great respect as to my Lord, though methinks it is strange they should not understand one another better at this time than to need another's mediation.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1664. Thence walked over the Parke to White Hall, Mr. Povy (age 50) with me, and was taken in a very great showre in the middle of the Parke that we were very wet. So up into, the house and with him to the King's closett, whither by and by the King (age 34) came, my Lord Sandwich (age 38) carrying the sword. A Bishopp preached, but he speaking too low for me to hear behind the King's closett, I went forth and walked and discoursed with Colonell Reames, who seems a very willing man to be informed in his business of canvas, which he is undertaking to strike in with us to serve the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1664. Thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and while he was dressing I below discoursed with Captain Cooke (age 48), and I think if I do find it fit to keep a boy at all I had as good be supplied from him with one as any body.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1664. Then by barge with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. It seems they have with much ado carried it for Sir G. Carteret (age 54) against Captain Harrison, poor man, who by succession ought to have been it, and most hands were for him, but only they were forced to fright the younger Brethren by requiring them to set their hands (which is an ill course) and then Sir G. Carteret (age 54) carryed it. Here was at dinner my Lord Sandwich (age 38), Mr. Coventry (age 36), my Lord Craven (age 56), and others. A great dinner, and good company. Mr. Prin (age 64) also, who would not drink any health, no, not the King's, but sat down with his hat on all the while1 but nobody took notice of it to him at all; but in discourse with the Doctor he did declare himself that he ever was, and has expressed himself in all his books for mixt communion against the Presbyterian examination.

Note 1. William Prynne (age 64) had published in 1628 a small book against the drinking of healths, entitled, "Healthes, Sicknesse; or a compendious and briefe Discourse, prouing, the Drinking and Pledging of Healthes to be sinfull and utterly unlawfull unto Christians ... wherein all those ordinary objections, excuses or pretences, which are made to justifie, extenuate, or excuse the drinking or pledging of Healthes are likewise cleared and answered". The pamphlet was dedicated to Charles I as "more interessed in the theame and subject of this compendious discourse then any other that I know", and "because your Majestie of all other persons within your owne dominions, are most dishonoured, prejudiced, and abused by these Healthes"..

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1664. Thence after dinner by water, my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and all us Tangier men, where at the Committee busy till night with great confusion, and then by coach home, with this content, however, that I find myself every day become more and more known, and shall one day hope to have benefit by it. I found my wife a little better. A little to my office, then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1664. So back to the office, and by coach with Mr. Gauden to White Hall, and there to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), and here I met Mr. Townsend very opportunely and Captain Ferrer, and after some discourse we did accommodate the business of the Wardrobe place, that he shall have the reversion if he will take it out by giving a covenant that if Mr. Young' dyes before my father shall have the benefit of it for his life.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1664. And anon at noon comes Mr. Creed by chance, and by and by the three young ladies: [Lord Sandwich's (age 38) daughters.] and very merry we were with our pasty, very well baked; and a good dish of roasted chickens; pease, lobsters, strawberries.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1664. Up and did several businesses, and so with my wife by water to White Hall, she to her father's, I to the Duke (age 30), where we did our usual business. And among other discourse of the Dutch, he was merrily saying how they print that Prince Rupert (age 44), Duke of Albemarle (age 55), and my Lord Sandwich (age 38), are to be Generalls; and soon after is to follow them "Vieux Pen"; and so the Duke called him in mirth Old Pen. They have, it seems, lately wrote to the King (age 34), to assure him that their setting-out ships were only to defend their fishing-trade, and to stay near home, not to annoy the King's subjects; and to desire that he would do the like with his ships: which the King (age 34) laughs at, but yet is troubled they should think him such a child, to suffer them to bring home their fish and East India Company ships, and then they will not care a fart for us.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and then home to dinner and to my office, where till 10 at night very busy, and so home to supper and to bed. My cozen, Thomas Pepys, was with me yesterday and I took occasion to speak to him about the bond I stand bound for my Lord Sandwich (age 38) to him in £1000. I did very plainly, obliging him to secrecy, tell him how the matter stands, yet with all duty to my Lord my resolution to be bound for whatever he desires me for him, yet that I would be glad he had any other security. I perceive by Mr. Moore today that he hath been with my Lord, and my Lord how he takes it I know not, but he is looking after other security and I am mighty glad of it. W. Howe was with me this afternoon, to desire some things to be got ready for my Lord against his going down to his ship, which will be soon; for it seems the King (age 34) and both the Queenes (age 54) intend to visit him. The Lord knows how my Lord will get out of this charge; for Mr. Moore tells me to-day that he is £10,000 in debt and this will, with many other things that daily will grow upon him (while he minds his pleasure as he do), set him further backward. But it was pretty this afternoon to hear W. Howe mince the matter, and say that he do believe that my Lord is in debt £2000 or £3000, and then corrected himself and said, No, not so, but I am afraid he is in debt £1000. I pray God gets me well rid of his Lordship as to his debt, and I care not.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1664. Lord's Day. Up, and Sir J. Minnes (age 65) set me down at my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), where I waited till his coming down, when he came, too, could find little to say to me but only a general question or two, and so good-bye. Here his little daughter, my [his daughter] Lady Katharine (age 2) was brought, who is lately come from my father's at Brampton, to have her cheek looked after, which is and hath long been sore. But my Lord will rather have it be as it is, with a scarr in her face, than endanger it being worse by tampering.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1664. Thence walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there dined, my Lord there. He was pleasant enough at table with me, but yet without any discourse of business, or any regard to me when dinner was over, but fell to cards, and my Lady and I sat two hours alone, talking of the condition of her family's being greatly in debt, and many children now coming up to provide for. I did give her my sense very plain of it, which she took well and carried further than myself, to the bemoaning their condition, and remembering how finely things were ordered about six years ago, when I lived there and my Lord at sea every year.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1664. Then to the making up my month's accounts, and find myself still a gainer and rose to £951, for which God be blessed. I end the month with my mind full of business and some sorrow that I have not exactly performed all my vowes, though my not doing is not my fault, and shall be made good out of my first leisure. Great doubts yet whether the Dutch wary go on or no. The Fleet ready in the Hope, of twelve sayle. The King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) go on board, they say, on Saturday next. Young children of my Lord Sandwich (age 38) gone with their mayds from my mother's, which troubles me, it being, I hear from Mr. Shepley, with great discontent, saying, that though they buy good meate, yet can never have it before it stinks, which I am ashamed of.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1664. After dinner I walked homeward, still doing business by the way, and at home find my wife this day of her owne accord to have lain out 25s. upon a pair of pendantes for her eares, which did vex me and brought both me and her to very high and very foule words from her to me, such as trouble me to think she should have in her mouth, and reflecting upon our old differences, which I hate to have remembered. I vowed to breake them, or that she should go and get what she could for them again. I went with that resolution out of doors; the poor wretch afterwards in a little while did send out to change them for her money again. I followed Besse her messenger at the 'Change [Map], and there did consult and sent her back; I would not have them changed, being satisfied that she yielded. So went home, and friends again as to that business; but the words I could not get out of my mind, and so went to bed at night discontented, and she came to bed to me, but all would not make me friends, but sleep and rise in the morning angry. This day the King (age 34) and the Queene (age 54) went to visit my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and the fleete, going forth in the Hope1.

Note 1. "Their Majesties were treated at Tilbury Hope by the Earl of Sandwich, returning the same day, abundantly satisfied both with the dutiful respects of that honourable person and with the excellent condition of all matters committed to his charge" ("The Newes", July 7th, 1664). B.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1664. Lord's Day. Up and by water, towards noon, to Somersett House [Map], and walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there dined with my Lady and the children. And after some ordinary discourse with my Lady, after dinner took our leaves and my wife hers, in order to her going to the country to-morrow. But my Lord took not occasion to speak one word of my father or mother about the children at all, which I wonder at, and begin I will not. Here my Lady showed us my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 23) picture, finely done; given my Lord; and a most beautiful picture it is.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1664. So by water home, and there met Lanyon, &c., about Tangier matters, and so late to my office, and thence home and to bed. Mr. Moore was with me late to desire me to come to my Lord Sandwich (age 38) tomorrow morning, which I shall, but I wonder what my business is.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1664. Up and to my office, at noon (after having at an alehouse hard by discoursed with one Mr. Tyler, a neighbour, and one Captain Sanders about the discovery of some pursers that have sold their provisions) I to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), thinking to have dined there, but they not dining at home, I with Captain Ferrers to Mr. Barwell the King's Squire Sadler, where about this time twelvemonths I dined before at a good venison pasty. The like we had now, and very good company, Mr. Tresham and others.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence to my Lord's again, and my Lord being up, was sent for up, and he and I alone. He did begin with a most solemn profession of the same confidence in and love for me that he ever had, and then told me what a misfortune was fallen upon me and him: in me, by a displeasure which my Chancellor (age 55) did show to him last night against me, in the highest and most passionate manner that ever any man did speak, even to the not hearing of any thing to be said to him: but he told me, that he did say all that could be said for a man as to my faithfullnesse and duty to his Lordship, and did me the greatest right imaginable. And what should the business be, but that I should be forward to have the trees in Clarendon Park marked and cut down, which he, it seems, hath bought of my Lord Albemarle (age 55); when, God knows! I am the most innocent man in the world in it, and did nothing of myself, nor knew of his concernment therein, but barely obeyed my Lord Treasurer's (age 57) warrant for the doing thereof. And said that I did most ungentlemanlike with him, and had justified the rogues in cutting down a tree of his; and that I had sent the veriest Fanatique [Deane (age 30)] that is in England to mark them, on purpose to nose [provoke] him. All which, I did assure my Lord, was most properly false, and nothing like it true; and told my Lord the whole passage. My Lord do seem most nearly affected; he is partly, I believe, for me, and partly for himself. So he advised me to wait presently upon my Lord, and clear myself in the most perfect manner I could, with all submission and assurance that I am his creature both in this and all other things; and that I do owne that all I have, is derived through my Lord Sandwich (age 38) from his Lordship. So, full of horror, I went, and found him busy in tryals of law in his great room; and it being Sitting-day, durst not stay, but went to my Lord and told him so: whereupon he directed me to take him after dinner; and so away I home, leaving my Lord mightily concerned for me. I to the office, and there sat busy all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. So I left them, and I to my Chancellor's (age 55); and there coming out after dinner I accosted him, telling him that I was the unhappy Pepys that had fallen into his high displeasure, and come to desire him to give me leave to make myself better understood to his Lordship, assuring him of my duty and service. He answered me very pleasingly, that he was confident upon the score of my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) character of me, but that he had reason to think what he did, and desired me to call upon him some evening: I named to-night, and he accepted of it. So with my heart light I to White Hall, and there after understanding by a stratagem, and yet appearing wholly desirous not to understand Mr. Gauden's price when he desired to show it me, I went down and ordered matters in our tender so well that at the meeting by and by I was ready with Mr. Gauden's and his, both directed him a letter to me to give the board their two tenders, but there being none but the Generall Monk (age 55) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Povy (age 50) and I, I did not think fit to expose them to view now, but put it off till Saturday, and so with good content rose.

Before 15 Jul 1664 [his son] James Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 38) and [his wife] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. Up, and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38); where he sent for me up, and I did give my Lord an account of what had passed with my Chancellor (age 55) yesterday; with which he was well pleased, and advised me by all means to study in the best manner I could to serve him in this business. After this discourse ended, he begun to tell me that he had now pitched upon his day of going to sea upon Monday next, and that he would now give me an account how matters are with him. He told me that his work now in the world is only to keep up his interest at Court, having little hopes to get more considerably, he saying that he hath now about £8,000 per annum. It is true, he says, he oweth about £10,000; but he hath been at great charges in getting things to this pass in his estate; besides his building and good goods that he hath bought. He says he hath now evened his reckonings at the Wardrobe till Michaelmas last, and hopes to finish it to Ladyday before he goes. He says now there is due, too, £7,000 to him there, if he knew how to get it paid, besides £2000 that Mr. Montagu do owe him. As to his interest, he says that he hath had all the injury done him that ever man could have by another bosom friend that knows all his secrets, by Mr. Montagu; but he says that the worst of it all is past, and he gone out and hated, his very person by the King (age 34), and he believes the more upon the score of his carriage to him; nay, that the Duke of Yorke (age 30) did say a little while since in his closett, that he did hate him because of his ungratefull carriage to my Lord of Sandwich (age 38). He says that he is as great with the Chancellor (age 55), or greater, than ever in his life. That with the King (age 34) he is the like; and told me an instance, that whereas he formerly was of the private council to the King (age 34) before he was last sicke, and that by the sickness an interruption was made in his attendance upon him; the King (age 34) did not constantly call him, as he used to do, to his private council, only in businesses of the sea and the like; but of late the King (age 34) did send a message to him by Sir Harry Bennet (age 46), to excuse the King (age 34) to my Lord that he had not of late sent for him as he used to do to his private council, for it was not out of any distaste, but to avoid giving offence to some others whom he did not name; but my Lord supposes it might be Prince Rupert (age 44), or it may be only that the King (age 34) would rather pass it by an excuse, than be thought unkind: but that now he did desire him to attend him constantly, which of late he hath done, and the King (age 34) never more kind to him in his life than now.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence with Creed by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there I got Mr. Moore to give me my Lord's hand for my receipt of £109 more of my money of Sir G. Carteret (age 54), so that then his debt to me will be under £500, I think. This do ease my mind also.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1664. Thence walked a while with Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the gallery, and first find that he is mighty cold in his present opinion of Mr. Peter Pett (age 53) for his flagging and doing things so lazily there, and he did also surprise me with a question why Deane (age 30) did not bring in their report of the timber of Clarendon. What he means thereby I know not, but at present put him off; nor do I know how to steer myself: but I must think of it, and advise with my Lord Sandwich (age 38).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1664. All our discourse is of a Dutch warr and I find it is likely to come to it, for they are very high and desire not to compliment us at all, as far as I hear, but to send a good fleete to Guinny to oppose us there. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) newly gone to sea, and I, I think, fallen into his very good opinion again, at least he did before his going, and by his letter since, show me all manner of respect and confidence. I am over-joyed in hopes that upon this month's account I shall find myself worth £1000, besides the rich present of two silver and gilt flaggons which Mr. Gauden did give me the other day. I do now live very prettily at home, being most seriously, quietly, and neatly served by my two mayds Jane and the girle Su, with both of whom I am mightily well pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1664. All the newes this day is, that the Dutch are, with twenty-two sayle of ships of warr, crewsing up and down about Ostend; at which we are alarmed. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) is come back into the Downes with only eight sayle, which is or may be a prey to the Dutch, if they knew our weakness and inability to set out any more speedily.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1664. So home, and to bed. This day Mr. Coventry (age 36) did tell us how the Duke (age 30) did receive the Dutch Embassador the other day; by telling him that, whereas they think us in jest, he believes that the Prince (age 44) (Rupert) which goes in this fleete to Guinny will soon tell them that we are in earnest, and that he himself will do the like here, in the head of the fleete here at home, and that for the meschants, which he told the Duke there were in England, which did hope to do themselves good by the King's being at warr, says he, the English have ever united all this private difference to attend foraigne, and that Cromwell, notwithstanding the meschants in his time, which were the Cavaliers, did never find them interrupt him in his foraigne businesses, and that he did not doubt but to live to see the Dutch as fearfull of provoking the English, under the government of a King, as he remembers them to have been under that of a Coquin. I writ all this story to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) tonight into the Downes, it being very good and true, word for word from Mr. Coventry (age 36) to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1664. Thence back to the 'Change [Map], where great talke of the forwardnesse of the Dutch, which puts us all to a stand, and particularly myself for my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to think him to lie where he is for a sacrifice, if they should begin with us.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1664. Up and, it being rainy, in Sir W. Pen's (age 43) coach to St. James's, and there did our usual business with the Duke (age 30), and more and more preparations every day appear against the Dutch, and (which I must confess do a little move my envy) Sir W. Pen (age 43) do grow every day more and more regarded by the Duke (age 30)1, because of his service heretofore in the Dutch warr which I am confident is by some strong obligations he hath laid upon Mr. Coventry (age 36); for Mr. Coventry (age 36) must needs know that he is a man of very mean parts, but only a bred seaman.

Note 1. "The duke (age 30) had decided that the English fleet should consist of three squadrons to be commanded by himself, Prince Rupert (age 44), and Lord Sandwich (age 39), from which arrangement the two last, who were land admirals; had concluded that Penn would have no concern in this fleet. Neither the duke (age 30), Rupert (age 44), nor Sandwich had ever been engaged in an encounter of fleets.... Penn alone of the four was familiar with all these things. By the duke's unexpected announcement that he should take Penn with him into his own ship, Rupert and Sandwich at once discovered that they would be really and practically under Penn's command in everything"..

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1664. Rose very well and not weary, and with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to St. James's; there did our business. I saw Sir J. Lawson (age 49) since his return from sea first this morning, and hear that my Lord Sandwich (age 39) is come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to town.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1664. So we parted, and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) at his lodgings, and after a little stay away with Mr. Cholmely (age 32) to Fleete Streete; in the way he telling me that Tangier is like to be in a bad condition with this same Fitzgerald, he being a man of no honour, nor presence, nor little honesty, and endeavours: to raise the Irish and suppress the English interest there; and offend every body, and do nothing that I hear of well, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. Thence into the galleries to talk with my Lord Sandwich (age 39); among other things, about the Prince's (age 44) writing up to tell us of the danger he and his fleete lie in at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], of receiving affronts from the Dutch; which, my Lord said, he would never have done, had he lain there with one ship alone: nor is there any great reason for it, because of the sands. However, the fleete will be ordered to go and lay themselves up at the Cowes. Much beneath the prowesse of the Prince, I think, and the honour of the nation, at the first to be found to secure themselves. My Lord is well pleased to think, that, if the Duke and the Prince (age 44) go, all the blame of any miscarriage will not light on him; and that if any thing goes well, he hopes he shall have the share of the glory, for the Prince is by no means well esteemed of by any body.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1664. So home to supper and to bed. This night Sir W. Batten (age 63) did, among other things, tell me strange newes, which troubles me, that my Lord Sandwich (age 39) will be sent Governor to Tangier, which, in some respects, indeed, I should be glad of, for the good of the place and the safety of his person; but I think his honour will suffer, and, it may be, his interest fail by his distance.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1664. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir W. Batten (age 63) to the Council Chamber at White Hall, to the Committee of the Lords for the Navy, where we were made to wait an houre or two before called in. In that time looking upon some books of heraldry of Sir Edward Walker's making, which are very fine, there I observed the Duke of Monmouth's (age 15) armes are neatly done, and his title, "The most noble and high-born Prince, James Scott, Duke of Monmouth (age 15), &c."; nor could Sir J. Minnes (age 65), nor any body there, tell whence he should take the name of Scott? And then I found my Lord Sandwich (age 39), his title under his armes is, "The most noble and mighty Lord, Edward, Earl of Sandwich, &c".

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. I to the 'Change [Map] and there staid long doing business, and this day for certain newes is come that Teddiman hath brought in eighteen or twenty Dutchmen, merchants, their Bourdeaux fleete, and two men of wary to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]1.

Note 1. Captain Sir Thomas Captain Sir Thomas Teddiman (or Tyddiman) had been appointed Rear-Admiral of Lord Sandwich's (age 39) squadron of the English fleet. In a letter from Sir William Coventry (age 36) to Secretary Bennet (age 46), dated November 13th, 1664, we read, "Rear Admiral Teddeman with four or five ships has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen will teach them their duty" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664.-65, p. 66).

1664 Comet

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1664. So to the Coffeehouse, where great talke of the Comet seen in several places; and among our men at sea, and by my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to whom I intend to write about it to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1664. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) this day writes me word that he hath seen (at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]) the Comet, and says it is the most extraordinary thing that ever he saw.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map]; and there, among the merchants, I hear fully the news of our being beaten to dirt at Guinny, by De Ruyter (age 57) with his fleete. The particulars, as much as by Sir G. Carteret (age 54) afterwards I heard, I have said in a letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) this day at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; it being most wholly to the utter ruine of our Royall Company, and reproach and shame to the whole nation, as well as justification to them in their doing wrong to no man as to his private [property], only takeing whatever is found to belong to the Company, and nothing else.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1664. So ends the old yeare, I bless God, with great joy to me, not only from my having made so good a yeare of profit, as having spent £420 and laid up £540 and upwards; but I bless God I never have been in so good plight as to my health in so very cold weather as this is, nor indeed in any hot weather, these ten years, as I am at this day, and have been these four or five months. But I am at a great losse to know whether it be my hare's foote, or taking every morning of a pill of turpentine, or my having left off the wearing of a gowne. My family is, my wife, in good health, and happy with her; her woman Mercer, a pretty, modest, quiett mayde; her chambermayde Besse, her cook mayde Jane, the little girl Susan, and my boy, which I have had about half a yeare, Tom Edwards, which I took from the King's chappell, and a pretty and loving quiett family I have as any man in England. My credit in the world and my office grows daily, and I am in good esteeme with everybody, I think. My troubles of my uncle's estate pretty well over; but it comes to be but of little profit to us, my father being much supported by my purse. But great vexations remain upon my father and me from my brother Tom's death and ill condition, both to our disgrace and discontent, though no great reason for either. Publique matters are all in a hurry about a Dutch warr. Our preparations great; our provocations against them great; and, after all our presumption, we are now afeard as much of them, as we lately contemned them. Every thing else in the State quiett, blessed be God! My Lord Sandwich (age 39) at sea with the fleete at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; sending some about to cruise for taking of ships, which we have done to a great number. This Christmas I judged it fit to look over all my papers and books; and to tear all that I found either boyish or not to be worth keeping, or fit to be seen, if it should please God to take me away suddenly. Among others, I found these two or three notes, which I thought fit to keep.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1665. So back again on foot to the 'Change [Map], in my way taking my books from binding from my bookseller's. My bill for the rebinding of some old books to make them suit with my study, cost me, besides other new books in the same bill, £3; but it will be very handsome. At the 'Change [Map] did several businesses, and here I hear that newes is come from Deale [Map], that the same day my Lord Sandwich (age 39) sailed thence with the fleete, that evening some Dutch men of warr were seen on the back side of the Goodwin [Map], and, by all conjecture, must be seen by my Lord's fleete; which, if so, they must engage.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1665. Thence (in Mr. Grey's coach, who took me up), to Westminster, where I heard that yesterday the King (age 34) met the Houses to pass the great bill for the £2,500,000. After doing a little business I home, where Mr. Moore dined with me, and evened our reckonings on my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) bond to me for principal and interest. So that now on both there is remaining due to me £257. 7s., and I bless God it is no more. So all the afternoon at my office, and late home to supper, prayers, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1665. St. Valentine. This morning comes betimes Dicke Pen, to be my wife's Valentine, and come to our bedside. By the same token, I had him brought to my side, thinking to have made him kiss me; but he perceived me, and would not; so went to his Valentine: a notable, stout, witty boy. I up about business, and, opening the door, there was Bagwell's wife, with whom I talked afterwards, and she had the confidence to say she came with a hope to be time enough to be my Valentine, and so indeed she did, but my oath preserved me from loosing any time with her, and so I and my boy abroad by coach to Westminster, where did two or three businesses, and then home to the 'Change [Map], and did much business there. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) is, it seems, with his fleete at Alborough Bay [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1665. So home, and till almost one o'clock in the morning at my office, and then home to supper and to bed. My Lord Sandwich (age 39), and his fleete of twenty-five ships in the Downes, returned from cruising, but could not meet with any Dutchmen.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1665. Thence home; and took my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) draught of the harbour of Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] down to Ratcliffe, to one Burston, to make a plate for the King (age 34), and another for the Duke (age 31), and another for himself; which will be very neat.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1665. Thence to the office, and there found Bagwell's wife, whom I directed to go home, and I would do her business, which was to write a letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) for her husband's (age 28) advance into a better ship as there should be occasion. Which I did, and by and by did go down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], and then down further, and so landed at the lower end of the town, and it being dark 'entrer en la maison de la femme de Bagwell (age 28) [entered into Bagwell's wife's house]', and there had 'sa compagnie [her company]', though with a great deal of difficulty, 'neanmoins en fin j'avais ma volont d'elle [nevertheless in the end I had my way with her]', and being sated therewith, I walked home to Redriffe [Map], it being now near nine o'clock, and there I did drink some strong waters and eat some bread and cheese, and so home. Where at my office my wife comes and tells me that she hath hired a chamber mayde, one of the prettiest maydes that ever she saw in her life, and that she is really jealous of me for her, but hath ventured to hire her from month to month, but I think she means merrily.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1665. So to the office, and after office my Lord Brunckerd (age 45) carried me to Lincolne's Inne Fields, and there I with my [his wife] Lady Sandwich (age 40) (good lady) talking of innocent discourse of good housewifery and husbands for her daughters, and the luxury and looseness of the times and other such things till past 10 o'clock at night, and so by coach home, where a little at my office, and so to supper and to bed. My Lady tells me how my Lord Castlemayne (age 31) is coming over from France, and is believed will be made friends with his Lady (age 24) again. What mad freaks the Mayds of Honour at Court have: that Mrs. Jenings (age 18), one of the Duchesses mayds, the other day dressed herself like an orange wench, and went up and down and cried oranges; till falling down, or by such accident, though in the evening, her fine shoes were discerned, and she put to a great deale of shame; that such as these tricks being ordinary, and worse among them, thereby few will venture upon them for wives: my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) will in merriment say that her daughter (not above a year old or two) will be the first mayde in the Court that will be married. This day my Lord Sandwich (age 39) writ me word from the Downes, that he is like to be in towne this week.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1665. Thence I by coach to Ratcliffe highway, to the plate-maker's, and he has begun my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) plate very neatly, and so back again. Coming back I met Colonell Atkins, who in other discourse did offer to give me a piece to receive of me 20 when he proves the late news of the Dutch, their drowning our men, at Guinny, and the truth is I find the generality of the world to fear that there is something of truth in it, and I do fear it too.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Mar 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and Mr. Burston bringing me by order my Lord's plates, which he has been making this week. I did take coach and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) and dined with my Lord; it being the first time he hath dined at home since his coming from sea: and a pretty odd demand it was of my Lord to my Lady before me: "How do you, sweetheart? How have you done all this week?" himself taking notice of it to me, that he had hardly seen her the week before. At dinner he did use me with the greatest solemnity in the world, in carving for me, and nobody else, and calling often to my Lady to cut for me; and all the respect possible.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and borrowing Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) coach, to my Lord Sandwich's (age 39), but he was gone abroad. I sent the coach back for my wife, my Lord a second time dining at home on purpose to meet me, he having not dined once at home but those times since his coming from sea. I sat down and read over the Bishop of Chichester's (age 73) sermon upon the anniversary of the King's death, much cried up, but, methinks, but a mean sermon.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1665. So home to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner, where my wife being gone down upon a sudden warning from my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) daughters to the Hope with them to see "The Prince", I dined alone.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1665. Thence to the Committee of Tangier, where the Duke (age 31) a little, and then left us and we staid. A very great Committee, the Lords Albemarle (age 56), Sandwich (age 39), Barkely (age 63), Fitzharding (age 35), Peterborough (age 43), Ashley (age 43), Sir Thos. Ingram (age 50), Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and others. The whole business was the stating of Povy's (age 51) accounts, of whom to say no more, never could man say worse himself nor have worse said of him than was by the company to his face; I mean, as to his folly and very reflecting words to his honesty. Broke up without anything but trouble and shame, only I got my businesses done to the signing of two bills for the Contractors and Captain Taylor, and so come away well pleased, and home, taking up my wife at the 'Change [Map], to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Thence I to Creed, and walked talking in the Park an hour with him, and then to my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) to dinner, and after dinner to Mr. Povy's (age 51), who hath been with the Duke of Yorke (age 31), and, by the mediation of Mr. Coventry (age 37), the Duke (age 31) told him that the business shall go on, and he will take off Brunkerd, and my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) is quiett too. But to see the mischief, I hear that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did not seem pleased, but said nothing when he heard me proposed to come in Povy's (age 51) room, which may learn me to distinguish between that man that is a man's true and false friend.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1665. Up, Creed and I, and had Mr. Povy's (age 51) coach sent for us, and we to his house; where we did some business in order to the work of this day. Povy (age 51) and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 39), who tells me that the Duke (age 31) is not only a friend to the business, but to me, in terms of the greatest love and respect and value of me that can be thought, which overjoys me.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1665. Thence to St. James's, and there was in great doubt of Brunkerd (age 38), but at last I hear that Brunkerd desists. The Duke (age 31) did direct Secretary Bennet (age 47), who was there, to declare his mind to the Tangier Committee, that he approves of me for Treasurer; and with a character of me to be a man whose industry and discretion he would trust soon as any man's in England: and did the like to my Lord Sandwich (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1665. Up and to my Lord Sandwich (age 39), who follows the Duke (age 31) this day by water down to the Hope, where "The Prince" lies. He received me, busy as he was, with mighty kindness and joy at my promotions; telling me most largely how the Duke (age 31) hath expressed on all occasions his good opinion of my service and love for me. I paid my thanks and acknowledgement to him; and so back home, where at the office all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1665. So home to dinner, and after dinner comes several people, among others my cozen, Thomas Pepys (age 54), of Hatcham1, to receive some money, of my Lord Sandwich's (age 39), and there I paid him what was due to him upon my uncle's score, but, contrary to my expectation, did get him to sign and seale to my sale of lands for payment of debts. So that now I reckon myself in better condition by £100 in my content than I was before, when I was liable to be called to an account and others after me by my uncle Thomas or his children for every foot of land we had sold before. This I reckon a great good fortune in the getting of this done.

Note 1. Thomas Pepys (age 54), of Hatcham Barnes, Surrey, Master of the Jewel House to Charles II and James II.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1665. At home to dinner, and all the afternoon at the office, where late at night, and much business done, then home to supper and to bed. All this day by all people upon the River, and almost every where else hereabout were heard the guns, our two fleets for certain being engaged; which was confirmed by letters from Harwich [Map], but nothing particular: and all our hearts full of concernment for the Duke (age 31), and I particularly for my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and Mr. Coventry (age 37) after his Royall Highnesse.

On 03 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.

Richard Boyle was killed.

Charles Maccarthy Viscount Muskerry was killed.

Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth (age 35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the Royal Charles. Earl Falmouth extinct, Baron Botetourt Langport in Somerset extinct. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.

Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland (age 26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland (age 55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland.

Thomas Allin 1st Baronet (age 53) was present.

Admiral Jeremy Smith commanded the Mary.

Captain George Batts fought. He was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's (age 49) division in the Blue Squadron.

James Ley 3rd Earl Marlborough (age 47) was killed at the Battle of Lowestoft commanding Old James attempting to recover a captured ship. His half brother William Ley 4th Earl Marlborough (age 53) succeeded 4th Earl Marlborough.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) by appointment of Sir Thomas Ingram's (age 50), to meet the Goldsmiths; where I met with the great news at last newly come, brought by Bab May (age 37) from the Duke of Yorke (age 31), that we have totally routed the Dutch; that the Duke (age 31) himself, the Prince (age 45), my Lord Sandwich (age 39), and Mr. Coventry (age 37) are all well: which did put me into such joy, that I forgot almost all other thoughts. The particulars I shall set down by and by.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1665. So late back, and to the office, wrote letters, and so home to supper and to bed. This day the Newes book upon Mr. Moore's showing L'Estrange1 (Captain Ferrers's letter) did do my Lord Sandwich (age 39) great right as to the late victory. The Duke of Yorke (age 31) not yet come to towne. The towne grows very sickly, and people to be afeard of it; there dying this last week of the plague 112, from 43 the week before, whereof but [one] in Fanchurch-streete [Map], and one in Broad-streete, by the Treasurer's office.

Note 1. "The Public Intelligencer", published by Roger L'Estrange, the predecessor of the "London Gazette"..

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. After the Committee was up, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) did take me aside, and we walked an hour alone together in the robe-chamber, the door shut, telling me how much the Duke (age 31) and Mr. Coventry (age 37) did, both in the fleete and here, make of him, and that in some opposition to the Prince (age 45); and as a more private message, he told me that he hath been with them both when they have made sport of the Prince (age 45) and laughed at him: yet that all the discourse of the towne, and the printed relation, should not give him one word of honour my Lord thinks mighty strange; he assuring me, that though by accident the Prince (age 45) was in the van the beginning of the fight for the first pass, yet all the rest of the day my Lord was in the van, and continued so. That notwithstanding all this noise of the Prince (age 45), he had hardly a shot in his side nor a man killed, whereas he hath above 30 in her hull, and not one mast whole nor yard; but the most battered ship of the fleet, and lost most men, saving Captain Smith of "The Mary". That the most the Duke (age 31) did was almost out of gun-shot; but that, indeed, the Duke (age 31) did come up to my Lord's rescue after he had a great while fought with four of them.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. At noon Captain Ferrers and Mr. Moore dined with me, the former of them the first time I saw him since his coming from sea, who do give me the best conversation in general, and as good an account of the particular service of the Prince (age 45) and my Lord of Sandwich (age 39) in the late sea-fight that I could desire.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham, Kent [Map]; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (age 39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (age 31), and Prince Rupert (age 45). Here I saw the King (age 35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (age 35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (age 35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (age 35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham, Kent [Map] on Sunday morning.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1665. So took water and to Fox-Hall, to the Spring garden, and there walked an houre or two with great pleasure, saving our minds ill at ease concerning the fleete and my Lord Sandwich (age 39), that we have no newes of them, and ill reports run up and down of his being killed, but without ground. Here staid pleasantly walking and spending but 6d. till nine at night, and then by water to White Hall, and there I stopped to hear news of the fleete, but none come, which is strange, and so by water home, where, weary with walking and with the mighty heat of the weather, and for my wife's not coming home, I staying walking in the garden till twelve at night, when it begun to lighten exceedingly, through the greatness of the heat. Then despairing of her coming home, I to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1665. Lay long in bed, my head akeing with too much thoughts I think last night. Up and to White Hall, and my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 55), about Tangier business, and in my way met with Mr. Moore, who eases me in one point wherein I was troubled; which was, that I heard of nothing said or done by my Lord Sandwich (age 39): but he tells me that Mr. Cowling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, did hear the King (age 35) say that my Lord Sandwich (age 39) had done nobly and worthily. The King (age 35), it seems, is much troubled at the fall of my Lord of Falmouth (deceased); but I do not meet with any man else that so much as wishes him alive again, the world conceiving him a man of too much pleasure to do the King (age 35) any good, or offer any good office to him. But I hear of all hands he is confessed to have been a man of great honour, that did show it in this his going with the Duke, the most that ever any man did.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1665. Home to dinner and staid Mr. Hater with me, and after dinner drew up a petition for Mr. Hater to present to the Councill about his troublesome business of powder, desiring a trial that his absence may be vindicated, and so to White Hall, but it was not proper to present it to-day. Here I met with Mr. Cowling, who observed to me how he finds every body silent in the praise of my Lord Sandwich (age 39), to set up the Duke (age 31) and the Prince (age 45); but that the Duke (age 31) did both to the King (age 35) and my Chancellor (age 56) write abundantly of my Lord's courage and service1.

Note 1. Charles II's letter of thanks to Lord Sandwich (age 39), dated "Whitehall, June 9th, 1665", written entirely in the King's hand, is printed in Ellis's "Original Letters", 1st series, vol. iii., p. 327.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. By and by saw Mr. Coventry (age 37), which rejoiced my very heart. Anon he and I, from all the rest of the company, walked into the Matted Gallery; where after many expressions of love, we fell to talk of business. Among other things, how my Lord Sandwich (age 39), both in his counsells and personal service, hath done most honourably and serviceably. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) is come to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; but his wound in his knee yet very bad. Jonas Poole, in the Vantguard, did basely, so as to be, or will be, turned out of his ship. Captain Holmes (age 43)1 expecting upon Sansum's death to be made Rear-admirall to the Prince (age 45) (but Harman (age 40)2 is put in) hath delivered up to the Duke (age 31) his commission, which the Duke (age 31) took and tore. He, it seems, had bid the Prince, who first told him of Holmes's intention, that he should dissuade him from it; for that he was resolved to take it if he offered it. Yet Holmes would do it, like a rash, proud coxcombe. But he is rich, and hath, it seems, sought an occasion of leaving the service. Several of our captains have done ill. The great ships are the ships do the business, they quite deadening the enemy. They run away upon sight of "The Prince3".

Note 1. Captain Robert Holmes (age 43) (afterwards knighted). Sir William Coventry (age 37), in a letter to Lord Arlington (age 47) (dated from "The Royal Charles", Southwold Bay, June 13th), writes: "Capt. Holmes asked to be rear admiral of the white squadron in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke gave the place to Captain Harman (age 40), on which he delivered up his commission, which the Duke received, and put Captain Langhorne in his stead" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 423).

Note 2. John Harman (age 40), afterwards knighted. He had served with great reputation in several naval fights, and was desperately wounded in 1673, while.

Note 3. "The Prince" was Lord Sandwich's (age 39) ship; the captain was Roger Cuttance. It was put up at Chatham, Kent [Map] for repair at this date.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, where his Royal Highness (age 35) was. Our great design was to state to them the true condition of this Committee for want of money, the want whereof was so great as to need some sudden help, and it was with some content resolved to see it supplied and means proposed towards the doing of it. At this Committee, unknown to me, comes my Lord of Sandwich (age 39), who, it seems, come to towne last night.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1665. Midsummer-Day. Up very betimes, by six, and at Dr. Clerke's at Westminster by 7 of the clock, having over night by a note acquainted him with my intention of coming, and there I, in the best manner I could, broke my errand about a match between Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son and my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) [his daughter] eldest daughter, which he (as I knew he would) took with great content: and we both agreed that my Lord and he, being both men relating to the sea, under a kind aspect of His Majesty, already good friends, and both virtuous and good familys, their allyance might be of good use to us; and he did undertake to find out Sir George (age 55) this morning, and put the business in execution. So being both well pleased with the proposition, I saw his niece there and made her sing me two or three songs very prettily, and so home to the office, where to my great trouble I found Mr. Coventry (age 37) and the board met before I come. I excused my late coming by having been on the River about office business.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1665. Being at White Hall, I visited Mr. Coventry (age 37), who, among other talk, entered about the great question now in the House about the Duke's (age 31) going to sea again; about which the whole House is divided. He did concur with me that, for the Duke's (age 31) honour and safety, it were best, after so great a service and victory and danger, not to go again; and, above all, that the life of the Duke (age 31) cannot but be a security to the Crowne; if he were away, it being more easy to attempt anything upon the King (age 35); but how the fleete will be governed without him, the Prince (age 45) [Rupert] being a man of no government and severe in council, that no ordinary man can offer any advice against his; saying truly that it had been better he had gone to Guinny, and that were he away, it were easy to say how matters might be ordered, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) being a man of temper and judgment as much as any man he ever knew, and that upon good observation he said this, and that his temper must correct the Prince's. But I perceive he is much troubled what will be the event of the question. And so I left him.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1665. At noon dined, and then I abroad by water, it raining hard, thinking to have gone down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], but I did not, but back through bridge to White Hall, where, after I had again visited Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and received his (and now his Lady's (age 63)) full content in my proposal, I went to my Lord Sandwich (age 39), and having told him how Sir G. Carteret (age 55) received it, he did direct me to return to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and give him thanks for his kind reception of this offer, and that he would the next day be willing to enter discourse with him about the business. Which message I did presently do, and so left the business with great joy to both sides. My Lord, I perceive, intends to give £5000 with [his daughter] her, and expects about £800 per annum joynture.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1665. Thence by coach to several places, and so home, and all the evening with Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and all the women of the house (excepting my Lady Batten) late in the garden chatting. At 12 o'clock home to supper and to bed. My Lord Sandwich (age 39) is gone towards the sea to-day, it being a sudden resolution, I having taken no leave of him.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1665. Thence by water to Blackfriars, and so to Paul's churchyard and bespoke severall books, and so home and there dined, my man William giving me a lobster sent him by my old maid Sarah. This morning I met with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who tells me how all things proceed between my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and himself to full content, and both sides depend upon having the match finished presently, and professed great kindnesse to me, and said that now we were something akin. I am mightily, both with respect to myself and much more of my Lord's family, glad of this alliance.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. Thence to newes, wherein I find that Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do now take all my Lord Sandwich's (age 39) business to heart, and makes it the same with his owne. He tells me how at Chatham, Kent [Map] it was proposed to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) to be joined with the Prince (age 45) in the command of the fleete, which he was most willing to; but when it come to the Prince (age 45), he was quite against it; saying, there could be no government, but that it would be better to have two fleetes, and neither under the command of the other, which he would not agree to. So the King (age 35) was not pleased; but, without any unkindnesse, did order the fleete to be ordered as above, as to the Admirals and commands: so the Prince (age 45) is come up; and Sir G. Carteret (age 55), I remember, had this word thence, that, says he, by this means, though the King (age 35) told him that it would be but for this expedition, yet I believe we shall keepe him out for altogether. He tells me how my Lord was much troubled at Sir W. Pen's (age 44) being ordered forth (as it seems he is, to go to Solebay [Map], and with the best fleete he can, to go forth), and no notice taken of my Lord Sandwich (age 39) going after him, and having the command over him. But after some discourse Mr. Coventry (age 37) did satisfy, as he says, my Lord, so as they parted friends both in that point and upon the other wherein I know my Lord was troubled, and which Mr. Coventry (age 37) did speak to him of first thinking that my Lord might justly take offence at, his not being mentioned in the relation of the fight in the news book, and did clear all to my Lord how little he was concerned in it, and therewith my Lord also satisfied, which I am mightily glad of, because I should take it a very great misfortune to me to have them two to differ above all the persons in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jul 1665. So to the office, where all the morning till noon, and so to the 'Change [Map], and thence home to dinner. In the afternoon I abroad to St. James's, and there with Mr. Coventry (age 37) a good while, and understand how matters are ordered in the fleete: that is, my Lord Sandwich (age 39) goes Admiral; under him Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir T. Teddiman; Vice-Admiral, Sir W. Pen (age 44); and under him Sir W. Barkeley (age 26), and Sir Jos. Jordan: Reere-Admiral, Sir Thomas Allen (age 32); and under him Sir Christopher Mings (age 39)1, and Captain Harman (age 40). We talked in general of business of the Navy, among others how he had lately spoken to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and professed great resolution of friendship with him and reconciliation, and resolves to make it good as well as he can, though it troubles him, he tells me, that something will come before him wherein he must give him offence, but I do find upon the whole that Mr. Coventry (age 37) do not listen to these complaints of money with the readiness and resolvedness to remedy that he used to do, and I think if he begins to draw in it is high time for me to do so too.

Note 1. The son of a shoemaker, bred to the sea-service; he rose to the rank of an admiral, and was killed in the fight with the Dutch, June, 1666. B. See post June 10th, 1666.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1665. Thence, weary of this discourse, as the act of the greatest rashness that ever I heard of in all my little conversation, we parted, and I home to bed. Sir W. Pen (age 44), it seems, sailed last night from Solebay, Southwold [Map] with, about sixty sail of ship, and my Lord Sandwich (age 39) in "The Prince" and some others, it seems, going after them to overtake them, for I am sure my Lord Sandwich (age 39) will do all possible to overtake them, and will be troubled to the heart if he do it not.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1665. Upon the 'Change [Map] all the news is that guns have been heard and that news is come by a Dane that my Lord was in view of De Ruyter (age 58), and that since his parting from my Lord of Sandwich (age 39) he hath heard guns, but little of it do I think true.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1665. So home to write letters late, and then home to bed, where I have not lain these 3 or 4 nights. I received yesterday a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 39), giving me thanks for my care about their marriage business, and desiring it to be dispatched, that no disappointment may happen therein, which I will help on all I can.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. To my office, where late writing letters, and getting myself prepared with business for Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow, and so having caused a good pullet to be got for my supper, all alone, I very late to bed. All the news is great: that we must of necessity fall out with France, for He will side with the Dutch against us. That Alderman Backewell (age 47) is gone over (which indeed he is) with money, and that Ostend is in our present possession. But it is strange to see how poor Alderman Backewell (age 47) is like to be put to it in his absence, Mr. Shaw his right hand being ill. And the Alderman's absence gives doubts to people, and I perceive they are in great straits for money, besides what Sir G. Carteret (age 55) told me about fourteen days ago. Our fleet under my Lord Sandwich (age 39) being about the latitude 55 (which is a great secret) to the Northward of the Texell.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. Thence, with mighty pleasure, with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) by coach, with great discourse of kindnesse with him to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and to me also; and I every day see more good by the alliance.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Thus we end this month, as I said, after the greatest glut of content that ever I had; only under some difficulty because of the plague, which grows mightily upon us, the last week being about 1700 or 1800 of the plague. My Lord Sandwich (age 40) at sea with a fleet of about 100 sail, to the Northward, expecting De Ruyter (age 58), or the Dutch East India fleet. My [his son] Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) coming over from France, and will meet his sister at Scott's-hall. Myself having obliged both these families in this business very much; as both my Lady, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and his Lady (age 63) do confess exceedingly, and the latter do also now call me cozen, which I am glad of. So God preserve us all friends long, and continue health among us.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there fitted myself in several businesses to go to London, where I have not been now a pretty while. But before I went from the office newes is brought by word of mouth that letters are now just now brought from the fleete of our taking a great many more of the Dutch fleete, in which I did never more plainly see my command of my temper in my not admitting myself to receive any kind of joy from it till I had heard the certainty of it, and therefore went by water directly to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I find a letter of the Lath from Solebay [Map], from my Lord Sandwich (age 40), of the fleete's meeting with about eighteen more of the Dutch fleete, and his taking of most of them; and the messenger says, they had taken three after the letter was wrote and sealed; which being twenty-one, and the fourteen took the other day, is forty-five sail; some of which are good, and others rich ships, which is so great a cause of joy in us all that my Lord and everybody is highly joyed thereat. And having taken a copy of my Lord's letter, I away back again to the Beare [Map] at the bridge foot, being full of wind and out of order, and there called for a biscuit and a piece of cheese and gill of sacke, being forced to walk over the Bridge [Map], toward the 'Change [Map], and the plague being all thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1665. Round about and next door on every side is the plague, but I did not value it, but there did what I would 'con elle', and so away to Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) to discourse of our confounded business of prisoners, and sick and wounded seamen, wherein he and we are so much put out of order1. And here he showed me his gardens, which are for variety of evergreens, and hedge of holly, the finest things I ever saw in my life2.

Note 1. Each of the Commissioners for the Sick and Wounded was appointed to a particular district, and Evelyn's district was Kent and Sussex. On September 25th, 1665, Evelyn wrote in his Diary: "my Lord Admiral being come from ye fleete to Greenewich, I went thence with him to ye Cockpit [Map] to consult with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56). I was peremptory that unlesse we had £10,000 immediately, the prisoners would starve, and 'twas proposed it should be rais'd out of the E. India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich (age 40). They being but two of ye Commission, and so not impower'd to determine, sent an expresse to his Majesty and Council to know what they should do".

Note 2. Evelyn (age 44) purchased Sayes Court [Map], Deptford, in 1653, and laid out his gardens, walks, groves, enclosures, and plantations, which afterwards became famous for their beauty. When he took the place in hand it was nothing but an open field of one hundred acres, with scarcely a hedge in it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1665. Called up by break of day by Captain Cocke (age 48), by agreement, and he and I in his coach through Kent-streete (a sad place through the plague, people sitting sicke and with plaisters about them in the street begging) to Viner's (age 34) and Colvill's about money business, and so to my house, and there I took £300 in order to the carrying it down to my Lord Sandwich (age 40) in part of the money I am to pay for Captain Cocke (age 48) by our agreement. So I took it down, and down I went to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to my office, and there sat busy till noon, and so home to dinner, and thence to the office again, and by and by to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) by water late, where I find he had remembered that I had appointed to come to him this day about money, which I excused not doing sooner; but I see, a dull fellow, as he is, do sometimes remember what another thinks he mindeth not. My business was about getting money of the East India Company; but, Lord! to see how the Duke himself magnifies himself in what he had done with the Company; and my Lord Craven (age 57) what the King (age 35) could have done without my Lord Duke, and a deale of stir, but most mightily what a brave fellow I am.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1665. Up betimes and finished my journall for five days back, and then after being ready to my Lord Bruncker (age 45) by appointment, there to order the disposing of some money that we have come into the office, and here to my great content I did get a bill of imprest to Captain Cocke (age 48) to pay myself in part of what is coming to me from him for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) satisfaction and my owne, and also another payment or two wherein I am concerned, and having done that did go to Mr. Pierce's, where he and his wife made me drink some tea, and so he and I by water together to London. Here at a taverne in Cornhill [Map] he and I did agree upon my delivering up to him a bill of Captain Cocke's (age 48), put into my hand for Pierce's use upon evening of reckonings about the prize goods, and so away to the 'Change [Map], and there hear the ill news, to my great and all our great trouble, that the plague is encreased again this week, notwithstanding there hath been a day or two great frosts; but we hope it is only the effects of the late close warm weather, and if the frosts continue the next week, may fall again; but the town do thicken so much with people, that it is much if the plague do not grow again upon us. Off the 'Change [Map] invited by Sheriff Hooker (age 53), who keeps the poorest, mean, dirty table in a dirty house that ever I did see any Sheriff of London; and a plain, ordinary, silly man I think he is, but rich; only his son, Mr. Lethulier (age 32), I like, for a pretty, civil, understanding merchant; and the more by much, because he happens to be husband to our noble, fat, brave lady in our parish, that I and my wife admire so.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1665. After dinner back again and to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Mr. Evelyn's (age 45), who was not within, but I had appointed my cozen Thos. Pepys of Hatcham to meet me there, to discourse about getting his £1000 of my Lord Sandwich (age 40), having now an opportunity of my having above that sum in my hands of his. I found this a dull fellow still in all his discourse, but in this he is ready enough to embrace what I counsel him to, which is, to write importunately to my Lord and me about it and I will look after it. I do again and again declare myself a man unfit to be security for such a sum. He walked with me as far as Deptford, Kent [Map] upper towne, being mighty respectfull to me, and there parted, he telling me that this towne is still very bad of the plague.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1665. Thus ends this year, to my great joy, in this manner. I have raised my estate from £1300 in this year to £4400. I have got myself greater interest, I think, by my diligence, and my employments encreased by that of Treasurer for Tangier, and Surveyour of the Victualls. It is true we have gone through great melancholy because of the great plague, and I put to great charges by it, by keeping my family long at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and myself and another part of my family, my clerks, at my charge at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and a mayde at London; but I hope the King (age 35) will give us some satisfaction for that. But now the plague is abated almost to nothing, and I intending to get to London as fast as I can. My family, that is my wife and maids, having been there these two or three weeks. The Dutch war goes on very ill, by reason of lack of money; having none to hope for, all being put into disorder by a new Act that is made as an experiment to bring credit to the Exchequer, for goods and money to be advanced upon the credit of that Act. I have never lived so merrily (besides that I never got so much) as I have done this plague time, by my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) and Captain Cocke's (age 48) good company, and the acquaintance of Mrs. Knipp, Coleman and her husband, and Mr. Laneare, and great store of dancings we have had at my cost (which I was willing to indulge myself and wife) at my lodgings. The great evil of this year, and the only one indeed, is the fall of my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), whose mistake about the prizes hath undone him, I believe, as to interest at Court; though sent (for a little palliating it) Embassador into Spayne, which he is now fitting himself for. But the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) goes with the Prince to sea this next year, and my Lord very meanly spoken of; and, indeed, his miscarriage about the prize goods is not to be excused, to suffer a company of rogues to go away with ten times as much as himself, and the blame of all to be deservedly laid upon him1. My whole family hath been well all this while, and all my friends I know of, saving my aunt Bell, who is dead, and some children of my cozen Sarah's, of the plague. But many of such as I know very well, dead; yet, to our great joy, the town fills apace, and shops begin to be open again. Pray God continue the plague's decrease! for that keeps the Court away from the place of business, and so all goes to rack as to publick matters, they at this distance not thinking of it.

Note 1. According to Granville Penn ("Memorials of Sir W. Penn (age 44)", ii. 488 n.) £2000 went to Lord Sandwich (age 40) and £8000 among eight others.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1666. Thence to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), but he not within, but goes to-morrow. My wife to Mrs. Hunt's, who is lately come to towne and grown mighty fat. I called her there, and so home and late at the office, and so home to supper and to bed. We are much troubled that the sicknesse in general (the town being so full of people) should be but three, and yet of the particular disease of the plague there should be ten encrease.

On 31 Jul 1665 [his son-in-law] Philip Carteret (age 24) and [his daughter] Jemima Montagu were married. She the daughter of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 40) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1665. Thence to Redriffe [Map], where we parted, and I home, where busy all the afternoon. Stepped to Colvill's to set right a business of money, where he told me that for certain De Ruyter (age 58) is come home, with all his fleete, which is very ill newes, considering the charge we have been at in keeping a fleete to the northward so long, besides the great expectation of snapping him, wherein my Lord Sandwich (age 40) will I doubt suffer some dishonour. I am told also of a great ryott upon Thursday last in Cheapside [Map]; Colonell Danvers, a delinquent, having been taken, and in his way to the Tower was rescued from the captain of the guard, and carried away; only one of the rescuers being taken. I am told also that the Duke of Buckingham (age 37) is dead, but I know not of a certainty.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1665. Up, and my mind being at mighty ease from the dispatch of my business so much yesterday, I down to Deptford, Kent [Map] to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), where with him a great while, and a great deale of private talke concerning my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) and his matters, and chiefly of the latter, I giving him great deale of advice about the necessity of his having caution concerning Fenn, and the many ways there are of his being abused by any man in his place, and why he should not bring his son in to look after his business, and more, to be a Commissioner of the Navy, which he listened to and liked, and told me how much the King (age 35) was his good Master, and was sure not to deny him that or any thing else greater than that, and I find him a very cunning man, whatever at other times he seems to be, and among other things he told me he was not for the fanfaroone1 to make a show with a great title, as he might have had long since, but the main thing to get an estate; and another thing, speaking of minding of business, "By God", says he, "I will and have already almost brought it to that pass, that the King (age 35) shall not be able to whip a cat, but I must be at the tayle of it". Meaning so necessary he is, and the King (age 35) and my Lord Treasurer (age 58) and all do confess it; which, while I mind my business, is my own case in this office of the Navy, and I hope shall be more, if God give me life and health.

Note 1. Fanfaron, French, from fanfare, a sounding of trumpets; hence, a swaggerer, or empty boaster.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. Slept till 8 o'clock, and then up and met with letters from the King (age 35) and Lord Arlington (age 47), for the removal of our office to Greenwich, Kent [Map]. I also wrote letters, and made myself ready to go to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), at Windsor; and having borrowed a horse of Mr. Blackbrough, sent him to wait for me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) door: when, on a sudden, a letter comes to us from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to tell us that the fleete is all come back to Solebay [Map], and are presently to be dispatched back again. Whereupon I presently by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to know what news; and there I saw a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and also from Sir W. Coventry (age 37) and Teddiman; how my Lord having commanded Teddiman with twenty-two ships1.

Note 1. A news letter of August 19th (Salisbury), gives the following account of this affair:-"The Earl of Sandwich being on the Norway coast, ordered Sir Thomas Teddeman with 20 ships to attack 50 Dutch merchant ships in Bergen harbour; six convoyers had so placed themselves that only four or five of the ships could be reached at once. The Governor of Bergen fired on our ships, and placed 100 pieces of ordnance and two regiments of foot on the rocks to attack them, but they got clear without the loss of a ship, only 500 men killed or wounded, five or six captains among them. The fleet has gone to Sole Bay to repair losses and be ready to encounter the Dutch fleet, which is gone northward" (Calendar of State Papers, 1664-65, pp. 526, 527). Medals were struck in Holland, the inscription in Dutch on one of these is thus translated: "Thus we arrest the pride of the English, who extend their piracy even against their friends, and who insulting the forts of Norway, violate the rights of the harbours of King Frederick; but, for the reward of their audacity, see their vessels destroyed by the balls of the Dutch" (Hawkins's "Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland", ed. Franks and Grueber, 1885, vol. i., p. 508). Sir Gilbert Talbot's "True Narrative of the Earl of Sandwich's Attempt upon Bergen with the English Fleet on the 3rd of August, 1665, and the Cause of his Miscarriage thereupon", is in the British Museum (Harl. MS., No. 6859). It is printed in "Archaeologia", vol. xxii., p. 33. The Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map] also gave an account of the action in a letter to his mother (Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth edition, vol. iv., p. 611). Sir John Denham (age 50), in his "Advice to a Painter", gives a long satirical account of the affair. A coloured drawing of the attack upon Bergen, on vellum, showing the range of the ships engaged, is in the British Museum. Shortly after the Bergen affair forty of the Dutch merchant vessels, on their way to Holland, fell into the hands of the English, and in Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 364, is a list of the prizes taken on the 3rd and 4th September. The troubles connected with these prizes and the disgrace into which Lord Sandwich (age 40) fell are fully set forth in subsequent pages of the Diary. Evelyn writes in his Diary (November 27th, 1665): "There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders who were at ye taking of ye East India prizes to break bulk and take to themselves jewels, silkes, &c., tho' I believe some whom I could name fill'd their pockets, my Lo. Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossess'd ye Lo. Generall (Duke of Albemarle (age 56)), for he spake to me of it with much zeale and concerne, and I believe laid load enough on Lo. Sandwich at Oxford". (of which but fifteen could get thither, and of those fifteen but eight or nine could come up to play) to go to Bergen; where, after several messages to and fro from the Governor of the Castle, urging that Teddiman ought not to come thither with more than five ships, and desiring time to think of it, all the while he suffering the Dutch ships to land their guns to their best advantage; Teddiman on the second pretence, began to play at the Dutch ships, (wherof ten East India-men,) and in three hours' time (the town and castle, without any provocation, playing on our ships,) they did cut all our cables, so as the wind being off the land, did force us to go out, and rendered our fire-ships useless; without doing any thing, but what hurt of course our guns must have done them: we having lost five commanders, besides Mr. Edward Montagu, and Mr. Windham. This Mr. Windham had entered into a formal engagement with the Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map], "not without ceremonies of religion, that if either of them died, he should appear, and give the other notice of the future state, if there was any". He was probably one of the brothers of Sir William Wyndham, Bart. See Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth. edition, vol. iv., p. 615. B.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1665. After he was gone comes by a pretence of mine yesterday old Delks the waterman, with his daughter Robins, and several times to and again, he leaving her with me, about the getting of his son Robins off, who was pressed yesterday again.... All the afternoon at my office mighty busy writing letters, and received a very kind and good one from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) of his arrival with the fleete at Solebay [Map], and the joy he has at my last newes he met with, of the marriage of my [his daughter] Lady Jemimah; and he tells me more, the good newes that all our ships, which were in such danger that nobody would insure upon them, from the Eastland1, were all safe arrived, which I am sure is a great piece of good luck, being in much more danger than those of Hambrough which were lost, and their value much greater at this time to us.

Note 1. Eastland was a name given to the eastern countries of Europe. The Eastland Company, or Company of Merchants trading to the East Country, was incorporated in Queen (age 26) Elizabeth's reign (anno 21), and the charter was confirmed 13 Car. II They were also called "The Merchants of Elbing"..

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1665. In the afternoon I sent down my boy to Woolwich, Kent [Map] with some things before me, in order to my lying there for good and all, and so I followed him. Just now comes newes that the fleete is gone, or going this day, out again, for which God be praised! and my Lord Sandwich (age 40) hath done himself great right in it, in getting so soon out again. I pray God, he may meet the enemy. Towards the evening, just as I was fitting myself, comes W. Hewer (age 23) and shows me a letter which Mercer had wrote to her mother about a great difference between my wife and her yesterday, and that my wife will have her go away presently. This, together with my natural jealousy that some bad thing or other may be in the way, did trouble me exceedingly, so as I was in a doubt whether to go thither or no, but having fitted myself and my things I did go, and by night got thither, where I met my wife walking to the waterside with her paynter, Mr. Browne, and her mayds. There I met Commissioner Pett (age 55), and my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and the lady at his house had been thereto-day, to see her. Commissioner Pett (age 55) staid a very little while, and so I to supper with my wife and Mr. Shelden, and so to bed with great pleasure.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1665. Our fleete gone out to find the Dutch, we having about 100 sail in our fleete, and in them the Soveraigne one; so that it is a better fleete than the former with the Duke (age 31) was. All our fear is that the Dutch should be got in before them; which would be a very great sorrow to the publick, and to me particularly, for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) sake. A great deal of money being spent, and the Kingdom not in a condition to spare, nor a parliament without much difficulty to meet to give more. And to that; to have it said, what hath been done by our late fleetes? As to myself I am very well, only in fear of the plague, and as much of an ague by being forced to go early and late to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and my family to lie there continually. My late gettings have been very great to my great content, and am likely to have yet a few more profitable jobbs in a little while; for which Tangier, and Sir W. Warren I am wholly obliged to.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1665. Full of these melancholy thoughts, to bed; where, though I lay the softest I ever did in my life, with a downe bed, after the Danish manner, upon me, yet I slept very ill, chiefly through the thoughts of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) concernment in all this ill successe at sea.

1665 Battle of Vågen

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1665. But before I come out there happened newes to come to the by an expresse from Mr. Coventry (age 37), telling me the most happy news of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) meeting with part of the Dutch; his taking two of their East India ships, and six or seven others, and very good prizes and that he is in search of the rest of the fleet, which he hopes to find upon the Wellbancke, with the loss only of the Hector, poor Captain Cuttle. This newes do so overjoy me that I know not what to say enough to express it, but the better to do it I did walk to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there sending away Mr. Andrews (age 33), I to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and his mistress, and Sir J. Minnes (age 66). Where we supped (there was also Sir W. Doyly (age 51) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44)); but the receipt of this newes did put us all into such an extacy of joy, that it inspired into Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and Mr. Evelyn (age 44) such a spirit of mirth, that in all my life I never met with so merry a two hours as our company this night was. Among other humours, Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) repeating of some verses made up of nothing but the various acceptations of may and can, and doing it so aptly upon occasion of something of that nature, and so fast, did make us all die almost with laughing, and did so stop the mouth of Sir J. Minnes (age 66) in the middle of all his mirth (and in a thing agreeing with his own manner of genius), that I never saw any man so out-done in all my life; and Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) mirth too to see himself out-done, was the crown of all our mirth. In this humour we sat till about ten at night, and so my Lord (age 45) and his mistress home, and we to bed, it being one of the times of my life wherein I was the fullest of true sense of joy.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1665. Thence with Captain Cocke (age 48), in his coach, home to dinner, whither comes by invitation my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and his mistresse and very good company we were, but in dinner time comes Sir J. Minnes (age 66) from the fleete, like a simple weak man, having nothing to say of what he hath done there, but tells of what value he imagines the prizes to be, and that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is well, and mightily concerned to hear that I was well. But this did put me upon a desire of going thither; and, moving of it to my Lord, we presently agreed upon it to go this very tide, we two and Captain Cocke (age 48). So every body prepared to fit himself for his journey, and I walked to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to trim and shift myself, and by the time I was ready they come down in the Bezan yacht, and so I aboard and my boy Tom, and there very merrily we sailed to below Gravesend, Kent [Map], and there come to anchor for all night, and supped and talked, and with much pleasure at last settled ourselves to sleep having very good lodging upon cushions in the cabbin.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Sep 1665. Receiving a letter from Lord Sandwich (age 40) of a defeat given to the Dutch, I was forced to travel all Sunday. I was exceedingly perplexed to find that near 3,000 prisoners were sent to me to dispose of, being more than I had places fit to receive and guard.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Sep 1665. By break of day we come to within sight of the fleete, which was a very fine thing to behold, being above 100 ships, great and small; with the flag-ships of each squadron, distinguished by their several flags on their main, fore, or mizen masts. Among others, the Soveraigne, Charles, and Prince; in the last of which my Lord Sandwich (age 40) was. When we called by her side his Lordshipp was not stirring, so we come to anchor a little below his ship, thinking to have rowed on board him, but the wind and tide was so strong against us that we could not get up to him, no, though rowed by a boat of the Prince's that come to us to tow us up; at last however he brought us within a little way, and then they flung out a rope to us from the Prince and so come on board, but with great trouble and tune and patience, it being very cold; we find my Lord newly up in his night-gown very well. He received us kindly; telling us the state of the fleet, lacking provisions, having no beer at all, nor have had most of them these three weeks or month, and but few days' dry provisions. And indeed he tells us that he believes no fleete was ever set to sea in so ill condition of provision, as this was when it went out last. He did inform us in the business of Bergen1, so as to let us see how the judgment of the world is not to be depended on in things they know not; it being a place just wide enough, and not so much hardly, for ships to go through to it, the yardarmes sticking in the very rocks. He do not, upon his best enquiry, find reason to except against any part of the management of the business by Teddiman; he having staid treating no longer than during the night, whiles he was fitting himself to fight, bringing his ship a-breast, and not a quarter of an hour longer (as is said); nor could more ships have been brought to play, as is thought. Nor could men be landed, there being 10,000 men effectively always in armes of the Danes; nor, says he, could we expect more from the Dane than he did, it being impossible to set fire on the ships but it must burn the towne. But that wherein the Dane did amisse is, that he did assist them, the Dutch, all the while, while he was treating with us, while he should have been neutrall to us both. But, however, he did demand but the treaty of us; which is, that we should not come with more than five ships. A flag of truce is said, and confessed by my Lord, that he believes it was hung out; but while they did hang it out, they did shoot at us; so that it was not either seen perhaps, or fit to cease upon sight of it, while they continued actually in action against us. But the main thing my Lord wonders at, and condemns the Dane for, is, that the blockhead (age 56), who is so much in debt to the Hollander, having now a treasure more by much than all his Crowne was worth, and that which would for ever have beggared the Hollanders, should not take this time to break with the Hollander, and, thereby paid his debt which must have been forgiven him, and got the greatest treasure into his hands that ever was together in the world.

Note 1. Lord Sandwich (age 40) was not so successful in convincing other people as to the propriety of his conduct at Bergen as he was with Pepys.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1665. Thence away by water, and I walked with my Lord Bruncker (age 45) home, and there at dinner comes a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to tell me that he would this day be at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and desired me to meet him. Which fearing might have lain in Sir J. Minnes' (age 66) pocket a while, he sending it me, did give my Lord Bruncker (age 45), his mistress, and I occasion to talk of him as the most unfit man for business in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1665. Though at last afterwards I found that he was not in this faulty, but hereby I have got a clear evidence of my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) opinion of him. My Lord Bruncker (age 45) presently ordered his coach to be ready and we to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and my Lord Sandwich (age 40) not being come, we took a boat and about a mile off met him in his Catch, and boarded him, and come up with him; and, after making a little halt at my house, which I ordered, to have my wife see him, we all together by coach to Mr. Boreman's, where Sir J. Minnes (age 66) did receive him very handsomely, and there he is to lie; and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) did give him on the sudden, a very handsome supper and brave discourse, my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and Captain Cocke (age 48), and Captain Herbert being there, with myself. Here my Lord did witness great respect to me, and very kind expressions, and by other occasions, from one thing to another did take notice how I was overjoyed at first to see the King's letter to his Lordship, and told them how I did kiss it, and that, whatever he was, I did always love the King (age 35). This my Lord Bruncker (age 45) did take such notice [of] as that he could not forbear kissing me before my Lord, professing his finding occasion every day more and more to love me, and Captain Cocke (age 48) has since of himself taken notice of that speech of my Lord then concerning me, and may be of good use to me.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1665. Among other discourse concerning long life, Sir J. Minnes (age 66) saying that his great-grandfather was alive in Edward the Vth's time; my Lord Sandwich (age 40) did tell us how few there have been of his family since King Harry the VIIIth; that is to say, the then Chiefe Justice, and his son the [his grandfather] Lord Montagu, who was father to [his father] Sir Sidney1, who was his father. And yet, what is more wonderfull, he did assure us from the mouth of my Lord Montagu (age 40) himself, that in King James's time ([when he] had a mind to get the King (age 35) to cut off the entayle of some land which was given in Harry the VIIIth's time to the family, with the remainder in the Crowne); he did answer the King (age 35) in showing how unlikely it was that ever it could revert to the Crown, but that it would be a present convenience to him; and did show that at that time there were 4,000 persons derived from the very body of the Chiefe Justice. It seems the number of daughters in the family having been very great, and they too had most of them many children, and grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. This he tells as a most known and certain truth.

Note 1. These are the words in the MS., and not "his son and the Lord Montagu", as in some former editions. Pepys seems to have written Lord Montagu by mistake for Sir Edward Montagu.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1665. Thence took leave, leaving my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to go visit the Bishop of Canterbury (age 67), and I and Sir W. Batten (age 64) down to the Tower [Map], where he went further by water, and I home, and among other things took out all my gold to carry along with me to-night with Captain Cocke (age 48) downe to the fleete, being £180 and more, hoping to lay out that and a great deal more to good advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1665. Thence down to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the office, and there wrote several letters, and so to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and mighty merry and he mighty kind to me in the face of all, saying much in my favour, and after supper I took leave and with Captain Cocke (age 48) set out in the yacht about ten o'clock at night, and after some discourse, and drinking a little, my mind full of what we are going about and jealous of Cocke's (age 48) outdoing me.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1665. Up, and to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), who did advise alone with me how far he might trust Captain Cocke (age 48) in the business of the prize-goods, my Lord telling me that he hath taken into his hands 2 or £3000 value of them: it being a good way, he says, to get money, and afterwards to get the King's allowance thereof, it being easier, he observes, to keepe money when got of the King (age 35) than to get it when it is too late. I advised him not to trust Cocke (age 48) too far, and did therefore offer him ready money for a £1000 or two, which he listens to and do agree to, which is great joy to me, hoping thereby to get something!

Pepy's Diary. 24 Sep 1665. But it would never have been allowed by my conscience to have wronged the poor wretches, who told us how dangerously they had got some, and dearly paid for the rest of these goods. This being done we with great content herein on board again and there Captain Cocke (age 48) and I to discourse of our business, but he will not yet be open to me, nor am I to him till I hear what he will say and do with Sir Roger Cuttance. However, this discourse did do me good, and got me a copy of the agreement made the other day on board for the parcel of Mr. Pierce and Sir Roger Cuttance, but this great parcel is of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40).

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Sep 1665. My Lord Admiral (age 40) being come from the fleet to Greenwich, I went thence with him to the Cock-pit, to consult with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56). I was peremptory that, unless we had £10,000 immediately, the prisoners would starve, and it was proposed it should be raised out of the East India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich (age 40). They being but two of the commission, and so not empowered to determine, sent an express to his Majesty (age 35) and Council, to know what they should do. In the meantime, I had five vessels, with competent guards, to keep the prisoners in for the present, to be placed as I should think best. After dinner (which was at the General's) I went over to visit his Grace, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 67), at Lambeth [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1665. Found ourselves come to the fleete, and so aboard the Prince; and there, after a good while in discourse, we did agree a bargain of £5,000 with Sir Roger Cuttance for my Lord Sandwich (age 40) for silk, cinnamon, nutmeggs, and indigo. And I was near signing to an undertaking for the payment of the whole sum; but I did by chance escape it; having since, upon second thoughts, great cause to be glad of it, reflecting upon the craft and not good condition, it may be, of Captain Cocke (age 48). I could get no trifles for my wife. Anon to dinner and thence in great haste to make a short visit to Sir W. Pen (age 44), where I found them and his lady (age 41) and daughter (age 14) and many commanders at dinner. Among others Sir G. Askue (age 49), of whom whatever the matter is, the world is silent altogether. But a very pretty dinner there was, and after dinner Sir W. Pen (age 44) made a bargain with Cocke (age 48) for ten bales of silke, at 16s. per lb., which, as Cocke (age 48) says, will be a good pennyworth, and so away to the Prince and presently comes my Lord on board from Greenwich, Kent [Map], with whom, after a little discourse about his trusting of Cocke (age 48), we parted and to our yacht; but it being calme, we to make haste, took our wherry toward Chatham, Kent [Map]; but, it growing darke, we were put to great difficultys, our simple, yet confident waterman, not knowing a step of the way; and we found ourselves to go backward and forward, which, in the darke night and a wild place, did vex us mightily. At last we got a fisher boy by chance, and took him into the boat, and being an odde kind of boy, did vex us too; for he would not answer us aloud when we spoke to him, but did carry us safe thither, though with a mistake or two; but I wonder they were not more. In our way I was [surprised] and so were we all, at the strange nature of the sea-water in a darke night, that it seemed like fire upon every stroke of the oare, and, they say, is a sign of winde. We went to the Crowne Inne, at Rochester, Kent [Map], and there to supper, and made ourselves merry with our poor fisher-boy, who told us he had not been in a bed in the whole seven years since he came to 'prentice, and hath two or three more years to serve. After eating something, we in our clothes to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1665. Thence away and to the office at London, where I did some business about my money and private accounts, and there eat a bit of goose of Mr. Griffin's, and so by water, it raining most miserably, to Greenwich, Kent [Map], calling on several vessels in my passage. Being come there I hear another seizure hath been made of our goods by one Captain Fisher that hath been at Chatham, Kent [Map] by warrant of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and is come in my absence to Tooker's and viewed them, demanding the key of the constable, and so sealed up the door. I to the house, but there being no officers nor constable could do nothing, but back to my office full of trouble about this, and there late about business, vexed to see myself fall into this trouble and concernment in a thing that I want instruction from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) whether I should appear in it or no, and so home to bed, having spent two hours, I and my boy, at Mr. Glanvill's removing of faggots to make room to remove our goods to, but when done I thought it not fit to use it. The newes of the killing of the [King of] France is wholly untrue, and they say that of the Pope too.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1665. Up, my head full of business, and called upon also by Sir John Shaw, to whom I did give a civil answer about our prize goods, that all his dues as one of the Farmers of the Customes are paid, and showed him our Transire; with which he was satisfied, and parted, ordering his servants to see the weight of them. I to the office, and there found an order for my coming presently to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and what should it be, but to tell me, that, if my Lord Sandwich (age 40) do not come to towne, he do resolve to go with the fleete to sea himself, the Dutch, as he thinks, being in the Downes, and so desired me to get a pleasure boat for to take him in to-morrow morning, and do many other things, and with a great liking of me, and my management especially, as that coxcombe my Lord Craven (age 57) do tell me, and I perceive it, and I am sure take pains enough to deserve it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Oct 1665. This night is kept in lieu of yesterday, for my wedding day of ten years; for which God be praised! being now in an extreme good condition of health and estate and honour, and a way of getting more money, though at this houre under some discomposure, rather than damage, about some prize goods that I have bought off the fleete, in partnership with Captain Cocke (age 48); and for the discourse about the world concerning my Lord Sandwich (age 40), that he hath done a thing so bad; and indeed it must needs have been a very rash act; and the rather because of a Parliament now newly met to give money, and will have some account of what hath already been spent, besides the precedent for a General to take what prizes he pleases, and the giving a pretence to take away much more than he intended, and all will lie upon him; and not giving to all the Commanders, as well as the Flaggs, he displeases all them, and offends even some of them, thinking others to be better served than themselves; and lastly, puts himself out of a power of begging anything again a great while of the King (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1665. Called up before day, and so I dressed myself and down, it being horrid cold, by water to my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) ship, who advised me to do so, and it was civilly to show me what the King (age 35) had commanded about the prize-goods, to examine most severely all that had been done in the taking out any with or without order, without respect to my Lord Sandwich (age 40) at all, and that he had been doing of it, and find him examining one man, and I do find that extreme ill use was made of my Lord's order. For they did toss and tumble and spoil, and breake things in hold to a great losse and shame to come at the fine goods, and did take a man that knows where the fine goods were, and did this over and over again for many days, Sir W. Berkeley (age 26) being the chief hand that did it, but others did the like at other times, and they did say in doing it that my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) back was broad enough to bear it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Thence after dinner receiving many commands from the Duke (age 56), I to our office on the Hill, and there did a little business and to Colvill's again, and so took water at the Tower [Map], and there met with Captain Cocke (age 48), and he down with me to Greenwich, Kent [Map], I having received letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to-day, speaking very high about the prize goods, that he would have us to fear nobody, but be very confident in what we have done, and not to confess any fault or doubt of what he hath done; for the King (age 35) hath allowed it, and do now confirm it, and sent orders, as he says, for nothing to be disturbed that his Lordshipp hath ordered therein as to the division of the goods to the fleete; which do comfort us, but my Lord writes to me that both he and I may hence learn by what we see in this business. But that which pleases me best is that Cocke (age 48) tells me that he now understands that Fisher was set on in this business by the design of some of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) people, Warcupp and others, who lent him money to set him out in it, and he has spent high. Who now curse him for a rogue to take £100 when he might have had as well £1,500, and they are mightily fallen out about it. Which in due time shall be discovered, but that now that troubles me afresh is, after I am got to the office at Greenwich, Kent [Map] that some new troubles are come, and Captain Cocke's (age 48) house is beset before and behind with guards, and more, I do fear they may come to my office here to search for Cocke's (age 48) goods and find some small things of my clerk's. So I assisted them in helping to remove their small trade, but by and by I am told that it is only the Custome House men who came to seize the things that did lie at Mr. Glanville's (age 47), for which they did never yet see our Transire, nor did know of them till to-day. So that my fear is now over, for a transire is ready for them. Cocke (age 48) did get a great many of his goods to London to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and after ready and going to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find we are a little further safe in some part of our goods, I to Church, in my way was meeting with some letters, which made me resolve to go after church to my Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) so, after sermon, I took Cocke's (age 48) chariott, and to Lambeth, Surrey [Map]; but, in going and getting over the water, and through White Hall, I spent so much time, the Duke had almost dined. However, fresh meat was brought for me to his table, and there I dined, and full of discourse and very kind. Here they are again talking of the prizes, and my Lord Duke did speake very broad that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) and Pen (age 44) should do what they would, and answer for themselves. For his part, he would lay all before the King (age 35). Here he tells me the Dutch Embassador at Oxford is clapped up, but since I hear it is not true.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1665. Thence to my office, and no sooner there but to my great surprise am told that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is come to towne; so I presently to Boreman's, where he is and there found him: he mighty kind to me, but no opportunity of discourse private yet, which he tells me he must have with me; only his business is sudden to go to the fleece, to get out a few ships to drive away the Dutch.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1665. Lay long, having a cold. Then to my Lord and sent him going to Oxford, and I to my office, whither comes Sir William Batten (age 64) now newly from Oxford. I can gather nothing from him about my Lord Sandwich (age 40) about the business of the prizes, he being close, but he shewed me a bill which hath been read in the House making all breaking of bulke for the time to come felony, but it is a foolish Act, and will do no great matter, only is calculated to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) case. He shewed me also a good letter printed from the Bishopp of Munster to the States of Holland shewing the state of their case. Here we did some business and so broke up and I to Cocke (age 48), where Mr. Evelyn (age 44) was, to dinner, and there merry, yet vexed again at publique matters, and to see how little heed is had to the prisoners and sicke and wounded.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. Up and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), where several Commanders, of whom I took the state of all their ships, and of all could find not above four capable of going out. The truth is, the want of victuals being the whole overthrow of this yeare both at sea, and now at the Nore here and Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], where all the fleete lies.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1665. The 'Change [Map] pretty full, and the town begins to be lively again, though the streets very empty, and most shops shut. So back again I and took boat and called for Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) at St. Katharine's, who was followed with some ordinary friends, of which, he says, he is proud, and so down to Greenwich, Kent [Map], the wind furious high, and we with our sail up till I made it be taken down. I took him, it being 3 o'clock, to my lodgings and did give him a good dinner and so parted, he being pretty close to me as to any business of the fleete, knowing me to be a servant of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1665. Up, and sent for Thomas Willson, and broke the victualling business to him and he is mightily contented, and so am I that I have bestowed it on him, and so I to Mr. Boreman's, where Sir W. Batten (age 64) is, to tell him what I had proposed to Thomas Willson, and the newes also I have this morning from Sir W. Clerke (age 42), which is, that notwithstanding all the care the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) hath taken about the putting the East India prize goods into the East India Company hands, and my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) having laden out a great part of the goods, an order is come from Court to stop all, and to have the goods delivered to the Sub-Commissioners of prizes. At which I am glad, because it do vex this simple weake man, and we shall have a little reparation for the disgrace my Lord Sandwich (age 40) has had in it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. Then they broke up, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) come out, and thence through the garden to the water side and by water I with him in his boat down with Captain Cocke (age 48) to his house at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and while supper was getting ready Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and I did walk an houre in the garden before the house, talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) business; what enemies he hath, and how they have endeavoured to bespatter him: and particularly about his leaving of 30 ships of the enemy, when Pen (age 44) would have gone, and my Lord called him back again: which is most false.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. However, he says, it was purposed by some hot-heads in the House of Commons, at the same time when they voted a present to the Duke of Yorke (age 32), to have voted £10,000 to the Prince (age 45), and half-a-crowne to my Lord of Sandwich (age 40); but nothing come of it1.

Note 1. The tide of popular indignation ran high against Lord Sandwich (age 40), and he was sent to Spain as ambassador to get him honourably out of the way (see post, December 6th).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1665. Up, and fitted myself for my journey down to the fleete, and sending my money and boy down by water to Eriffe, [Erith, Kent] I borrowed a horse of Mr. Boreman's son, and after having sat an houre laughing with my Lady Batten and Mrs. Turner (age 42), and eat and drank with them, I took horse and rode to Eriffe, where, after making a little visit to Madam Williams, who did give me information of W. Howe's having bought eight bags of precious stones taken from about the Dutch Vice-Admirall's neck, of which there were eight dyamonds which cost him £60,000 sterling, in India, and hoped to have made £2000 here for them. And that this is told by one that sold him one of the bags, which hath nothing but rubys in it, which he had for 35s.; and that it will be proved he hath made £125 of one stone that he bought. This she desired, and I resolved I would give my Lord Sandwich (age 40) notice of.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1665. After dinner much talke, and about other things, he and I about his money for his prize goods, wherein I did give him a cool answer, but so as we did not disagree in words much, and so let that fall, and so followed my Lord Sandwich (age 40), who was gone a little before me on board the Royall James. And there spent an houre, my Lord playing upon the gittarr, which he now commends above all musique in the world, because it is base enough for a single voice, and is so portable and manageable without much trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1665. So in the evening to the office, where late writing letters, and at my lodging later writing for the last twelve days my Journall and so to bed. Great expectation what mischief more the French will do us, for we must fall out. We in extraordinary lacke of money and everything else to go to sea next year. My Lord Sandwich (age 40) is gone from the fleete yesterday toward Oxford.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. The Duke of Albemarle (age 56) was going to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map], where both Court and Parliament had been most part of the summer. There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders, who were at the taking of the East India prizes, to break bulk, and to take to themselves jewels, silks, etc.: though I believe some whom I could name filled their pockets, my Lord Sandwich (age 40) himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossessed the Lord General (age 56), for he spoke to me of it with much zeal and concern, and I believe laid load enough on Lord Sandwich (age 40) at Oxford.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. After dinner a great deal alone with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who tells me that my Lord hath received still worse and worse usage from some base people about the Court. But the King (age 35) is very kind, and the Duke do not appear the contrary; and my Chancellor (age 56) swore to him "by--I will not forsake my Lord of Sandwich (age 40)". Our next discourse is upon this Act for money, about which Sir G. Carteret (age 55) comes to see what money can be got upon it. But none can be got, which pleases him the thoughts of, for, if the Exchequer should succeede in this, his office would faile. But I am apt to think at this time of hurry and plague and want of trade, no money will be got upon a new way which few understand. We walked, Cocke (age 48) and I, through the Parke with him, and so we being to meet the Vice-Chamberlayne to-morrow at Nonsuch [Map], to treat with Sir Robert Long (age 65) about the same business, I into London, it being dark night, by a hackney coach; the first I have durst to go in many a day, and with great pain now for fear. But it being unsafe to go by water in the dark and frosty cold, and unable being weary with my morning walke to go on foot, this was my only way. Few people yet in the streets, nor shops open, here and there twenty in a place almost; though not above five or sixe o'clock at night.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1665. After dinner to talk of our business, the Act of Parliament, where in short I see Sir R. Long (age 65) mighty fierce in the great good qualities of it. But in that and many other things he was stiff in, I think without much judgement, or the judgement I expected from him, and already they have evaded the necessity of bringing people into the Exchequer with their bills to be paid there. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) is titched [fretful, tetchy] at this, yet resolves with me to make the best use we can of this Act for the King (age 35), but all our care, we think, will not render it as it should be. He did again here alone discourse with me about my Lord, and is himself strongly for my Lord's not going to sea, which I am glad to hear and did confirm him in it. He tells me too that he talked last night with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about my Lord Sandwich (age 40), by the by making him sensible that it is his interest to preserve his old friends, which he confessed he had reason to do, for he knows that ill offices were doing of him, and that he honoured my Lord Sandwich (age 40) with all his heart.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1665. Upon the 'Change [Map] to-day Colvill tells me, from Oxford, that the King (age 35) in person hath justified my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the highest degree; and is right in his favour to the uttermost.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1665. Up betimes, it being fast-day; and by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who come to towne from Oxford last night. He is mighty brisk, and very kind to me, and asks my advice principally in every thing. He surprises me with the news that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) goes Embassador to Spayne speedily; though I know not whence this arises, yet I am heartily glad of it. He did give me several directions what to do, and so I home by water again and to church a little, thinking to have met Mrs. Pierce in order to our meeting at night; but she not there, I home and dined, and comes presently by appointment my wife. I spent the afternoon upon a song of Solyman's words to Roxalana (age 23) that I have set, and so with my wife walked and Mercer to Mrs. Pierce's, where Captain Rolt and Mrs. Knipp, Mr. Coleman and his wife, and Laneare, Mrs. Worshipp and her singing daughter, met; and by and by unexpectedly comes Mr. Pierce from Oxford. Here the best company for musique I ever was in, in my life, and wish I could live and die in it, both for musique and the face of Mrs. Pierce, and my wife and Knipp, who is pretty enough; but the most excellent, mad-humoured thing, and sings the noblest that ever I heard in my life, and Rolt, with her, some things together most excellently. I spent the night in extasy almost; and, having invited them to my house a day or two hence, we broke up, Pierce having told me that he is told how the King (age 35) hath done my Lord Sandwich (age 40) all the right imaginable, by shewing him his countenance before all the world on every occasion, to remove thoughts of discontent; and that he is to go Embassador, and that the Duke of Yorke (age 32) is made generall of all forces by land and sea, and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), lieutenant-generall. Whether the two latter alterations be so, true or no, he knows not, but he is told so; but my Lord is in full favour with the King (age 35). So all home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1665. Up and to the office, where very busy all day. Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) letter tells me my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is, as I was told, declared Embassador Extraordinary to Spayne, and to go with all speed away, and that his enemies have done him as much good as he could wish.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. Up, well pleased in my mind about my Lord Sandwich (age 40), about whom I shall know more anon from Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who will be in towne, and also that the Hambrough [ships] after all difficulties are got out. God send them good speed!

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. To my Lord of Albemarle (age 57) (now returned from Oxford), who was declared General at Sea, to the no small mortification of that excellent person, the Earl of Sandwich (age 40), whom the Duke of Albemarle not only suspected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant; himself imagining how easy a thing it were to confound the Hollanders, as well now as heretofore he fought against them upon a more disloyal interest.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1665. Called up betimes by my Lord Bruncker (age 45), who is come to towne from his long water worke at Erith, Kent last night, to go with him to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), which by his coach I did. Our discourse upon the ill posture of the times through lacke of money. At the Duke's did some business, and I believe he was not pleased to see all the Duke's discourse and applications to me and everybody else. Discoursed also with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) about office business, but no money in view. Here my Lord and I staid and dined, the Vice-Chamberlain taking his leave. At table the Duchesse (age 46), a damned ill-looked woman, complaining of her Lord's going to sea the next year, said these cursed words: "If my Lord had been a coward he had gone to sea no more: it may be then he might have been excused, and made an Embassador" (meaning my Lord Sandwich (age 40))1. This made me mad, and I believed she perceived my countenance change, and blushed herself very much. I was in hopes others had not minded it, but my Lord Bruncker (age 45), after we were come away, took notice of the words to me with displeasure.

Note 1. When Lord Sandwich (age 40) was away a new commander had to be chosen, and rank and long service pointed out Prince Rupert (age 45) for the office, it having been decided that the heir presumptive should be kept at home. It was thought, however, that the same confidence could not be placed in the prince's discretion as in his courage, and therefore the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was induced to take a joint command with him, "and so make one admiral of two persons" (see Lister's "Life of Clarendon", vol. ii., pp. 360,361).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1665. After dinner I to the Exchange [Map] to see whether my pretty seamstress be come again or no, and I find she is, so I to her, saluted her over her counter in the open Exchange [Map] above, and mightily joyed to see her, poor pretty woman! I must confess I think her a great beauty. After laying out a little money there for two pair of thread stockings, cost 8s., I to Lombard Street [Map] to see some business to-night there at the goldsmith's, among others paying in £1258 to Viner (age 34) for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) use upon Cocke's (age 48) account.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1666. Up betimes and by water to the Cockepitt [Map], there met Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and, after discourse with the Duke (age 32), all together, and there saw a letter wherein Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did take notice to the Duke with a commendation of my paper about Pursers, I to walke in the Parke with the Vice-Chamberlain, and received his advice about my deportment about the advancing the credit of the Act; giving me caution to see that we do not misguide the King (age 35) by making them believe greater matters from it than will be found. But I see that this arises from his great trouble to see the Act succeede, and to hear my name so much used and my letters shown at Court about goods served us in upon the credit of it. But I do make him believe that I do it with all respect to him and on his behalfe too, as indeed I do, as well as my owne, that it may not be said that he or I do not assist therein. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) do proceed on his journey with the greatest kindnesse that can be imagined from the King (age 35) and Chancellor (age 56), which was joyfull newes to me.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and being trimmed I was invited by Captain Cocke (age 49), so I left my wife, having a mind to some discourse with him, and dined with him. He tells me of new difficulties about his goods which troubles me and I fear they will be great. He tells me too what I hear everywhere how the towne talks of my Lord Craven (age 57) being to come into Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) place; but sure it cannot be true. But I do fear those two families, his and my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), are quite broken. And I must now stand upon my own legs.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1666. After dinner Pierce and I up to my chamber, where he tells me how a great difference hath been between the Duke (age 32) and Duchesse (age 28), he suspecting her to be naught with Mr. Sidney (age 24)1. But some way or other the matter is made up; but he was banished the Court, and the Duke for many days did not speak to the Duchesse at all. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is lost there at Court, though the King (age 35) is particularly his friend. But people do speak every where slightly of him; which is a sad story to me, but I hope it may be better again. And that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is neglected, and hath great enemies at work against him. That matters must needs go bad, while all the town, and every boy in the streete, openly cries, "the King (age 35) cannot go away till my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) be ready to come along with him"; she being lately put to bed And that he visits her and Mrs. Stewart (age 18) every morning before he eats his breakfast. All this put together makes me very sad, but yet I hope I shall do pretty well among them for all this, by my not meddling with either of their matters. He and Ferrers gone I paid uncle Thomas his last quarter's money, and then comes Mr. Gawden and he and I talked above stairs together a good while about his business, and to my great joy got him to declare that of the £500 he did give me the other day, none of it was for my Treasurershipp for Tangier (I first telling him how matters stand between Povy (age 52) and I, that he was to have half of whatever was coming to me by that office), and that he will gratify me at 2 per cent. for that when he next receives any money. So there is £80 due to me more than I thought of. He gone I with a glad heart to the office to write, my letters and so home to supper and bed, my wife mighty full of her worke she hath to do in furnishing her bedchamber.

Note 1. "This Duchess (age 28) was Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported" (Sir John Reresby's Memoirs, August 5th, 1664, ed. Cartwright, pp. 64,65). "'How could the Duke of York (age 32) make my mother a Papist?' said the Princess Mary to Dr. Bumet. 'The Duke caught a man in bed with her,' said the Doctor, 'and then had power to make her do anything.' The Prince, who sat by the fire, said, 'Pray, madam, ask the Doctor a few more questions'" (Spence's "Anecdotes", ed. Singer, 329).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. So I to the office and anon to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), by coach at night, taking, for saving time, Sir W. Warren with me, talking of our businesses all the way going and coming, and there got his reference of my pursers' paper to the Board to consider of it before he reads it, for he will never understand it I am sure. Here I saw Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) kind letter to him concerning my paper, and among others of his letters, which I saw all, and that is a strange thing, that whatever is writ to this Duke of Albemarle (age 57), all the world may see; for this very night he did give me Mr. Coventry's (age 38) letter to read, soon as it come to his hand, before he had read it himself, and bid me take out of it what concerned the Navy, and many things there was in it, which I should not have thought fit for him to have let any body so suddenly see; but, among other things, find him profess himself to the Duke a friend into the inquiring further into the business of Prizes, and advises that it may be publique, for the righting the King (age 35), and satisfying the people and getting the blame to be rightly laid where it should be, which strikes very hard upon my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and troubles me to read it. Besides, which vexes me more, I heard the damned Duchesse again say to twenty gentlemen publiquely in the room, that she would have Montagu sent once more to sea, before he goes his Embassy, that we may see whether he will make amends for his cowardice, and repeated the answer she did give the other day in my hearing to Sir G. Downing (age 41), wishing her Lord had been a coward, for then perhaps he might have been made an Embassador, and not been sent now to sea. But one good thing she said, she cried mightily out against the having of gentlemen Captains with feathers and ribbands, and wished the King (age 35) would send her husband to sea with the old plain sea Captains, that he served with formerly, that would make their ships swim with blood, though they could not make legs1 as Captains nowadays can. It grieved me to see how slightly the Duke do every thing in the world, and how the King (age 35) and every body suffers whatever he will to be done in the Navy, though never so much against reason, as in the business of recalling tickets, which will be done notwithstanding all the arguments against it. So back again to my office, and there to business and so to bed.

Note 1. Make bows, play the courtier. The reading, "make leagues", appeared in former editions till Mr. Mynors Bright corrected it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1666. Thence back by coach and called at Wotton's, my shoemaker, lately come to towne, and bespoke shoes, as also got him to find me a taylor to make me some clothes, my owne being not yet in towne, nor Pym, my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) taylor. So he helped me to a pretty man, one Mr. Penny, against St. Dunstan's Church [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1666. After dinner Cocke (age 49) and I together by coach to the Exchange [Map], in our way talking of our matters, and do conclude that every thing must breake in pieces, while no better counsels govern matters than there seem to do, and that it will become him and I and all men to get their reckonings even, as soon as they can, and expect all to breake. Besides, if the plague continues among us another yeare, the Lord knows what will become of us. I set him down at the 'Change [Map], and I home to my office, where late writing letters and doing business, and thence home to supper and to bed. My head full of cares, but pleased with my wife's minding her worke so well, and busying herself about her house, and I trust in God if I can but clear myself of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) bond, wherein I am bound with him for £1000 to T. Pepys, I shall do pretty well, come what will come.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1666. After dinner, late took horse, having sent for Lashmore to go with me, and so he and I rode to Dagenhams in the dark. There find the whole family well. It was my [his father-in-law] Lord Crew's (age 68) desire that I should come, and chiefly to discourse with me of Lord Sandwich's (age 40) matters; and therein to persuade, what I had done already, that my Lord should sue out a pardon for his business of the prizes, as also for Bergen, and all he hath done this year past, before he begins his Embassy to Spayne. For it is to be feared that the Parliament will fly out against him and particular men, the next Session. He is glad also that my Lord is clear of his sea-imployment, though sorry as I am, only in the manner of its bringing about.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1666. Up, and set my people to work in copying Tangier accounts, and I down the river to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the office to fetch away some papers and thence to Deptford, Kent [Map], where by agreement my Lord Bruncker (age 46) was to come, but staid almost till noon, after I had spent an houre with W. Howe talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) matters and his folly in minding his pleasures too much now-a-days, and permitting himself to be governed by Cuttance to the displeasing of all the Commanders almost of the fleete, and thence we may conceive indeed the rise of all my Lord's misfortunes of late.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1666. At noon my Lord Bruncker (age 46) did come, but left the keys of the chests we should open, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), wherein Howe's supposed jewells are; so we could not, according to my Lord Arlington's (age 48) order, see them today; but we parted, resolving to meet here at night: my Lord Bruncker (age 46) being going with Dr. Wilkins, Mr. Hooke (age 30), and others, to Colonell Blunts, to consider again of the business of charriots, and to try their new invention. Which I saw here my Lord Bruncker (age 46) ride in; where the coachman sits astride upon a pole over the horse, but do not touch the horse, which is a pretty odde thing; but it seems it is most easy for the horse, and, as they say, for the man also.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. I walked with them quite out of the Court into the fields, and then back to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) chamber, where I find him very melancholy and not well satisfied, I perceive, with my carriage to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), but I did satisfy him and made him confess to me, that I have a very hard game to play; and told me he was sorry to see it, and the inconveniences which likely may fall upon me with him; but, for all that, I am not much afeard, if I can but keepe out of harm's way in not being found too much concerned in my Lord's or Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) matters, and that I will not be if I can helpe it. He hath got over his business of the prizes, so far as to have a privy seale passed for all that was in his distribution to the officers, which I am heartily glad of; and, for the rest, he must be answerable for what he is proved to have. But for his pardon for anything else, he thinks it not seasonable to aske it, and not usefull to him; because that will not stop a Parliament's mouth, and for the King (age 35), he is sure enough of him. I did aske him whether he was sure of the interest and friendship of any great Ministers of State and he told me, yes.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. As we were going further, in comes my Lord Mandeville (age 31), so we were forced to breake off and I away, and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, where he not come in but I find Sir W. Pen (age 44), and he and I to discourse. I find him very much out of humour, so that I do not think matters go very well with him, and I am glad of it. He and I staying till late, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) not coming in (being shut up close all the afternoon with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57)), we took boat, and by water to Kingston [Map], and so to our lodgings, where a good supper and merry, only I sleepy, and therefore after supper I slunk away from the rest to bed, and lay very well and slept soundly, my mind being in a great delirium between joy for what the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) have said to me and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and trouble for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) concernments, and how hard it will be for me to preserve myself from feeling thereof.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. The Council being up, out comes the King (age 35), and I kissed his hand, and he grasped me very kindly by the hand. The Duke (age 32) also, I kissed his, and he mighty kind, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38). I found my Lord Sandwich (age 40) there, poor man! I see with a melancholy face, and suffers his beard to grow on his upper lip more than usual. I took him a little aside to know when I should wait on him, and where: he told me, and that it would be best to meet at his lodgings, without being seen to walk together. Which I liked very well; and, Lord! to see in what difficulty I stand, that I dare not walk with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), for fear my Lord or Sir G. Carteret (age 56) should see me; nor with either of them, for fear Sir W. Coventry (age 38) should.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. So to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) to dinner with him, whom I took occasion to thanke for his favour and good thoughts of what little service I did, desiring he would do the last act of friendship in telling me of my faults also. He told me he would be sure he would do that also, if there were any occasion for it. So that as much as it is possible under so great a fall of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), and difference between them, I may conclude that I am thoroughly right with Sir W. Coventry (age 38). I dined with him with a great deale of company, and much merry discourse. I was called away before dinner ended to go to my company who dined at our lodgings.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. Up, and to Court by coach, where to Council before the Duke of Yorke (age 32), the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) with us, and after Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had gone over his notes that he had provided with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), I went over all mine with good successe, only I fear I did once offend the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), but I was much joyed to find the Duke of Yorke (age 32) so much contending for my discourse about the pursers against Sir W. Pen (age 44), who opposes it like a foole; my Lord Sandwich (age 40) come in in the middle of the business, and, poor man, very melancholy, methought, and said little at all, or to the business, and sat at the lower end, just as he come, no roome being made for him, only I did give him my stoole, and another was reached me.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1666. So home to my wife, whom I find not well, in bed, and it seems hath not been well these two days. She rose and we to dinner, after dinner up to my chamber, where she entertained me with what she hath lately bought of clothes for herself, and Damask linnen, and other things for the house. I did give her a serious account how matters stand with me, of favour with the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32), and of danger in reference to my Lord's and Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) falls, and the dissatisfaction I have heard the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) hath acknowledged to somebody, among other things, against my Lord Sandwich (age 40), that he did bring me into the Navy against his desire and endeavour for another, which was our doting foole Turner.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1666. By and by to the 'Change [Map], and there did several businesses, among others brought home my cozen Pepys, whom I appointed to be here to-day, and Mr. Moore met us upon the business of my Lord's bond. Seeing my neighbour Mr. Knightly walk alone from the 'Change [Map], his family being not yet come to town, I did invite him home with me, and he dined with me, a very sober, pretty man he is. He is mighty solicitous, as I find many about the City that live near the churchyards, to have the churchyards covered with lime, and I think it is needfull, and ours I hope will be done. Good pleasant discourse at dinner of the practices of merchants to cheate the "Customers", occasioned by Mr. Moore's being with much trouble freed of his prize goods, which he bought, which fell into the Customers' hands, and with much ado hath cleared them. Mr. Knightly being gone, my cozen Pepys and Moore and I to our business, being the clearing of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) bond wherein I am bound with him to my cozen for £1000 I have at last by my dexterity got my Lord's consent to have it paid out of the money raised by his prizes. So the bond is cancelled, and he paid by having a note upon Sir Robert Viner (age 35), in whose hands I had lodged my Lord's money, by which I am to my extraordinary comfort eased of a liablenesse to pay the sum in case of my Lord's death, or troubles in estate, or my Lord's greater fall, which God defend! Having settled this matter at Sir R. Viner's (age 35), I took up Mr. Moore (my cozen going home) and to my Chancellor's (age 56) new house which he is building, only to view it, hearing so much from Mr. Evelyn (age 45) of it; and, indeed, it is the finest pile I ever did see in my life, and will be a glorious house.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and knowing that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is come to towne with the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32), I to wait upon him, which I did, and find him in very good humour, which I am glad to see with all my heart. Having received his commands, and discoursed with some of his people about my Lord's going, and with Sir Roger Cuttance, who was there, and finds himself slighted by Sir W. Coventry (age 38), I advised him however to look after employment lest it should be said that my Lord's friends do forsake the service after he hath made them rich with the prizes. I to London, and there among other things did look over some pictures at Cade's for my house, and did carry home a silver drudger1 for my cupboard of plate, and did call for my silver chafing dishes, but they are sent home, and the man would not be paid for them, saying that he was paid for them already, and with much ado got him to tell me by Mr. Wayth, but I would not accept of that, but will send him his money, not knowing any courtesy I have yet done him to deserve it.

Note 1. The dredger was probably the drageoir of France; in low Latin, dragerium, or drageria, in which comfits (dragdes) were kept. Roquefort says, "The ladies wore a little spice-box, in shape like a watch, to carry dragles, and it was called a drageoir". The custom continued certainly till the middle of the last century. Old Palsgrave, in his "Eclaircissement de la Langue Francaise", gives "dradge" as spice, rendering it by the French word dragde. Chaucer says, of his Doctor of Physic, "Full ready hadde he his Apothecaries To send him dragges, and his lattuaries". The word sometimes may have signified the pounded condiments in which our forefathers delighted. It is worth notice, that "dragge" was applied to a grain in the eastern counties, though not exclusively there, appearing to denote mixed grain. Bishop Kennett tells us that "dredge mault is mault made up of oats, mixed with barley, of which they make an excellent, freshe, quiete sort of drinke, in Staffordshire". The dredger is still commonly used in our kitchen. B.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 65) (at whose lodgings calling for him, I saw his Lady the first time since her coming to towne since the plague, having absented myself designedly to shew some discontent, and that I am not at all the more suppliant because of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) fall), to my Lord Bruncker's (age 46), to see whether he goes to the Duke's this morning or no. But it is put off, and so we parted. My Lord invited me to dinner to-day to dine with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and his Lady there, who were invited before, but lest he should thinke so little an invitation would serve my turne I refused and parted, and to Westminster about business, and so back to the 'Change [Map], and there met Mr. Hill (age 36), newly come to town, and with him the Houblands, preparing for their ship's and his going to Tangier, and agreed that I must sup with them to-night.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1666. So home and eat a bit, and then to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, but it did not meet but was put off to to-morrow, so I did some little business and visited my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and so, it raining, went directly to the Sun, behind the Exchange [Map], about seven o'clock, where I find all the five brothers Houblons, and mighty fine gentlemen they are all, and used me mighty respectfully. We were mighty civilly merry, and their discourses, having been all abroad, very fine. Here late and at last accompanied home with Mr. J. Houblon and Hill, whom I invited to sup with me on Friday, and so parted and I home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1666. So to White Hall to see my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and then home to my business till night, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1666. Up, and very busy to perform an oathe in finishing my Journall this morning for 7 or 8 days past. Then to several people attending upon business, among others Mr. Grant (age 45) and the executors of Barlow for the £25 due for the quarter before he died, which I scrupled to pay, being obliged but to pay every half year. Then comes Mr. Caesar, my boy's lute-master, whom I have not seen since the plague before, but he hath been in Westminster all this while very well; and tells me in the height of it, how bold people there were, to go in sport to one another's burials; and in spite too, ill people would breathe in the faces (out of their windows) of well people going by. Then to dinner before the 'Change [Map], and so to the 'Change [Map], and then to the taverne to talk with Sir William Warren, and so by coach to several places, among others to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), there to meet my Lord Sandwich (age 40), but missed, and met him at [my] Chancellor's (age 56), and there talked with him about his accounts, and then about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and I find by him that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) has a worse game to play than my Lord Sandwich (age 40), for people are jeering at him, and he cries out of the business of Sir W. Coventry (age 38), who strikes at all and do all.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1666. St. Valentine's Day. This morning called up by Mr. Hill (age 36), who, my wife thought, had been come to be her Valentine; she, it seems, having drawne him last night, but it proved not. However, calling him up to our bed-side, my wife challenged him. I up, and made myself ready, and so with him by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) by appointment to deliver Mr. Howe's accounts to my Lord. Which done, my Lord did give me hearty and large studied thanks for all my kindnesse to him and care of him and his business. I after profession of all duty to his Lordship took occasion to bemoane myself that I should fall into such a difficulty about Sir G. Carteret (age 56), as not to be for him, but I must be against Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and therefore desired to be neutrall, which my Lord approved and confessed reasonable, but desired me to befriend him privately.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and by appointment to the Exchange [Map], where I met Messrs. Houblons, and took them up in my coach and carried them to Charing Crosse, where they to Colonell Norwood (age 52) to see how they can settle matters with him, I having informed them by the way with advice to be easy with him, for he may hereafter do us service, and they and I are like to understand one another to very good purpose. I to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and there alone with him to talke of his affairs, and particularly of his prize goods, wherein I find he is wearied with being troubled, and gives over the care of it to let it come to what it will, having the King's release for the dividend made, and for the rest he thinks himself safe from being proved to have anything more.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. Thence hoping to find my Lord Sandwich (age 40), away by coach to my Chancellor's (age 57), but missed him, and so home and to office, and then to supper and my Journall, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. Up, and by coach to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), but he was gone out. So I to White Hall, and there waited on the Duke of Yorke (age 32) with some of the rest of our brethren, and thence back again to my Lord's, to see my [his son] Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), which I did, and I am mightily out of countenance in my great expectation of him by others' report, though he is indeed a pretty gentleman, yet nothing what I took him for, methinks, either as to person or discourse discovered to me, but I must try him more before I go too far in censuring.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1666. After dinner I took him by coach to White Hall, and there he and I parted, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), where coming and bolting into the dining-room, I there found Captain Ferrers going to christen a child of his born yesterday, and I come just pat to be a godfather, along with my [his son] Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), and Madam Pierce, my Valentine, which for that reason I was pretty well contented with, though a little vexed to see myself so beset with people to spend me money, as she of a Valentine and little Mrs. Tooker, who is come to my house this day from Greenwich, Kent [Map], and will cost me 20s., my wife going out with her this afternoon, and now this christening. Well, by and by the child is brought and christened Katharine, and I this day on this occasion drank a glasse of wine, which I have not professedly done these two years, I think, but a little in the time of the sicknesse. After that done, and gone and kissed the mother in bed, I away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hear that Mrs. Lane is come to town.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1666. Up betimes, and out of doors by 6 of the clock, and walked (W. Howe with me) to my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), who did lie the last night at his house in Lincoln's Inne Fields. It being fine walking in the morning, and the streets full of people again. There I staid, and the house full of people come to take leave of my Lord, who this day goes out of towne upon his embassy towards Spayne. And I was glad to find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) to come, though I know it is only a piece of courtshipp. I had much discourse with my Lord, he telling me how fully he leaves the King (age 35) his friend and the large discourse he had with him the other day, and how he desired to have the business of the prizes examined before he went, and that he yielded to it, and it is done as far as it concerns himself to the full, and the Lords Commissioners for prizes did reprehend all the informers in what related to his Lordship, which I am glad of in many respects. But we could not make an end of discourse, so I promised to waite upon (him) on Sunday at Cranborne, and took leave and away hence to Mr. Hales's (age 66) with Mr. Hill (age 36) and two of the Houblons, who come thither to speak with me, and saw my wife's picture, which pleases me well, but Mr. Hill's (age 36) picture never a whit so well as it did before it was finished, which troubled me, and I begin to doubt the picture of my Lady Peters my wife takes her posture from, and which is an excellent picture, is not of his making, it is so master-like. I set them down at the 'Change [Map] and I home to the office, and at noon dined at home and to the office again.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1666. All this discourse did cheer my heart, and sets me right again, after a good deal of melancholy, out of fears of his disinclination to me, upon the differences with my Lord Sandwich (age 40) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56); but I am satisfied throughly, and so went away quite another man, and by the grace of God will never lose it again by my folly in not visiting and writing to him, as I used heretofore to do.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1666. Up betimes, and to St. James's, thinking Mr. Coventry (age 38) had lain there; but he do not, but at White Hall; so thither I went and had as good a time as heart could wish, and after an houre in his chamber about publique business he and I walked up, and the Duke being gone abroad we walked an houre in the Matted Gallery: he of himself begun to discourse of the unhappy differences between him and my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), and from the beginning to the end did run through all passages wherein my Lord hath, at any time, gathered any dissatisfaction, and cleared himself to me most honourably; and in truth, I do believe he do as he says. I did afterwards purge myself of all partiality in the business of Sir G. Carteret (age 56), (whose story Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did also run over,) that I do mind the King's interest, notwithstanding my relation to him; all which he declares he firmly believes, and assures me he hath the same kindnesse and opinion of me as ever. And when I said I was jealous of myself, that having now come to such an income as I am, by his favour, I should not be found to do as much service as might deserve it; he did assure me, he thinks it not too much for me, but thinks I deserve it as much as any man in England.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1666. At noon dined at home, Mr. Cooke, our old acquaintance at my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), come to see and dine with me, but I quite out of humour, having many other and better things to thinke of.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1666. [Up] and by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir Thos. Allen (age 54) to White Hall, and there after attending the Duke (age 32) as usual and there concluding of many things preparatory to the Prince (age 46) and Generall's going to sea on Monday next, Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir T. Allen (age 54) and I to Mr. Lilly's (age 47), the painter's; and there saw the heads, some finished, and all begun, of the Flaggmen in the late great fight with the Duke of Yorke (age 32) against the Dutch. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) hath them done to hang in his chamber, and very finely they are done indeed. Here is the Prince's (age 46), Sir G. Askue's (age 50), Sir Thomas Teddiman's, Sir Christopher Mings (age 40), Sir Joseph Jordan, Sir William Barkeley (age 27), Sir Thomas Allen (age 33), and Captain Harman's (age 41), as also the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57); and will be my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), Sir W. Pen's (age 44), and Sir Jeremy Smith's. Being very well satisfied with this sight, and other good pictures hanging in the house, we parted, and I left them, and [to] pass away a little time went to the printed picture seller's in the way thence to the Exchange [Map], and there did see great plenty of fine prints; but did not buy any, only a print of an old pillar in Rome made for a Navall Triumph1, which for the antiquity of the shape of ships, I buy and keepe.

Note 1. The columna rostrata erected in the Forum to C. Duilius, who obtained a triumph for the first naval victory over the Carthaginians, B.C. 261. Part of the column was discovered in the ruins of the Forum near the Arch of Septimius, and transferred to the Capitol. B.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. So meeting Creed, he and I by coach to Hide Parke alone to talke of these things, and do blesse God that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) was not here at this time to be concerned in a business like to be so misfortunate. It was a pleasant thing to consider how fearfull I was of being seen with Creed all this afternoon, for fear of people's thinking that by our relation to my Lord Sandwich (age 40) we should be making ill construction of the Prince's (age 46) failure. But, God knows, I am heartily sorry for the sake of the whole nation, though, if it were not for that, it would not be amisse to have these high blades find some checke to their presumption and their disparaging of as good men.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1666. Thence with my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and Creed by coach to White Hall, where fresh letters are come from Harwich [Map], where the Gloucester, Captain Clerke, is come in, and says that on Sunday night upon coming in of the Prince (age 46), the Duke did fly; but all this day they have been fighting; therefore they did face again, to be sure. Captain Bacon of The Bristoll is killed. They cry up Jenings of The Ruby, and Saunders of The Sweepstakes. They condemn mightily Sir Thomas Teddiman for a coward, but with what reason time must shew. Having heard all this Creed and I walked into the Parke till 9 or 10 at night, it being fine moonshine, discoursing of the unhappinesse of our fleete, what it would have been if the Prince (age 46) had not come in, how much the Duke hath failed of what he was so presumptuous of, how little we deserve of God Almighty to give us better fortune, how much this excuses all that was imputed to my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and how much more he is a man fit to be trusted with all those matters than those that now command, who act by nor with any advice, but rashly and without any order. How bad we are at intelligence that should give the Prince (age 46) no sooner notice of any thing but let him come to Dover without notice of any fight, or where the fleete were, or any thing else, nor give the Duke any notice that he might depend upon the Prince's (age 46) reserve; and lastly, of how good use all may be to checke our pride and presumption in adventuring upon hazards upon unequal force against a people that can fight, it seems now, as well as we, and that will not be discouraged by any losses, but that they will rise again.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jun 1666. Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the General and related the dreadful encounter, on which his Majesty (age 36) commanded me to dispatch an extraordinary physician and more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn Fast-day when the news came; his Majesty (age 36) being in the chapel made a sudden stop to hear the relation, which being with much advantage on our side, his Majesty (age 36) commanded that public thanks should immediately be given as for a victory. The Dean of the chapel going down to give notice of it to the other Dean officiating; and notice was likewise sent to St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey [Map]. But this was no sooner over, than news came that our loss was very great both in ships and men; that the Prince frigate was burnt, and as noble a vessel of ninety brass guns lost; and the taking of Sir George Ayscue (age 50), and exceeding shattering of both fleets; so as both being obstinate, both parted rather for want of ammunition and tackle than courage; our General retreating like a lion; which exceedingly abated of our former joy. There were, however, orders given for bonfires and bells; but, God knows, it was rather a deliverance than a triumph. So much it pleased God to humble our late overconfidence that nothing could withstand the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who, in good truth, made too forward a reckoning of his success now, because he had once beaten the Dutch in another quarrel; and being ambitious to outdo the Earl of Sandwich (age 40), whom he had prejudicated as deficient in courage.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. By and by the Council broke up, and I spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about business, with whom I doubt not in a little time to be mighty well, when I shall appear to mind my business again as I used to do, which by the grace of God I will do. Gone from him I endeavoured to find out Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and at last did at Mr. Ashburnham's (age 62), in the Old Palace Yarde, and thence he and I stepped out and walked an houre in the church-yarde, under Henry the Seventh's Chappell, he being lately come from the fleete; and tells me, as I hear from every body else, that the management in the late fight was bad from top to bottom. That several said this would not have been if my Lord Sandwich (age 40) had had the ordering of it. Nay, he tells me that certainly had my Lord Sandwich (age 40) had the misfortune to have done as they have done, the King (age 36) could not have saved him. There is, too, nothing but discontent among the officers; and all the old experienced men are slighted. He tells me to my question (but as a great secret), that the dividing of the fleete did proceed first from a proposition from the fleete, though agreed to hence. But he confesses it arose from want of due intelligence, which he confesses we do want. He do, however, call the fleete's retreat on Sunday a very honourable retreat, and that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) did do well in it, and would have been well if he had done it sooner, rather than venture the loss of the fleete and crown, as he must have done if the Prince had not come. He was surprised when I told him I heard that the King (age 36) did intend to borrow some money of the City, and would know who had spoke of it to me; I told him Sir Ellis Layton this afternoon. He says it is a dangerous discourse; for that the City certainly will not be invited to do it, and then for the King (age 36) to ask it and be denied, will be the beginning of our sorrow. He seems to fear we shall all fall to pieces among ourselves.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1666. Thence to Westminster to the Exchequer, but could not persuade the blockheaded fellows to do what I desire, of breaking my great tallys into less, notwithstanding my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) order, which vexed [me] so much that I would not bestow more time and trouble among a company of dunces, and so back again home, and to dinner, whither Creed come and dined with me and after dinner Mr. Moore, and he and I abroad, thinking to go down the river together, but the tide being against me would not, but returned and walked an houre in the garden, but, Lord! to hear how he pleases himself in behalf of my Lord Sandwich (age 40), in the miscarriage of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and do inveigh against Sir W. Coventry (age 38) as a cunning knave, but I thinke that without any manner of reason at all, but only his passion. He being gone I to my chamber at home to set my Journall right and so to settle my Tangier accounts, which I did in very good order, and then in the evening comes Mr. Yeabsly to reckon with me, which I did also, and have above £200 profit therein to myself, which is a great blessing, the God of heaven make me thankfull for it.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1666. At noon dined at home: Mr. Hunt and his wife, who is very gallant, and newly come from Cambridge, because of the sicknesse, with us. Very merry at table, and the people I do love mightily, but being in haste to go to White Hall I rose, and Mr. Hunt with me, and by coach thither, where I left him in the boarded gallery, and I by appointment to attend the Duke of Yorke (age 32) at his closett, but being not come, Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I did talke together, and (he) advises me, that, if I could, I would get the papers of examination touching the business of the last year's prizes, which concern my Lord Sandwich (age 40), out of Warcupp's hands, who being now under disgrace and poor, he believes may be brought easily to part with them. My [his father-in-law] Lord Crew (age 68), it seems, is fearfull yet that maters may be enquired into. This I will endeavour to do, though I do not thinke it signifies much.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Thence to discourse of the times; and he tells me he believes both my Lord Arlington (age 48) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), as well as my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56), have reason to fear, and are afeard of this Parliament now coming on. He tells me that Bristoll's (age 53) faction is getting ground apace against my Chancellor (age 57). He told me that my old Lord Coventry was a cunning, crafty man, and did make as many bad decrees in Chancery as any man; and that in one case, that occasioned many years' dispute, at last when the King (age 36) come in, it was hoped by the party grieved, to get my Chancellor (age 57) to reverse a decree of his. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) took the opportunity of the business between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the Duchesse (age 29), and said to my Chancellor (age 57), that he had rather be drawn up Holborne to be hanged, than live to see his father pissed upon (in these very terms) and any decree of his reversed. And so the Chancellor (age 57) did not think fit to do it, but it still stands, to the undoing of one Norton, a printer, about his right to the printing of the Bible, and Grammar, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1666. Up betimes, with all my people to get the letter writ over, and other things done, which I did, and by coach to Lord Bruncker's (age 46), and got his hand to it; and then to the Parliament House and got it signed by the rest, and then delivered it at the House-door to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 56); Sir G. Carteret (age 56) being gone into the House with his book of accounts under his arme, to present to the House. I had brought my wife to White Hall, and leaving her with Mrs. Michell, where she sat in her shop and had burnt wine sent for her, I walked in the Hall, and among others with Ned Pickering (age 48), who continues still a lying, bragging coxcombe, telling me that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) may thank himself for all his misfortune; for not suffering him and two or three good honest fellows more to take them by the throats that spoke ill of him, and told me how basely Lionell Walden hath carried himself towards my Lord; by speaking slightly of him, which I shall remember.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1666. So I away from him, and met with the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), and I told him when I had this evening in coming hither met with Captain Cocke (age 49), and he told me of a wild motion made in the House of Lords by the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) for all men that had cheated the King (age 36) to be declared traitors and felons, and that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) was named. This put me into a great pain, so the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), who had heard nothing of it, having been all day in the City, away with me to White Hall; and there come to me and told me that, upon Lord Ashly's (age 45) asking their direction whether, being a peere, he should bring in his accounts to the Commons, which they did give way to, the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) did move that, for the time to come, what I have written above might be declared by some fuller law than heretofore. Lord Ashly (age 45) answered, that it was not the fault of the present laws, but want of proof; and so said the Chancellor (age 57). He answered, that a better law, he thought, might be made so the House laughing, did refer it to him to bring in a Bill to that purpose, and this was all.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after visiting my father in his chamber, to church, and then home to dinner. Little Michell and his wife come to dine with us, which they did, and then presently after dinner I with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to White Hall, where met by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Lord Bruncker (age 46), to attend the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) at the Cabinet; but nobody had determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we were called in to the Green Room, where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 32), Prince Rupert (age 46), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), Duke of Albemarle (age 57), [Sirs] G. Carteret (age 56), W. Coventry (age 38), Morrice (age 63). Nobody beginning, I did, and made a current, and I thought a good speech, laying open the ill state of the Navy: by the greatness of the debt; greatness of work to do against next yeare; the time and materials it would take; and our incapacity, through a total want of money. I had no sooner done, but Prince Rupert (age 46) rose up and told the King (age 36) in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said, he had brought home his fleete in as good a condition as ever any fleete was brought home; that twenty boats would be as many as the fleete would want: and all the anchors and cables left in the storm might be taken up again. This arose from my saying, among other things we had to do, that the fleete was come in-the greatest fleete that ever his Majesty had yet together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy or weather could put it; and to use Sir W. Pen's (age 45) words, who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the reports he is to receive from the Surveyors of its defects. I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his Highness's offence, but that what I said was but the report we received from those entrusted in the fleete to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had said; and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody, not so much as the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), seconding the Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew. I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the more when speaking with Jacke Fenn about it, he told me that the Prince (age 46) will be asking now who this Pepys is, and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), and therefore this was done only to disparage him.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. Walking with Pierce in the Court of Wards out comes Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and he and I talked of business. Among others I proposed the making Sir J. Minnes (age 67) a Commissioner, and make somebody else Comptroller. He tells me it is the thing he hath been thinking of, and hath spoke to the Duke of York (age 33) of it. He believes it will be done; but that which I fear is that Pen will be Comptroller, which I shall grudge a little. The Duke of Buckingham (age 38) called him aside and spoke a good while with him. I did presently fear it might be to discourse something of his design to blemish my Lord of Sandwich (age 41), in pursuance of the wild motion he made the other day in the House. Sir W. Coventry (age 38), when he come to me again, told me that he had wrought a miracle, which was, the convincing the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) that something-he did not name what-that he had intended to do was not fit to be done, and that the Duke is gone away of that opinion. This makes me verily believe it was something like what I feared.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1666. Up, and to the office to do business, and thither comes to me Sir Thomas Teddiman, and he and I walked a good while in the garden together, discoursing of the disorder and discipline of the fleete, wherein he told me how bad every thing is; but was very wary in speaking any thing to the dishonour of the Prince (age 46) or Duke of Albemarle (age 57), but do magnify my Lord Sandwich (age 41) much before them both, for ability to serve the King (age 36), and do heartily wish for him here. For he fears that we shall be undone the next year, but that he will, however, see an end of it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1666. Lord's Day. Comes my taylor's man in the morning, and brings my vest home, and coate to wear with it, and belt, and silver-hilted sword. So I rose and dressed myself, and I like myself mightily in it, and so do my wife. Then, being dressed, to church; and after church pulled my Lady Pen (age 42) and Mrs. Markham into my house to dinner, and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) he got Mrs. Pegg along with him. I had a good dinner for them, and very merry; and after dinner to the waterside, and so, it being very cold, to White Hall, and was mighty fearfull of an ague, my vest being new and thin, and the coat cut not to meet before upon my breast. Here I waited in the gallery till the Council was up, and among others did speak with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, who tells me my Lord Generall is become mighty low in all people's opinion, and that he hath received several slurs from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33). The people at Court do see the difference between his and the Prince's (age 46) management, and my Lord Sandwich's (age 41). That this business which he is put upon of crying out against the Catholiques and turning them out of all employment, will undo him, when he comes to turn-out the officers out of the Army, and this is a thing of his own seeking. That he is grown a drunken sot, and drinks with nobody but Troutbecke, whom nobody else will keep company with. Of whom he told me this story: That once the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) in his drink taking notice as of a wonder that Nan Hide (age 29) should ever come to be Duchesse of York (age 29), "Nay", says Troutbecke, "ne'er wonder at that; for if you will give me another bottle of wine, I will tell you as great, if not greater, a miracle". And what was that, but that our dirty Besse (meaning his Duchesse (age 47)) should come to be Duchesse of Albemarle? Here we parted, and so by and by the Council rose, and out comes Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and they and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I went to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, there to discourse about some money demanded by Sir W. Warren, and having done that broke up. And Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I alone together a while, where he shows a long letter, all in cipher, from my Lord Sandwich (age 41) to him. The contents he hath not yet found out, but he tells me that my Lord is not sent for home, as several people have enquired after of me. He spoke something reflecting upon me in the business of pursers, that their present bad behaviour is what he did foresee, and had convinced me of, and yet when it come last year to be argued before the Duke of York (age 33) I turned and said as the rest did. I answered nothing to it, but let it go, and so to other discourse of the ill state of things, of which all people are full of sorrow and observation, and so parted, and then by water, landing in Southwarke [Map], home to the Tower, and so home, and there began to read "Potter's Discourse upon 1666", which pleases me mightily, and then broke off and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. Thence by coach to my Lady Peterborough (age 44), and there spoke with my Lady, who had sent to speak with me. She makes mighty moan of the badness of the times, and her family as to money. My Lord's (age 44) passionateness for want thereof, and his want of coming in of rents, and no wages from the Duke of York (age 33). No money to be had there for wages nor disbursements, and therefore prays my assistance about his pension. I was moved with her story, which she largely and handsomely told me, and promised I would try what I could do in a few days, and so took leave, being willing to keep her Lord fair with me, both for his respect to my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and for my owne sake hereafter, when I come to pass my accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1666. After dinner I to teach her my new recitative of "It is decreed", of which she learnt a good part, and I do well like it and believe shall be well pleased when she hath it all, and that it will be found an agreeable thing. Then carried her home, and my wife and I intended to have seen my [his daughter] Lady Jemimah at White Hall, but the Exchange Streete was so full of coaches, every body, as they say, going thither to make themselves fine against tomorrow night, that, after half an hour's stay, we could not do any [thing], only my wife to see her brother, and I to go speak one word with Sir G. Carteret (age 56) about office business, and talk of the general complexion of matters, which he looks upon, as I do, with horrour, and gives us all for an undone people. That there is no such thing as a peace in hand, nor possibility of any without our begging it, they being as high, or higher, in their terms than ever, and tells me that, just now, my Lord Hollis (age 67) had been with him, and wept to think in what a condition we are fallen. He shewed me my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) letter to him, complaining of the lack of money, which Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is at a loss how in the world to get the King (age 36) to supply him with, and wishes him, for that reason, here; for that he fears he will be brought to disgrace there, for want of supplies. He says the House is yet in a bad humour; and desiring to know whence it is that the King (age 36) stirs not, he says he minds it not, nor will be brought to it, and that his servants of the House do, instead of making the Parliament better, rather play the rogue one with another, and will put all in fire. So that, upon the whole, we are in a wretched condition, and I went from him in full apprehensions of it.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1666. This afternoon Sir W. Warren and Mr. Moore, one after another, walked with me in the garden, and they both tell me that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) is called home, and that he do grow more and more in esteem everywhere, and is better spoken of, which I am mighty glad of, though I know well enough his deserving the same before, and did foresee that it will come to it. In mighty great pain in my back still, but I perceive it changes its place, and do not trouble me at all in making of water, and that is my joy, so that I believe it is nothing but a strain, and for these three or four days I perceive my overworking of my eyes by candlelight do hurt them as it did the last winter, that by day I am well and do get them right, but then after candlelight they begin to be sore and run, so that I intend to get some green spectacles.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. Thence in the evening round by coach home, where I find Foundes his present, of a fair pair of candlesticks, and half a dozen of plates come, which cost him full £50, and is a very good present; and here I met with, sealed up, from Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), the lampoone, or the Mocke-Advice to a Paynter1, abusing the Duke of York (age 33) and my Lord Sandwich (age 41), Pen (age 45), and every body, and the King (age 36) himself, in all the matters of the navy and warr. I am sorry for my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) having so great a part in it. Then to supper and musique, and to bed.

Note 1. In a broadside (1680), quoted by Mr. G. T. Drury in his edition of Waller's Poems, 1893, satirical reference is made to the fashionable form of advice to the painter. "Each puny brother of the rhyming trade At every turn implores the Painter's aid, And fondly enamoured of own foul brat Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this, draw that". The series was continued, for we find "Advice to a Painter upon the Defeat of the Rebels in the West and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth (age 17)" ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 148); "Advice to a Painter, being a Satire on the French King", &c., 1692, and "Advice to a Painter", 1697 ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 428).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1666. To dinner, and then our company all broke up, and to my chamber to do several things. Among other things, to write a letter to my Lord Sandwich (age 41), it being one of the burdens upon my mind that I have not writ to him since he went into Spain, but now I do intend to give him a brief account of our whole year's actions since he went, which will make amends. My wife well home in the evening from the play; which I was glad of, it being cold and dark, and she having her necklace of pearl on, and none but Mercer with her. Spent the evening in fitting my books, to have the number set upon each, in order to my having an alphabet of my whole, which will be of great ease to me. This day Captain Batters come from sea in his fireship and come to see me, poor man, as his patron, and a poor painful wretch he is as can be. After supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1667. After them, I, with several people, among others Mr. George Montagu (age 44), whom I have not seen long, he mighty kind. He tells me all is like to go ill, the King (age 36) displeasing the House of Commons by evading their Bill for examining Accounts, and putting it into a Commission, though therein he hath left out Coventry (age 39) and I and named all the rest the Parliament named, and all country Lords, not one Courtier: this do not please them. He tells me he finds the enmity almost over for my Lord Sandwich (age 41), and that now all is upon the Vice-Chamberlain (age 57), who bears up well and stands upon his vindication, which he seems to like well, and the others do construe well also.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1667. Thence home by coach and to the office, and then home to supper, Mercer and her sister there, and to cards, and then to bed. Mr. Cowling did this day in the House-lobby tell me of the many complaints among people against Mr. Townsend in the Wardrobe, and advises me to think of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) concernment there under his care. He did also tell me upon my demanding it, that he do believe there are some things on foot for a peace between France and us, but that we shall be foiled in it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1667. At noon home to dinner, and then to the office, where all the afternoon expecting Mr. Gawden to come for some money I am to pay him, but he comes not, which makes me think he is considering whether it be necessary to make the present he hath promised, it being possible this alteration in the Controller's duty may make my place in the Victualling unnecessary, so that I am a little troubled at it. Busy till late at night at the office, and Sir W. Batten (age 66) come to me, and tells me that there is newes upon the Exchange [Map] to-day, that my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) coach and the French Embassador's at Madrid, meeting and contending for the way, they shot my Lord's postilion and another man dead; and that we have killed 25 of theirs, and that my Lord is well. How true this is I cannot tell, there being no newes of it at all at Court, as I am told late by one come thence, so that I hope it is not so.