Biography of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670

Paternal Family Tree: Monck

1660 Rump Parliament

1660 Declaration of Breda

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1663 Treaty of Newport

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Holme's Bonfire

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Raid on the Medway

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

In 1604 [his father] Thomas Monck (age 33) and [his mother] Elizabeth Smith were married. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward IV of England.

On 06 Dec 1608 George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle was born to Thomas Monck (age 38) and Elizabeth Smith at Potheridge Merton Great Torrington, Devon. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward IV of England.

In 1627 [his father] Thomas Monck (age 56) died.

On 23 Jan 1653 George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 44) and Anne Clarges Duchess Albermarle (age 33) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward IV of England.

On 14 Aug 1653 [his son] Christopher Monck 2nd Duke Albemarle was born to George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 44) and [his wife] Anne Clarges Duchess Albermarle (age 34) seven months after his parents were married.

In 1660 George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51) was appointed 459th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1660. The new Common Council of the City do speak very high; and had sent to Monk (age 51) their sword-bearer, to acquaint him with their desires for a free and full Parliament, which is at present the desires, and the hopes, and expectation of all. Twenty-two of the old secluded members having been at the House-door the last week to demand entrance, but it was denied them; and it is believed that they nor the people will be satisfied till the House be filled.

Rump Parliament

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1660. My wife (age 19) … gave me hopes of her being with child, but on the last day of the year … [the hope was belied.] The condition of the State was thus; viz. the Rump, after being disturbed by my Lord Lambert (age 40), was lately returned to sit again. The officers of the Army all forced to yield. Lawson (age 45) lies still in the river, and Monk (age 51) is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert (age 40) is not yet come into the Parliament, nor is it expected that he will without being forced to it.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Feb 1660. A signal day. Monk (age 51), perceiving how infamous and wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped the supreme power, and having intelligence that they intended to take away his commission, repenting of what he had done to the city, and where he and his forces were quartered, marches to Whitehall [Map], dissipates that nest of robbers, and convenes the old Parliament, the Rump Parliament (so called as retaining some few rotten members of the other) being dissolved; and for joy whereof were many thousands of rumps roasted publicly in the streets at the bonfires this night, with ringing of bells, and universal jubilee. This was the first good omen.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1660. Then I went home, and after writing a letter to my Lord and told him the news that the Parliament hath this night voted that the members that were discharged from sitting in the years 1648 and 49, were duly discharged; and that there should be writs issued presently for the calling of others in their places, and that Monk (age 51) and Fairfax (age 47) were commanded up to town, and that the Prince's (age 40) lodgings were to be provided for Monk (age 51) at Whitehall [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1660. Monday. For these two or three days I have been much troubled with thoughts how to get money to pay them that I have borrowed money of, by reason of my money being in my uncle's hands. I rose early this morning, and looked over and corrected my brother John's (age 19) speech, which he is to make the next apposition,-[Note. Declamations at St. Paul's School, in which there were opponents and respondents.]-and after that I went towards my office, and in my way met with W. Simons, Muddiman, and Jack Price, and went with them to Harper's and in many sorts of talk I staid till two of the clock in the afternoon. I found Muddiman a good scholar, an arch rogue; and owns that though he writes new books for the Parliament, yet he did declare that he did it only to get money; and did talk very basely of many of them. Among other things, W. Simons told me how his uncle Scobel was on Saturday last called to the bar, for entering in the journal of the House, for the year 1653, these words: "This day his Excellence the Lord General Cromwell dissolved this House;" which words the Parliament voted a forgery, and demanded of him how they came to be entered. He answered that they were his own handwriting, and that he did it by virtue of his office, and the practice of his predecessor; and that the intent of the practice was to-let posterity know how such and such a Parliament was dissolved, whether by the command of the King, or by their own neglect, as the last House of Lords was; and that to this end, he had said and writ that it was dissolved by his Excellence the Lord G[eneral]; and that for the word dissolved, he never at the time did hear of any other term; and desired pardon if he would not dare to make a word himself when it was six years after, before they came themselves to call it an interruption; but they were so little satisfied with this answer, that they did chuse a committee to report to the House, whether this crime of Mr. Scobell's did come within the act of indemnity or no. Thence I went with Muddiman to the Coffee-House, and gave 18d. to be entered of the Club. Thence into the Hall, where I heard for certain that Monk (age 51) was coming to London, and that Bradshaw's lodgings were preparing for him. Thence to Mrs. Jem's, and found her in bed, and she was afraid that it would prove the smallpox. Thence back to Westminster Hall [Map], where I heard how Sir H. Vane (age 46) was this day voted out of the House, and to sit no more there; and that he would retire himself to his house at Raby [Map], as also all the rest of the nine officers that had their commissions formerly taken away from them, were commanded to their farthest houses from London during the pleasure of the Parliament. Here I met with the Quarter Master of my Lord's (age 34) troop, and his clerk Mr. Jenings, and took them home, and gave them a bottle of wine, and the remainder of my collar of brawn; and so good night. After that came in Mr. Hawly, who told me that I was mist this day at my office, and that to-morrow I must pay all the money that I have, at which I was put to a great loss how I should get money to make up my cash, and so went to bed in great trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1660. Friday. Coming in the morning to my office, I met with Mr. Fage and took him to the Swan [Map]. He told me how high Haselrigge (age 59), and Morly (age 43), the last night began at my Lord Mayor's (age 27) to exclaim against the City of London, saying that they had forfeited their charter. And how the Chamberlain of the City did take them down, letting them know how much they were formerly beholding to the City, &c. He also told me that Monk's (age 51) letter that came to them by the sword-bearer was a cunning piece, and that which they did not much trust to; but they were resolved to make no more applications to the Parliament, nor to pay any money, unless the secluded members be brought in, or a free Parliament chosen. Thence to my office, where nothing to do. So to Will's with Mr. Pinkney, who invited me to their feast at his Hall the next Monday. Thence I went home and took my wife and dined at Mr. Wades, and after that we went and visited Catan. From thence home again, and my wife was very unwilling to let me go forth, but with some discontent would go out if I did, and I going forth towards Whitehall, I saw she followed me, and so I staid and took her round through Whitehall, and so carried her home angry. Thence I went to Mrs. Jem, and found her up and merry, and that it did not prove the smallpox, but only the swine-pox; so I played a game or two at cards with her. And so to Mr. Vines, where he and I and Mr. Hudson played half-a-dozen things, there being there Dick's wife and her sister. After that I went home and found my wife gone abroad to Mr. Hunt's, and came in a little after me.-So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jan 1660. After that we all went to my Lord's (age 34), whither came afterwards Mr. Harrison, and by chance seeing Mr. Butler coming by I called him in and so we sat drinking a bottle of wine till night. At which time Mistress Ann [Note. Probably Anne Montagu, daughter of Sir Edward Montagu, and sister to Mrs. Jem] came with the key of my Lord's study for some things, and so we all broke up and after I had gone to my house and interpreted my Lord's (age 34) letter by his character [Note. The making of ciphers was a popular amusement about this time. Pepys made several for Montagu, Downing, and others.] I came to her again and went with her to her lodging and from thence to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I advised with him what to do about my Lord's (age 34) lodgings and what answer to give to Sir Ant. Cooper (age 38) and so I came home and to bed. All the world is at a loss to think what Monk (age 51) will do: the City saying that he will be for them, and the Parliament saying he will be for them.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1660. Thence to Mr. Sheply's and took him to my house and drank with him in order to his going to-morrow. So parted and I sat up late making up my accounts before he go. This day three citizens of London went to meet Monk (age 51) from the Common Council1!

Note 1. Jan. 20th. Then there went out of the City, by desire of the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, Alderman Fowke and Alderman Vincett, alias Vincent, and Mr. Broomfield, to compliment General Monk (age 51), who lay at Harborough Town, in Leicestershire.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1660. Jan. 21st. Because the Speaker was sick, and Lord General Monk (age 51) so near London, and everybody thought that the City would suffer for their affronts to the soldiery, and because they had sent the sword-bearer to, the General without the Parliament's consent, and the three Aldermen were gone to give him the welcome to town, these four lines were in almost everybody's mouth:

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1660 Saturday. Up early in finishing my accounts and writing to my Lord and from thence to my Lord's (age 34) and took leave of Mr. Sheply and possession of all the keys and the house. Thence to my office for some money to pay Mr. Sheply and sent it him by the old man. I then went to Mr Downing (age 35) who chid me because I did not give him notice of some of his guests failed him but I told him that I sent our porter to tell him and he was not within, but he told me that he was within till past twelve o'clock. So the porter or he lied. Thence to my office where nothing to do. Then with Mr. Hawly, he and I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and dined there. Thence into London, to Mr. Vernon's and I received my £25 due by bill for my troopers' pay. Then back again to Steadman's. At the Mitre, in Fleet street, in our way calling on Mr. Fage, who told me how the City have some hopes of Monk (age 51). Thence to the Mitre [Map], where I drank a pint of wine, the house being in fitting for Banister (age 30) to come hither from Paget's. Thence to Mrs. Jem and gave her £5. So home and left my money and to Whitehall where Luellin and I drank and talked together an hour at Marsh's and so up to the clerks' room, where poor Mr. Cook, a black man, that is like to be put out of his clerk's place, came and railed at me for endeavouring to put him out and get myself in, when I was already in a good condition. But I satisfied him and after I had wrote a letter there to my Lord, wherein I gave him an account how this day Lenthall (age 68) took his chair again, and [the House] resolved a declaration to be brought in on Monday next to satisfy the world what they intend to do. So home and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1660. I went this afternoon to visit Colonel Morley (age 43). After dinner I discoursed with him; but he was very jealous, and would not believe that Monk (age 51) came in to do the King (age 29) any service; I told him that he might do it without him, and have all the honor. He was still doubtful, and would resolve on nothing yet, so I took leave.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1660. The news this day is a letter that speaks absolutely Monk's (age 51) concurrence with this Parliament, and nothing else, which yet I hardly believe.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1660. Monday. This morning, before I was up, I fell a-singing of my song, "Great, good, and just", &c.1 and put myself thereby in mind that this was the fatal day, now ten years since, his Majesty died. Scull the waterman came and brought me a note from the Hope from Mr. Hawly with direction, about his money, he tarrying there till his master be gone. To my office, where I received money of the excise of Mr. Ruddyer, and after we had done went to Will's and staid there till 3 o'clock and then I taking my £12 10s. 0d. due to me for my last quarter's salary, I went with them by water to London to the house where Signr. Torriano used to be and staid there a while with Mr. Ashwell, Spicer and Ruddier. Then I went and paid £12 17s. 6d. due from me to Captn. Dick Matthews according to his direction the last week in a letter. After that I came back by water playing on my flageolette and not finding my wife come home again from her father's I went and sat awhile and played at cards with Mrs. Jam, whose maid had newly got an ague and was ill thereupon. So homewards again, having great need to do my business, and so pretending to meet Mr. Shott the wood monger of Whitehall I went and eased myself at the Harp and Ball, and thence home where I sat writing till bed-time and so to bed. There seems now to be a general cease of talk, it being taken for granted that Monk (age 51) do resolve to stand to the Parliament, and nothing else. Spent a little time this night in knocking up nails for my hat and cloaks in my chamber.

Note 1. This is the beginning of the Marquis of Montrose's verses on the execution of Charles I which Pepys had set to music: ...

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1660. Here I met and afterwards bought the answer to General Monk's (age 51) letter, which is a very good one, and I keep it by me.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1660. Wednesday. In the morning went to my office where afterwards the old man brought me my letters from the carrier. At noon I went home and dined with my wife on pease porridge and nothing else. After that I went to the Hall [Map] and there met with Mr. Swan and went with him to Mr Downing's (age 35) Counsellor, who did put me in very little hopes about the business between Mr Downing (age 35) and Squib, and told me that Squib would carry it against him, at which I was much troubled, and with him went to Lincoln's Inn and there spoke with his attorney, who told me the day that was appointed for the trial. From thence I went to Sir Harry Wright's (age 23) and got him to give me his hand for the £60 which I am to-morrow to receive from Mr. Calthrop (age 36) and from thence to Mrs. Jem and spoke with Madam Scott and her husband who did promise to have the thing for her neck done this week. Thence home and took Gammer East, and James the porter, a soldier, to my Lord's lodgings, who told me how they were drawn into the field to-day, and that they were ordered to march away to-morrow to make room for General Monk (age 51); but they did shut their Colonel Fitch, and the rest of the officers out of the field, and swore they would not go without their money, and if they would not give it them, they would go where they might have it, and that was the City. So the Colonel went to the Parliament, and commanded what money could be got, to be got against to-morrow for them, and all the rest of the soldiers in town, who in all places made a mutiny this day, and do agree together. Here I took some bedding to send to Mrs. Ann for her to lie in now she hath her fits of the ague. Thence I went to Will's and staid like a fool there and played at cards till 9 o'clock and so came home, where I found Mr. Hunt's and his wife who staid and sat with me till 10 and so good night.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Feb 1660. Kept the Fast. General Monk (age 51) came now to London out of Scotland; but no man knew what he would do or declare; yet he was met on his way by the gentlemen of all the counties which he passed with petitions that he would recall the old long-interrupted Parliament, and settle the nation in some order, being at this time in most prodigious confusion, and under no government, everybody expecting what would be next and what he would do.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1660. Friday. Drank my morning draft at Harper's, and was told there that the soldiers were all quiet upon promise of pay. Thence to St James' Park [Map], and walked there to my place for my flageolet and then played a little, it being a most pleasant morning and sunshine. Back to Whitehall, where in the guard-chamber I saw about thirty or forty 'prentices of the City, who were taken at twelve o'clock last night and brought prisoners hither. Thence to my office, where I paid a little more money to some of the soldiers under Lieut.-Col. Miller (who held out the Tower against the Parliament after it was taken away from Fitch by the Committee of Safety, and yet he continued in his office). About noon Mrs. Turner (age 37) came to speak with me, and Joyce, and I took them and shewed them the manner of the Houses sitting, the doorkeeper very civilly opening the door for us. Thence with my cozen Roger Pepys (age 42), it being term time, we took him out of the Hall to Priors, the Rhenish wine-house, and there had a pint or two of wine and a dish of anchovies, and bespoke three or four dozen bottles of wine for him against his wedding. After this done he went away, and left me order to call and pay for all that Mrs. Turner (age 37) would have. So we called for nothing more there, but went and bespoke a shoulder of mutton at Wilkinson's to be roasted as well as it could be done, and sent a bottle of wine home to my house. In the meantime she and I and Joyce went walking all over White Hall, whither General Monk (age 51) was newly come, and we saw all his forces march by in very good plight and stout officers. Thence to my house where we dined, but with a great deal of patience, for the Mutton came in raw, and so we were fain to stay the stewing of it. In the meantime we sat studying a Posy for a ring for her which she is to have at Roger Pepys's (age 42) his wedding. After dinner I left them and went to hear news, but only found that the Parliament House was most of them with Monk (age 51) at White Hall, and that in his passing through the town he had many calls to him for a free Parliament, but little other welcome. I saw in the Palace Yard [Map] how unwilling some of the old soldiers were yet to go out of town without their money, and swore if they had it not in three days, as they were promised, they would do them more mischief in the country than if they had staid here; and that is very likely, the country being all discontented. The town and guards are already full of Monk's (age 51) soldiers. I returned, and it growing dark I and they went to take a turn in the park, where Theoph (age 8) (who was sent for to us to dinner) outran my wife and another poor woman, that laid a pot of ale with me that she would outrun her. After that I set them as far as Charing Cross [Map], and there left them and my wife, and I went to see Mrs. Ann, who began very high about a flock bed I sent her, but I took her down. Here I played at cards till 9 o'clock. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1660. Monday. Before I went to my office I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and paid Mr. Andrews the same £60 that he had received of Mr. Calthrop (age 36) the last week. So back to Westminster and walked with him thither, where we found the soldiers all set in the Palace Yard [Map], to make way for General Monk (age 51) to come to the House. At the Hall we parted, and meeting Swan he and I to the Swan [Map] and drank our morning draft. So back again to the Hall, where I stood upon the steps and saw Monk (age 51) go by, he making observance to the judges as he went along. At noon my father (age 59) dined with me upon my turkey that was brought from Denmark, and after dinner he and I to the Bull Head Tavern [Map], where we drank half a pint of wine and so parted. I to Mrs. Ann, and Mrs. Jem being gone out of the chamber she and I had a very high bout, I rattled her up, she being in her bed, but she becoming more cool, we parted pretty good friends. Thence I went to Will's, where I staid at cards till 10 o'clock, losing half a crown, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1660. So after drinking with Mr. Spicer, who had received £600 for me this morning, I went to Capt. Stone and with him by coach to the Temple Gardens (all the way talking of the disease of the stone), where we met Mr. Squib, but would do nothing till to-morrow morning. Thence back on foot home, where I found a letter from my Lord in character [Note. Private cryptic code. Ed.], which I construed, and after my wife had shewn me some ribbon and shoes that she had taken out of a box of Mr. Montagu's which formerly Mr. Kipps had left here when his master was at sea, I went to Mr. Crew (age 62) and advised with him about it, it being concerning my Lord's (age 34) coming up to Town, which he desires upon my advice the last week in my letter. Thence calling upon Mrs. Ann I went home, and wrote in character to my Lord in answer to his letter. This day Mr. Crew's (age 62) told me that my Lord St. John (age 61) is for a free Parliament, and that he is very great with Monk (age 51), who hath now the absolute command and power to do any thing that he hath a mind to do. Mr. Moore told me of a picture hung up at the Exchange of a great pair of buttocks shooting of a turd into Lawson's mouth, and over it was wrote "The thanks of the house". Boys do now cry "Kiss my Parliament, instead of Kiss my [rump]", so great and general a contempt is the Rump come to among all the good and bad.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1660. Tuesday. In the morning I went early to give Mr. Hawly notice of my being forced to go into London, but he having also business we left our office business to Mr. Spicer and he and I walked as far as the Temple [Map], where I halted a little and then went to Paul's School, but it being too soon, went and drank my morning draft with my cozen Tom Pepys the turner, and saw his house and shop, thence to school, where he that made the speech for the seventh form in praise of the founder, did show a book which Mr. Crumlum (age 42) had lately got, which is believed to be of the Founder's own writing. After all the speeches, in which my brother John (age 19) came off as well as any of the rest, I went straight home and dined, then to the Hall, where in the Palace I saw Monk's (age 51) soldiers abuse Billing (age 37) and all the Quakers, that were at a meeting-place there, and indeed the soldiers did use them very roughly and were to blame.1.

Note 1. "Fox (age 35), or some other 'weighty' friend, on hearing of this, complained to Monk (age 51), who issued the following order, dated March 9th: 'I do require all officers and soldiers to forbear to disturb peaceable meetings of the Quakers, they doing nothing prejudicial to the Parliament or the Commonwealth of England. George Monk (age 51).' This order, we are told, had an excellent effect on the soldiers".-A. C. Bickley's 'George Fox and the Early Quakers, London, 1884, p. 179. The Quakers were at this time just coming into notice. The first preaching of George Fox (age 35), the founder, was in 1648, and in 1655 the preachers of the sect numbered seventy-three. Fox computed that there were seldom less than a thousand quakers in prison. The statute 13 and 14 Car. II cap. i. (1662) was "An act for preventing the mischiefs and dangers that may arise by certain persons called quakers and others, refusing to take lawful oaths". Billing (age 37) is mentioned again on July 22nd, 1667, when he addressed Pepys in Westminster Hall.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Feb 1660. Thursday. Soon as out of my bed I wrote letters into the country to go by carrier to-day. Before I was out of my bed, I heard the soldiers very busy in the morning, getting their horses ready where they lay at Hilton's, but I knew not then their meaning in so doing: After I had wrote my letters I went to Westminster up and down the Hall, and with Mr. Swan walked a good [deal] talking about Mr Downing's (age 35) business. I went with him to Mr. Phelps's house where he had some business to solicit, where we met Mr. Rogers my neighbour, who did solicit against him and talked very high, saying that he would not for a £1000 appear in a business that Swan [Map] did, at which Swan was very angry, but I believe he might be guilty enough. In the Hall I understand how Monk (age 51) is this morning gone into London with his army; and met with Mr. Fage, who told me that he do believe that Monk (age 51) is gone to secure some of the Common-council of the City, who were very high yesterday there, and did vote that they would not pay any taxes till the House was filled up. I went to my office, where I wrote to my Lord after I had been at the Upper Bench, where Sir Robert Pye (age 75)1 this morning came to desire his discharge from the Tower; but it could not be granted. After that I went to Mrs. Jem, who I had promised to go along with to her Aunt Wright's, but she was gone, so I went thither, and after drinking a glass of sack I went back to Westminster Hall, and meeting with Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who would needs take me home, where Mr. Lucy, Burrell, and others dined, and after dinner I went home and to Westminster Hall, where meeting Swan [Map] I went with him by water to the Temple [Map] to our Counsel, and did give him a fee to make a motion to-morrow in the Exchequer for Mr Downing (age 35). Thence to Westminster Hall, where I heard an action very finely pleaded between my Lord Dorset (age 37) and some other noble persons, his lady (age 38) and other ladies of quality being here, and it was about; £330 per annum, that was to be paid to a poor Spittal, which was given by some of his predecessors; and given on his side. Thence Swan [Map] and I to a drinking-house near Temple Bar, where while he wrote I played on my flageolet till a dish of poached eggs was got ready for us, which we eat, and so by coach home. I called at Mr. Harper's, who told me how Monk (age 51) had this day clapt up many of the Common-council, and that the Parliament had voted that he should pull down their gates and portcullisses, their posts and their chains, which he do intend to do, and do lie in the City all night. I went home and got some ahlum to my mouth, where I have the beginnings of a cancer, and had also a plaster to my boil underneath my chin.

Note 1. Sir Robert Pye (age 75), the elder, was auditor of the Exchequer, and a staunch Royalist. He garrisoned his house at Faringdon, which was besieged by his son (age 40), of the same names, a decided Republican, son-in-law to Hampden, and colonel of horse under Fairfax (age 48). The son, here spoken of, was subsequently committed to the Tower for presenting a petition to the House of Commons from the county of Berks, which he represented in Parliament, complaining of the want of a settled form of government. He had, however, the courage to move for an habeas corpus, but judge Newdigate decided that the courts of law had not the power to discharge him. Upon Monk's (age 51) coming to London, the secluded members passed a vote to liberate Pye, and at the Restoration he was appointed equerry to the King (age 29). He died in 1701. B.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1660. Thence I went home, vexed about this business, and there I found Mr. Moore, and with him went into London to Mr. Fage about the cancer in my mouth, which begins to grow dangerous, who gave me something for it, and also told me what Monk (age 51) had done in the City, how he had pulled down the most part of the gates and chains that they could break down, and that he was now gone back to White Hall. The City look mighty blank, and cannot tell what in the world to do; the Parliament having this day ordered that the Common-council sit no more; but that new ones be chosen according to what qualifications they shall give them.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1660. Now were the gates of the city broken down by General Monk (age 51); which exceedingly exasperated the city, the soldiers marching up and down as triumphing over it, and all the old army of the fanatics put out of their posts and sent out of town.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Feb 1660. During this sickness came divers of my relations and friends to visit me, and it retarded my going into the country longer than I intended; however, I wrote and printed a letter in defense of his Majesty (age 29), against a wicked forged paper, pretended to be sent from Brussels to defame his Majesty's (age 29) person and virtues and render him odious, now when everybody was in hope and expectation of the General (age 51) and Parliament recalling him, and establishing the Government on its ancient and right basis. The doing this toward the decline of my sickness, and sitting up long in my bed, had caused a small relapse, out of which it yet pleased God also to free me, so as by the 14th I was able to go into the country, which I did to my sweet and native air at Wotton, Surrey [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 11 Feb 1660. Saturday. This morning I lay long abed, and then to my office, where I read all the morning my Spanish book of Rome. At noon I walked in the Hall, where I heard the news of a letter from Monk (age 51), who was now gone into the City again, and did resolve to stand for the sudden filling up of the House, and it was very strange how the countenance of men in the Hall was all changed with joy in half an hour's time. So I went up to the lobby, where I saw the Speaker (age 68) reading of the letter; and after it was read, Sir A. Haselrigge (age 59) came out very angry, and Billing (age 37) standing at the door, took him by the arm, and cried, "Thou man, will thy beast carry thee no longer? thou must fall!" The House presently after rose, and appointed to meet again at three o'clock. I went then down into the Hall, where I met with Mr. Chetwind, who had not dined no more than myself, and so we went toward London, in our way calling at two or three shops, but could have no dinner. At last, within Temple Bar, we found a pullet ready roasted, and there we dined. After that he went to his office in Chancery Lane [Map], calling at the Rolls, where I saw the lawyers pleading. Then to his office, where I sat in his study singing, while he was with his man (Mr. Powell's son) looking after his business. Thence we took coach for the City to Guildhall, where the Hall was full of people expecting Monk (age 51) and Lord Mayor (age 27) to come thither, and all very joyfull. Here we stayed a great while, and at last meeting with a friend of his we went to the 3 Tun tavern and drank half a pint of wine, and not liking the wine we went to an alehouse, where we met with company of this third man's acquaintance, and there we drank a little. Hence I went alone to Guildhall to see whether Monk (age 51) was come again or no, and met with him coming out of the chamber where he had been with the Mayor and Aldermen, but such a shout I never heard in all my life, crying out, "God bless your Excellence". Here I met with Mr. Lock, and took him to an alehouse, and left him there to fetch Chetwind; when we were come together, Lock told us the substance of the letter that went from Monk (age 51) to the Parliament; wherein, after complaints that he and his officers were put upon such offices against the City as they could not do with any content or honour, that there are many members now in the House that were of the late tyrannical Committee of Safety. That Lambert (age 40) and Vane (age 46) are now in town, contrary to the vote of Parliament. That there were many in the House that do press for new oaths to be put upon men; whereas we have more cause to be sorry for the many oaths that we have already taken and broken. That the late petition of the fanatique people presented by Barebone (age 62), for the imposing of an oath upon all sorts of people, was received by the House with thanks. That therefore he do desire that all writs for filling up of the House be issued by Friday next, and that in the mean time, he would retire into the City and only leave them guards for the security of the House and Council. The occasion of this was the order that he had last night to go into the City and disarm them, and take away their charter; whereby he and his officers say that the House had a mind to put them upon things that should make them odious; and so it would be in their power to do what they would with them. He told us that they [the Parliament] had sent Scott and Robinson to him this afternoon, but he would not hear them. And that the Mayor and Aldermen had offered him their own houses for himself and his officers; and that his soldiers would lack for nothing. And indeed I saw many people give the soldiers drink and money, and all along in the streets cried, "God bless them!" and extraordinary good words. Hence we went to a merchant's house hard by, where Lock wrote a note and left, where I saw Sir Nich. Crisp (age 61), and so we went to the Star Tavern (Monk (age 51) being then at Benson's), where we dined and I wrote a letter to my Lord from thence. In Cheapside there was a great many bonfires, and Bow bells and all the bells in all the churches as we went home were a-ringing. Hence we went homewards, it being about ten o'clock. But the common joy that was every where to be seen! The number of bonfires, there being fourteen between St. Dunstan's [Map] and Temple Bar, and at Strand Bridge' I could at one view tell thirty-one fires. In King-street seven or eight; and all along burning, and roasting, and drinking for rumps. There being rumps tied upon sticks and carried up and down. The butchers at the May Pole in the Strand [Map] rang a peal with their knives when they were going to sacrifice their rump. On Ludgate Hill [Map] there was one turning of the spit that had a rump tied upon it, and another basting of it. Indeed it was past imagination, both the greatness and the suddenness of it. At one end of the street you would think there was a whole lane of fire, and so hot that we were fain to keep still on the further side merely for heat. We came to the Chequers at Charing Cross, where Chetwind wrote a letter and I gave him an account of what I had wrote for him to write. Thence home and sent my letters to the posthouse in London, and my wife and I (after Mr. Hunt was gone, whom I found waiting at my house) went out again to show her the fires, and after walking as far as the Exchange we returned and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1660. Sunday. In the morning, it being Lord's day, Mr. Pierce came to me to enquire how things go. We drank our morning draft together and thence to White Hall, where Dr. Hones preached; but I staid not to hear, but walking in the court, I heard that Sir Arth. Haselrigge (age 59) was newly gone into the City to Monk (age 51), and that Monk's (age 51) [his wife] wife (age 40) removed from White Hall last night. Home again, where at noon came according to my invitation my cos. Thos. Pepys (age 49) and his partner and dined with me, but before dinner we went and took a walk round the park, it being a most pleasant day as ever I saw. After dinner we three went into London together, where I heard that Monk (age 51) had been at Paul's in the morning, and the people had shouted much at his coming out of the church.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1660. Monday. To my office till noon, thence home to dinner, my mouth being very bad of the cancer and my left leg beginning to be sore again. After dinner to see Mrs. Jem, and in the way met with Catan on foot in the street and talked with her a little, so home and took my wife to my father's (age 59). In my way I went to Playford's (age 37), and for two books that I had and 6s. 6d. to boot I had my great book of songs which he sells always for 4s. At my father's (age 59) I staid a while, while my mother sent her maid Bess to Cheapside for some herbs to make a water for my mouth. Then I went to see Mr. Cumberland (age 28), and after a little stay with him I returned, and took my wife home, where after supper to bed. This day Monk (age 51) was invited to White Hall to dinner by my Lords; not seeming willing, he would not come. I went to Mr. Fage from my father's (age 59), who had been this afternoon with Monk (age 51), who do promise to live and die with the City, and for the honour of the City; and indeed the City is very open-handed to the soldiers, that they are most of them drunk all day, and have money given them. He did give me something for my mouth which I did use this night.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1660. To Westminster Hall, there being many new remonstrances and declarations from many counties to Monk (age 51) and the City, and one coming from the North from Sir Thomas Fairfax (age 48). Hence I took him to the Swan [Map] and gave him his morning draft. So to my office, where Mr. Hill of Worcestershire came to see me and my partner in our office, with whom we went to Will's to drink.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1660. Wednesday. Called up in the morning by Captain Holland and Captain Cuttance, and with them to Harper's, thence to my office, thence with Mr. Hill of Worcestershire to Will's, where I gave him a letter to Nan Pepys, and some merry pamphlets against the Rump to carry to her into the country. So to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where the dining room being full, Mr. Walgrave [Note. Believed to be a son of John Crew 1st Baron Crew (age 62) and Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew (age 58) although there is no record of such person] and I dined below in the buttery by ourselves upon a good dish of buttered Salmon. Thence to Hering' the merchant about my Lord's (age 34) Worcester money and back to Paul's Churchyard, where I staid reading in Fuller's (age 51) History of the Church of England an hour or two, and so to my father's (age 59), where Mr. Hill came to me and I gave him direction what to do at Worcester about the money. Thence to my Lady Wright's and gave her a letter from my Lord privily. So to Mrs. Jem and sat with her, who dined at Mr. Crew's (age 62) to-day, and told me that there was at her coming away at least forty gentlemen (I suppose members that were secluded, for Mr. Walgrave told me that there were about thirty met there the last night) came dropping in one after another thither. Thence home and wrote into the country against to-morrow by the carrier and so to bed. At my father's (age 59) I heard how my cousin Kate Joyce had a fall yesterday from her horse and had some hurt thereby. No news to-day, but all quiet to see what the Parliament will do about the issuing of the writs to-morrow for filling up of the House, according to Monk's (age 51) desire.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1660. Friday. In the morning Tom that was my Lord's footboy came to see me and had 10s. of me of the money which I have to keep of his. So that now I have but 35s. more of his. Then came Mr. Hills the instrument maker, and I consulted with him about the altering my lute and my viall. After that I went into my study and did up my accounts, and found that I am about; £40 beforehand in the world, and that is all. So to my office and from thence brought Mr. Hawly home with me to dinner, and after dinner wrote a letter to Mr Downing (age 35) about his business and gave it Hawly, and so went to Mr. Gunning's (age 46) to his weekly fast, and after sermon, meeting there with Monsieur L'Impertinent, we went and walked in the park till it was dark. I played on my pipe at the Echo, and then drank a cup of ale at Jacob's. So to Westminster Hall [Map], and he with me, where I heard that some of the members of the House were gone to meet with some of the secluded members and General Monk (age 51) in the City. Hence we went to White Hall, thinking to hear more news, where I met with Mr. Hunt, who told me how Monk (age 51) had sent for all his goods that he had here into the City; and yet again he told me, that some of the members of the House had this day laid in firing into their lodgings at White Hall for a good while, so that we are at a great stand to think what will become of things, whether Monk (age 51) will stand to the Parliament or no. Hence Mons L'Impertinent and I to Harper's, and there drank a cup or two to the King (age 29), and to his fair sister Frances good health, of whom we had much discourse of her not being much the worse for the smallpox, which she had this last summer.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1660. Sunday. Lord's day. Early in the morning I set my books that I brought home yesterday up in order in my study. Thence forth to Mr. Harper's to drink a draft of purle, [Note. Purl is hot beer flavoured with wormwood or other aromatic herbs. The name is also given to hot beer flavoured with gin, sugar, and ginger.] whither by appointment Monsieur L'Impertinent, who did intend too upon my desire to go along with me to St. Bartholomew's, to hear one Mr. Sparks, but it raining very hard we went to Mr. Gunning's (age 46) and heard an excellent sermon, and speaking of the character that the Scripture gives of Ann the mother of the blessed Virgin, he did there speak largely in commendation of widowhood, and not as we do to marry two or three wives or husbands, one after another. Here I met with Mr. Moore, and went home with him to dinner, where he told me the discourse that happened between the secluded members and the members of the House, before Monk (age 51) last Friday. How the secluded said, that they did not intend by coming in to express revenge upon these men, but only to meet and dissolve themselves, and only to issue writs for a free Parliament. He told me how Haselrigge (age 59) was afraid to have the candle carried before him, for fear that the people seeing him, would do him hurt; and that he is afraid to appear in the City. That there is great likelihood that the secluded members will come in, and so Mr. Crew (age 62) and my Lord are likely to be great men, at which I was very glad. After diner there was many secluded members come in to Mr. Crew (age 62), which, it being the Lord's day, did make Mr. Moore believe that there was something extraordinary in the business.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1660. Monday. In the morning at my lute. Then to my office, where my partner and I made even our balance. Took him home to dinner with me, where my brother John (age 19) came to dine with me. After dinner I took him to my study at home and at my Lord's, and gave him some books and other things against his going to Cambridge. After he was gone I went forth to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Chetwind, Simons, and Gregory. And with them to Marsh's at Whitehall to drink, and staid there a pretty while reading a pamphlet1 well writ and directed to General Monk (age 51), in praise of the form of monarchy which was settled here before the wars. They told me how the Speaker Lenthall (age 68) do refuse to sign the writs for choice of new members in the place of the excluded; and by that means the writs could not go out to-day. In the evening Simons and I to the Coffee Club, where nothing to do only I heard Mr. Harrington (age 49), and my Lord of Dorset (age 37) and another Lord, talking of getting another place as the Cockpit [Map], and they did believe it would come to something. After a small debate upon the question whether learned or unlearned subjects are the best the Club broke up very poorly, and I do not think they will meet any more. Hence with Vines, &c. to Will's, and after a pot or two home, and so to bed.

Note 1. This pamphlet is among the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts (British Museum), and dated in MS. this same day, February 20th- "A Plea for Limited Monarchy as it was established in this Nation before the late War. In an Humble Address to his Excellency General Monck. By a Zealot for the good old Laws of his Country, before any Faction or Caprice, with additions". "An Eccho to the Plea for Limited Monarchy, &c"., was published soon afterwards.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1660. Tuesday. In the morning going out I saw many soldiers going towards Westminster, and was told that they were going to admit the secluded members again. So I to Westminster Hall [Map], and in Chancery Row I saw about twenty of them who had been at White Hall with General Monk (age 51), who came thither this morning, and made a speech to them, and recommended to them a Commonwealth, and against Charles Stuart. They came to the House and went in one after another, and at last the Speaker (age 68) came. But it is very strange that this could be carried so private, that the other members of the House heard nothing of all this, till they found them in the House, insomuch that the soldiers that stood there to let in the secluded members, they took for such as they had ordered to stand there to hinder their coming in. Mr. Prin (age 60) came with an old basket-hilt sword on, and had a great many great shouts upon his going into the Hall. They sat till noon, and at their coming out Mr. Crew (age 62) saw me, and bid me come to his house, which I did, and he would have me dine with him, which I did; and he very joyful told me that the House had made General Monk (age 51), General of all the Forces in England, Scotland, and Ireland; and that upon Monk's (age 51) desire, for the service that Lawson (age 45) had lately done in pulling down the Committee of Safety, he had the command of the Sea for the time being. He advised me to send for my Lord forthwith, and told me that there is no question that, if he will, he may now be employed again; and that the House do intend to do nothing more than to issue writs, and to settle a foundation for a free Parliament. After dinner I back to Westminster Hall with him in his coach. Here I met with Mr. Lock (age 39) and Pursell, Masters of Music, [Note. Henry Purcell, father of the celebrated composer, was gentleman of the Chapel Royal.] and with them to the Coffee House, into a room next the water, by ourselves, where we spent an hour or two till Captain Taylor (age 35) came to us, who told us, that the House had voted the gates of the City to be made up again, and the members of the City that are in prison to be set at liberty; and that Sir G. Booth's' (age 37) case be brought into the House to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1660. Tuesday. Up in the morning, and had some red herrings to our breakfast, while my boot-heel was a-mending, by the same token the boy left the hole as big as it was before. Then to horse, and for London through the forest, where we found the way good, but only in one path, which we kept as if we had rode through a canal all the way. We found the shops all shut, and the militia of the red regiment in arms at the Old Exchange, among whom I found and spoke to Nich. Osborne, who told me that it was a thanksgiving-day through the City for the return of the Parliament. At Paul's I light, Mr. Blayton holding my horse, where I found Dr. Reynolds' in the pulpit, and General Monk (age 51) there, who was to have a great entertainment at Grocers' Hall. So home, where my wife and all well. Shifted myself,-[Changed his dress.]-and so to Mr. Crew's (age 62), and then to Sir Harry Wright's (age 23), where I found my Lord at dinner, who called for me in, and was glad to see me. There was at dinner also Mr. John Wright and his lady, a very pretty lady, Alderman Allen's (age 27) daughter. I dined here with Will. Howe, and after dinner went out with him to buy a hat (calling in my way and saw my mother), which we did at the Plough in Fleet Street by my Lord's direction, but not as for him. Here we met with Mr. Pierce a little before, and he took us to the Greyhound Tavern, and gave us a pint of wine, and as the rest of the seamen do, talked very high again of my Lord. After we had done about the hat we went homewards, he to Mr. Crew's (age 62) and I to Mrs. Jem, and sat with her a little. Then home, where I found Mr. Sheply, almost drunk, come to see me, afterwards Mr. Spong comes, with whom I went up and played with him a Duo or two, and so good night. I was indeed a little vexed with Mr. Sheply, but said nothing, about his breaking open of my study at my house, merely to give him the key of the stair door at my Lord's, which lock he might better have broke than mine.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1660. In the morning went to my Lord's lodgings, thinking to have spoke with Mr. Sheply, having not been to visit him since my coming to town. But he being not within I went up, and out of the box where my Lord's pamphlets lay, I chose as many as I had a mind to have for my own use and left the rest. Then to my office, where little to do, abut Mr. Sheply comes to me, so at dinner time he and I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62), whither Mr. Thomas was newly come to town, being sent with Sir H. Yelverton (age 26), a my old school-fellow at Paul's School, to bring the thanks of the county to General Monk (age 51) for the return of the Parliament. But old Mr. Crew (age 62) and my Lord not coming home to dinner, we tarried late before we went to dinner, it being the day that John, Mr. John Crew's coachman, was to be buried in the afternoon, he being a day or two before killed with a blow of one of his horses that struck his skull into his brain. From thence Mr. Sheply and I went into London to Mr. Laxton's; my Lord's apothecary, and so by water to Westminster, where at the Sun he and I spent two or three hours in a pint or two of wine, discoursing of matters in the country, among other things telling me that my uncle did to him make a very kind mention of me, and what he would do for me. Thence I went home, and went to bed betimes. This day the Parliament did vote that they would not sit longer than the 15th day of this month.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Mar 1660. This morning I went early to my Lord at Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I spoke to him. Here were a great many come to see him, as Secretary Thurlow (age 43) who is now by this Parliament chosen again Secretary of State. There were also General Monk's (age 51) trumpeters to give my Lord a sound of their trumpets this morning. Thence I went to my office, and wrote a letter to Mr Downing (age 35) about the business of his house. Then going home, I met with Mr. Eglin, Chetwind, and Thomas, who took me to the Leg in King's street, where we had two brave dishes of meat, one of fish, a carp and some other fishes, as well done as ever I ate any. After that to the Swan [Map] tavern, where we drank a quart or two of wine, and so parted. So I to Mrs. Jem and took Mr. Moore with me (who I met in the street), and there I met W. Howe and Sheply. After that to Westminster Hall [Map], where I saw Sir G. Booth (age 37) at liberty. This day I hear the City militia is put into good posture, and it is thought that Monk (age 51) will not be able to do any great matter against them now, if he have a mind. I understand that my Lord Lambert (age 40) did yesterday send a letter to the Council, and that to-night he is to come and appear to the Council in person. Sir Arthur Haselrigge (age 59) do not yet appear in the House. Great is the talk of a single person, and that it would now be Charles (age 29), George (age 51), or Richard (age 33)-For the last of which, my Lord St. John (age 61) is said to speak high. Great also is the dispute now in the House, in whose name the writs shall run for the next Parliament; and it is said that Mr. Prin (age 60), in open House, said, "In King Charles's". From Westminster Hall [Map] home. Spent the evening in my study, and so after some talk with my wife, then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1660. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I found that my Lord was last night voted one of the Generals at Sea, and Monk (age 51) the other. I met my Lord in the Hall, who bid me come to him at noon. I met with Mr. Pierce the purser, Lieut. Lambert (age 40), Mr. Creed, and Will. Howe, and went with them to the Swan [Map] tavern. Up to my office, but did nothing. At noon home to dinner to a sheep's head. My brother Tom (age 26) came and dined with me, and told me that my mother was not very well, and that my Aunt Fenner was very ill too. After dinner I to Warwick House, in Holborn, to my Lord, where he dined with my Lord of Manchester (age 58), Sir Dudley North (age 77), my Lord Fiennes (age 52), and my Lord Barkly. I staid in the great hall, talking with some gentlemen there, till they all come out. Then I, by coach with my Lord, to Mr. Crew's (age 62), in our way talking of publick things, and how I should look after getting of his Commissioner's despatch. He told me he feared there was new design hatching, as if Monk (age 51) had a mind to get into the saddle. Here I left him, and went by appointment to Hering, the merchant, but missed of my money, at which I was much troubled, but could not help myself. Returning, met Mr. Gifford, who took me and gave me half a pint of wine, and told me, as I hear this day from many, that things are in a very doubtful posture, some of the Parliament being willing to keep the power in their hands. After I had left him, I met with Tom Harper, who took me into a place in Drury Lane, where we drank a great deal of strong water, more than ever I did in my life at onetime before. He talked huge high that my Lord Protector (age 33) would come in place again, which indeed is much discoursed of again, though I do not see it possible. Hence home and wrote to my father at Brampton by the post. So to bed. This day I was told that my Lord General Fleetwood (age 42) told my lord that he feared the King of Sweden is dead of a fever at Gottenburg.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1660. This day I hear that the Lords do intend to sit, and great store of them are now in town, and I see in the Hall to-day. Overton at Hull do stand out, but can, it is thought, do nothing; and Lawson (age 45), it is said, is gone with some ships thither, but all that is nothing. My Lord told me, that there was great endeavours to bring in the Protector again; but he told me, too, that he did believe it would not last long if he were brought in; no, nor the King (age 29) neither (though he seems to think that he will come in), unless he carry himself very soberly and well. Every body now drinks the King's (age 29) health without any fear, whereas before it was very private that a man dare do it. Monk (age 51) this day is feasted at Mercers' Hall, and is invited one after another to all the twelve Halls in London! Many think that he is honest yet, and some or more think him to be a fool that would raise himself, but think that he will undo himself by endeavouring it. My mind, I must needs remember, has been very much eased and joyed at my Lord's great expressions of kindness this day, and in discourse thereupon my wife and I lay awake an hour or two in our bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1660. To Whitehall to bespeak some firing for my father at Short's, and likewise to speak to Mr. Blackburne about Batters being gunner in the "Wexford". Then to Westminster Hall [Map], where there was a general damp over men's minds and faces upon some of the Officers of the Army being about making a remonstrance against Charles Stuart (age 29) or any single person; but at noon it was told, that the General (age 51) had put a stop to it, so all was well again. Here I met with Jasper, who was to look for me to bring me to my Lord at the lobby; whither sending a note to my Lord, he comes out to me and gives me direction to look after getting some money for him from the Admiralty, seeing that things are so unsafe, that he would not lay out a farthing for the State, till he had received some money of theirs. Home about two o'clock, and took my wife by land to Paternoster Row [Map], to buy some Paragon for a petticoat and so home again. In my way meeting Mr. Moore, who went home with me while I ate a bit and so back to Whitehall again, both of us. He waited at the Council for Mr. Crew (age 62). I to the Admiralty, where I got the order for the money, and have taken care for the getting of it assigned upon Mr. Hutchinson, Treasurer for the Navy, against tomorrow. Hence going home I met with Mr. King that belonged to the Treasurers at War and took him to Harper's, who told me that he and the rest of his fellows are cast out of office by the new Treasurers. This afternoon, some of the Officers of the Army, and some of the Parliament, had a conference at White Hall to make all right again, but I know not what is done. This noon I met at the Dog tavern [Map] Captain Philip Holland, with whom I advised how to make some advantage of my Lord's going to sea, which he told me might be by having of five or six servants entered on board, and I to give them what wages I pleased, and so their pay to be mine; he was also very urgent to have me take the Secretary's place, that my Lord did proffer me.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1660. This day it was resolved that the writs do go out in the name of the Keepers of the Liberty, and I hear that it is resolved privately that a treaty be offered with the King (age 29). And that Monk (age 51) did check his soldiers highly for what they did yesterday.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1660. To my Lord, where infinity of applications to him and to me. To my great trouble, my Lord gives me all the papers that was given to him, to put in order and give him an account of them. Here I got half-a-piece of a person of Mr. Wright's recommending to my Lord to be Preacher of the Speaker frigate. I went hence to St. James's and Mr. Pierce the surgeon with me, to speak with Mr. Clerke (age 37), Monk's (age 51) secretary, about getting some soldiers removed out of Huntingdon to Oundle, which my Lord told me he did to do a courtesy to the town, that he might have the greater interest in them, in the choice of the next Parliament; not that he intends to be chosen himself, but that he might have Mr. G. Montagu (age 37) and my Lord Mandeville (age 25) chose there in spite of the Bernards. This done (where I saw General Monk (age 51) and methought he seemed a dull heavy man), he and I to Whitehall, where with Luellin we dined at Marsh's. Coming home telling my wife what we had to dinner, she had a mind to some cabbage, and I sent for some and she had it. Went to the Admiralty, where a strange thing how I am already courted by the people. This morning among others that came to me I hired a boy of Jenkins of Westminster and Burr to be my clerk. This night I went to Mr. Creed's chamber where he gave me the former book of the proceedings in the fleet and the Seal. Then to Harper's where old Beard was and I took him by coach to my Lord's, but he was not at home, but afterwards I found him out at Sir H. Wright's (age 23). Thence by coach, it raining hard, to Mrs. Jem, where I staid a while, and so home, and late in the night put up my things in a sea-chest that Mr. Sheply lent me, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1660. Note. Then the writing in golden letters, that was engraven under the statue of Charles I, in the Royal Exchange ('Exit tyrannus, Regum ultimus, anno libertatis Angliae, anno Domini 1648, Januarie xxx.) was washed out by a painter, who in the day time raised a ladder, and with a pot and brush washed the writing quite out, threw down his pot and brush and said it should never do him any more service, in regard that it had the honour to put out rebels' hand-writing. He then came down, took away his ladder, not a misword said to him, and by whose order it was done was not then known. The merchants were glad and joyful, many people were gathered together, and against the Exchange made a bonfire. "Rugge's Diurnal". In the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts at the British Museum is a pamphlet which is dated in MS. March 21st, 1659-60, where this act is said to be by order of Monk (age 51): "The Loyal Subjects Teares for the Sufferings and Absence of their Sovereign Charles II, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland; with an Observation upon the expunging of 'Exit Tyrannus, Regum ultimus', by order of General Monk (age 51), and some Advice to the Independents, Anabaptists, Phanatiques, &c. London, 1660".

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1660. Early to my Lord, where infinity of business to do, which makes my head full; and indeed, for these two or three days, I have not been without a great many cares and thoughts concerning them. After that to the Admiralty, where a good while with Mr. Blackburne, who told me that it was much to be feared that the King would come in, for all good men and good things were now discouraged. Thence to Wilkinson's, where Mr. Sheply and I dined; and while we were at dinner, my Lord Monk's (age 51) lifeguard come by with the Serjeant at Arms before them, with two Proclamations, that all Cavaliers do depart the town; but the other that all officers that were lately disbanded should do the same. The last of which Mr. R. Creed, I remember, said, that he looked upon it as if they had said, that all God's people should depart the town. Thence with some sea officers to the Swan [Map], where we drank wine till one comes to me to pay me some money from Worcester, viz., £25. His name is Wilday. I sat in another room and took my money and drank with him till the rest of my company were gone and so we parted. Going home the water was high, and so I got Crockford to carry me over it. So home, and left my money there. All the discourse now-a-day is, that the King will come again; and for all I see, it is the wishes of all; and all do believe that it will be so. My mind is still much troubled for my poor wife, but I hope that this undertaking will be worth my pains. To Whitehall and staid about business at the Admiralty late, then to Tony Robins's, where Capt. Stokes, Mr. Luddington and others were, and I did solicit the Captain for Laud Crisp, who gave me a promise that he would entertain him. After that to Mrs. Crisp's where Dr. Clodius and his wife were. He very merry with drink. We played at cards late and so to bed. This day my Lord dined at my Lord Mayor's [Allen], and Jasper was made drunk, which my Lord was very angry at.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1660. We lie still a little below Gravesend, Kent [Map]. At night Mr. Sheply returned from London, and told us of several elections for the next Parliament. That the King's effigies was new making to be set up in the Exchange [Map] again. This evening was a great whispering of some of the Vice-Admiral's captains that they were dissatisfied, and did intend to fight themselves, to oppose the General (age 51). But it was soon hushed, and the Vice-Admiral did wholly deny any such thing, and protested to stand by the General. At night Mr. Sheply, W. Howe, and I supped in my cabin. So up to the Master's cabin, where we sat talking, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1660. Up very early, and to get all my things and my boy's packed up. Great concourse of commanders here this morning to take leave of my Lord upon his going into the Nazeby, so that the table was full, so there dined below many commanders, and Mr. Creed, who was much troubled to hear that he could not go along with my Lord, for he had already got all his things thither, thinking to stay there, but W. Howe was very high against it, and he indeed did put him out, though everybody was glad of it. After dinner I went in one of the boats with my boy before my Lord, and made shift before night to get my cabin in pretty good order. It is but little, but very convenient, having one window to the sea and another to the deck, and a good bed. This morning comes Mr. Ed. Pickering (age 42), like a coxcomb as he always was. He tells me that the King will come in, but that Monk (age 51) did resolve to have the doing of it himself, or else to hinder it.

Declaration of Breda

04 Apr 1660 The Declaration of Breda [Map], written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Apr 1660. A Gentleman came this morning from my Lord of Manchester (age 58) to my Lord for a pass for Mr. Boyle,' which was made him. I ate a good breakfast by my Lord's orders with him in the great cabin below. The wind all this day was very high, so that a gentleman that was at dinner with my Lord that came along with Sir John Bloys (who seemed a fine man) was forced to rise from table. This afternoon came a great packet of letters from London directed to me, among the rest two from my wife, the first that I have since coming away from London. All the news from London is that things go on further towards a King. That the Skinners' Company the other day at their entertaining of General Monk (age 51) had took down the Parliament Arms in their Hall, and set up the King's. In the evening my Lord and I had a great deal of discourse about the several Captains of the Fleet and his interest among them, and had his mind clear to bring in the King. He confessed to me that he was not sure of his own Captain [Cuttance] to be true to him, and that he did not like Captain Stokes. At night W. Howe and I at our viallins in my cabin, where Mr. Ibbott and the lieutenant were late. I staid the lieutenant late, shewing him my manner of keeping a journal. After that to bed. It comes now into my mind to observe that I am sensible that I have been a little too free to make mirth with the minister of our ship, he being a very sober and an upright man.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1660 (Lord's day). Up early and was trimmed by the barber in the great cabin below. After that to put my clothes on and then to sermon, and then to dinner, where my Lord told us that the University of Cambridge had a mind to choose him for their burgess, which he pleased himself with, to think that they do look upon him as a thriving man, and said so openly at table. At dinner-time Mr. Cook came back from London with a packet which caused my Lord to be full of thoughts all day, and at night he bid me privately to get two commissions ready, one for Capt. Robert Blake to be captain of the Worcester, in the room of Capt. Dekings, an anabaptist, and one that had witnessed a great deal of discontent with the present proceedings. The other for Capt. Coppin to come out of that into the Newbury in the room of Blake, whereby I perceive that General Monk (age 51) do resolve to make a thorough change, to make way for the King. From London I hear that since Lambert (age 40) got out of the Tower, the Fanatiques had held up their heads high, but I hope all that will come to nothing. Late a writing of letters to London to get ready for Mr. Cook. Then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Apr 1660. They supped here, and my Lord treated them as he do the rest that go thither, with a great deal of civility. While we were at supper a packet came, wherein much news from several friends. The chief is that, that I had from Mr. Moore, viz. that he fears the Cavaliers in the House will be so high, that the others will be forced to leave the House and fall in with General Monk (age 51), and so offer things to the King so high on the Presbyterian account that he may refuse, and so they will endeavour some more mischief; but when I told my Lord it, he shook his head and told me, that the Presbyterians are deceived, for the General is certainly for the King's interest, and so they will not be able to prevail that way with him. After supper the two knights went on board the Grantham, that is to convey them to Flushing [Map]. I am informed that the Exchequer is now so low, that there is not £20 there, to give the messenger that brought the news of Lambert's (age 40) being taken; which story is very strange that he should lose his reputation of being a man of courage now at one blow, for that he was not able to fight one stroke, but desired of Colonel Ingoldsby several times for God's sake to let him escape. Late reading my letters, my mind being much troubled to think that, after all our hopes, we should have any cause to fear any more disappointments therein. To bed. This day I made even with Captain Sparling, by sending him my bill and he me my money by Burr whom I sent for it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1660. (Sunday). This day I put on first my fine cloth suit made of a cloak that had like to have been [dirted] a year ago, the very day that I put it on. After sermon in the morning Mr. Cook came from London with a packet, bringing news how all the young lords that were not in arms against the Parliament do now sit. That a letter is come from the King to the House, which is locked up by the Council 'till next Tuesday that it may be read in the open House when they meet again, they having adjourned till then to keep a fast tomorrow. And so the contents is not yet known. £13,000 of the £20,000 given to General Monk (age 51) is paid out of the Exchequer, he giving £12 among the teller clerks of Exchequer. My Lord called me into the great cabin below, where I opened my letters and he told me that the Presbyterians are quite mastered by the Cavaliers, and that he fears Mr. Crew (age 62) did go a little too far the other day in keeping out the young lords from sitting. That he do expect that the King should be brought over suddenly, without staying to make any terms at all, saying that the Presbyterians did intend to have brought him in with such conditions as if he had been in chains. But he shook his shoulders when he told me how Monk (age 51) had betrayed him, for it was he that did put them upon standing to put out the lords and other members that came not within the qualifications, which he [Montagu] did not like, but however he [Monk] had done his business, though it be with some kind of baseness. After dinner I walked a great while upon the deck with the chyrurgeon and purser, and other officers of the ship, and they all pray for the King's coming, which I pray God send.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1660. In the morning at a breakfast of radishes at the Purser's cabin. After that to writing till dinner. At which time comes Dunne from London, with letters that tell us the welcome news of the Parliament's votes yesterday, which will be remembered for the happiest May-day that bath been many a year to England. The King's (age 29) letter was read in the House, wherein he submits himself and all things to them, as to an Act of Oblivion1 to all, unless they shall please to except any, as to the confirming of the sales of the King's (age 29) and Church lands, if they see good. The House upon reading the letter, ordered £50,000 to be forthwith provided to send to His Majesty for his present supply; and a committee chosen to return an answer of thanks to His Majesty for his gracious letter; and that the letter be kept among the records of the Parliament; and in all this not so much as one No. So that Luke Robinson himself stood up and made a recantation for what he had done, and promises to be a loyal subject to his Prince for the time to come. The City of London have put a Declaration, wherein they do disclaim their owing any other government but that of a King, Lords, and Commons. Thanks was given by the House to Sir John Greenville2, one of the bedchamber to the King, who brought the letter, and they continued bare all the time it was reading. Upon notice made from the Lords to the Commons, of their desire that the Commons would join with them in their vote for King, Lords, and Commons; the Commons did concur and voted that all books whatever that are out against the Government of King, Lords, and Commons, should be brought into the House and burned. Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires than ever, and ringing of bells, and drinking of the King's (age 29) health upon their knees in the streets, which methinks is a little too much. But every body seems to be very joyfull in the business, insomuch that our sea-commanders now begin to say so too, which a week ago they would not do3. And our seamen, as many as had money or credit for drink, did do nothing else this evening. This day came Mr. North (Sir Dudley North's (age 77) son) on board, to spend a little time here, which my Lord was a little troubled at, but he seems to be a fine gentleman, and at night did play his part exceeding well at first sight. After musique I went up to the Captain's Cabin with him and Lieutenant Ferrers, who came hither to-day from London to bring this news to my Lord, and after a bottle of wine we all to bed.

Note 1. His Majesty added thereunto an excellent Declaration for the safety and repose of those, who tortured in their consciences, for having partaken in the rebellion, might fear the punishment of it, and in that fear might oppose the tranquillity of the Estate, and the calling in of their lawful Prince. It is printed and published as well as the letter, but that shall not hinder me to say, that there was never seen a more perfect assemblage of all the most excellent natural qualities, and of all the venues, as well Royal as Christian, wherewith a great Prince may be endowed, than was found in those two wonderful productions. Sir William Lowers 'Relation ... of the voiage and Residence Which... Charles the II Hath made in Holland,' Hague, 1660, folio, p. 3.

Note 2. Created Earl of Bath, 1661; son of Sir Bevil Grenville, killed at the battle of Lansdowne; he was, when a boy, left for dead on the field at the second battle of Newbury, and said to have been the only person entrusted by Charles II and Monk (age 51) in bringing about the Restoration.

Note 3. The picture of King Charles II (age 29) was often set up in houses, without the least molestation, whereas a while ago, it was almost a hanging matter so to do; but now the Rump Parliament was so hated and jeered at, that the butchers' boys would say, 'Will you buy any Parliament rumps and kidneys?' And it was a very ordinary thing to see little children make a fire in the streets, and burn rumps. Rugge's Diurnal. B.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 May 1660. Came the most happy tidings of his Majesty's (age 29) gracious declaration and applications to the Parliament, General (age 51), and people, and their dutiful acceptance and acknowledgment, after a most bloody and unreasonable rebellion of near twenty years. Praised be forever the Lord of Heaven, who only doeth wondrous things, because his mercy endureth forever.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1660. This morning my Lord showed me the King's (age 29) declaration1 and his letter to the two Generals to be communicated to the fleet. The contents of the letter are his offer of grace to all that will come in within forty days, only excepting them that the Parliament shall hereafter except. That the sales of lands during these troubles, and all other things, shall be left to the Parliament, by which he will stand. The letter dated at Breda, April, 4 1660, in the 12th year of his reign. Upon the receipt of it this morning by an express, Mr. Phillips, one of the messengers of the Council from General Monk (age 51), my Lord summoned a council of war, and in the mean time did dictate to me how he would have the vote ordered which he would have pass this council. Which done, the Commanders all came on board, and the council sat in the coach (the first council of war that had been in my time), where I read the letter and declaration; and while they were discoursing upon it, I seemed to draw up a vote, which being offered, they passed. Not one man seemed to say no to it, though I am confident many in their hearts were against it. After this was done, I went up to the quarter-deck with my Lord and the Commanders, and there read both the papers and the vote; which done, and demanding their opinion, the seamen did all of them cry out, "God bless King Charles!" with the greatest joy imaginable. That being done, Sir R. Stayner (age 35), who had invited us yesterday, took all the Commanders and myself on board him to dinner, which not being ready, I went with Captain Hayward to the Plimouth and Essex, and did what I had to do there and returned, where very merry at dinner. After dinner, to the rest of the ships (staid at the Assistance to hear the harper a good while) quite through the fleet. Which was a very brave sight to visit all the ships, and to be received with the respect and honour that I was on board them all; and much more to see the great joy that I brought to all men; not one through the whole fleet showing the least dislike of the business. In the evening as I was going on board the Vice-Admiral, the General began to fire his guns, which he did all that he had in the ship, and so did all the rest of the Commanders, which was very gallant, and to hear the bullets go hissing over our heads as we were in the boat. This done and finished my Proclamation, I returned to the Nazeby, where my Lord was much pleased to hear how all the fleet took it in a transport of joy, showed me a private letter of the King's (age 29) to him, and another from the Duke of York in such familiar style as to their common friend, with all kindness imaginable. And I found by the letters, and so my Lord told me too, that there had been many letters passed between them for a great while, and I perceive unknown to Monk (age 51). And among the rest that had carried these letters Sir John Boys is one, and that Mr. Norwood, which had a ship to carry him over the other day, when my Lord would not have me put down his name in the book. The King (age 29) speaks of his being courted to come to the Hague, but do desire my Lord's advice whither to come to take ship. And the Duke offers to learn the seaman's trade of him, in such familiar words as if Jack Cole and I had writ them. This was very strange to me, that my Lord should carry all things so wisely and prudently as he do, and I was over joyful to see him in so good condition, and he did not a little please himself to tell me how he had provided for himself so great a hold on the King.

Note 1. King Charles II (age 29). His Declaration to all his loving Subjects of the Kingdome of England, dated from his Court at Breda in Holland 4/14 of April, 1660, and read in Parliament with his Majesties Letter of the same date to his Excellence the Ld. Gen. Monck (age 51) to be communicated to the Ld. President of the Council of State and to the Officers of the Army under his Command. London, Printed by W. Godbid for John Playford in the Temple [Map], 1660. 40, pp. 8.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1660. After this to supper, and then to writing of letters till twelve at night, and so up again at three in the morning. My Lord seemed to put great confidence in me, and would take my advice in many things. I perceive his being willing to do all the honour in the world to Monk (age 51), and to let him have all the honour of doing the business, though he will many times express his thoughts of him to be but a thick-sculled fool. So that I do believe there is some agreement more than ordinary between the King and my Lord to let Monk (age 51) carry on the business, for it is he that must do the business, or at least that can hinder it, if he be not flattered and observed. This, my Lord will hint himself sometimes. My Lord, I perceive by the King's (age 29) letter, had writ to him about his father, Crew,-[When only seventeen years old, Montagu had married Jemima, daughter of John Crew, created afterwards Baron Crew of Stene.]-and the King did speak well of him; but my Lord tells me, that he is afeard that he hath too much concerned himself with the Presbyterians against the House of Lords, which will do him a great discourtesy.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1660. In the afternoon came a minister on board, one Mr. Sharpe, who is going to the King; who tells me that Commissioners are chosen both of Lords and Commons to go to the King; and that [his brother-in-law] Dr. Clarges (age 42)1 is going to him from the Army, and that he will be here to-morrow. My letters at night tell me, that the House did deliver their letter to Sir John Greenville, in answer to the King's (age 29) sending, and that they give him £500 for his pains, to buy him a jewel, and that besides the £50,000 ordered to be borrowed of the City for the present use of the King, the twelve companies of the City do give every one of them to his Majesty, as a present, £1000.

Note 1. Thomas Clarges (age 42), physician to the army, created a baronet2, 1674, died 1695. He had been previously knighted; his sister Anne married General Monk (age 51). "The Parliament also permitted General Monk (age 51) to send Mr. Clarges (age 42), his brother-in-law, accompanied with some officers of the army, to assure his Majesty of the fidelity and obedience of the army, which had made publick and solemn protestations thereof, after the Letter and Declaration was communicated unto them by the General". Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II Hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio.

Note 2. Twenty Trees. Appears to be a mistake. It was Thomas Clarge's son Walter Clarges 1st Baronet (age 6) who was created a baronet in 1674.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1660. That he yesterday received from General Monk (age 51) his Majesty's letter and direction; and that General Monk (age 51) had desired him to write to the Parliament to have leave to send the vote of the seamen before he did send it to him, which he had done by writing to both Speakers; but for his private satisfaction he had sent it thus privately (and so the copy of the proceedings yesterday was sent him), and that this come by a gentleman that came this day on board, intending to wait upon his Majesty, that he is my Lord's countryman, and one whose friends have suffered much on his Majesty's behalf. That my Lords Pembroke and Salisbury are put out of the House of Lords. That my Lord is very joyful that other countries do pay him the civility and respect due to him; and that he do much rejoice to see that the King do resolve to receive none of their assistance (or some such words), from them, he having strength enough in the love and loyalty of his own subjects to support him. That his Majesty had chosen the best place, Scheveling,-[Schevingen, the port of the Hague]-for his embarking, and that there is nothing in the world of which he is more ambitious, than to have the honour of attending his Majesty, which he hoped would be speedy. That he had commanded the vessel to attend at Helversluce-[Hellevoetsluis, in South Holland] -till this gentleman returns, that so if his Majesty do not think it fit to command the fleet himself, yet that he may be there to receive his commands and bring them to his Lordship. He ends his letter, that he is confounded with the thoughts of the high expressions of love to him in the King's (age 29) letter, and concludes,

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1660. Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days' observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore. News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the Duke of Gloucester (age 19)1 in grey and red. My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port. So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it. They seem to be both very fine gentlemen. After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry2, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other. Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King's (age 29) health, and so likewise to the Duke's health. I took down Monsieur d'Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his. All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes. After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them. After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another. When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day's work. By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome. The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye. Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter's cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the King's (age 29) servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all. This afternoon Mr Downing (age 35) (who was knighted yesterday by the King') was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants3. By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing (age 35). My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night. This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord's order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

Note 1. Henry, Duke of Gloucester (age 19), the youngest child of Charles L, born July 6th, 16-, who, with his sister Elizabeth, was allowed a meeting with his father on the night before the King's (age 29) execution. Burnet says: "He was active, and loved business; was apt to have particular friendships, and had an insinuating temper which was generally very acceptable. The King loved him much better than the Duke of York". He died of smallpox at Whitehall, September 13th, 1660, and was buried in Henry VII's Chapel.

Note 2. William Coventry (age 32), to whom Pepys became so warmly attached afterwards, was the fourth son of Thomas, first Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper. He was born in 1628, and entered at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1642; after the Restoration he became private secretary to the Duke of York, his commission as Secretary to the Lord High Admiral not being conferred until 1664; elected M.P. for Great Yarmouth in 1661. In 1662 he was appointed an extra Commissioner of the Navy, an office he held until 1667; in 1665, knighted and sworn a Privy Councillor, and, in 1667, constituted a Commissioner of the Treasury; but, having been forbid the court on account of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham, he retired into the country, nor could he subsequently be prevailed upon to accept of any official employment. Burnet calls Sir William Coventry the best speaker in the House of Commons, and "a man of the finest and best temper that belonged to the court", and Pepys never omits an opportunity of paying a tribute to his public and private worth. He died, 1686, of gout in the stomach.

Note 3. "About midnight arrived there Mr Downing (age 35), who did the affairs of England to the Lords the Estates, in quality of Resident under Oliver Cromwell, and afterward under the pretended Parliament, which having changed the form of the government, after having cast forth the last Protector, had continued him in his imploiment, under the quality of Extraordinary Envoy. He began to have respect for the King's (age 29) person, when he knew that all England declared for a free parliament, and departed from Holland without order, as soon as he understood that there was nothing that could longer oppose the re- establishment of monarchal government, with a design to crave letters of recommendation to General Monk (age 51). This lord considered him, as well because of the birth of his wife, which is illustrious, as because Downing had expressed some respect for him in a time when that eminent person could not yet discover his intentions. He had his letters when he arrived at midnight at the house of the Spanish Embassador, as we have said. He presented them forthwith to the King (age 29), who arose from table a while after, read the letters, receiv'd the submissions of Downing, and granted him the pardon and grace which he asked for him to whom he could deny nothing. Some daies after the King (age 29) knighted him, and would it should be believed, that the strong aversions which this minister of the Protector had made appear against him on all occasions, and with all sorts of persons indifferently, even a few daies before the publick and general declaration of all England, proceeded not from any evil intention, but only from a deep dissimulation, wherewith he was constrained to cover his true sentiments, for fear to prejudice the affairs of his Majesty".-Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio, pp. 72-73.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1660. By the morning we were come close to the land, and every body made ready to get on shore. The King and the two Dukes did eat their breakfast before they went, and there being set some ship's diet before them, only to show them the manner of the ship's diet, they eat of nothing else but pease and pork, and boiled beef. I had Mr. Darcy in my cabin and Dr. Clerke, who eat with me, told me how the King had given £50 to Mr. Sheply for my Lord's servants, and £500 among the officers and common men of the ship. I spoke with the Duke of York about business, who called me Pepys by name, and upon my desire did promise me his future favour. Great expectation of the King's (age 29) making some Knights, but there was none. About noon (though the brigantine that Beale made was there ready to carry him) yet he would go in my Lord's barge with the two Dukes. Our Captain steered, and my Lord went along bare with him. I went, and Mr. Mansell, and one of the King's (age 29) footmen, with a dog that the King loved1, (which [dirted] the boat, which made us laugh, and me think that a King and all that belong to him are but just as others are), in a boat by ourselves, and so got on shore when the King did, who was received by General Monk (age 51) with all imaginable love and respect at his entrance upon the land of Dover. Infinite the crowd of people and the horsemen, citizens, and noblemen of all sorts. The Mayor of the town came and gave him his white staff, the badge of his place, which the King did give him again. The Mayor also presented him from the town a very rich Bible, which he took and said it was the thing that he loved above all things in the world. A canopy was provided for him to stand under, which he did, and talked awhile with General Monk (age 51) and others, and so into a stately coach there set for him, and so away through the town towards Canterbury, without making any stay at Dover. The shouting and joy expressed by all is past imagination. Seeing that my Lord did not stir out of his barge, I got into a boat, and so into his barge, whither Mr. John Crew stepped, and spoke a word or two to my Lord, and so returned, we back to the ship, and going did see a man almost drowned that fell out of his boat into the sea, but with much ado was got out. My Lord almost transported with joy that he had done all this without any the least blur or obstruction in the world, that could give an offence to any, and with the great honour he thought it would be to him. Being overtook by the brigantine, my Lord and we went out of our barge into it, and so went on board with Sir W. Batten (age 59)2, and the Vice and Rear-Admirals. At night my Lord supped and Mr. Thomas Crew with Captain Stoakes, I supped with the Captain, who told me what the King had given us. My Lord returned late, and at his coming did give me order to cause the marke to be gilded, and a Crown and C. R. to be made at the head of the coach table, where the King to-day with his own hand did mark his height, which accordingly I caused the painter to do, and is now done as is to be seen.

Note 1. Charles II's love of dogs is well known, but it is not so well known that his dogs were continually being stolen from him. In the "Mercurius Publicus", June 28-July 5, 1660, is the following advertisement, apparently drawn up by the King himself: "We must call upon you again for a Black Dog between a greyhound and a spaniel, no white about him, onely a streak on his brest, and his tayl a little bobbed. It is His Majesties own Dog, and doubtless was stoln, for the dog was not born nor bred in England, and would never forsake His master. Whoesoever findes him may acquaint any at Whitehal for the Dog was better known at Court, than those who stole him. Will they never leave robbing his Majesty! Must he not keep a Dog? This dog's place (though better than some imagine) is the only place which nobody offers to beg". (Quoted in "Notes and Queries", 7th S., vii. 26, where are printed two other advertisements of Charles's lost dogs.)

Note 2. Clarendon describes William Batten (age 59) as an obscure fellow, and, although unknown to the service, a good seaman, who was in 1642 made Surveyor to the Navy; in which employ he evinced great animosity against the King. The following year, while Vice-Admiral to the Earl of Warwick, he chased a Dutch man-of-war into Burlington Bay, knowing that Queen Henrietta Maria was on board; and then, learning that she had landed and was lodged on the quay, he fired above a hundred shot upon the house, some of which passing through her majesty's chamber, she was obliged, though indisposed, to retire for safety into the open fields. This act, brutal as it was, found favour with the Parliament. But Batten (age 59) became afterwards discontented; and, when a portion of the fleet revolted, he carried the "Constant Warwick", one of the best ships in the Parliament navy, over into Holland, with several seamen of note. For this act of treachery he was knighted and made a Rear-Admiral by Prince Charles. We hear no more of Batten (age 59) till the Restoration, when he became a Commissioner of the Navy, and was soon after M.P. for Rochester. See an account of his second wife, in note to November 24th, 1660, and of his illness and death, October 5th, 1667. He had a son, Benjamin, and a daughter, Martha, by his first wife. B.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1660 Lord's Day. Called up by John Goods to see the Garter and Heralds coat, which lay in the coach, brought by Sir Edward Walker1, King at Arms, this morning, for my Lord. My Lord hath summoned all the Commanders on board him, to see the ceremony, which was thus: Sir Edward putting on his coat, and having laid the George and Garter, and the King's (age 29) letter to my Lord, upon a crimson cushion (in the coach, all the Commanders standing by), makes three congees to him, holding the cushion in his arms. Then laying it down with the things upon it upon a chair, he takes the letter, and delivers it to my Lord, which my Lord breaks open and gives him to read. It was directed to our trusty and well beloved Sir Edward Montagu, Knight, one of our Generals at sea, and our Companion elect of our Noble Order of the Garter. The contents of the letter is to show that the Kings of England have for many years made use of this honour, as a special mark of favour, to persons of good extraction and virtue (and that many Emperors, Kings and Princes of other countries have borne this honour), and that whereas my Lord is of a noble family, and hath now done the King such service by sea, at this time, as he hath done; he do send him this George and Garter to wear as Knight of the Order, with a dispensation for the other ceremonies of the habit of the Order, and other things, till hereafter, when it can be done. So the herald putting the ribbon about his neck, and the Garter about his left leg, he salutes him with joy as Knight of the Garter, and that was all. After that was done, and the Captain and I had breakfasted with Sir Edward while my Lord was writing of a letter, he took his leave of my Lord, and so to shore again to the King at Canterbury, where he yesterday gave the like honour to General Monk (age 51)2, who are the only two for many years that have had the Garter given them, before they had other honours of Earldom, or the like, excepting only the Duke of Buckingham, who was only Sir George Villiers when he was made Knight of the Garter. A while after Mr. Thos. Crew and Mr. J. Pickering (who had staid long enough to make all the world see him to be a fool), took ship for London. So there now remain no strangers with my Lord but Mr. Hetley, who had been with us a day before the King went from us. My Lord and the ship's company down to sermon. I staid above to write and look over my new song book, which came last night to me from London in lieu of that that my Lord had of me. The officers being all on board, there was not room for me at table, so I dined in my cabin, where, among other things, Mr. Drum brought me a lobster and a bottle of oil, instead of a bottle of vinegar, whereby I spoiled my dinner. Many orders in the ordering of ships this afternoon. Late to a sermon. After that up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where Mr. Sheply, I, and the Minister supped, and after that I went down to W. Howe's cabin, and there, with a great deal of pleasure, singing till it was late. After that to bed.

Note 1. Edward Walker was knighted February 2nd, 1644-5, and on the 24th of the same month was sworn in as Garter King at Arms. He adhered to the cause of the king, and published "Iter Carolinum", being a succinct account of the necessitated marches, retreats, and sufferings of his Majesty King Charles I., from Jan. 10, 1641, to the time of his death in 1648, collected by a daily attendant upon his sacred Majesty during all that time: He joined Charles II in exile, and received the reward of his loyalty at the Restoration. He died at Whitehall, February 19th, 1676-7, and was buried at Stratford-on-Avon, his daughter having married Sir John Clepton of that place.

Note 2. "His Majesty put the George on his Excellency, and the two Dukes put on the Garter. The Princes thus honoured the Lord-General for the restoration of that lawful family".-Rugge's Diurnal.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1660. My letters tell me, that Mr. Calamy1 had preached before the King in a surplice (this I heard afterwards to be false); that my Lord, Gen. Monk (age 51), and three more Lords, are made Commissioners for the Treasury2; that my Lord had some great place conferred on him, and they say Master of the Wardrobe3; that the two Dukes [Duke of York and Duke of Gloucester.] do haunt the Park much, and that they were at a play, Madam Epicene,-["Epicene, or the Silent Woman", a comedy, by Ben Jonson.] the other day; that Sir. Ant. Cooper (age 38), Mr. Hollis (age 60), and Mr. Annesly (age 45), & late President of the Council of State, are made Privy Councillors to the King. At night very busy sending Mr. Donne away to London, and wrote to my father for a coat to be made me against I come to London, which I think will not be long. At night Mr. Edward Montagu came on board and staid long up with my Lord. I to bed and about one in the morning,

Note 1. Edmund Calamy, D.D., the celebrated Nonconformist divine, born February, 1600, appointed Chaplain to Charles II., 1660. He refused the bishopric of Lichfield which was offered to him. Died October 29th, 1666.

Note 2. The names of the Commissioners were Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), afterwards Earl of Clarendon, General Monk (age 51), Thomas, Earl of Southampton (age 53), John, Lord Robartes (age 54), Thomas, Lord Colepeper (age 60), Sir Edward Montagu, with Sir Edward Nicholas (age 67) and Sir William Morrice (age 57) as principal Secretaries of State. The patents are dated June 19th, 1660.

Note 3. The duty of the Master of the Wardrobe was to provide "proper furniture for coronations, marriages, and funerals" of the sovereign and royal family, "cloaths of state, beds, hangings, and other necessaries for the houses of foreign ambassadors, cloaths of state for Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Prince of Wales, and ambassadors abroad", as also to provide robes for Ministers of State, Knights of the Garter, &c. The last Master of the Wardrobe was Ralph, Duke of Montague (age 21), who died 1709.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1660. Up by 4 in the morning to write letters to sea and a commission for him that Murford solicited for. Called on by Captain Sparling, who did give me my Dutch money again, and so much as he had changed into English money, by which my mind was eased of a great deal of trouble. Some other sea captains. I did give them a good morning draught, and so to my Lord (who lay long in bed this day, because he came home late from supper with the King). With my Lord to the Parliament House, and, after that, with him to General Monk's (age 51), where he dined at the Cock-pit. I home and dined with my wife, now making all things ready there again. Thence to my Lady Pickering (age 34), who did give me the best intelligence about the Wardrobe. Afterwards to the Cockpit to my Lord with Mr. Townsend, one formerly and now again to be employed as Deputy of the Wardrobe. Thence to the Admiralty, and despatched away Mr. Cooke to sea; whose business was a letter from my Lord about Mr. G. Montagu (age 37) to be chosen as a Parliament-man in my Lord's room at Dover;' and another to the Vice-Admiral to give my Lord a constant account of all things in the fleet, merely that he may thereby keep up his power there; another letter to Captn. Cuttance to send the barge that brought the King on shore, to Hinchingbroke by Lynne. To my own house, meeting G. Vines, and drank with him at Charing Cross, now the King's (age 30) Head Tavern. With my wife to my father's (age 59), where met with Swan [Map],-[William Swan [Map] is called a fanatic and a very rogue in other parts of the Diary.]-an old hypocrite, and with him, his friend and my father, and my cozen Scott to the Bear Tavern. To my father's (age 59) and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1660. To my Lord, where much business. With him to White Hall, where the Duke of York not being up, we walked a good while in the Shield Gallery. Mr. Hill (who for these two or three days hath constantly attended my Lord) told me of an offer of £500 for a Baronet's dignity, which I told my Lord of in the balcone in this gallery, and he said he would think of it. I to my Lord's and gave order for horses to be got to draw my Lord's great coach to Mr. Crew's (age 62). Mr. Morrice the upholsterer came himself to-day to take notice what furniture we lack for our lodgings at Whitehall. My dear friend Mr. Fuller (age 52) of Twickenham and I dined alone at the Sun Tavern, where he told me how he had the grant of being Dean of St. Patrick's, in Ireland; and I told him my condition, and both rejoiced one for another. Thence to my Lord's, and had the great coach to Brigham's, who went with me to the Half Moon [Map], and gave me a can of good julep, and told me how my Lady Monk (age 51) deals with him and others for their places, asking him £500, though he was formerly the King's (age 30) coach-maker, and sworn to it. My Lord abroad, and I to my house and set things in a little order there. So with Mr. Moore to my father's (age 59), I staying with Mrs. Turner (age 37) who stood at her door as I passed. Among other things she told me for certain how my old Lady Middlesex--herself the other day in the presence of the King, and people took notice of it. Thence called at my father's (age 59), and so to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where Mr. Hetley had sent a letter for me, and two pair of silk stockings, one for W. Howe, and the other for me. To Sir H. Wright's (age 23) to my Lord, where he, was, and took direction about business, and so by link home about 11 o'clock. To bed, the first time since my coming from sea, in my own house, for which God be praised.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1660. With my Lord at White Hall, all the morning. I spoke with Mr. Coventry about my business, who promised me all the assistance I could expect. Dined with young Mr. Powell, lately come from the Sound, being amused at our great changes here, and Mr. Southerne, now Clerk to Mr. Coventry, at the Leg in King-street. Thence to the Admiralty, where I met with Mr. Turner1 of the Navy-office, who did look after the place of Clerk of the Acts. He was very civil to me, and I to him, and shall be so. There came a letter from my [his wife] Lady Monk (age 41) to my Lord about it this evening, but he refused to come to her, but meeting in White Hall, with Sir Thomas Clarges, her brother, my Lord returned answer, that he could not desist in my business; and that he believed that General Monk (age 51) would take it ill if my Lord should name the officers in his army; and therefore he desired to have the naming of one officer in the fleet. With my Lord by coach to Mr. Crew's (age 62), and very merry by the way, discoursing of the late changes and his good fortune. Thence home, and then with my wife to Dorset House, to deliver a list of the names of the justices of the peace for Huntingdonshire. By coach, taking Mr. Fox part of the way with me, that was with us with the King on board the Nazeby, who I found to have married Mrs. Whittle, that lived at Mr. Geer's so long. A very civil gentleman. At Dorset House I met with Mr. Kipps, my old friend, with whom the world is well changed, he being now sealbearer to the Lord Chancellor, at which my wife and I are well pleased, he being a very good natured man. Home and late writing letters. Then to my Lord's lodging, this being the first night of his coming to Whitehall to lie since his coming from sea.

Note 1. Thomas Turner (or Tourner) was General Clerk at the Navy Office, and on June 30th he offered Pepys £150 to be made joint Clerk of the Acts with him. In a list of the Admiralty officers just before the King came in, preserved in the British Museum, there occur, Richard Hutchinson; Treasury of the Navy, salary £1500; Thomas Tourner, General Clerk, for himself and clerk, £100.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1660. This day or two my maid Jane-[Jane Wayneman.]-has been lame, that we cannot tell what to do for want of her. Up and to White Hall, where I got my warrant from the Duke to be Clerk of the Acts. Also I got my Lord's warrant from the Secretary for his honour of Earle of Portsmouth, and Viscount Montagu of Hinchingbroke. So to my Lord, to give him an account of what I had done. Then to Sir Geffery Palmer (age 62), to give them to him to have bills drawn upon them, who told me that my Lord must have some good Latinist to make the preamble to his Patent, which must express his late service in the best terms that he can, and he told me in what high flaunting terms Sir J. Greenville (age 31) had caused his to be done, which he do not like; but that Sir Richard Fanshawe (age 52) had done General Monk's (age 51) very well. Back to Westminster, and meeting Mr. Townsend in the Palace, he and I and another or two went and dined at the Leg there. Then to White Hall, where I was told by Mr. Hutchinson at the Admiralty, that Mr. Barlow, my predecessor, Clerk of the Acts, is yet alive, and coming up to town to look after his place, which made my heart sad a little. At night told my Lord thereof, and he bade me get possession of my Patent; and he would do all that could be done to keep him out. This night my Lord and I looked over the list of the Captains,. and marked some that my Lord had a mind to have put out. Home and to bed. Our wench very lame, abed these two days.

1660 July Creation of Peerages

In Jul 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration ...

2nd. Maurice Berkeley 3rd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 32) was created 1st Baronet Berkeley of Bruton in Somerset. Anne Lee Viscountess Fitzhardinge (age 37) by marriage Lady Berkeley of Bruton in Somerset.

4th. Thomas Myddelton 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Myddelton of Chirk Castle.

6th. Varney Noel 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Noel.

7th. George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51) was created 1st Duke Albemarle, 1st Earl Torrington in Devon. [his wife] Anne Clarges Duchess Albermarle (age 41) by marriage Duchess Albemarle.

12th. Robert Hales 1st Baronet (age 50) was created 1st Baronet Hales of Beakesbourne in Kent.

12th. Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 34) was created 1st Earl Sandwich. Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 35) by marriage Countess Sandwich.

14th. Elizabeth Feilding Countess Guildford was created 1st Earl Guildford by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). The peerage for life.

18th. Samuel Morland 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Morland of Sulhamstead Banister. Susanne de Milleville Lady Morland by marriage Lady Morland of Sulhamstead Banister.

23rd. Henry Vernon 1st Baronet (age 55) was created 1st Baronet Vernon of Hodnet in Shropshire.

23rd. John Aubrey 1st Baronet (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Aubrey of Llantrithyd in Glamorganshire.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1660. This morning I went to White Hall with Sir W. Pen (age 39) by water, who in our passage told me how he was bred up under Sir W. Batten (age 59). We went to Mr. Coventry's (age 32) chamber, and consulted of drawing my papers of debts of the Navy against the afternoon for the Committee. So to the Admiralty, where W. Hewer (age 18) and I did them, and after that he went to his Aunt's Blackburn (who has a kinswoman dead at her house to-day, and was to be buried to-night, by which means he staid very late out). I to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Mr. Crew (age 62) and dined with him, where there dined one Mr. Hickeman, an Oxford man, who spoke very much against the height of the now old clergy, for putting out many of the religious fellows of Colleges, and inveighing against them for their being drunk, which, if true, I am sorry to hear. After that towards Westminster, where I called on Mr. Pim, and there found my velvet coat (the first that ever I had) done, and a velvet mantle, which I took to the Privy Seal Office, and there locked them up, and went to the Queen's Court, and there, after much waiting, spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), who read my papers, and desired some addition, which done I returned to the Privy Seal, where little to do, and with Mr. Moore towards London, and in our way meeting Monsieur Eschar (Mr. Montagu's man), about the Savoy, he took us to the Brazennose Tavern, and there drank and so parted, and I home by coach, and there, it being post-night, I wrote to my Lord to give him notice that all things are well; that General Monk (age 51) is made Lieutenant of Ireland, which my Lord Roberts (age 54) (made Deputy) do not like of, to be Deputy to any man but the King himself. After that to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Aug 1660. Office, which done, Sir W. Pen (age 39) took me into the garden, and there told me how Mr. Turner do intend to petition the Duke for an allowance extra as one of the Clerks of the Navy, which he desired me to join with him in the furthering of, which I promised to do so that it did not reflect upon me or to my damage to have any other added, as if I was not able to perform my place; which he did wholly disown to be any of his intention, but far from it. I took Mr. Hater home with me to dinner, with whom I did advise, who did give me the same counsel. After dinner he and I to the office about doing something more as to the debts of the Navy than I had done yesterday, and so to Whitehall to the Privy Seal, and having done there, with my father (who came to see me) to Westminster Hall [Map] and the Parliament House to look for Col. Birch (age 44), but found him not. In the House, after the Committee was up, I met with Mr. G. Montagu (age 38), and joyed him in his entrance (this being his 3d day) for Dover. Here he made me sit all alone in the House, none but he and I, half an hour, discoursing how things stand, and in short he told me how there was like to be many factions at Court between Marquis Ormond, General Monk (age 51), and the Lord Roberts (age 54), about the business of Ireland; as there is already between the two Houses about the Act of Indemnity; and in the House of Commons, between the Episcopalian and Presbyterian men. Hence to my father's (age 59) (walking with Mr. Herring, the minister of St. Bride's), and took them to the Sun Tavern, where I found George, my old drawer, come again. From thence by water, landed them at Blackfriars, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1660. Office day all the morning. In the afternoon with the upholster seeing him do things to my mind, and to my content he did fit my chamber and my wife's. At night comes Mr. Moore, and staid late with me to tell me how Sir Hards. Waller (age 56)1 (who only pleads guilty), Scott, Coke, Peters, Harrison2, &c. were this day arraigned at the bar at the Sessions House, there being upon the bench the Lord Mayor, General Monk (age 51), my Lord of Sandwich, &c.; such a bench of noblemen as had not been ever seen in England! They all seem to be dismayed, and will all be condemned without question.

Note 1. Sir Hardress Waller (age 56), Knt., one of Charles I judges. His sentence was commuted to imprisonment for life.

Note 2. General Thomas Harrison (age 44), son of a butcher at Newcastle-under-Lyme, appointed by Cromwell to convey Charles I from Windsor to Whitehall, in order to his trial. He signed the warrant for the execution of the King. He was hanged, drawn and quartered on the 13th.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1660. From thence, after a pot of ale with Mr. Shepley at a house hard by, I went by link home, calling a little by the way at my father's (age 59) and my uncle Fenner's, where all pretty well, and so home, where I found the house in a washing pickle, and my wife in a very joyful condition when I told her that she is to see the Queen (age 50) next Thursday, which puts me in mind to say that this morning I found my Lord in bed late, he having been with the King, Queen, and Princess, at the Cockpit [Map]1 all night, where. General Monk (age 51) treated them; and after supper a play, where the King did put a great affront upon Singleton's' musique, he bidding them stop and bade the French musique play, which, my Lord says, do much outdo all ours. But while my Lord was rising, I went to Mr. Fox's (age 33), and there did leave the gilt tankard for Mrs. Fox, and then to the counting-house to him, who hath invited me and my wife to dine with him on Thursday next, and so to see the Queen (age 50) and Princesses.

Note 1. The Cockpit [Map] at Whitehall. The plays at the Cockpit [Map] in Drury Lane were acted in the afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1660. In the morning to church, and then dined at home. In the afternoon I to White Hall, where I was surprised with the news of a plot against the King's (age 30) person and my Lord Monk's (age 52); and that since last night there are about forty taken up on suspicion; and, amongst others, it was my lot to meet with Simon Beale, the Trumpeter, who took me and Tom Doling into the Guard in Scotland Yard, and showed us Major-General Overton, where I heard him deny that he is guilty of any such things; but that whereas it is said that he is found to have brought many arms to town, he says it is only to sell them, as he will prove by oath. From thence with Tom Doling and Boston and D. Vines (whom we met by the way) to Price's, and there we drank, and in discourse I learnt a pretty trick to try whether a woman be a maid or no, by a string going round her head to meet at the end of her nose, which if she be not will come a great way beyond. Thence to my Lady's and staid with her an hour or two talking of the Duke of York (age 27) and his lady, the Chancellor's daughter, between whom, she tells me, that all is agreed and he will marry her. But I know not how true yet. It rained hard, and my Lady would have had me have the coach, but I would not, but to my father's (age 59), where I met my wife, and there supped, and after supper by link home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1661. This day I lent Sir W. Batten (age 60) and Captn. Rider my chine of beef for to serve at dinner tomorrow at Trinity House, Deptford [Map], the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) being to be there and all the rest of the Brethren, it being a great day for the reading over of their new Charter, which the King hath newly given them.

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), the Comptroller (age 50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1661. In which it is impossible to relate the glory of this day, expressed in the clothes of them that rid, and their horses and horses clothes, among others, my Lord Sandwich's (age 35). Embroidery and diamonds were ordinary among them. The Knights of the Bath was a brave sight of itself; and their Esquires, among which Mr. Armiger was an Esquire to one of the Knights. Remarquable were the two men that represent the two Dukes of Normandy and Aquitane. The Bishops come next after Barons, which is the higher place; which makes me think that the next Parliament they will be called to the House of Lords. My Lord Monk (age 52) rode bare after the King, and led in his hand a spare horse, as being Master of the Horse. The King, in a most rich embroidered suit and cloak, looked most noble. Wadlow1, the vintner, at the Devil [Map]; in Fleetstreet, did lead a fine company of soldiers, all young comely men, in white doublets. There followed the Vice-Chamberlain, Sir G. Carteret (age 51), a company of men all like Turks; but I know not yet what they are for.

Note 1. Simon Wadlow was the original of "old Sir Simon the king", the favourite air of Squire Western in "Tom Jones". "Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers, Cries old Sim, the king of skinkers". Ben Jonson, Verses over the door into the Apollo.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. About six at night they had dined, and I went up to my wife, and there met with a pretty lady (Mrs. Frankleyn, a Doctor's wife, a friend of Mr. Bowyer's), and kissed them both, and by and by took them down to Mr. Bowyer's. And strange it is to think, that these two days have held up fair till now that all is done, and the King gone out of the Hall; and then it fell a-raining and thundering and lightening as I have not seen it do for some years: which people did take great notice of; God's blessing of the work of these two days, which is a foolery to take too much notice of such things. I observed little disorder in all this, but only the King's footmen had got hold of the canopy, and would keep it from the Barons of the Cinque Ports1, which they endeavoured to force from them again, but could not do it till my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 52) caused it to be put into Sir R. Pye's' (age 76) hand till tomorrow to be decided.

Note 1. Bishop Kennett gives a somewhat fuller account of this unseemly broil: "No sooner had the aforesaid Barons brought up the King to the foot of the stairs in Westminster Hall [Map], ascending to his throne, and turned on the left hand (towards their own table) out of the way, but the King's footmen most insolently and violently seized upon the canopy, which the Barons endeavouring to keep and defend, were by their number and strength dragged clown to the lower end of the Hall, nevertheless still keeping their hold; and had not Mr. Owen York Herald, being accidentally near the Hall door, and seeing the contest, caused the same to be shut, the footmen had certainly carried it away by force. But in the interim also (speedy notice hereof having been given the King) one of the Querries were sent from him, with command to imprison the footmen, and dismiss them out of his service, which put an end to the present disturbance. These footmen were also commanded to make their submission to the Court of Claims, which was accordingly done by them the 30th April following, and the canopy then delivered back to the said Barons". Whilst this disturbance happened, the upper end of the first table, which had been appointed for the Barons of the Cinque Ports, was taken up by the Bishops, judges, &c., probably nothing loth to take precedence of them; and the poor Barons, naturally unwilling to lose their dinner, were necessitated to eat it at the bottom of the second table, below the Masters of Chancery and others of the long robe.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. And many fine ceremonies there was of the Heralds leading up people before him, and bowing; and my Lord of Albemarle's (age 52) going to the kitchin and eat a bit of the first dish that was to go to the King's table.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1661. Among others, the famous Tom Fuller (age 53) is dead of it; and Dr. Nichols, Dean of Paul's; and my Lord General Monk (age 52) is very dangerously ill.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1661. Lord's Day. To our own church in the morning and so home to dinner, where my father and Dr. Tom Pepys (age 40) came to me to dine, and were very merry. After dinner I took my wife and Mr. Sidney to my Lady to see my Lord Hinchingbroke, who is now pretty well again, and sits up and walks about his chamber. So I went to White Hall, and there hear that my Lord General Monk (age 52) continues very ill: so I went to la belle Pierce and sat with her; and then to walk in St. James's Park, and saw great variety of fowl which I never saw before and so home. At night fell to read in "Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity", which Mr. Moore did give me last Wednesday very handsomely bound; and which I shall read with great pains and love for his sake. So to supper and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Dec 1661. The Bishop of Gloucester (age 70) preached at the Abbey [Map] at the funeral of the [his brother] Bishop of Hereford (deceased), brother to the Duke of Albemarle (age 53). It was a decent solemnity. There was a silver miter, with episcopal robes, borne by the herald before the hearse, which was followed by the Duke his brother (age 53), and all the bishops, with divers noblemen.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1662. After the sale I walked to my brother's, in my way meeting with Dr. Fairbrother, of whom I enquired what news in Church matters. He tells me, what I heard confirmed since, that it was fully resolved by the King's new Council that an indulgence should be granted the Presbyters; but upon the Bishop of London's (age 64) speech1 (who is now one of the most powerful men in England with the King (age 32)), their minds were wholly turned. And it is said that my Lord Albemarle (age 53) did oppose him most; but that I do believe is only in appearance. He told me also that most of the Presbyters now begin to wish they had complied, now they see that no Indulgence will be granted them, which they hoped for; and that the Bishop of London hath taken good care that places are supplied with very good and able men, which is the only thing that will keep all quiet.

Note 1. Gilbert Sheldon (age 64), born July 19th, 1598; Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, 1622; Warden, 1635; Bishop of London, 1660-63; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1663. Died November 9th, 1677.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Sep 1662. At White Hall we hear that the Duke of York (age 28) is gone a-hunting to-day; and so we returned: they going to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 53), where I left them (after I had observed a very good picture or two there), and so home, and there did resolve to give up my endeavours for access to the leads, and to shut up my doors lest the being open might give them occasion of longing for my chamber, which I am in most fear about.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who now-a-days calls me into his chamber, and alone did discourse with me about the jealousy that the Court have of people's rising; wherein he do much dislike my Lord Monk's (age 53) being so eager against a company of poor wretches, dragging them up and down the street; but would have him rather to take some of the greatest ringleaders of them, and punish them; whereas this do but tell the world the King's fears and doubts.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. After dinner he and I into another room over a pot of ale and talked. He showed me our commission, wherein the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), Lord Peterborough (age 40), Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir William Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir William Rider, Mr. Cholmley, Mr. Povy (age 48), myself, and Captain Cuttance, in this order are joyned for the carrying on the service of Tangier, which I take for a great honour to me.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1662. Up betimes and to set my workmen to work, and then a little to the office, and so with Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 61), and myself by coach to White Hall, to the Duke (age 29), who, after he was ready, did take us into his closett. Thither come my Lord General Monk (age 53), and did privately talk with the Duke (age 29) about having the life-guards pass through the City today only for show and to fright people, for I perceive there are great fears abroad; for all which I am troubled and full of doubt that things will not go well. He being gone, we fell to business of the Navy. Among other things, how to pay off this fleet that is now come from Portugall; the King (age 32) of Portugall sending them home, he having no more use for them, which we wonder at, that his condition should be so soon altered. And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country. Having done here I went by my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who was not at home, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], where full of term, and here met with many about business, among others my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), who is all for a composition with my uncle Thomas, which upon any fair terms I am for also and desire it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1662. Thence I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), to Mr. Moore, to talk a little about business; and then over the Parke (where I first in my life, it being a great frost, did see people sliding with their skeates1, which is a very pretty art), to Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber to St. James's, where we all met to a venison pasty, and were very merry, Major Norwood being with us, whom they did play upon for his surrendering of Dunkirk. Here we staid till three or four o'clock; and so to the Council Chamber, where there met the Duke of York (age 29), Prince Rupert (age 42), Duke of Albemarle (age 53), my Lord Sandwich (age 37), Sir Win. Compton (age 37), Mr. Coventry (age 34), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir R. Ford (age 48), Sir W. Rider, myself, and Captain Cuttance, as Commissioners for Tangier. And after our Commission was read by Mr. Creed, who I perceive is to be our Secretary, we did fall to discourse of matters: as, first, the supplying them forthwith with victualls; then the reducing it to make way for the money, which upon their reduction is to go to the building of the Mole; and so to other matters, ordered as against next meeting.

Note 1. Iron skates appear to have been introduced by the Dutch, as the name certainly was; but we learn from Fitzstephen that bone skates (although not so called) were used in London in the twelfth century.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1662. So to my brother's and shoemaker, and so to my Lord Crew's, and dined alone with him, and after dinner much discourse about matters. Upon the whole, I understand there are great factions at Court, and something he said that did imply a difference like to be between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), in case the Queen (age 24) should not be with child. I understand, about this bastard (age 13)1. He says, also, that some great man will be aimed at when Parliament comes to sit again; I understand, the Chancellor (age 53) and that there is a bill will be brought in, that none that have been in arms for the Parliament shall be capable of office. And that the Court are weary of my Lord Albemarle (age 54) and Chamberlin (age 60). He wishes that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) had some good occasion to be abroad this summer which is coming on, and that my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 14) were well married, and Sydney (age 12) had some place at Court. He pities the poor ministers that are put out, to whom, he says, the King (age 32) is beholden for his coming in, and that if any such thing had been foreseen he had never come in.

Note 1. James Crofts (age 13), son of Charles II by Lucy Walter, created Duke of Monmouth (age 13) in 1663, Duke of Buccleuch in 1673, when he took the name of Scott.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1663. This morning came a new cook-maid at £4 per annum, the first time I ever did give so much, but we hope it will be nothing lost by keeping a good cook. She did live last at my Lord Monk's (age 54) house, and indeed at dinner did get what there was very prettily ready and neat for me, which did please me much.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1663. By and by the discourse being ended, we fell to my Lord Rutherford's dispatch, which do not please him, he being a Scott, and one resolved to scrape every penny that he can get by any way, which the Committee will not agree to. He took offence at something and rose away, without taking leave of the board, which all took ill, though nothing said but only by the Duke of Albemarle (age 54), who said that we ought to settle things as they ought to be, and if he will not go upon these terms another man will, no doubt.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. Thence walked to Westminster, and there up and down in the Hall and the Parliament House all the morning; at noon by coach to my Lord Crew's, hearing that Lord Sandwich (age 37) did dine there; where I told him what had passed between Mr. Coventry (age 35) and myself; with which he was contented, though I could perceive not very well pleased. And I do believe that my Lord do find some other things go against his mind in the House; for in the motion made the other day in the House by my Lord Bruce, that none be capable of employment but such as have been loyal and constant to the King (age 32) and Church, the General [Monk] and my Lord were mentioned to be excepted; and my Lord Bruce did come since to my Lord, to clear himself that he meant nothing to his prejudice, nor could it have any such effect if he did mean it. After discourse with my Lord; to dinner with him; there dining there my Lord Montagu of Boughton, Northamptonshire, Mr. William Montagu (age 45) his brother, the Queen's Sollicitor, &c., and a fine dinner. Their talk about a ridiculous falling-out two days ago at my Lord of Oxford's (age 36) house, at an entertainment of his, there being there my Lord of Albemarle (age 54), Lynsey (age 55), two of the Porters, my Lord Bellasses (age 48), and others, where there were high words and some blows, and pulling off of perriwiggs; till my Lord Monk (age 54) took away some of their swords, and sent for some soldiers to guard the house till the fray was ended. To such a degree of madness the nobility of this age is come!

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1663. By and by, out comes my Lord Sandwich (age 37), and he and I talked a great while about his business, of his accounts for his pay, and among other things he told me that this day a vote hath passed that the King's grants of land to my Lord Monk (age 54) and him should be made good; which pleases him very well. He also tells me that things don't go right in the House with Mr. Coventry (age 35); I suppose he means in the business of selling of places; but I am sorry for it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1663. Anon went with money to my tar merchant to pay for the tar, which he refuses to sell me; but now the master is come home, and so he speaks very civilly, and I believe we shall have it with peace. I brought back my money to my office, and thence to White Hall, and in the garden spoke to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who is in his gold-buttoned suit, as the mode is, and looks nobly. Captain Ferrers, I see, is come home from France. I only spoke one word to him, my Lord being there. He tells me the young gentlemen are well there; so my Lord went to my Lord Albemarle's (age 54) to dinner, and I by water home and dined alone, and at the office (after half an hour's viallin practice after dinner) till late at night, and so home and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. I saw his Majesty's (age 33) Guards, being of horse and foot 4,000, led by the General, the Duke of Albemarle (age 54), in extraordinary equipage and gallantry, consisting of gentlemen of quality and veteran soldiers, excellently clad, mounted, and ordered, drawn up in battalia before their Majesties in Hyde Park [Map], where the old Earl of Cleveland (age 72) trailed a pike, and led the right-hand file in a foot company, commanded by the Lord Wentworth (age 51), his son; a worthy spectacle and example, being both of them old and valiant soldiers. This was to show the French Ambassador, Monsieur Comminges; there being a great assembly of coaches, etc., in the park.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1663. Thence home to dinner, whither Captain Grove came and dined with me, he going into the country to-day; among other discourse he told me of discourse very much to my honour, both as to my care and ability, happening at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 54) table the other day, both from the Duke (age 29), and the Duchess (age 26) themselves; and how I paid so much a year to him whose place it was of right, and that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did report thus of me; which was greatly to my content, knowing how against their minds I was brought into the Navy.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Aug 1663. I was invited to the translation of Dr. Sheldon (age 65), Bishop of London, from that see to Canterbury, the ceremony performed at Lambeth Palace [Map]. First, went his Grace's mace bearer, steward, treasurer, comptroller, all in their gowns, and with white staves; next, the bishops in their habits, eight in number; Dr. Sweate, Dean of the Arches, Dr. Exton, Judge of the Admiralty, Sir William Merick, Judge of the Prerogative Court, with divers advocates in scarlet. After divine service in the chapel, performed with music extraordinary, Dr. French and Dr. Stradling (his Grace's chaplains) said prayers. The Archbishop in a private room looking into the chapel, the bishops, who were commissioners, went up to a table placed before the altar, and sat round it in chairs. Then Dr. Chaworth presented the commission under the broad seal to the Bishop of Winchester (age 65), and it was read by Dr. Sweate. After which, the Vicar-General went to the vestry, and brought his Grace into the chapel, his other officers marching before. He being presented to the Commissioners, was seated in a great armchair at one end of the table, when the definitive sentence was read by the Bishop of Winchester (age 65), and subscribed by all the bishops, and proclamation was three times made at the chapel door, which was then set open for any to enter, and give their exceptions; if any they had. This done, we all went to dinner in the great hall to a mighty feast. There were present all the nobility in town, the Lord Mayor of London, Sheriffs, Duke of Albemarle (age 54), etc. My Lord Archbishop did in particular most civilly welcome me. So going to visit my Lady Needham, who lived at Lambeth, I went over to London.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. He tells me that the King (age 33) by name, with all his dignities, is prayed for by them that they call Fanatiques, as heartily and powerfully as in any of the other churches that are thought better: and that, let the King (age 33) think what he will, it is them that must helpe him in the day of warr. For as they are the most, so generally they are the most substantial sort of people, and the soberest; and did desire me to observe it to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), among other things, that of all the old army now you cannot see a man begging about the street; but what? You shall have this captain turned a shoemaker; the lieutenant, a baker; this a brewer; that a haberdasher; this common soldier, a porter; and every man in his apron and frock, &c., as if they never had done anything else: whereas the others go with their belts and swords, swearing and cursing, and stealing; running into people's houses, by force oftentimes, to carry away something; and this is the difference between the temper of one and the other; and concludes (and I think with some reason,) that the spirits of the old parliament soldiers are so quiett and contented with God's providences, that the King (age 33) is safer from any evil meant him by them one thousand times more than from his own discontented Cavalier. And then to the publique management of business: it is done, as he observes, so loosely and so carelessly, that the Kingdom can never be happy with it, every man looking after himself, and his owne lust and luxury; among other things he instanced in the business of money, he do believe that half of what money the Parliament gives the King (age 33) is not so much as gathered. And to the purpose he told me how the Bellamys (who had some of the Northern counties assigned them for their debt for the petty warrant victualling) have often complained to him that they cannot get it collected, for that nobody minds, or, if they do, they won't pay it in. Whereas (which is a very remarkable thing,) he hath been told by some of the Treasurers at Warr here of late, to whom the most of the £120,000 monthly was paid, that for most months the payments were gathered so duly, that they seldom had so much or more than 40s., or the like, short in the whole collection; whereas now the very Commissioners for Assessments and other publique payments are such persons, and those that they choose in the country so like themselves, that from top to bottom there is not a man carefull of any thing, or if he be, he is not solvent; that what between the beggar and the knave, the King (age 33) is abused the best part of all his revenue. From thence we began to talk of the Navy, and particularly of Sir W. Pen (age 42), of whose rise to be a general I had a mind to be informed. He told me he was always a conceited man, and one that would put the best side outward, but that it was his pretence of sanctity that brought him into play. Lawson, and Portman, and the Fifth-monarchy men, among whom he was a great brother, importuned that he might be general; and it was pleasant to see how Blackburne himself did act it, how when the Commissioners of the Admiralty would enquire of the captains and admirals of such and such men, how they would with a sigh and casting up the eyes say, "Such a man fears the Lord", or, "I hope such a man hath the Spirit of God", and such things as that. But he tells me that there was a cruel articling against Pen after one fight, for cowardice, in putting himself within a coyle of cables, of which he had much ado to acquit himself: and by great friends did it, not without remains of guilt, but that his brethren had a mind to pass it by, and Sir H. Vane did advise him to search his heart, and see whether this fault or a greater sin was not the occasion of this so great tryall. And he tells me, that what Pen gives out about Cromwell's sending and entreating him to go to Jamaica, is very false; he knows the contrary: besides, the Protector never was a man that needed to send for any man, specially such a one as he, twice. He tells me that the business of Jamaica did miscarry absolutely by his pride, and that when he was in the Tower he would cry like a child. This he says of his own personal knowledge, and lastly tells me that just upon the turne, when Monk (age 54) was come from the North to the City, and did begin to think of bringing in the King (age 33), Pen was then turned Quaker. This he is most certain of. He tells me that Lawson was never counted any thing but only a seaman, and a stout man, but a false man, and that now he appears the greatest hypocrite in the world. And Pen the same. He tells me that it is much talked of, that the King (age 33) intends to legitimate the Duke of Monmouth (age 14); and that he has not, nor his friends of his persuasion, have any hopes of getting their consciences at liberty but by God Almighty's turning of the King's heart, which they expect, and are resolved to live and die in quiett hopes of it; but never to repine, or act any thing more than by prayers towards it. And that not only himself but all of them have, and are willing at any time to take the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy. Thus far, and upon many more things, we had discoursed when some persons in a room hard by began to sing in three parts very finely and to play upon a flagilette so pleasantly that my discourse afterwards was but troublesome, and I could not attend it, and so, anon, considering of a sudden the time of night, we found it 11 o'clock, which I thought it had not been by two hours, but we were close in talk, and so we rose, he having drunk some wine and I some beer and sugar, and so by a fair moonshine home and to bed, my wife troubled with tooth ache.

Treaty of Newport

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. Thence I took leave of them, and so having taken up something at my wife's tailor's, I home by coach and there to my office, whither Shales came and I had much discourse with him about the business of the victualling, and thence in the evening to the Coffee-house, and there sat till by and by, by appointment Will brought me word that his uncle Blackburne was ready to speak with me. So I went down to him, and he and I to a taverne hard by, and there I begun to speak to Will friendlily, advising him how to carry himself now he is going from under my roof, without any reflections upon the occasion from whence his removal arose. This his uncle seconded, and after laying down to him his duty to me, and what I expect of him, in a discourse of about a quarter of an houre or more, we agreed upon his going this week, towards the latter (end) of the week, and so dismissed him, and Mr. Blackburne and I fell to talk of many things, wherein I did speak so freely to him in many things agreeing with his sense that he was very open to me: first, in that of religion, he makes it great matter of prudence for the King (age 33) and Council to suffer liberty of conscience; and imputes the losse of Hungary to the Turke from the Emperor's denying them this liberty of their religion. He says that many pious ministers of the word of God, some thousands of them, do now beg their bread: and told me how highly the present clergy carry themselves every where, so as that they are hated and laughed at by everybody; among other things, for their excommunications, which they send upon the least occasions almost that can be. And I am convinced in my judgement, not only from his discourse, but my thoughts in general, that the present clergy will never heartily go down with the generality of the commons of England; they have been so used to liberty and freedom, and they are so acquainted with the pride and debauchery of the present clergy. He did give me many stories of the affronts which the clergy receive in all places of England from the gentry and ordinary persons of the parish. He do tell me what the City thinks of General Monk (age 54), as of a most perfidious man that hath betrayed every body, and the King (age 33) also; who, as he thinks, and his party, and so I have heard other good friends of the King (age 33) say, it might have been better for the King (age 33) to have had his hands a little bound for the present, than be forced to bring such a crew of poor people about him, and be liable to satisfy the demands of every one of them. He told me that to his knowledge (being present at every meeting at the Treaty at the Isle of Wight), that the old King did confess himself overruled and convinced in his judgement against the Bishopps, and would have suffered and did agree to exclude the service out of the churches, nay his own chappell; and that he did always say, that this he did not by force, for that he would never abate one inch by any vyolence; but what he did was out of his reason and judgement.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1663. Thence home to dinner with my poor wife, and with great joy to my office, and there all the afternoon about business, and among others Mr. Bland came to me and had good discourse, and he has chose me a referee for him in a business, and anon in the evening comes Sir W. Warren, and he and I had admirable discourse. He advised me in things I desired about, bummary, [bottomry] and other ways of putting out money as in parts of ships, how dangerous they are, and lastly fell to talk of the Dutch management of the Navy, and I think will helpe me to some accounts of things of the Dutch Admiralty, which I am mighty desirous to know. He seemed to have been mighty privy with my Lord Albemarle (age 54) in things before this great turn, and to the King's dallying with him and others for some years before, but I doubt all was not very true. However, his discourse is very useful in general, though he would seem a little more than ordinary in this. Late at night home to supper and to bed, my mind in good ease all but my health, of which I am not a little doubtful.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1663. Thence went and spoke with the Duke of Albemarle (age 55) about his wound at Newhall, but I find him a heavy dull man, methinks, by his answers to me.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1664. Thence after dinner to White Hall, where the Duke (age 30) being busy at the Guinny business, the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), Sir W. Rider, Povy (age 50), Sir J. Lawson (age 49) and I to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55) lodgings, and there did some business, and so to the Court again, and I to the Duke of York's (age 30) lodgings, where the Guinny company are choosing their assistants for the next year by ballotting.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1664. Thence I to White Hall and there walked up and down talking with Mr. Pierce, who tells me of the King's giving of my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 34) two leases which belong indeed to the Queene (age 54), worth £20,000 to him; and how people do talk of it, and other things of that nature which I am sorry to hear. He and I walked round the Park with great pleasure, and back again, and finding no time to speak with my Lord of Albemarle (age 55), I walked to the 'Change [Map] and there met my wife at our pretty Doll's, and so took her home, and Creed also whom I met there, and sent her hose, while Creed and I staid on the 'Change [Map], and by and by home and dined, where I found an excellent mastiffe, his name Towser, sent me by a chyrurgeon.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1664. After dinner I took my wife again by coach (leaving Creed by the way going to Gresham College, of which he is now become one of the virtuosos) and to White Hall, where I delivered a paper about Tangier to my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 55) in the council chamber, and so to Mrs. Hunt's to call my wife, and so by coach straight home, and at my office till 3 o'clock in the morning, having spent much time this evening in discourse with Mr. Cutler, who tells me how the Dutch deal with us abroad and do not value us any where, and how he and Sir W. Rider have found reason to lay aside Captain Cocke (age 47) in their company, he having played some indiscreet and unfair tricks with them, and has lost himself every where by his imposing upon all the world with the conceit he has of his own wit, and so has, he tells me, Sir R. Ford (age 50) also, both of whom are very witty men.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. That my Lord Digby (age 51) endeavours what he can to bring the business into the House of Commons, hoping there to master the Chancellor (age 55), there being many enemies of his there; but I hope the contrary. That whereas the late King did mortgage 'Clarendon' to somebody for £20,000, and this to have given it to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), and he sold it to my Chancellor (age 55), whose title of Earldome is fetched from thence; the King (age 33) hath this day sent his order to the Privy Seale for the payment of this £20,000 to my Chancellor (age 55), to clear the mortgage!

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1664. He gone, I by and by found that the Committee of Tangier met at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55), and so I have lost my labour.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1664. So away he went, and I all the morning in my office busy, and at noon home to dinner mightily oppressed with wind, and after dinner took coach and to Paternoster Row [Map], and there bought a pretty silke for a petticoate for my wife, and thence set her down at the New Exchange, and I leaving the coat at Unthanke's, went to White Hall, but the Councell meeting at Worcester House I went thither, and there delivered to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55) a paper touching some Tangier business, and thence to the 'Change [Map] for my wife, and walked to my father's, who was packing up some things for the country. I took him up and told him this business of Tom, at which the poor wretch was much troubled, and desired me that I would speak with J. Noble, and do what I could and thought fit in it without concerning him in it. So I went to Noble, and saw the bond that Cave did give and also Tom's letter that I mentioned above, and upon the whole I think some shame may come, but that it will be hard from any thing I see there to prove the child to be his.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jun 1664. Then at night by coach to attend the Duke of Albemarle (age 55) about the Tangier ship.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1664. Up and did several businesses, and so with my wife by water to White Hall, she to her father's, I to the Duke (age 30), where we did our usual business. And among other discourse of the Dutch, he was merrily saying how they print that Prince Rupert (age 44), Duke of Albemarle (age 55), and my Lord Sandwich (age 38), are to be Generalls; and soon after is to follow them "Vieux Pen"; and so the Duke called him in mirth Old Pen. They have, it seems, lately wrote to the King (age 34), to assure him that their setting-out ships were only to defend their fishing-trade, and to stay near home, not to annoy the King's subjects; and to desire that he would do the like with his ships: which the King (age 34) laughs at, but yet is troubled they should think him such a child, to suffer them to bring home their fish and East India Company ships, and then they will not care a fart for us.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. So I left them, and I to my Chancellor's (age 55); and there coming out after dinner I accosted him, telling him that I was the unhappy Pepys that had fallen into his high displeasure, and come to desire him to give me leave to make myself better understood to his Lordship, assuring him of my duty and service. He answered me very pleasingly, that he was confident upon the score of my Lord Sandwich's (age 38) character of me, but that he had reason to think what he did, and desired me to call upon him some evening: I named to-night, and he accepted of it. So with my heart light I to White Hall, and there after understanding by a stratagem, and yet appearing wholly desirous not to understand Mr. Gauden's price when he desired to show it me, I went down and ordered matters in our tender so well that at the meeting by and by I was ready with Mr. Gauden's and his, both directed him a letter to me to give the board their two tenders, but there being none but the Generall Monk (age 55) and Mr. Coventry (age 36) and Povy (age 50) and I, I did not think fit to expose them to view now, but put it off till Saturday, and so with good content rose.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jul 1664. Thence to my Lord's again, and my Lord being up, was sent for up, and he and I alone. He did begin with a most solemn profession of the same confidence in and love for me that he ever had, and then told me what a misfortune was fallen upon me and him: in me, by a displeasure which my Chancellor (age 55) did show to him last night against me, in the highest and most passionate manner that ever any man did speak, even to the not hearing of any thing to be said to him: but he told me, that he did say all that could be said for a man as to my faithfullnesse and duty to his Lordship, and did me the greatest right imaginable. And what should the business be, but that I should be forward to have the trees in Clarendon Park marked and cut down, which he, it seems, hath bought of my Lord Albemarle (age 55); when, God knows! I am the most innocent man in the world in it, and did nothing of myself, nor knew of his concernment therein, but barely obeyed my Lord Treasurer's (age 57) warrant for the doing thereof. And said that I did most ungentlemanlike with him, and had justified the rogues in cutting down a tree of his; and that I had sent the veriest Fanatique [Deane (age 30)] that is in England to mark them, on purpose to nose [provoke] him. All which, I did assure my Lord, was most properly false, and nothing like it true; and told my Lord the whole passage. My Lord do seem most nearly affected; he is partly, I believe, for me, and partly for himself. So he advised me to wait presently upon my Lord, and clear myself in the most perfect manner I could, with all submission and assurance that I am his creature both in this and all other things; and that I do owne that all I have, is derived through my Lord Sandwich (age 38) from his Lordship. So, full of horror, I went, and found him busy in tryals of law in his great room; and it being Sitting-day, durst not stay, but went to my Lord and told him so: whereupon he directed me to take him after dinner; and so away I home, leaving my Lord mightily concerned for me. I to the office, and there sat busy all the morning.

Calendars. 14 Jul 1664. 65. Duke of Albemarle (age 55) to Capt. Basset, officer-in-chief of the King's troop. He is to send a corporal to receive from Sir Henry Bennet (age 46) orders to the Lieutenant of the Tower to deliver to him Robert Atkinson, and to the Keeper of the Gatehouse to deliver Rich. Oldroyd, and appoint six troopers to convey them to Northampton, and there deliver them to the chief officer of Col. Frescheville's (age 56) troop, to convey them to York. Sec. Bennet (age 46) will deliver him moneys for the whole journey, and post warrants for horses, which he is to transfer to Col. Frescheville (age 56). [Copy.]

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], where I took occasion to break the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber to Mr. Coventry (age 36) in the best manner I could. He professed to me, that, till, Sir G. Carteret (age 54) did speake of it at the table, after our officers were gone to survey it, he did not know that my Chancellor (age 55) had any thing to do with it; but now he says that he had been told by the Duke (age 30) that Sir G. Carteret (age 54) had spoke to him about it, and that he had told the Duke that, were he in my Chancellor's (age 55) case, if he were his father, he would rather fling away the gains of two or £3,000, than have it said that the timber, which should have been the King's, if it had continued the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55), was concealed by us in favour of my Chancellor (age 55); for, says he, he is a great man, and all such as he, and he himself particularly, have a great many enemies that would be glad of such an advantage against him. When I told him it was strange that Sir J. Minnes (age 65) and Sir G. Carteret (age 54), that knew my Chancellor's (age 55) concernment therein, should not at first inform us, he answered me that for Sir J. Minnes (age 65), he is looked upon to be an old good companion, but by nobody at the other end of the towne as any man of business, and that my Chancellor (age 55), he dares say, never did tell him of it, only Sir G. Carteret (age 54), he do believe, must needs know it, for he and Sir J. Shaw are the greatest confidants he hath in the world. So for himself, he said, he would not mince the matter, but was resolved to do what was fit, and stand upon his owne legs therein, and that he would speak to the Duke, that he and Sir G. Carteret (age 54) might be appointed to attend my Chancellor (age 55) in it. All this disturbs me mightily. I know not what to say to it, nor how to carry myself therein; for a compliance will discommend me to Mr. Coventry (age 36), and a discompliance to my Chancellor (age 55). But I think to let it alone, or at least meddle in it as little more as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1664. After being at the office all the morning, I home and dined, and taking leave of my wife with my mind not a little troubled how she would look after herself or house in my absence, especially, too, leaving a considerable sum of money in the office, I by coach to the Red Lyon in Aldersgate Street, and there, by agreement, met W. Joyce and Tom Trice, and mounted, I upon a very fine mare that Sir W. Warren helps me to, and so very merrily rode till it was very darke, I leading the way through the darke to Welling, and there, not being very weary, to supper and to bed. But very bad accommodation at the Swan. In this day's journey I met with Mr. White, Cromwell's chaplin that was, and had a great deale of discourse with him. Among others, he tells me that Richard (age 38) is, and hath long been, in France, and is now going into Italy. He owns publiquely that he do correspond, and return him all his money. That Richard (age 38) hath been in some straits at the beginning; but relieved by his friends. That he goes by another name, but do not disguise himself, nor deny himself to any man that challenges him. He tells me, for certain, that offers had been made to the old man, of marriage between the King (age 34) and his daughter (age 26), to have obliged him, but he would not1. He thinks (with me) that it never was in his power to bring in the King (age 34) with the consent of any of his officers about him; and that he scorned to bring him in as Monk (age 55) did, to secure himself and deliver every body else. When I told him of what I found writ in a French book of one Monsieur Sorbiere, that gives an account of his observations herein England; among other things he says, that it is reported that Cromwell did, in his life-time, transpose many of the bodies of the Kings of England from one grave to another, and that by that means it is not known certainly whether the head that is now set up upon a post be that of Cromwell, or of one of the Kings. Mr. White tells me that he believes he never had so poor a low thought in him to trouble himself about it. He says the hand of God is much to be seen; that all his children are in good condition enough as to estate, and that their relations that betrayed their family are all now either hanged or very miserable.

Note 1. The Protector wished the Duke of Buckingham (age 36) to marry his daughter Frances (age 26). She married, 1. Robert Rich, grandson and heir to Robert, Earl of Warwick, on November 11th, 1657, who died in the following February; 2. Sir John Russell, Bart (age 24). She died January 27th, 1721-22 [Note. Other sources day 1720], aged eighty-four. In T. Morrice's life of Roger, Earl of Orrery (age 43), prefixed to Orrery's "State Letters" (Dublin, 1743, vol. i., p. 40), there is a circumstantial account of an interview between Orrery (then Lord Broghill) and Cromwell, in which the former suggested to the latter that Charles II should marry Frances Cromwell (age 26). Cromwell gave great attention to the reasons urged, "but walking two or three turns, and pondering with himself, he told Lord Broghill (age 43) the King (age 34) would never forgive him the death of his father. His lordship desired him to employ somebody to sound the King (age 34) in this matter, to see how he would take it, and offered himself to mediate in it for him. But Cromwell would not consent, but again repeated, 'the King (age 34) cannot and will not forgive the death of his father;' and so he left his lordship, who durst not tell him he had already dealt with his majesty in that affair. Upon this my Lord withdrew, and meeting Cromwell's wife and daughter, they inquired how he had succeeded; of which having given them an account, he added they must try their interest in him, but none could prevail"..

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1664. Very busy all the morning, at noon Creed to me and dined with me, and then he and I to White Hall, there to a Committee of Tangier, where it is worth remembering when Mr. Coventry (age 36) proposed the retrenching some of the charge of the horse, the first word asked by the Duke of Albemarle (age 55) was, "Let us see who commands them", there being three troops. One of them he calls to mind was by Sir Toby Bridges. "Oh!" says he, "there is a very good man. If you must reform1 two of them, be sure let him command the troop that is left".

Note 1. Reform, i.e. disband. See "Memoirs of Sir John Reresby", September 2nd, 1651. "A great many younger brothers and reformed officers of the King's army depended upon him for their meat and drink". So reformado, a discharged or disbanded officer.-M. B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1664. And so to the 'Change [Map], where mighty busy; and so home to dinner, where Mr. Creed and Moore: and after dinner I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 57), to Sir Philip Warwicke (age 54) there, and then to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), about Tangier; and then homeward to the Coffee-house to hear newes. And it seems the Dutch, as I afterwards found by Mr. Coventry's (age 36) letters, have stopped a ship of masts of Sir W. Warren's, coming for us in a Swede's ship, which they will not release upon Sir G. Downing's (age 39) claiming her: which appears as the first act of hostility; and is looked upon as so by Mr. Coventry (age 36).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1664. Thence up and down the gallery, and got my Lord of Albemarle's (age 55) hand to my bill for Povy (age 50), but afterwards was asked some scurvy questions by Povy (age 50) about my demands, which troubled [me], but will do no great hurt I think.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1664. Called up very betimes by Mr. Cholmly (age 32), and with him a good while about some of his Tangier accounts; and, discoursing of the condition of Tangier, he did give me the whole account of the differences between Fitzgerald and Norwood, which were very high on both sides, but most imperious and base on Fitzgerald's, and yet through my Lord FitzHarding's (age 34) means, the Duke of York (age 31) is led rather to blame Norwood and to speake that he should be called home, than be sensible of the other. He is a creature of FitzHarding's (age 34), as a fellow that may be done with what he will, and, himself certainly pretending to be Generall of the King's armies, when Monk (age 56) dyeth, desires to have as few great or wise men in employment as he can now, but such as he can put in and keep under, which he do this coxcomb Fitzgerald. It seems, of all mankind there is no man so led by another as the Duke (age 31) is by Lord Muskerry and this FitzHarding (age 34), insomuch, as when the King (age 34) would have him to be Privy-Purse, the Duke (age 31) wept, and said, "But, Sir, I must have your promise, if you will have my dear Charles from me, that if ever you have occasion for an army again, I may have him with me; believing him to be the best commander of an army in the world". But Mr. Cholmly (age 32) thinks, as all other men I meet with do, that he is a very ordinary fellow. It is strange how the Duke (age 31) also do love naturally, and affect the Irish above the English. He, of the company he carried with him to sea, took above two-thirds Irish and French. He tells me the King (age 34) do hate my Chancellor (age 55); and that they, that is the King (age 34) and my Lord FitzHarding (age 34), do laugh at him for a dull fellow; and in all this business of the Dutch war do nothing by his advice, hardly consulting him. Only he is a good minister in other respects, and the King (age 34) cannot be without him; but, above all, being the Duke's father-in-law, he is kept in; otherwise FitzHarding (age 34) were able to fling down two of him. This, all the wise and grave lords see, and cannot help it; but yield to it. But he bemoans what the end of it may be, the King (age 34) being ruled by these men, as he hath been all along since his coming; to the razing all the strong-holds in Scotland, and giving liberty to the Irish in Ireland, whom Cromwell had settled all in one corner; who are now able, and it is feared everyday a massacre again among them.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1665. To Dover, Kent [Map], where Colonel Stroode (age 37), Lieutenant of the Castle, having received the letter I brought him from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), made me lodge in it, and I was splendidly treated, assisting me from place to place. Here I settled my first Deputy. The Mayor and officers of the Customs were very civil to me.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1665. Thence away to boat again and landed her at the Three Cranes again, and I to the Bridge [Map], and so home, and after shifting myself, being dirty, I to the 'Change [Map], and thence to Mr. Povy's (age 51) and there dined, and thence with him and Creed to my Lord Bellasses' (age 50), and there debated a great while how to put things in order against his going, and so with my Lord in his coach to White Hall, and with him to my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 56), finding him at cards. After a few dull words or two, I away to White Hall again, and there delivered a letter to the Duke of Yorke (age 31) about our Navy business, and thence walked up and down in the gallery, talking with Mr. Slingsby (age 44), who is a very ingenious person, about the Mint and coynage of money. Among other things, he argues that there being £700,000 coined in the Rump time, and by all the Treasurers of that time, it being their opinion that the Rump money was in all payments, one with another, about a tenth part of all their money. Then, says he, to my question, the nearest guess we can make is, that the money passing up and down in business is £7,000,000. To another question of mine he made me fully understand that the old law of prohibiting bullion to be exported, is, and ever was a folly and an injury, rather than good. Arguing thus, that if the exportations exceed importations, then the balance must be brought home in money, which, when our merchants know cannot be carried out again, they will forbear to bring home in money, but let it lie abroad for trade, or keepe in foreign banks: or if our importations exceed our exportations, then, to keepe credit, the merchants will and must find ways of carrying out money by stealth, which is a most easy thing to do, and is every where done; and therefore the law against it signifies nothing in the world. Besides, that it is seen, that where money is free, there is great plenty; where it is restrained, as here, there is a great want, as in Spayne. These and many other fine discourses I had from him.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Mar 1665. I went with his Majesty (age 34) into the lobby behind the House of Lords, where I saw the King (age 34) and the rest of the Lords robe themselves, and got into the House of Lords in a corner near the woolsack, on which the Lord Chancellor sits next below the throne: the King (age 34) sat in all the regalia, the crown-imperial on his head, the sceptre and globe, etc. The Duke of Albemarle (age 56) bore the sword, the Duke of Ormond (age 54), the cap of dignity. The rest of the Lords robed in their places:-a most splendid and august convention. Then came the Speaker and the House of Commons (age 48), and at the bar made a speech, and afterward presented several bills, a nod only passing them, the clerk saying, Le Roy le veult, as to public bills, as to private, Soit faite commeil est desirè. Then, his Majesty (age 34) made a handsome but short speech, commanding my Lord Privy Seal (age 59) to prorogue the Parliament, which he did, the Chancellor (age 56) being ill and absent. I had not before seen this ceremony.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1665. Thence to the Committee of Tangier, where the Duke (age 31) a little, and then left us and we staid. A very great Committee, the Lords Albemarle (age 56), Sandwich (age 39), Barkely (age 63), Fitzharding (age 35), Peterborough (age 43), Ashley (age 43), Sir Thos. Ingram (age 50), Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and others. The whole business was the stating of Povy's (age 51) accounts, of whom to say no more, never could man say worse himself nor have worse said of him than was by the company to his face; I mean, as to his folly and very reflecting words to his honesty. Broke up without anything but trouble and shame, only I got my businesses done to the signing of two bills for the Contractors and Captain Taylor, and so come away well pleased, and home, taking up my wife at the 'Change [Map], to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1665. This night my Lady Wood (age 38) died of the small-pox, and is much lamented among the great persons for a good-natured woman and a good wife, but for all that it was ever believed she was as others are. The Duke (age 31) did give us some commands, and so broke up, not taking leave of him. But the best piece of newes is, that instead of a great many troublesome Lords, the whole business is to be left with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to act as Admirall in his stead; which is a thing that do cheer my heart. For the other would have vexed us with attendance, and never done the business.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1665. So to White Hall to the Committee of Tangier, where there were present, my Lord of Albemarle (age 56), my Lord Peterborough (age 43), Sandwich, Barkeley (age 63), FitzHarding (age 35), Secretary Bennet (age 47), Sir Thomas Ingram (age 50), Sir John Lawson (age 50), Povy (age 51) and I Where, after other business, Povy (age 51) did declare his business very handsomely; that he was sorry he had been so unhappy in his accounts, as not to give their Lordships the satisfaction he intended, and that he was sure his accounts are right, and continues to submit them to examination, and is ready to lay down in ready money the fault of his account; and that for the future, that the work might be better done and with more quiet to him, he desired, by approbation of the Duke (age 31), he might resign his place to Mr. Pepys. Whereupon, Secretary Bennet (age 47) did deliver the Duke's (age 31) command, which was received with great content and allowance beyond expectation; the Secretary repeating also the Duke's character of me. And I could discern my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) was well pleased with me, and signified full satisfaction, and whispered something seriously of me to the Secretary. And there I received their constitution under all their hands presently; so that I am already confirmed their Treasurer, and put into a condition of striking of tallys1 and all without one harsh word or word of dislike, but quite the contrary; which is a good fortune beyond all imagination. Here we rose, and Povy (age 51) and Creed and I, all full of joy, thence to dinner, they setting me down at Sir J. Winter's, by promise, and dined with him; and a worthy fine man he seems to be, and of good discourse, our business was to discourse of supplying the King (age 34) with iron for anchors, if it can be judged good enough, and a fine thing it is to see myself come to the condition of being received by persons of this rank, he being, and having long been, Secretary to the Queene-Mother (age 26).

Note 1. The practice of striking tallies at the Exchequer was a curious survival of an ancient method of keeping accounts. The method adopted is described in Hubert Hall's "Antiquities and Curiosities of the Exchequer", 1891. The following account of the use of tallies, so frequently alluded to in the Diary, was supplied by Lord Braybrooke. Formerly accounts were kept, and large sums of money paid and received, by the King's Exchequer, with little other form than the exchange or delivery of tallies, pieces of wood notched or scored, corresponding blocks being kept by the parties to the account; and from this usage one of the head officers of the Exchequer was called the tallier, or teller. These tallies were often negotiable; Adam Smith, in his "Wealth of Nations", book ii., ch. xi., says that "in 1696 tallies had been at forty, and fifty, and sixty per cent. discount, and bank-notes at twenty per cent". The system of tallies was discontinued in 1824; and the destruction of the old Houses of Parliament, in the night of October 16th, 1834, is thought to have been occasioned by the overheating of the flues, when the furnaces were employed to consume the tallies rendered useless by the alteration in the mode of keeping the Exchequer accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1665. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), the first time that we officers of the Navy have waited upon him since the Duke of Yorke's (age 31) going, who hath deputed him to be Admirall in his absence. And I find him a quiet heavy man, that will help business when he can, and hinder nothing, and am very well pleased with our attendance on him. I did afterwards alone give him thanks for his favour to me about my Tangier business, which he received kindly, and did speak much of his esteem of me.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1665. Up and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) and White Hall, where much business.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1665. Home and after a mouthfull of dinner to the office, where till 6 o'clock, and then to White Hall, and there with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and my Lord Brunckerd (age 45) attended the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about the business of money. I also went to Jervas's, my barber, for my periwigg that was mending there, and there do hear that Jane is quite undone, taking the idle fellow for her husband yet not married, and lay with him several weeks that had another wife and child, and she is now going into Ireland.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1665. Up betimes to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about money to be got for the Navy, or else we must shut up shop.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1665. At noon dined with Mr. Povy (age 51), and then to the getting some business looked over of his, and then I to my Chancellor's (age 56), where to have spoke with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), but the King (age 34) and Council busy, I could not; then to the Old Exchange [Map] and there of my new pretty seamstress bought four bands, and so home, where I found my house mighty neat and clean. Then to my office late, till past 12, and so home to bed. The French Embassadors1 are come incognito before their train, which will hereafter be very pompous. It is thought they come to get our King to joyne with the King of France (age 26) in helping him against Flanders, and they to do the like to us against Holland. We have laine a good while with a good fleete at Harwich [Map]. The Dutch not said yet to be out. We, as high as we make our shew, I am sure, are unable to set out another small fleete, if this should be worsted. Wherefore, God send us peace! I cry.

Note 1. The French ambassadors were Henri de Bourbon, Duc de Verneuil (age 63), natural son of Henry IV. and brother of Henrietta Maria, and M. de Courtin. B.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1665. Up, and to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and thence to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, where new disorder about Mr. Povy's (age 51) accounts, that I think I shall never be settled in my business of Treasurer for him. Here Captain Cooke (age 49) met me, and did seem discontented about my boy Tom's having no time to mind his singing nor lute, which I answered him fully in, that he desired me that I would baste his coate.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1665. Dined at home and thence to White Hall again (where I lose most of my time now-a-days to my great trouble, charge, and loss of time and benefit), and there, after the Council rose, Sir G. Carteret (age 55), my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Thomas Harvy (age 39), and myself, down to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) chamber to him and the Chancellor (age 56), and the Duke of Albemarle (age 56); and there I did give them a large account of the charge of the Navy, and want of money. But strange to see how they held up their hands crying, "What shall we do?" Says my Lord Treasurer (age 58), "Why, what means all this, Mr. Pepys? This is true, you say; but what would you have me to do? I have given all I can for my life. Why will not people lend their money? Why will they not trust the King (age 34) as well as Oliver? Why do our prizes come to nothing, that yielded so much heretofore?" And this was all we could get, and went away without other answer, which is one of the saddest things that, at such a time as this, with the greatest action on foot that ever was in England, nothing should be minded, but let things go on of themselves do as well as they can.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1665. Up and to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), where he shewed me Mr. Coventry's (age 37) letters, how three Dutch privateers are taken, in one whereof Everson's' son is captaine. But they have killed poor Captaine Golding in The Diamond. Two of them, one of 32 and the other of 20 odd guns, did stand stoutly up against her, which hath 46, and the Yarmouth that hath 52 guns, and as many more men as they. So that they did more than we could expect, not yielding till many of their men were killed. And Everson, when he was brought before the Duke of Yorke (age 31), and was observed to be shot through the hat, answered, that he wished it had gone through his head, rather than been taken. One thing more is written: that two of our ships the other day appearing upon the coast of Holland, they presently fired their beacons round the country to give notice. And newes is brought the King (age 34), that the Dutch Smyrna fleete is seen upon the back of Scotland; and thereupon the King (age 34) hath wrote to the Duke (age 31), that he do appoint a fleete to go to the Northward to try to meet them coming home round: which God send!

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1665. Thence to the Cockepitt [Map], and there walked an houre with my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 56) alone in his garden, where he expressed in great words his opinion of me; that I was the right hand of the Navy here, nobody but I taking any care of any thing therein; so that he should not know what could be done without me. At which I was (from him) not a little proud.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Apr 1665. Up and with Creed in Sir W. Batten's (age 64) coach to White Hall. Sir W. Batten (age 64) and I to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where very busy.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1665. And come home to dinner, and then to write a letter to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about the victualling-ships, and carried it myself to the Council-chamber, where it was read; and when they rose, my Chancellor (age 56) passing by stroked me on the head, and told me that the Board had read my letter, and taken order for the punishing of the watermen for not appearing on board the ships1. And so did the King (age 34) afterwards, who do now know me so well, that he never sees me but he speaks to me about our Navy business.

Note 1. Among the State Papers are lists of watermen impressed and put on board the victualling ships. Attached to one of these is a "note of their unfitness and refractory conduct; also that many go ashore to sleep, and are discontent that they, as masters of families, are pressed, while single men are excused on giving money to the pressmen" (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 323).

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1665. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I was sorry to find myself to come a little late, and so home, and at noon going to the 'Change [Map] I met my Lord Brunkard (age 45), Sir Robert Murry (age 57), Deane Wilkins (age 51), and Mr. Hooke (age 29), going by coach to Colonell Blunts (age 61) to dinner. So they stopped and took me with them. Landed at the Tower-wharf, and thence by water to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; and there coaches met us; and to his house, a very stately sight for situation and brave plantations; and among others, a vineyard, the first that ever I did see. No extraordinary dinner, nor any other entertainment good; but only after dinner to the tryall of some experiments about making of coaches easy. And several we tried; but one did prove mighty easy (not here for me to describe, but the whole body of the coach lies upon one long spring), and we all, one after another, rid in it; and it is very fine and likely to take. These experiments were the intent of their coming, and pretty they are.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1665. Thence parted, and to White Hall to the Councilchamber about an order touching the Navy (our being empowered to commit seamen or Masters that do not, being hired or pressed, follow their worke), but they could give us none. So a little vexed at that, because I put in the memorial to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) alone under my own hand, home, and after some time at the office home to bed. My Lord Chief Justice Hide (age 70) did die suddenly this week, a day or two ago, of an apoplexy.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1665. Thence with Sir W. Batten (age 64) to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) and there did much business, and then to the 'Change [Map], and thence off with Sir W. Warren to an ordinary, where we dined and sat talking of most usefull discourse till 5 in the afternoon, and then home, and very busy till late, and so home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1665. Up betimes, and abroad to the Cocke-Pitt, where the Duke (age 56) [of Albemarle] did give Sir W. Batten (age 64) and me an account of the late taking of eight ships, and of his intent to come back to the Gunfleete1 with the fleete presently; which creates us much work and haste therein, against the fleete comes.

Note 1. The Gunfleet Sand off the Essex coast.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1665. Thence to Walthamstow [Map], where (failing at the old place) Sir W. Batten (age 64) by and by come home, I walking up and down the house and garden with my Lady very pleasantly, then to supper very merry, and then back by coach by dark night. I all the afternoon in the coach reading the treasonous book of the Court of King James, printed a great while ago, and worth reading, though ill intended. As soon as I come home, upon a letter from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), I took boat at about 12 at night, and down the River in a gally, my boy and I, down to the Hope and so up again, sleeping and waking, with great pleasure, my business to call upon every one of [continued tomorrow]

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1665. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to give him account of my day's works, where he shewed me letters from Sir G. Downing (age 40), of four days' date, that the Dutch are come out and joyned, well-manned, and resolved to board our best ships, and fight for certain they will.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1665. Up betimes, and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) with an account of my yesterday's actions in writing. So back to the office, where all the morning very busy.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1665. Thence with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) in his coach to my Lord Treasurer (age 58), and there was before the King (age 34) (who ever now calls me by my name) and Chancellor (age 56), and many other great Lords, discoursing about insuring of some of the King's goods, wherein the King (age 34) accepted of my motion that we should; and so away, well pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1665. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 66) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where we did much business, and I with good content to myself; among other things we did examine Nixon and Stanesby, about their late running from two Dutchmen1 for which they are committed to a vessel to carry them to the fleete to be tried. A most fowle unhandsome thing as ever was heard, for plain cowardice on Nixon's part.

Note 1. Captain Edward Nixon, of the "Elizabeth", and Captain John Stanesby, of the "Eagle". John Lanyon wrote to the Navy Commissioners from Plymouth, Devon [Map], May 16th: "Understands from the seamen that the conduct of Captains Nixon and Stanesby in their late engagement with two Dutch capers was very foul; the night they left the Dutch, no lights were put out as formerly, and though in sight of them in the morning, they still kept on their way; the Eagle lay by some time, and both the enemy's ships plied on her, but finding the Elizabeth nearly out of sight she also made sail; it is true the wind and sea were high, but there were no sufficient reasons for such endeavours to get from them". (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 367). Both captains were tried; Nixon was condemned to be shot but Stanesby was cleared, and Charnock asserts that he was commander the "Happy Return" in 1672.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1665. So to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and thence down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], it being Trinity Monday, and so the day of choosing the Master of Trinity House, Deptford [Map] for the next yeare, where, to my great content, I find that, contrary to the practice and design of Sir W. Batten (age 64), to breake the rule and custom of the Company in choosing their Masters by succession, he would have brought in Sir W. Rider or Sir W. Pen (age 44), over the head of Hurleston (who is a knave too besides, I believe), the younger brothers did all oppose it against the elder, and with great heat did carry it for Hurleston, which I know will vex him to the heart.

Pepy's Diary. 26 May 1665. Thence home, and in the evening by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), whom I found mightily off the hooks, that the ships are not gone out of the River; which vexed me to see, insomuch that I am afeard that we must expect some change or addition of new officers brought upon us, so that I must from this time forward resolve to make myself appear eminently serviceable in attending at my office duly and no where else, which makes me wish with all my heart that I had never anything to do with this business of Tangier. After a while at my office, home to supper vexed, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1665. Lord's Day. By water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I hear that Nixon is condemned to be shot to death, for his cowardice, by a Council of War.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1665. Lay long in bed, being in some little pain of the wind collique, then up and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and so to the Swan [Map], and there drank at Herbert's [Map], and so by coach home, it being kept a great holiday through the City, for the birth and restoration of the King (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1665. Thence to visit the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and thence my Lady Sandwich (age 40) and Lord Crew.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1665. Lay troubled in mind abed a good while, thinking of my Tangier and victualling business, which I doubt will fall. Up and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), but missed him.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. To London, to speak with his Majesty (age 35) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) for horse and foot guards for the prisoners at war, committed more particularly to my charge by a commission apart.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Thence with great joy to the Cocke-pitt [Map]; where the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), like a man out of himself with content, new-told me all; and by and by comes a letter from Mr. Coventry's (age 37) own hand to him, which he never opened (which was a strange thing), but did give it me to open and read, and consider what was fit for our office to do in it, and leave the letter with Sir W. Clerke; which upon such a time and occasion was a strange piece of indifference, hardly pardonable. I copied out the letter, and did also take minutes out of Sir W. Clerke's other letters; and the sum of the newes is:

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1665. Up, and in my yesterday's new suit to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and after a turne in White Hall, and then in Westminster Hall [Map], returned, and with my taylor bought some gold lace for my sleeve hands in Pater Noster Row [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. How poorly Sir John Lawson (age 50) performed, notwithstanding all that was said of him; and how his ship turned out of the way, while Sir J. Lawson (age 50) himself was upon the deck, to the endangering of the whole fleete. It therefore troubles my Lord that Mr. Coventry (age 37) should not mention a word of him in his relation. I did, in answer, offer that I was sure the relation was not compiled by Mr. Coventry (age 37), but by L'Estrange, out of several letters, as I could witness; and that Mr. Coventry's (age 37) letter that he did give the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did give him as much right as the Prince (age 45), for I myself read it first and then copied it out, which I promised to show my Lord, with which he was somewhat satisfied. From that discourse my Lord did begin to tell me how much he was concerned to dispose of his children, and would have my advice and help; and propounded to match my Lady Jemimah to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son, which I approved of, and did undertake the speaking with him about it as from myself, which my Lord liked. So parted, with my head full of care about this business.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who I find at Secretary Bennet's (age 47), there being now no other great Statesman, I think, but my Chancellor (age 56), in towne. I received several commands from them; among others, to provide some bread and cheese for the garrison at Guernsey [Map], which they promised to see me paid for.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1665. At noon dined at home, and then to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), by appointment, to give him an account of some disorder in the Yarde at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], by workmen's going away of their owne accord, for lacke of money, to get work of hay-making, or any thing else to earne themselves bread1.

Note 1. There are several letters among the State Papers from Commissioner Thomas Middleton relating to the want of workmen at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] Dockyard. On June 29th Middleton wrote to Pepys, "The ropemakers have discharged themselves for want of money, and gone into the country to make hay". The blockmakers, the joiners, and the sawyers all refused to work longer without money ("Calendar", 1664-65, p. 453).

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1665. Up and by water with Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) to White Hall to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where, after a little business, we parted, and I to the Harp and Ball, and there staid a while talking to Mary, and so home to dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1665. After dinner to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) again, and so to the Swan [Map], and there 'demeurais un peu'de temps con la fille' [spending a little time with the girl], and so to the Harp and Ball, and alone 'demeurais un peu de temps baisant1 la [spending a little time kissing her]', and so away home and late at the office about letters, and so home, resolving from this night forwards to close all my letters, if possible, and end all my business at the office by daylight, and I shall go near to do it and put all my affairs in the world in good order, the season growing so sickly, that it is much to be feared how a man can escape having a share with others in it, for which the good Lord God bless me, or to be fitted to receive it.

Note 1. TT. baisant somewhat abiguous. May mean more than kissing.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1665. Anon I took my leave, and away by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), where he tells me that I must be at Hampton Court [Map] anon. So I home to look over my Tangier papers, and having a coach of Mr. Povy's (age 51) attending me, by appointment, in order to my coming to dine at his country house at Brainford, where he and his family is, I went and Mr. Tasbrough with me therein, it being a pretty chariot, but most inconvenient as to the horses throwing dust and dirt into one's eyes and upon one's clothes. There I staid a quarter of an houre, Creed being there, and being able to do little business (but the less the better). Creed rode before, and Mr. Povy (age 51) and I after him in the chariot; and I was set down by him at the Parke pale, where one of his saddle horses was ready for me, he himself not daring to come into the house or be seen, because that a servant of his, out of his horse, happened to be sicke, but is not yet dead, but was never suffered to come into his house after he was ill. But this opportunity was taken to injure Povy (age 51), and most horribly he is abused by some persons hereupon, and his fortune, I believe, quite broke; but that he hath a good heart to bear, or a cunning one to conceal his evil.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1665. So I to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and there with much ado did get his consent in part to my having the money promised for Tangier, and the other part did not concur. So being displeased with this, I back to the office and there sat alone a while doing business, and then by a solemn invitation to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map], where a great dinner and company, Captain Dobbin's feast for Elder Brother. But I broke up before the dinner half over and by water to the Harp and Ball, and thence had Mary meet me at the New Exchange, and there took coach and I with great pleasure took the ayre to Highgate, and thence to Hampstead, much pleased with her company, pretty and innocent, and had what pleasure almost I would with her, and so at night, weary and sweaty, it being very hot beyond bearing, we back again, and I set her down in St. Martin's Lane, and so I to the evening 'Change [Map], and there hear all the towne full that Ostend is delivered to us, and that Alderman Backewell (age 47)1 did go with £50,000 to that purpose. But the truth of it I do not know, but something I believe there is extraordinary in his going. So to the office, where I did what I could as to letters, and so away to bed, shifting myself, and taking some Venice treakle, feeling myself out of order, and thence to bed to sleep.

Note 1. Among the State Papers is a letter from the King (age 35) to the Lord General (dated August 8th, 1665): "Alderman Backwell (age 47) being in great straits for the second payment he has to make for the service in Flanders, as much tin is to be transmitted to him as will raise the sum. Has authorized him and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with the tin farmers for 500 tons of tin to be speedily transported under good convoy; but if, on consulting with Alderman Backwell (age 47), this plan of the tin seems insufficient, then without further difficulty he is to dispose for that purpose of the £10,000 assigned for pay of the Guards, not doubting that before that comes due, other ways will be found for supplying it; the payment in Flanders is of such importance that some means must be found of providing for it" (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, pp. 508, 509).

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1665. At 6 o'clock up and to Westminster (where and all the towne besides, I hear, the plague encreases), and, it being too soon to go to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), I to the Harp and Ball, and there made a bargain with Mary to go forth with me in the afternoon, which she with much ado consented to.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1665. Up and to the office, where all the morning, and so to my house and eat a bit of victuals, and so to the 'Change [Map], where a little business and a very thin Exchange [Map]; and so walked through London to the Temple [Map], where I took water for Westminster to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to wait on him, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there paid for my newes-books, and did give Mrs. Michell, who is going out of towne because of the sicknesse, and her husband, a pint of wine, and so Sir W. Warren coming to me by appointment we away by water home, by the way discoursing about the project I have of getting some money and doing the King (age 35) good service too about the mast docke at Woolwich, Kent [Map], which I fear will never be done if I do not go about it.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. Back to White Hall, and by and by comes the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and there, after a little discourse, I by coach home, not meeting with but two coaches, and but two carts from White Hall to my own house, that I could observe; and the streets mighty thin of people. I met this noon with Dr. Burnett, who told me, and I find in the newsbook this week that he posted upon the 'Change [Map], that whoever did spread the report that, instead of the plague, his servant was by him killed, it was forgery, and shewed me the acknowledgment of the master of the pest-house, that his servant died of a bubo on his right groine, and two spots on his right thigh, which is the plague.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1665. I waited on the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who was resolved to stay at the Cock-pit, in St. James's Park. Died this week in London, 4,000. See Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Sep 1665. Thence by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56): all the way fires on each side of the Thames, and strange to see in broad daylight two or three burials upon the Bankeside, one at the very heels of another: doubtless all of the plague; and yet at least forty or fifty people going along with every one of them.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1665. Came home, there perishing near 10,000 poor creatures weekly; however, I went all along the city and suburbs from Kent Street to St James', a dismal passage, and dangerous to see so many coffins exposed in the streets, now thin of people; the shops shut up, and all in mournful silence, not knowing whose turn might be next. I went to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) for a pest-ship, to wait on our infected men, who were not a few. See Great Plague of London.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Up, and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there fitted myself in several businesses to go to London, where I have not been now a pretty while. But before I went from the office newes is brought by word of mouth that letters are now just now brought from the fleete of our taking a great many more of the Dutch fleete, in which I did never more plainly see my command of my temper in my not admitting myself to receive any kind of joy from it till I had heard the certainty of it, and therefore went by water directly to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I find a letter of the Lath from Solebay [Map], from my Lord Sandwich (age 40), of the fleete's meeting with about eighteen more of the Dutch fleete, and his taking of most of them; and the messenger says, they had taken three after the letter was wrote and sealed; which being twenty-one, and the fourteen took the other day, is forty-five sail; some of which are good, and others rich ships, which is so great a cause of joy in us all that my Lord and everybody is highly joyed thereat. And having taken a copy of my Lord's letter, I away back again to the Beare [Map] at the bridge foot, being full of wind and out of order, and there called for a biscuit and a piece of cheese and gill of sacke, being forced to walk over the Bridge [Map], toward the 'Change [Map], and the plague being all thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1665. Round about and next door on every side is the plague, but I did not value it, but there did what I would 'con elle', and so away to Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) to discourse of our confounded business of prisoners, and sick and wounded seamen, wherein he and we are so much put out of order1. And here he showed me his gardens, which are for variety of evergreens, and hedge of holly, the finest things I ever saw in my life2.

Note 1. Each of the Commissioners for the Sick and Wounded was appointed to a particular district, and Evelyn's district was Kent and Sussex. On September 25th, 1665, Evelyn wrote in his Diary: "my Lord Admiral being come from ye fleete to Greenewich, I went thence with him to ye Cockpit [Map] to consult with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56). I was peremptory that unlesse we had £10,000 immediately, the prisoners would starve, and 'twas proposed it should be rais'd out of the E. India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich (age 40). They being but two of ye Commission, and so not impower'd to determine, sent an expresse to his Majesty and Council to know what they should do".

Note 2. Evelyn (age 44) purchased Sayes Court [Map], Deptford, in 1653, and laid out his gardens, walks, groves, enclosures, and plantations, which afterwards became famous for their beauty. When he took the place in hand it was nothing but an open field of one hundred acres, with scarcely a hedge in it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1665. Called up by break of day by Captain Cocke (age 48), by agreement, and he and I in his coach through Kent-streete (a sad place through the plague, people sitting sicke and with plaisters about them in the street begging) to Viner's (age 34) and Colvill's about money business, and so to my house, and there I took £300 in order to the carrying it down to my Lord Sandwich (age 40) in part of the money I am to pay for Captain Cocke (age 48) by our agreement. So I took it down, and down I went to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to my office, and there sat busy till noon, and so home to dinner, and thence to the office again, and by and by to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) by water late, where I find he had remembered that I had appointed to come to him this day about money, which I excused not doing sooner; but I see, a dull fellow, as he is, do sometimes remember what another thinks he mindeth not. My business was about getting money of the East India Company; but, Lord! to see how the Duke himself magnifies himself in what he had done with the Company; and my Lord Craven (age 57) what the King (age 35) could have done without my Lord Duke, and a deale of stir, but most mightily what a brave fellow I am.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1665. Thus ends this year, to my great joy, in this manner. I have raised my estate from £1300 in this year to £4400. I have got myself greater interest, I think, by my diligence, and my employments encreased by that of Treasurer for Tangier, and Surveyour of the Victualls. It is true we have gone through great melancholy because of the great plague, and I put to great charges by it, by keeping my family long at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and myself and another part of my family, my clerks, at my charge at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and a mayde at London; but I hope the King (age 35) will give us some satisfaction for that. But now the plague is abated almost to nothing, and I intending to get to London as fast as I can. My family, that is my wife and maids, having been there these two or three weeks. The Dutch war goes on very ill, by reason of lack of money; having none to hope for, all being put into disorder by a new Act that is made as an experiment to bring credit to the Exchequer, for goods and money to be advanced upon the credit of that Act. I have never lived so merrily (besides that I never got so much) as I have done this plague time, by my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) and Captain Cocke's (age 48) good company, and the acquaintance of Mrs. Knipp, Coleman and her husband, and Mr. Laneare, and great store of dancings we have had at my cost (which I was willing to indulge myself and wife) at my lodgings. The great evil of this year, and the only one indeed, is the fall of my Lord of Sandwich (age 40), whose mistake about the prizes hath undone him, I believe, as to interest at Court; though sent (for a little palliating it) Embassador into Spayne, which he is now fitting himself for. But the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) goes with the Prince to sea this next year, and my Lord very meanly spoken of; and, indeed, his miscarriage about the prize goods is not to be excused, to suffer a company of rogues to go away with ten times as much as himself, and the blame of all to be deservedly laid upon him1. My whole family hath been well all this while, and all my friends I know of, saving my aunt Bell, who is dead, and some children of my cozen Sarah's, of the plague. But many of such as I know very well, dead; yet, to our great joy, the town fills apace, and shops begin to be open again. Pray God continue the plague's decrease! for that keeps the Court away from the place of business, and so all goes to rack as to publick matters, they at this distance not thinking of it.

Note 1. According to Granville Penn ("Memorials of Sir W. Penn (age 44)", ii. 488 n.) £2000 went to Lord Sandwich (age 40) and £8000 among eight others.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jan 1666. Up, and all the morning till three in the afternoon examining and fitting up my Pursers' paper and sent it away by an Expresse. Then comes my wife, and I set her to get supper ready against I go to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and back again; and at the Duke's with great joy I received the good news of the decrease of the plague this week to 70, and but 253 in all; which is the least Bill hath been known these twenty years in the City. Through the want of people in London is it, that must make it so low below the ordinary number for Bills.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1666. Being mighty weary last night, lay long this morning, then up and to the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 65), Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I met, and toward noon took coach and to White Hall, where I had the opportunity to take leave of the Prince (age 46), and again of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57); and saw them kiss the King's (age 35) hands and the Duke's (age 32); and much content, indeed, there seems to be in all people at their going to sea, and [they] promise themselves much good from them. This morning the House of Parliament do meet, only to adjourne again till winter. The plague, I hear, encreases in the towne much, and exceedingly in the country everywhere.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1665. This afternoon I waited on the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and so to Mrs. Croft's, where I found and saluted Mrs. Burrows, who is a very pretty woman for a mother of so many children. But, Lord! to see how the plague spreads. It being now all over King's Streete, at the Axe, and next door to it, and in other places.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. Thence I by water to Westminster, and the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) being gone to dinner to my Lord of Canterbury's (age 67), I thither, and there walked and viewed the new hall, a new old-fashion hall as much as possible. Begun, and means left for the ending of it, by Bishop Juxon.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1665. Thence to my office awhile, full of business, and thence by coach to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), not meeting one coach going nor coming from my house thither and back again, which is very strange. One of my chief errands was to speak to Sir W. Clerke (age 42) about my wife's brother, who importunes me, and I doubt he do want mightily, but I can do little for him there as to employment in the army, and out of my purse I dare not for fear of a precedent, and letting him come often to me is troublesome and dangerous too, he living in the dangerous part of the town, but I will do what I can possibly for him and as soon as I can.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1665. At night home and to bed, my head full of business, and among others, this day come a letter to me from Paris from my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17), about his coming over; and I have sent this night an order from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) for a ship of 36 guns to [go] to Calais to fetch him.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1665. Came his Grace the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), Lord General of all his Majesty's (age 35) forces, to visit me, and carried me to dine with him.

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. The King (age 35) to the Lord General (age 56). Alderman Backwell (age 47) being in great straits for the second payment he has to make for the service in Flanders, as much tin is to be transmitted to him as will raise the sum. Has authorized him and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with the tin farmers for 500 tons of tin to be speedily transported under good convoy; but if on consulting with Alderman Backwell (age 47), this plan of the tin seems insufficient, then without further difficulty, he is to dispose for that purpose of the £10,000. assigned for pay of the Guards, not doubting that before that comes due, other ways will be found for supplying it; the payment in Flanders is of such importance that some means must be found of providing for it. [Ent. Book 17, pp. 122-3.]

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. 65. The King (age 35) to the Lord General (age 56) and Sir George Carteret (age 55). Authorizes them to treat with the farmers of tin for the sale or deposit for a year of 500 tons of tin, to be sent to Flanders and sold to meet the second payment which Alderman Backwell (age 47) has to make there. They are to agree with the farmers as best they can, giving tallies on the Royal aid to secure repayment, to conclude the contract at once, the pressing importance of the service admitting no delay, and to have vessels and convoys ready to transmit the tin to Ostend. [Ent. Book 17, p. 125.]

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1665. So to my office a little, and then to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) about some business. The streets mighty empty all the way, now even in London, which is a sad sight. And to Westminster Hall [Map], where talking, hearing very sad stories from Mrs. Mumford; among others, of Mrs. Michell's son's family. And poor Will, that used to sell us ale at the Hall-door, his wife and three children died, all, I think, in a day.

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. 63. Draft of the above. The King to the Farmers of tin. Having determined to raise money beyond seas by sale of tin, has authorized the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with them for sale or deposit of 500 tons, on good security for their forbearance. The occasion being pressing, admits of no return nor reply. [£nt. Book 17, p. 124.]

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1665. At noon am sent for by Sir G. Carteret (age 55), to meet him and my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) at Deptford, Kent [Map], but my Lord did not come thither, he having crossed the river at Gravesend, Kent [Map] to Dagenhams, whither I dare not follow him, they being afeard of me; but Sir G. Carteret (age 55) says, he is a most sweet youth in every circumstance. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being in haste of going to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) and the Archbishop (age 67), he was pettish, and so I could not fasten any discourse, but take another time.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1665. Thence he and I to Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) by invitation, where Sir W. Batten (age 64) and my Lady, and my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and all of us dined upon a venison pasty and other good meat, but nothing well dressed. But my pleasure lay in getting some bills signed by Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and promise of present payment from Mr. Fenn, which do rejoice my heart, it being one of the heaviest things I had upon me, that so much of the little I have should lie (viz. near £1000) in the King's hands. Here very merry and (Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being gone presently after dinner) to Captain Cocke's (age 48), and there merry, and so broke up and I by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), with whom I spoke a great deale in private, they being designed to send a fleete of ships privately to the Streights. No news yet from our fleete, which is much wondered at, but the Duke says for certain guns have been heard to the northward very much. It was dark before I could get home, and so land at Church-yard stairs, where, to my great trouble, I met a dead corps of the plague, in the narrow ally just bringing down a little pair of stairs. But I thank God I was not much disturbed at it. However, I shall beware of being late abroad again.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. Slept till 8 o'clock, and then up and met with letters from the King (age 35) and Lord Arlington (age 47), for the removal of our office to Greenwich, Kent [Map]. I also wrote letters, and made myself ready to go to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), at Windsor; and having borrowed a horse of Mr. Blackbrough, sent him to wait for me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) door: when, on a sudden, a letter comes to us from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to tell us that the fleete is all come back to Solebay [Map], and are presently to be dispatched back again. Whereupon I presently by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to know what news; and there I saw a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and also from Sir W. Coventry (age 37) and Teddiman; how my Lord having commanded Teddiman with twenty-two ships1.

Note 1. A news letter of August 19th (Salisbury), gives the following account of this affair:-"The Earl of Sandwich being on the Norway coast, ordered Sir Thomas Teddeman with 20 ships to attack 50 Dutch merchant ships in Bergen harbour; six convoyers had so placed themselves that only four or five of the ships could be reached at once. The Governor of Bergen fired on our ships, and placed 100 pieces of ordnance and two regiments of foot on the rocks to attack them, but they got clear without the loss of a ship, only 500 men killed or wounded, five or six captains among them. The fleet has gone to Sole Bay to repair losses and be ready to encounter the Dutch fleet, which is gone northward" (Calendar of State Papers, 1664-65, pp. 526, 527). Medals were struck in Holland, the inscription in Dutch on one of these is thus translated: "Thus we arrest the pride of the English, who extend their piracy even against their friends, and who insulting the forts of Norway, violate the rights of the harbours of King Frederick; but, for the reward of their audacity, see their vessels destroyed by the balls of the Dutch" (Hawkins's "Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland", ed. Franks and Grueber, 1885, vol. i., p. 508). Sir Gilbert Talbot's "True Narrative of the Earl of Sandwich's Attempt upon Bergen with the English Fleet on the 3rd of August, 1665, and the Cause of his Miscarriage thereupon", is in the British Museum (Harl. MS., No. 6859). It is printed in "Archaeologia", vol. xxii., p. 33. The Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map] also gave an account of the action in a letter to his mother (Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth edition, vol. iv., p. 611). Sir John Denham (age 50), in his "Advice to a Painter", gives a long satirical account of the affair. A coloured drawing of the attack upon Bergen, on vellum, showing the range of the ships engaged, is in the British Museum. Shortly after the Bergen affair forty of the Dutch merchant vessels, on their way to Holland, fell into the hands of the English, and in Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 364, is a list of the prizes taken on the 3rd and 4th September. The troubles connected with these prizes and the disgrace into which Lord Sandwich (age 40) fell are fully set forth in subsequent pages of the Diary. Evelyn writes in his Diary (November 27th, 1665): "There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders who were at ye taking of ye East India prizes to break bulk and take to themselves jewels, silkes, &c., tho' I believe some whom I could name fill'd their pockets, my Lo. Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossess'd ye Lo. Generall (Duke of Albemarle (age 56)), for he spake to me of it with much zeale and concerne, and I believe laid load enough on Lo. Sandwich at Oxford". (of which but fifteen could get thither, and of those fifteen but eight or nine could come up to play) to go to Bergen; where, after several messages to and fro from the Governor of the Castle, urging that Teddiman ought not to come thither with more than five ships, and desiring time to think of it, all the while he suffering the Dutch ships to land their guns to their best advantage; Teddiman on the second pretence, began to play at the Dutch ships, (wherof ten East India-men,) and in three hours' time (the town and castle, without any provocation, playing on our ships,) they did cut all our cables, so as the wind being off the land, did force us to go out, and rendered our fire-ships useless; without doing any thing, but what hurt of course our guns must have done them: we having lost five commanders, besides Mr. Edward Montagu, and Mr. Windham. This Mr. Windham had entered into a formal engagement with the Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map], "not without ceremonies of religion, that if either of them died, he should appear, and give the other notice of the future state, if there was any". He was probably one of the brothers of Sir William Wyndham, Bart. See Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth. edition, vol. iv., p. 615. B.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1665. Called up, by message from Lord Bruncker (age 45) and the rest of my fellows, that they will meet me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) this morning; so I up, and weary, however, got thither before them, and spoke with my Lord, and with him and other gentlemen to walk in the Parke, where, I perceive, he spends much of his time, having no whither else to go; and here I hear him speake of some Presbyter people that he caused to be apprehended yesterday, at a private meeting in Covent Garden [Map], which he would have released upon paying £5 per man to the poor, but it was answered, they would not pay anything; so he ordered them to another prison from the guard.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1665. At the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) I overheard some examinations of the late plot that is discoursed of and a great deale of do there is about it. Among other discourses, I heard read, in the presence of the Duke (age 31), an examination and discourse of Sir Philip Howard's (age 34), with one of the plotting party. In many places these words being, "Then", said Sir P. Howard (age 34), "if you so come over to the King (age 35), and be faithfull to him, you shall be maintained, and be set up with a horse and armes", and I know not what. And then said such a one, "Yes, I will be true to the King (age 35)". "But, damn me", said Sir Philip, "will you so and so?" And thus I believe twelve times Sir P. Howard answered him a "damn me", which was a fine way of rhetorique to persuade a Quaker or Anabaptist from his persuasion. And this was read in the hearing of Sir P. Howard (age 34), before the Duke (age 31) and twenty more officers, and they make sport of it, only without any reproach, or he being anything ashamed of it1! But it ended, I remember, at last, "But such a one (the plotter) did at last bid them remember that he had not told them what King he would be faithfull to".

Note 1. This republican plot was described by the Chancellor (age 56) in a speech delivered on October 9th, when parliament met at Oxford.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1665. After being at Greenwich, Kent [Map] a little while, I to London, to my house, there put many more things in order for my totall remove, sending away my girle Susan and other goods down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and I by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and thence home late by water.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1665. So I up, and after being trimmed, the first time I have been touched by a barber these twelvemonths, I think, and more, went to Sir J. Minnes's (age 66), where I find all out of order still, they having not seen one another till by and by Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and Sir W. Batten (age 64) met, to go into my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach, and so we four to Lambeth, Surrey [Map], and thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to inform him what we have done as to the fleete, which is very little, and to receive his direction.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1665. Thence by coach to Lambeth, Surrey [Map], his Lordship, and all our office, and Mr. Evelyn (age 44), to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where, after the compliment with my Lord very kind, we sat down to consult of the disposing and supporting of the fleete with victuals and money, and for the sicke men and prisoners; and I did propose the taking out some goods out of the prizes, to the value of £10,000, which was accorded to, and an order, drawn up and signed by the Duke (age 31) and my Lord, done in the best manner I can, and referred to my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66), but what inconveniences may arise from it I do not yet see, but fear there may be many.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Sep 1665. My Lord Admiral (age 40) being come from the fleet to Greenwich, I went thence with him to the Cock-pit, to consult with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56). I was peremptory that, unless we had £10,000 immediately, the prisoners would starve, and it was proposed it should be raised out of the East India prizes now taken by Lord Sandwich (age 40). They being but two of the commission, and so not empowered to determine, sent an express to his Majesty (age 35) and Council, to know what they should do. In the meantime, I had five vessels, with competent guards, to keep the prisoners in for the present, to be placed as I should think best. After dinner (which was at the General's) I went over to visit his Grace, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 67), at Lambeth [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 27 Sep 1665. I thence to Captain Cocke's (age 48), [and] (he not yet come from town) to Mr. Evelyn's (age 44), where much company; and thence in his coach with him to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) by Lambeth, who was in a mighty pleasant humour; there the Duke (age 31) tells us that the Dutch do stay abroad, and our fleet must go out again, or to be ready to do so.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1665. To the General (age 56) again, to acquaint him of the deplorable state of our men for want of provisions; returned with orders.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1665. I abroad to the office and thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), all my way reading a book of Mr. Evelyn's (age 44) translating and sending me as a present, about directions for gathering a Library1 but the book is above my reach, but his epistle to my Chancellor (age 56) is a very fine piece.

Note 1. Instructions concerning erecting of a Library, presented to my Lord the President De Mesme by Gilbert Naudeus, and now interpreted by Jo. Evelyn, Esquire. London, 1661: This little book was dedicated to Lord Clarendon by the translator. It was printed while Evelyn was abroad, and is full of typographical errors; these are corrected in a copy mentioned in Evelyn's "Miscellaneous Writings", 1825, p. xii, where a letter to Dr. GoDolphin on the subject is printed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1665. Up, and having sent for Mr. Gawden he come to me, and he and I largely discoursed the business of his Victualling, in order to the adding of partners to him or other ways of altering it, wherein I find him ready to do anything the King (age 35) would have him do. So he and I took his coach and to Lambeth and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about it, and so back again, where he left me. In our way discoursing of the business and contracting a great friendship with him, and I find he is a man most worthy to be made a friend, being very honest and gratefull, and in the freedom of our discourse he did tell me his opinion and knowledge of Sir W. Pen (age 44) to be, what I know him to be, as false a man as ever was born, for so, it seems, he hath been to him. He did also tell me, discoursing how things are governed as to the King's treasure, that, having occasion for money in the country, he did offer Alderman Maynell to pay him down money here, to be paid by the Receiver in some county in the country, upon whom Maynell had assignments, in whose hands the money also lay ready. But Maynell refused it, saying that he could have his money when he would, and had rather it should lie where it do than receive it here in towne this sickly time, where he hath no occasion for it. But now the evil is that he hath lent this money upon tallys which are become payable, but he finds that nobody looks after it, how long the money is unpaid, and whether it lies dead in the Receiver's hands or no, so the King (age 35) he pays Maynell 10 per cent. while the money lies in his Receiver's hands to no purpose but the benefit of the Receiver.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1665. He gone I to my office, where very busy drawing up a letter by way of discourse to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about my conception how the business of the Victualling should be ordered, wherein I have taken great pains, and I think have hitt the right if they will but follow it. At this very late and so home to our lodgings to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1665. Up and to the office along with Mr. Childe, whom I sent for to discourse about the victualling business, who will not come into partnership (no more will Captain Beckford), but I do find him a mighty understanding man, and one I will keep a knowledge of. Did business, though not much, at the office; because of the horrible crowd and lamentable moan of the poor seamen that lie starving in the streets for lack of money. Which do trouble and perplex me to the heart; and more at noon when we were to go through them, for then a whole hundred of them followed us; some cursing, some swearing, and some praying to us. And that that made me more troubled was a letter come this afternoon from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), signifying the Dutch to be in sight, with 80 sayle, yesterday morning, off of Solebay, Southwold [Map], coming right into the bay. God knows what they will and may do to us, we having no force abroad able to oppose them, but to be sacrificed to them.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1665. Lord's Day. Up and, after being trimmed, to the office, whither I upon a letter from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to me, to order as many ships forth out of the river as I can presently, to joyne to meet the Dutch; having ordered all the Captains of the ships in the river to come to me, I did some business with them, and so to Captain Cocke's (age 48) to dinner, he being in the country. But here his brother Solomon was, and, for guests, myself, Sir G. Smith (age 50), and a very fine lady, one Mrs. Penington, and two more gentlemen. But, both [before] and after dinner, most witty discourse with this lady, who is a very fine witty lady, one of the best I ever heard speake, and indifferent handsome.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1665. Thence away and to the office at London, where I did some business about my money and private accounts, and there eat a bit of goose of Mr. Griffin's, and so by water, it raining most miserably, to Greenwich, Kent [Map], calling on several vessels in my passage. Being come there I hear another seizure hath been made of our goods by one Captain Fisher that hath been at Chatham, Kent [Map] by warrant of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and is come in my absence to Tooker's and viewed them, demanding the key of the constable, and so sealed up the door. I to the house, but there being no officers nor constable could do nothing, but back to my office full of trouble about this, and there late about business, vexed to see myself fall into this trouble and concernment in a thing that I want instruction from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) whether I should appear in it or no, and so home to bed, having spent two hours, I and my boy, at Mr. Glanvill's removing of faggots to make room to remove our goods to, but when done I thought it not fit to use it. The newes of the killing of the [King of] France is wholly untrue, and they say that of the Pope too.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1665. Up, my head full of business, and called upon also by Sir John Shaw, to whom I did give a civil answer about our prize goods, that all his dues as one of the Farmers of the Customes are paid, and showed him our Transire; with which he was satisfied, and parted, ordering his servants to see the weight of them. I to the office, and there found an order for my coming presently to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and what should it be, but to tell me, that, if my Lord Sandwich (age 40) do not come to towne, he do resolve to go with the fleete to sea himself, the Dutch, as he thinks, being in the Downes, and so desired me to get a pleasure boat for to take him in to-morrow morning, and do many other things, and with a great liking of me, and my management especially, as that coxcombe my Lord Craven (age 57) do tell me, and I perceive it, and I am sure take pains enough to deserve it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1665. So that being done, I left the goods to be watched by men on their part and ours, and so to the office by noon, whither by and by comes Captain Cocke (age 48), whom I had with great care sent for by expresse the last night, and so I with him to his house and there eat a bit, and so by coach to Lambeth, Surrey [Map], and I took occasion first to go to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to acquaint him with some thing of what had been done this morning in behalf of a friend absent, which did give a good entrance and prevented their possessing the Duke with anything of evil of me by their report, and by and by in comes. Captain Cocke (age 48) and tells his whole story.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1665. Up, and receive a stop from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) of setting out any more ships, or providing a pleasure boat for himself, which I am glad of, and do see, what I thought yesterday, that this resolution of his was a sudden one and silly.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Oct 1665. By and by comes Cocke (age 48) to tell me that Fisher and his fellow were last night mightily satisfied and promised all friendship, but this morning he finds them to have new tricks and shall be troubled with them. So he being to go down to Erith, Kent with them this afternoon about giving security, I advised him to let them go by land, and so he and I (having eat something at his house) by water to Erith, Kent, but they got thither before us, and there we met Mr. Seymour (age 32), one of the Commissioners for Prizes, and a Parliament-man, and he was mighty high, and had now seized our goods on their behalf; and he mighty imperiously would have all forfeited, and I know not what. I thought I was in the right in a thing I said and spoke somewhat earnestly, so we took up one another very smartly, for which I was sorry afterwards, shewing thereby myself too much concerned, but nothing passed that I valued at all. But I could not but think [it odd] that a Parliament-man, in a serious discourse before such persons as we and my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and Sir John Minnes (age 66), should quote Hudibras, as being the book I doubt he hath read most. They I doubt will stand hard for high security, and Cocke (age 48) would have had me bound with him for his appearing, but I did stagger at it, besides Seymour (age 32) do stop the doing it at all till he has been with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56).

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Oct 1665. To London, and went through the whole city, having occasion to alight out of the coach in several places about business of money, when I was environed with multitudes of poor, pestiferous creatures begging alms; the shops universally shut up, a dreadful prospect! I dined with my Lord General (age 56); was to receive £10,000, and had guards to convey both myself and it, and so returned home, through God's infinite mercy.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1665. But, Lord! to hear the silly talke between these three great people! Yet I have no reason to find fault, the Duke (age 56) and Lord Craven (age 57) being my very great friends. Here did the business I come about, and so back home by water, and there Cocke (age 48) comes to me and tells me that he is come to an understanding with Fisher, and that he must give him £100, and that he shall have his goods in possession to-morrow, they being all weighed to-day, which pleases me very well.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1665. So to the office, and there very busy till about noon comes Sir W. Warren, and he goes and gets a bit of meat ready at the King's Head [Map] for us, and I by and by thither, and we dined together, and I am not pleased with him about a little business of Tangier that I put to him to do for me, but however, the hurt is not much, and his other matters of profit to me continue very likely to be good. Here we spent till 2 o'clock, and so I set him on shore, and I by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), where I find him with Lord Craven (age 57) and Lieutenant of the Tower (age 50) about him; among other things, talking of ships to get of the King (age 35) to fetch coles for the poore of the city, which is a good worke.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1665. But my heart and head to-night is full of the Victualling business, being overjoyed and proud at my success in my proposal about it, it being read before the King (age 35), Duke (age 32), and the Caball with complete applause and satisfaction. This Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and Sir W. Coventry (age 37) both writ me, besides Sir W. Coventry's (age 37) letter to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which I read yesterday, and I hope to find my profit in it also. So late home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. At the Tower [Map] found my Lord Duke (age 56) and [his wife] Duchesse (age 46) at dinner; so I sat down. And much good cheer, the Lieutenant (age 50) and his lady (age 53), and several officers with the Duke. But, Lord! to hear the silly talk that was there, would make one mad; the Duke having none almost but fools about him. Much of their talke about the Dutch coming on shore, which they believe they may some of them have been and steal sheep, and speak all in reproach of them in whose hands the fleete is; but, Lord helpe him, there is something will hinder him and all the world in going to sea, which is want of victuals; for we have not wherewith to answer our service; and how much better it would have been if the Duke's advice had been taken for the fleete to have gone presently out; but, God helpe the King (age 35)! while no better counsels are given, and what is given no better taken.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Here I took boat (leaving him there) and down to the Tower [Map], where I hear the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) is, and I to Lombard Street [Map], but can get no money. So upon the Exchange [Map], which is very empty, God knows! and but mean people there. The newes for certain that the Dutch are come with their fleete before Margett [Map], and some men were endeavouring to come on shore when the post come away, perhaps to steal some sheep.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Thence after dinner receiving many commands from the Duke (age 56), I to our office on the Hill, and there did a little business and to Colvill's again, and so took water at the Tower [Map], and there met with Captain Cocke (age 48), and he down with me to Greenwich, Kent [Map], I having received letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to-day, speaking very high about the prize goods, that he would have us to fear nobody, but be very confident in what we have done, and not to confess any fault or doubt of what he hath done; for the King (age 35) hath allowed it, and do now confirm it, and sent orders, as he says, for nothing to be disturbed that his Lordshipp hath ordered therein as to the division of the goods to the fleete; which do comfort us, but my Lord writes to me that both he and I may hence learn by what we see in this business. But that which pleases me best is that Cocke (age 48) tells me that he now understands that Fisher was set on in this business by the design of some of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) people, Warcupp and others, who lent him money to set him out in it, and he has spent high. Who now curse him for a rogue to take £100 when he might have had as well £1,500, and they are mightily fallen out about it. Which in due time shall be discovered, but that now that troubles me afresh is, after I am got to the office at Greenwich, Kent [Map] that some new troubles are come, and Captain Cocke's (age 48) house is beset before and behind with guards, and more, I do fear they may come to my office here to search for Cocke's (age 48) goods and find some small things of my clerk's. So I assisted them in helping to remove their small trade, but by and by I am told that it is only the Custome House men who came to seize the things that did lie at Mr. Glanville's (age 47), for which they did never yet see our Transire, nor did know of them till to-day. So that my fear is now over, for a transire is ready for them. Cocke (age 48) did get a great many of his goods to London to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1665. Up, and after some pleasant discourse with my wife (though my head full of business) I out and left her to go home, and myself to the office, and thence by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and so back again and find my wife gone.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1665. After dinner I did give them my accounts and letters to write against I went to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) this evening, which I did; and among other things, spoke to him for my wife's brother, Balty (age 25), to be of his guard, which he kindly answered that he should. My business of the Victualling goes on as I would have it; and now my head is full how to make some profit of it to myself or people. To that end, when I came home, I wrote a letter to Mr. Coventry (age 37), offering myself to be the Surveyor Generall, and am apt to think he will assist me in it, but I do not set my heart much on it, though it would be a good helpe. So back to my office, and there till past one before I could get all these letters and papers copied out, which vexed me, but so sent them away without hopes of saving the post, and so to my lodging to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and after ready and going to Captain Cocke's (age 48), where I find we are a little further safe in some part of our goods, I to Church, in my way was meeting with some letters, which made me resolve to go after church to my Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) so, after sermon, I took Cocke's (age 48) chariott, and to Lambeth, Surrey [Map]; but, in going and getting over the water, and through White Hall, I spent so much time, the Duke had almost dined. However, fresh meat was brought for me to his table, and there I dined, and full of discourse and very kind. Here they are again talking of the prizes, and my Lord Duke did speake very broad that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) and Pen (age 44) should do what they would, and answer for themselves. For his part, he would lay all before the King (age 35). Here he tells me the Dutch Embassador at Oxford is clapped up, but since I hear it is not true.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. That my Chancellor (age 56) do from hence begin to be cold to him, because of his seeing him and Arlington (age 47) so great: that nothing at Court is minded but faction and pleasure, and nothing intended of general good to the Kingdom by anybody heartily; so that he believes with me, in a little time confusion will certainly come over all the nation. He told me how a design was carried on a while ago, for the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to raise an army in the North, and to be the Generall of it, and all this without the knowledge or advice of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which when he come to know, he was so vexed, they were fain to let it fall to content him: that his matching with the family of Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do make the difference greater between Coventry (age 37) and him, they being enemies; that the Chancellor (age 56) did, as every body else, speak well of me the other day, but yet was, at the Committee for Tangier, angry that I should offer to suffer a bill of exchange to be protested.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], and thence I by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), and there much company, but I staid and dined, and he makes mighty much of me; and here he tells us the Dutch are gone, and have lost above 160 cables and anchors, through the last foule weather. Here he proposed to me from Mr. Coventry (age 37), as I had desired of Mr. Coventry (age 37), that I should be Surveyor-Generall of the Victualling business, which I accepted. But, indeed, the terms in which Mr. Coventry (age 37) proposes it for me are the most obliging that ever I could expect from any man, and more; it saying me to be the fittest man in England, and that he is sure, if I will undertake, I will perform it; and that it will be also a very desirable thing that I might have this encouragement, my encouragement in the Navy alone being in no wise proportionable to my pains or deserts.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1665. Up, and sent for Thomas Willson, and broke the victualling business to him and he is mightily contented, and so am I that I have bestowed it on him, and so I to Mr. Boreman's, where Sir W. Batten (age 64) is, to tell him what I had proposed to Thomas Willson, and the newes also I have this morning from Sir W. Clerke (age 42), which is, that notwithstanding all the care the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) hath taken about the putting the East India prize goods into the East India Company hands, and my Lord Bruncker (age 45) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) having laden out a great part of the goods, an order is come from Court to stop all, and to have the goods delivered to the Sub-Commissioners of prizes. At which I am glad, because it do vex this simple weake man, and we shall have a little reparation for the disgrace my Lord Sandwich (age 40) has had in it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1665. Lord's Day. Up, and after being trimmed, by boat to the Cockpitt [Map], where I heard the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) chaplin make a simple sermon: among other things, reproaching the imperfection of humane learning, he cried: "All our physicians cannot tell what an ague is, and all our arithmetique is not able to number the days of a man"; which, God knows, is not the fault of arithmetique, but that our understandings reach not the thing.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. The Prince (age 45), in appearance, kind; the Duke of Yorke (age 32) silent, says no hurt; but admits others to say it in his hearing. Sir W. Pen (age 44), the falsest rascal that ever was in the world; and that this afternoon the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did tell him that Pen (age 44) was a very cowardly rogue, and one that hath brought all these rogueish fanatick Captains into the fleete, and swears he should never go out with the fleete again. That Sir W. Coventry (age 37) is most kind to Pen (age 44) still; and says nothing nor do any thing openly to the prejudice of my Lord. He agrees with me, that it is impossible for the King (age 35) [to] set out a fleete again the next year; and that he fears all will come to ruine, there being no money in prospect but these prizes, which will bring, it may be, £20,000, but that will signify nothing in the world for it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1665. Up, and to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), and with him, he being very passionate to be gone, without staying a minute for breakfast, to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) and I with him by water and with Fen: but, among other things, Lord! to see how he wondered to see the river so empty of boats, nobody working at the Custome-house keys; and how fearful he is, and vexed that his man, holding a wine-glasse in his hand for him to drinke out of, did cover his hands, it being a cold, windy, rainy morning, under the waterman's coate, though he brought the waterman from six or seven miles up the river, too. Nay, he carried this glasse with him for his man to let him drink out of at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), where he intended to dine, though this he did to prevent sluttery, for, for the same reason he carried a napkin with him to Captain Cocke's (age 48), making him believe that he should eat with foule linnen. Here he with the Duke (age 32) walked a good while in the Parke, and I with Fen, but cannot gather that he intends to stay with us, nor thinks any thing at all of ever paying one farthing of money more to us here, let what will come of it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1665. After dinner I by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and there had a little discourse and business with him, chiefly to receive his commands about pilotts to be got for our Hambro' ships, going now at this time of the year convoy to the merchant ships, that have lain at great pain and charge, some three, some four months at Harwich [Map] for a convoy. They hope here the plague will be less this weeke.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1665. Up, and by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and there did some little business, but most to shew myself, and mightily I am yet in his and Lord Craven's (age 57) books, and thence to the Swan [Map] and there drank and so down to the bridge, and so to the 'Change [Map], where spoke with many people, and about a great deale of business, which kept me late.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Nov 1665. After dinner took leave, and on shore to Madam Williams, to give her an account of my Lord's letter to me about Howe, who he has clapped by the heels on suspicion of having the jewells, and she did give me my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) examination of the fellow, that declares his having them; and so away, Sir W. Warren riding with me, and the way being very bad, that is, hard and slippery by reason of the frost, so we could not come to past Woolwich, Kent [Map] till night. However, having a great mind to have gone to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), I endeavoured to have gone farther, but the night come on and no going, so I 'light and sent my horse by Tooker, and returned on foot to my wife at Woolwich, Kent [Map], where I found, as I had directed, a good dinner to be made against to-morrow, and invited guests in the yarde, meaning to be merry, in order to her taking leave, for she intends to come in a day or two to me for altogether.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. So it being not dinner time, I to the Swan [Map], and there found Sarah all alone in the house.... So away to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) again, and there to dinner, he most exceeding kind to me to the observation of all that are there. At dinner comes Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and dines with us.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. The Duke of Albemarle (age 56) was going to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map], where both Court and Parliament had been most part of the summer. There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders, who were at the taking of the East India prizes, to break bulk, and to take to themselves jewels, silks, etc.: though I believe some whom I could name filled their pockets, my Lord Sandwich (age 40) himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossessed the Lord General (age 56), for he spoke to me of it with much zeal and concern, and I believe laid load enough on Lord Sandwich (age 40) at Oxford.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1665. Up, and being to go to wait on the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who is to go out of towne to Oxford to-morrow, and I being unwilling to go by water, it being bitter cold, walked it with my landlady's little boy Christopher to Lambeth, it being a very fine walke and calling at half the way and drank, and so to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who is visited by every body against his going; and mighty kind to me: and upon my desiring his grace to give me his kind word to the Duke of Yorke (age 32), if any occasion there were of speaking of me, he told me he had reason to do so; for there had been nothing done in the Navy without me.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1665. After dinner to talk of our business, the Act of Parliament, where in short I see Sir R. Long (age 65) mighty fierce in the great good qualities of it. But in that and many other things he was stiff in, I think without much judgement, or the judgement I expected from him, and already they have evaded the necessity of bringing people into the Exchequer with their bills to be paid there. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) is titched [fretful, tetchy] at this, yet resolves with me to make the best use we can of this Act for the King (age 35), but all our care, we think, will not render it as it should be. He did again here alone discourse with me about my Lord, and is himself strongly for my Lord's not going to sea, which I am glad to hear and did confirm him in it. He tells me too that he talked last night with the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) about my Lord Sandwich (age 40), by the by making him sensible that it is his interest to preserve his old friends, which he confessed he had reason to do, for he knows that ill offices were doing of him, and that he honoured my Lord Sandwich (age 40) with all his heart.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1665. So out and by water to London and to the 'Change [Map], and up and down about several businesses, and after the observing (God forgive me!) one or two of my neighbour Jason's women come to towne, which did please me very well, home to my house at the office, where my wife had got a dinner for me: and it was a joyfull thing for us to meet here, for which God be praised! Here was her brother come to see her, and speake with me about business. It seems my recommending of him hath not only obtained his presently being admitted into the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) guards, and present pay, but also by the Duke's and Sir Philip Howard's (age 34) direction, to be put as a right-hand man, and other marks of special respect, at which I am very glad, partly for him, and partly to see that I am reckoned something in my recommendations, but wish he may carry himself that I may receive no disgrace by him.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1665. Up betimes, it being fast-day; and by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who come to towne from Oxford last night. He is mighty brisk, and very kind to me, and asks my advice principally in every thing. He surprises me with the news that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) goes Embassador to Spayne speedily; though I know not whence this arises, yet I am heartily glad of it. He did give me several directions what to do, and so I home by water again and to church a little, thinking to have met Mrs. Pierce in order to our meeting at night; but she not there, I home and dined, and comes presently by appointment my wife. I spent the afternoon upon a song of Solyman's words to Roxalana (age 23) that I have set, and so with my wife walked and Mercer to Mrs. Pierce's, where Captain Rolt and Mrs. Knipp, Mr. Coleman and his wife, and Laneare, Mrs. Worshipp and her singing daughter, met; and by and by unexpectedly comes Mr. Pierce from Oxford. Here the best company for musique I ever was in, in my life, and wish I could live and die in it, both for musique and the face of Mrs. Pierce, and my wife and Knipp, who is pretty enough; but the most excellent, mad-humoured thing, and sings the noblest that ever I heard in my life, and Rolt, with her, some things together most excellently. I spent the night in extasy almost; and, having invited them to my house a day or two hence, we broke up, Pierce having told me that he is told how the King (age 35) hath done my Lord Sandwich (age 40) all the right imaginable, by shewing him his countenance before all the world on every occasion, to remove thoughts of discontent; and that he is to go Embassador, and that the Duke of Yorke (age 32) is made generall of all forces by land and sea, and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), lieutenant-generall. Whether the two latter alterations be so, true or no, he knows not, but he is told so; but my Lord is in full favour with the King (age 35). So all home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. Thence after some discourse with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), who, though he tells me that he is glad of my Lord's being made Embassador, and that it is the greatest courtesy his enemies could do him; yet I find he is not heartily merry upon it, and that it was no design of my Lord's friends, but the prevalence of his enemies, and that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Prince Rupert (age 45) are like to go to sea together the next year. I pray God, when my Lord is gone, they do not fall hard upon the Vice-Chamberlain, being alone, and in so envious a place, though by this late Act and the instructions now a brewing for our office as to method of payments will destroy the profit of his place of itself without more trouble.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. To my Lord of Albemarle (age 57) (now returned from Oxford), who was declared General at Sea, to the no small mortification of that excellent person, the Earl of Sandwich (age 40), whom the Duke of Albemarle not only suspected faulty about the prizes, but less valiant; himself imagining how easy a thing it were to confound the Hollanders, as well now as heretofore he fought against them upon a more disloyal interest.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1665. That done I to the 'Change [Map], and among many other things, especially for getting of my Tangier money, I by appointment met Mr. Gawden, and he and I to the Pope's Head Taverne, and there he did give me alone a very pretty dinner. Our business to talk of his matters and his supply of money, which was necessary for us to talk on before the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) this afternoon and Sir G. Carteret (age 55). After that I offered now to pay him the £4000 remaining of his £8000 for Tangier, which he took with great kindnesse, and prayed me most frankly to give him a note for £3500 and accept the other £500 for myself, which in good earnest was against my judgement to do, for [I] expected about £100 and no more, but however he would have me do it, and ownes very great obligations to me, and the man indeed I love, and he deserves it. This put me into great joy, though with a little stay to it till we have time to settle it, for for so great a sum I was fearfull any accident might by death or otherwise defeate me, having not now time to change papers.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1665. Called up betimes by my Lord Bruncker (age 45), who is come to towne from his long water worke at Erith, Kent last night, to go with him to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), which by his coach I did. Our discourse upon the ill posture of the times through lacke of money. At the Duke's did some business, and I believe he was not pleased to see all the Duke's discourse and applications to me and everybody else. Discoursed also with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) about office business, but no money in view. Here my Lord and I staid and dined, the Vice-Chamberlain taking his leave. At table the [his wife] Duchesse (age 46), a damned ill-looked woman, complaining of her Lord's going to sea the next year, said these cursed words: "If my Lord had been a coward he had gone to sea no more: it may be then he might have been excused, and made an Embassador" (meaning my Lord Sandwich (age 40))1. This made me mad, and I believed she perceived my countenance change, and blushed herself very much. I was in hopes others had not minded it, but my Lord Bruncker (age 45), after we were come away, took notice of the words to me with displeasure.

Note 1. When Lord Sandwich (age 40) was away a new commander had to be chosen, and rank and long service pointed out Prince Rupert (age 45) for the office, it having been decided that the heir presumptive should be kept at home. It was thought, however, that the same confidence could not be placed in the prince's discretion as in his courage, and therefore the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was induced to take a joint command with him, "and so make one admiral of two persons" (see Lister's "Life of Clarendon", vol. ii., pp. 360,361).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1665. He being gone, comes Sir W. Warren, who advised with me about several things about getting money, and £100 I shall presently have of him. We advised about a business of insurance, wherein something may be saved to him and got to me, and to that end he and I did take a coach at night and to the Cocke (age 48)pitt, there to get the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) advice for our insuring some of our Sounde goods coming home under Harman's (age 40) convoy, but he proved shy of doing it without knowledge of the Duke of Yorke (age 32), so we back again and calling at my house to see my wife, who is well; though my great trouble is that our poor little parish is the greatest number this weeke in all the city within the walls, having six, from one the last weeke; and so by water to Greenwich, Kent [Map] leaving Sir W. Warren at home, and I straight to my Lord Bruncker (age 45), it being late, and concluded upon insuring something and to send to that purpose to Sir W. Warren to come to us to-morrow morning. So I home and, my mind in great rest, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Dec 1665. So to the 'Change [Map], hoping to see them in the streete, and missing them, went back again thither and back to the 'Change [Map], but no sight of them, so went after my business again, and, though late, was sent to by Sir W. Warren (who heard where I was) to intreat me to come dine with him, hearing that I lacked a dinner, at the Pope's Head; and there with Mr. Hinton, the goldsmith, and others, very merry; but, Lord! to see how Dr. Hinton (age 61) come in with a gallant or two from Court, and do so call "Cozen" Mr. Hinton, the goldsmith, but I that know him to be a beggar and a knave, did make great sport in my mind at it1.

Note 1. John Hinton, M.D. (age 61), a strong royalist, who attended Henrietta Maria in her confinement at Exeter when she gave birth to the Princess Henrietta (age 21). He was knighted by Charles II, and appointed physician in ordinary to the King (age 35) and Queen (age 27). His knighthood was a reward for having procured a private advance of money from his kinsman, the goldsmith, to enable the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to pay the army (see "Memorial to King Charles II (age 35). from Sir John Hinton, A.D. 1679", printed in Ellis's "Original Letters", 3rd series, vol. iv., p 296).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Dec 1665. Up, and was trimmed, but not time enough to save my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach or Sir J. Minnes's (age 66), and so was fain to walk to Lambeth, Surrey [Map] on foot, but it was a very fine frosty walke, and great pleasure in it, but troublesome getting over the River for ice. I to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), whither my brethren were all come, but I was not too late. There we sat in discourse upon our Navy business an houre, and thence in my Lord Bruncker's (age 45) coach alone, he walking before (while I staid awhile talking with Sir G. Downing (age 40) about the Act, in which he is horrid troublesome) to the Old Exchange [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1665. But I was more at a letter from my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to-day, pressing us to continue our meetings for all Christmas, which, though every body intended not to have done, yet I am concluded in it, who intended nothing else. But I see it is necessary that I do make often visits to my Lord Duke, which nothing shall hinder after I have evened my accounts, and now the river is frozen I know not how to get to him.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1665. Sunday. Up betimes, to my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 57) by water, and after some talke with him about business of the office with great content, and so back again and to dinner, my landlady and her daughters with me, and had mince pie, and very merry at a mischance her young son had in tearing of his new coate quite down the outside of his sleeve in the whole cloth, one of the strangest mishaps that ever I saw in my life.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1665. Lord's Day. All the morning in my chamber, writing fair the state of my Tangier accounts, and so dined at home. In the afternoon to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and thence back again by water, and so to my chamber to finish the entry of my accounts and to think of the business I am next to do, which is the stating my thoughts and putting in order my collections about the business of pursers, to see where the fault of our present constitution relating to them lies and what to propose to mend it, and upon this late and with my head full of this business to bed.

In 1666 Captain George Batts was appointed Captain of the 2nd Rate Unicorn (60 guns) by the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Prince Rupert (age 46).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jan 1666. So I to the office and anon to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), by coach at night, taking, for saving time, Sir W. Warren with me, talking of our businesses all the way going and coming, and there got his reference of my pursers' paper to the Board to consider of it before he reads it, for he will never understand it I am sure. Here I saw Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) kind letter to him concerning my paper, and among others of his letters, which I saw all, and that is a strange thing, that whatever is writ to this Duke of Albemarle (age 57), all the world may see; for this very night he did give me Mr. Coventry's (age 38) letter to read, soon as it come to his hand, before he had read it himself, and bid me take out of it what concerned the Navy, and many things there was in it, which I should not have thought fit for him to have let any body so suddenly see; but, among other things, find him profess himself to the Duke a friend into the inquiring further into the business of Prizes, and advises that it may be publique, for the righting the King (age 35), and satisfying the people and getting the blame to be rightly laid where it should be, which strikes very hard upon my Lord Sandwich (age 40), and troubles me to read it. Besides, which vexes me more, I heard the damned Duchesse again say to twenty gentlemen publiquely in the room, that she would have Montagu sent once more to sea, before he goes his Embassy, that we may see whether he will make amends for his cowardice, and repeated the answer she did give the other day in my hearing to Sir G. Downing (age 41), wishing her Lord had been a coward, for then perhaps he might have been made an Embassador, and not been sent now to sea. But one good thing she said, she cried mightily out against the having of gentlemen Captains with feathers and ribbands, and wished the King (age 35) would send her husband to sea with the old plain sea Captains, that he served with formerly, that would make their ships swim with blood, though they could not make legs1 as Captains nowadays can. It grieved me to see how slightly the Duke do every thing in the world, and how the King (age 35) and every body suffers whatever he will to be done in the Navy, though never so much against reason, as in the business of recalling tickets, which will be done notwithstanding all the arguments against it. So back again to my office, and there to business and so to bed.

Note 1. Make bows, play the courtier. The reading, "make leagues", appeared in former editions till Mr. Mynors Bright corrected it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1666. By coach to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), where Sir W. Batten (age 65) and I only met. Troubled at my heart to see how things are ordered there without consideration or understanding.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1666. Thence anon carried her and Mrs. Pierce home, and so to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and mighty kind he to me still.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1666. Thence with Sir J. Minnes (age 66) to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57), and carried all well, and met Norwood (age 52) but prevented him in desiring a meeting of the Commissioners for Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1666. Thence I with speede by water home and eat a bit, and took my accounts and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), where for all I feared of Norwood (age 52) he was very civill, and Sir Thomas Ingram (age 51) beyond expectation, I giving them all content and I thereby settled mightily in my mind, for I was weary of the employment, and had had thoughts of giving it over. I did also give a good step in a business of Mr. Hubland's, about getting a ship of his to go to Tangier, which during this strict embargo is a great matter, and I shall have a good reward for it, I hope.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1666. Up and to the office, at noon home to dinner. So abroad to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Kate Joyce's and her husband, with whom I talked a great deale about Pall's business, and told them what portion I would give her, and they do mightily like of it and will proceed further in speaking with Harman (age 29), who hath already been spoke to about it, as from them only, and he is mighty glad of it, but doubts it may be an offence to me, if I should know of it, so thinks that it do come only from Joyce, which I like the better. So I do believe the business will go on, and I desire it were over.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1666. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and there a meeting with all the officers of the Navy, where, Lord! to see how the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) flatters himself with false hopes of money and victuals and all without reason. Then comes the Committee of Tangier to sit, and I there carry all before me very well.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. As we were going further, in comes my Lord Mandeville (age 31), so we were forced to breake off and I away, and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, where he not come in but I find Sir W. Pen (age 44), and he and I to discourse. I find him very much out of humour, so that I do not think matters go very well with him, and I am glad of it. He and I staying till late, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) not coming in (being shut up close all the afternoon with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57)), we took boat, and by water to Kingston [Map], and so to our lodgings, where a good supper and merry, only I sleepy, and therefore after supper I slunk away from the rest to bed, and lay very well and slept soundly, my mind being in a great delirium between joy for what the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) have said to me and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and trouble for my Lord Sandwich's (age 40) concernments, and how hard it will be for me to preserve myself from feeling thereof.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. Up, and to Court by coach, where to Council before the Duke of Yorke (age 32), the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) with us, and after Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had gone over his notes that he had provided with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), I went over all mine with good successe, only I fear I did once offend the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), but I was much joyed to find the Duke of Yorke (age 32) so much contending for my discourse about the pursers against Sir W. Pen (age 44), who opposes it like a foole; my Lord Sandwich (age 40) come in in the middle of the business, and, poor man, very melancholy, methought, and said little at all, or to the business, and sat at the lower end, just as he come, no roome being made for him, only I did give him my stoole, and another was reached me.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty (age 35), now returned from Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] to Hampton-Court [Map], where the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) presented me to him; he ran toward me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a time of such great danger, when everybody fled their employments; he told me he was much obliged to me, and said he was several times concerned for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my service most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had performed it as I ought!). After this, his Majesty (age 35) was pleased to talk with me alone, near an hour, of several particulars of my employment, and ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday following at Whitehall [Map]. Then the Duke (age 57) came toward me, and embraced me with much kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would have been so great, he would not have suffered his Majesty (age 35) to employ me in that station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans (age 60), Lord Arlington (age 48), Sir William Coventry (age 38), and several great persons; after which, I got home, not being very well in health.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1666. So home to my wife, whom I find not well, in bed, and it seems hath not been well these two days. She rose and we to dinner, after dinner up to my chamber, where she entertained me with what she hath lately bought of clothes for herself, and Damask linnen, and other things for the house. I did give her a serious account how matters stand with me, of favour with the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32), and of danger in reference to my Lord's and Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) falls, and the dissatisfaction I have heard the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) hath acknowledged to somebody, among other things, against my Lord Sandwich (age 40), that he did bring me into the Navy against his desire and endeavour for another, which was our doting foole Turner.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1666. Thence to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who tells me Mr. Coventry (age 38) is come to town and directs me to go to him about some business in hand, whether out of displeasure or desire of ease I know not; but I asked him not the reason of it but went to White Hall, but could not find him there, though to my great joy people begin to bustle up and down there, the King (age 35) holding his resolution to be in towne to-morrow, and hath good encouragement, blessed be God! to do so, the plague being decreased this week to 56, and the total to 227. So after going to the Swan [Map] in the Palace, and sent for Spicer to discourse about my last Tangier tallys that have some of the words washed out with the rain, to have them new writ, I home, and there did some business and at the office, and so home to supper, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1666. Up, and to the office, where very busy all the morning. We met upon a report to the Duke of Yorke (age 32) of the debts of the Navy, which we finished by three o'clock, and having eat one little bit of meate, I by water before the rest to White Hall (and they to come after me) because of a Committee for Tangier, where I did my business of stating my accounts perfectly well, and to good liking, and do not discern, but the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is my friend in his intentions notwithstanding my general fears.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. So home. I find my wife gone out to Hales, her Paynter's (age 57), and I after a little dinner do follow her, and there do find him at worke, and with great content I do see it will be a very brave picture. Left her there, and I to my Lord Treasurer's (age 58), where Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66) met me, and before my Lord Treasurer (age 58) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) the state of our Navy debts were laid open, being very great, and their want of money to answer them openly professed, there being but £1,500,000 to answer a certaine expense and debt of £2,300,000.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1666. Went to my Lord Treasurer (age 58) for an assignment of £40,000 upon the last two quarters for support of the next year's charge. Next day, to Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Secretary of State, to desire them to propose it to the Council.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. The Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) post is so great, having had the name of bringing in the King (age 35), that he is like to stand, or, if it were not for him, God knows in what troubles we might be from some private faction, if an army could be got into another hand, which God forbid! It is believed that though Mr. Coventry (age 38) be in appearance so great against the Chancellor (age 57), yet that there is a good understanding between the Duke and him. He dreads the issue of this year, and fears there will be some very great revolutions before his coming back again. He doubts it is needful for him to have a pardon for his last year's actions, all which he did without commission, and at most but the King's private single word for that of Bergen; but he dares not ask it at this time, lest it should make them think that there is something more in it than yet they know; and if it should be denied, it would be of very ill consequence. He says also, if it should in Parliament be enquired into the selling of Dunkirke (though the Chancellor (age 57) was the man that would have it sold to France, saying the King of Spayne had no money to give for it); yet he will be found to have been the greatest adviser of it; which he is a little apprehensive may be called upon this Parliament. He told me it would not be necessary for him to tell me his debts, because he thinks I know them so well. He tells me, that for the match propounded of Mrs. Mallett (age 15) for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), it hath been lately off, and now her friends bring it on again, and an overture hath been made to him by a servant of hers, to compass the thing without consent of friends, she herself having a respect to my Lord's family, but my Lord will not listen to it but in a way of honour. The Duke hath for this weeke or two been very kind to him, more than lately; and so others, which he thinks is a good sign of faire weather again. He says the Archbishopp of Canterbury (age 67) hath been very kind to him, and hath plainly said to him that he and all the world knows the difference between his judgment and brains and the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57), and then calls my [his wife] Lady Duchesse (age 46) the veryst slut and drudge and the foulest worde that can be spoke of a woman almost.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1666. Called up about five in the morning, and my Lord up, and took leave, a little after six, very kindly of me and the whole company. Then I in, and my wife up and to visit my Lady Slaving in her bed, and there sat three hours, with Lady Jemimah with us, talking and laughing, and by and by my Baroness Carteret (age 64) comes, and she and I to talke, I glad to please her in discourse of Sir G. Carteret (age 56), that all will do well with him, and she is much pleased, he having had great annoyance and fears about his well doing, and I fear hath doubted that I have not been a friend to him, but cries out against my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25), that makes the King (age 35) neglect his business and seems much to fear that all will go to wracke, and I fear with great reason; exclaims against the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and more the [his wife] Duchesse (age 46) for a filthy woman, as indeed she is.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1666. Up, and being ready, to the Cockpitt [Map] to make a visit to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and to my great joy find him the same man to me that [he has been] heretofore, which I was in great doubt of, through my negligence in not visiting of him a great while; and having now set all to rights there, I am in mighty ease in my mind and I think shall never suffer matters to run so far backward again as I have done of late, with reference to my neglecting him and Sir W. Coventry (age 38).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Mar 1666. Thence to the Cockpitt [Map], and dined with a great deal of company at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57), and a bad and dirty, nasty dinner.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1666. Dr. Bathurst (age 46) preached before the King (age 35), from "I say unto you all, watch"-a seasonable and most excellent discourse. When his Majesty (age 35) came from chapel, he called to me in the lobby, and told me he must now have me sworn for a Justice of Peace (having long since made me of the Commission); which I declined as inconsistent with the other service I was engaged in, and humbly desired to be excused. After dinner, waiting on him, I gave him the first notice of the Spaniards referring the umpirage of the peace between them and Portugal to the French King, which came to me in a letter from France before the Secretaries of State had any news of it. After this, his Majesty (age 35) again asked me if I had found out any able person about our parts that might supply my place of Justice of Peace (the office in the world I had most industriously avoided, in regard of the perpetual trouble thereof in these numerous parishes); on which I nominated one, whom the King (age 35) commanded me to give immediate notice of to my Lord Chancellor (age 57), and I should be excused; for which I rendered his Majesty (age 35) many thanks. From thence, I went to the Royal Society, where I was chosen by twenty-seven voices to be one of their Council for the ensuing year; but, upon my earnest suit in respect of my other affairs, I got to be excused-and so home.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1666. Up, being called up by my wife's brother, for whom I have got a commission from the Duke of Yorke (age 32) for Muster-Master of one of the divisions, of which Harman (age 29) is Rere-Admirall, of which I am glad as well as he. After I had acquainted him with it, and discoursed a little of it, I went forth and took him with me by coach to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who being not up, I took a walk with Balty (age 26) into the Parke, and to the Queene's Chappell, it being Good Friday, where people were all upon their knees very silent; but, it seems, no masse this day.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1666. [Up] and by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir Thos. Allen (age 54) to White Hall, and there after attending the Duke (age 32) as usual and there concluding of many things preparatory to the Prince (age 46) and Generall's going to sea on Monday next, Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir T. Allen (age 54) and I to Mr. Lilly's (age 47), the painter's; and there saw the heads, some finished, and all begun, of the Flaggmen in the late great fight with the Duke of Yorke (age 32) against the Dutch. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) hath them done to hang in his chamber, and very finely they are done indeed. Here is the Prince's (age 46), Sir G. Askue's (age 50), Sir Thomas Teddiman's, Sir Christopher Mings (age 40), Sir Joseph Jordan, Sir William Barkeley (age 27), Sir Thomas Allen (age 33), and Captain Harman's (age 41), as also the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57); and will be my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), Sir W. Pen's (age 44), and Sir Jeremy Smith's. Being very well satisfied with this sight, and other good pictures hanging in the house, we parted, and I left them, and [to] pass away a little time went to the printed picture seller's in the way thence to the Exchange [Map], and there did see great plenty of fine prints; but did not buy any, only a print of an old pillar in Rome made for a Navall Triumph1, which for the antiquity of the shape of ships, I buy and keepe.

Note 1. The columna rostrata erected in the Forum to C. Duilius, who obtained a triumph for the first naval victory over the Carthaginians, B.C. 261. Part of the column was discovered in the ruins of the Forum near the Arch of Septimius, and transferred to the Capitol. B.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1666. Thence walked to Westminster and eat a bit of bread and drank, and so to Worster House, and there staid, and saw the Council up, and then back, walked to the Cockepitt [Map], and there took my leave of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who is going to-morrow to sea. He seems mightily pleased with me, which I am glad of; but I do find infinitely my concernment in being careful to appear to the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) to continue my care of his business, and to be found diligent as I used to be.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 May 1666. To Queensborough [Map], where finding the Richmond frigate, I sailed to the buoy of the Nore to my Lord-General (age 57) and Prince Rupert (age 46), where was the Rendezvous of the most glorious fleet in the world, now preparing to meet the Hollander.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 May 1666. Waited on my Lord Chancellor (age 57) at his new palace; and Lord Berkeley's (age 38) built next to it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1666. So there I spent most of the afternoon with them, and indeed she is a pretty black woman, her name Mrs. Horsely. But, Lord! to see how my nature could not refrain from the temptation; but I must invite them to Foxhall, to Spring Gardens, though I had freshly received minutes of a great deale of extraordinary business. However I could not helpe it, but sent them before with Creed, and I did some of my business; and so after them, and find them there, in an arbour, and had met with Mrs. Pierce, and some company with her. So here I spent 20s. upon them, and were pretty merry. Among other things, had a fellow that imitated all manner of birds, and doggs, and hogs, with his voice, which was mighty pleasant. Staid here till night: then set Mrs. Pierce in at the New Exchange; and ourselves took coach, and so set Mrs. Horsely home, and then home ourselves, but with great trouble in the streets by bonefires, it being the King's birth-day and day of Restauration; but, Lord! to see the difference how many there were on the other side, and so few ours, the City side of the Temple [Map], would make one wonder the difference between the temper of one sort of people and the other: and the difference among all between what they do now, and what it was the night when Monk (age 57) come into the City. Such a night as that I never think to see again, nor think it can be. After I come home I was till one in the morning with Captain Cocke (age 49) drawing up a contract with him intended to be offered to the Duke (age 32) to-morrow, which, if it proceeds, he promises me £500.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1666. Homewood, and I took him home in the evening to my chamber, and discoursed with him about my business of the Victualling, which I have a mind to employ him in, and he is desirous of also, but do very ingenuously declare he understands it not so well as other things, and desires to be informed in the nature of it before he attempts it, which I like well, and so I carried him to Mr. Gibson to discourse with him about it, and so home again to my accounts. Thus ends this month, with my mind oppressed by my defect in my duty of the Victualling, which lies upon me as a burden, till I get myself into a better posture therein, and hinders me and casts down my courage in every thing else that belongs to me, and the jealousy I have of Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) being displeased with me about it; but I hope in a little time to remedy all. As to publique business; by late tidings of the French fleete being come to Rochelle (how true, though, I know not) our fleete is divided; Prince Rupert (age 46) being gone with about thirty ships to the Westward as is conceived to meet the French, to hinder their coming to join with the Dutch. My Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 57) lies in the Downes with the rest, and intends presently to sail to the Gunfleete.

Four Days' Battle

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1666. Up, and to the office, where certain newes is brought us of a letter come to the King (age 36) this morning from the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), dated yesterday at eleven o'clock, as they were sailing to the Gunfleete, that they were in sight of the Dutch fleete, and were fitting themselves to fight them; so that they are, ere this, certainly engaged; besides, several do averr they heard the guns all yesterday in the afternoon. This put us at the Board into a tosse. Presently come orders for our sending away to the fleete a recruite of 200 soldiers. So I rose from the table, and to the Victualling Office, and thence upon the River among several vessels, to consider of the sending them away; and lastly, down to Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there appointed two yachts to be ready for them; and did order the soldiers to march to Blackewall [Map]. Having set all things in order against the next flood, I went on shore with Captain Erwin at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and into the Parke, and there we could hear the guns from the fleete most plainly.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. Whitsunday. After sermon came news that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was still in fight, and had been all Saturday, and that Captain Harman's (age 41) ship (the Henry) was like to be burnt. Then a letter from Mr. Bertie that Prince Rupert (age 46) was come up with his squadron (according to my former advice of his being loose and in the way), and put new courage into our fleet, now in a manner yielding ground; so that now we were chasing the chasers; that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was slightly wounded, and the rest still in great danger. So, having been much wearied with my journey, I slipped home, the guns still roaring very fiercely.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the King (age 36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (age 49) and Bishop of Winchester (age 47), where the Dean of Westminster (age 31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (age 57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (age 32) second son, now born at St. James's [Map]; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. So home after church time to dinner, and after dinner my father, wife, sister, and Mercer by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], while I walked by land, and saw the Exchange [Map] as full of people, and hath been all this noon as of any other day, only for newes. I to St. Margaret's, Westminster [Map], and there saw at church my pretty Betty Michell, and thence to the Abbey [Map], and so to Mrs. Martin, and there did what 'je voudrais avec her [I wanted with her].... So by and by he come in, and after some discourse with him I away to White Hall, and there met with this bad newes farther, that the Prince (age 46) come to Dover, Kent [Map] but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of his helpe to the fleete. It is also reported by some Victuallers that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Holmes their flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew their rigging and sails.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jun 1666. Came Sir Daniel Harvey from the General and related the dreadful encounter, on which his Majesty (age 36) commanded me to dispatch an extraordinary physician and more chirurgeons. It was on the solemn Fast-day when the news came; his Majesty (age 36) being in the chapel made a sudden stop to hear the relation, which being with much advantage on our side, his Majesty (age 36) commanded that public thanks should immediately be given as for a victory. The Dean of the chapel going down to give notice of it to the other Dean officiating; and notice was likewise sent to St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey [Map]. But this was no sooner over, than news came that our loss was very great both in ships and men; that the Prince frigate was burnt, and as noble a vessel of ninety brass guns lost; and the taking of Sir George Ayscue (age 50), and exceeding shattering of both fleets; so as both being obstinate, both parted rather for want of ammunition and tackle than courage; our General retreating like a lion; which exceedingly abated of our former joy. There were, however, orders given for bonfires and bells; but, God knows, it was rather a deliverance than a triumph. So much it pleased God to humble our late overconfidence that nothing could withstand the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), who, in good truth, made too forward a reckoning of his success now, because he had once beaten the Dutch in another quarrel; and being ambitious to outdo the Earl of Sandwich (age 40), whom he had prejudicated as deficient in courage.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1666. By and by comes Mr. Wayth to me; and discoursing of our ill successe, he tells me plainly from Captain Page's own mouth (who hath lost his arm in the fight), that the Dutch did pursue us two hours before they left us, and then they suffered us to go on homewards, and they retreated towards their coast: which is very sad newes. Then to my office and anon to White Hall, late, to the Duke of York (age 32) to see what commands he hath and to pray a meeting to-morrow for Tangier in behalf of Mr. Yeabsly, which I did do and do find the Duke (age 32) much damped in his discourse, touching the late fight, and all the Court talk sadly of it. The Duke (age 32) did give me several letters he had received from the fleete, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and Sir W. Pen (age 45), who are gone down thither, for me to pick out some works to be done for the setting out the fleete again; and so I took them home with me, and was drawing out an abstract of them till midnight. And as to newes, I do find great reason to think that we are beaten in every respect, and that we are the losers. The Prince upon the Galloper, where both the Royall Charles and Royall Katharine had come twice aground, but got off. The Essex carried into Holland; the Swiftsure missing (Sir William Barkeley (deceased)) ever since the beginning of the fight. Captains Bacon, Tearne, Wood, Mootham, Whitty, and Coppin, slayne. The Duke of Albemarle (age 57) writes, that he never fought with worse officers in his life, not above twenty of them behaving themselves like men. Sir William Clerke (deceased) lost his leg; and in two days died. The Loyall George, Seven Oakes, and Swiftsure, are still missing, having never, as the Generall writes himself, engaged with them. It was as great an alteration to find myself required to write a sad letter instead of a triumphant one to my Lady Sandwich (age 41) this night, as ever on any occasion I had in my life. So late home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. By and by the Council broke up, and I spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about business, with whom I doubt not in a little time to be mighty well, when I shall appear to mind my business again as I used to do, which by the grace of God I will do. Gone from him I endeavoured to find out Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and at last did at Mr. Ashburnham's (age 62), in the Old Palace Yarde, and thence he and I stepped out and walked an houre in the church-yarde, under Henry the Seventh's Chappell, he being lately come from the fleete; and tells me, as I hear from every body else, that the management in the late fight was bad from top to bottom. That several said this would not have been if my Lord Sandwich (age 40) had had the ordering of it. Nay, he tells me that certainly had my Lord Sandwich (age 40) had the misfortune to have done as they have done, the King (age 36) could not have saved him. There is, too, nothing but discontent among the officers; and all the old experienced men are slighted. He tells me to my question (but as a great secret), that the dividing of the fleete did proceed first from a proposition from the fleete, though agreed to hence. But he confesses it arose from want of due intelligence, which he confesses we do want. He do, however, call the fleete's retreat on Sunday a very honourable retreat, and that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) did do well in it, and would have been well if he had done it sooner, rather than venture the loss of the fleete and crown, as he must have done if the Prince had not come. He was surprised when I told him I heard that the King (age 36) did intend to borrow some money of the City, and would know who had spoke of it to me; I told him Sir Ellis Layton this afternoon. He says it is a dangerous discourse; for that the City certainly will not be invited to do it, and then for the King (age 36) to ask it and be denied, will be the beginning of our sorrow. He seems to fear we shall all fall to pieces among ourselves.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. After dinner I took leave and by water to White Hall, and there spent all the afternoon in the Gallery, till the Council was up, to speake with Sir W. Coventry (age 38). Walking here I met with Pierce the surgeon, who is lately come from the fleete, and tells me that all the commanders, officers, and even the common seamen do condemn every part of the late conduct of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57): both in his fighting at all, in his manner of fighting, running among them in his retreat, and running the ships on ground; so as nothing can be worse spoken of. That Holmes, Spragg, and Smith do all the business, and the old and wiser commanders nothing. So as Sir Thomas Teddiman (whom the King (age 36) and all the world speak well of) is mightily discontented, as being wholly slighted. He says we lost more after the Prince (age 46) come, than before too. The Prince was so maimed, as to be forced to be towed home. He says all the fleete confess their being chased home by the Dutch; and yet the body of the Dutch that did it, was not above forty sayle at most. And yet this put us into the fright, as to bring all our ships on ground. He says, however, that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is as high almost as ever, and pleases himself to think that he hath given the Dutch their bellies full, without sense of what he hath lost us; and talks how he knows now the way to beat them. But he says, that even Smith himself, one of his creatures, did himself condemn the late conduct from the beginning to the end.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1666. Up, and by coach to St. James's, and there did our business before the Duke (age 32) as usual, having, before the Duke come out of his bed, walked in an ante-chamber with Sir H. Cholmly (age 33), who tells me there are great jarrs between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), about the later's turning out one or two of the commanders put in by the Duke of Yorke (age 32). Among others, Captain Du Tell, a Frenchman, put in by the Duke of Yorke (age 32), and mightily defended by him; and is therein led by Monsieur Blancford, that it seems hath the same command over the Duke of Yorke (age 32) as Sir W. Coventry (age 38) hath; which raises ill blood between them. And I do in several little things observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) hath of late, by the by, reflected on the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and his captains, particularly in that of old Teddiman, who did deserve to be turned out this fight, and was so; but I heard Sir W. Coventry (age 38) say that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) put in one as bad as he is in his room, and one that did as little.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1666. Thence to Westminster to the Exchequer, but could not persuade the blockheaded fellows to do what I desire, of breaking my great tallys into less, notwithstanding my Lord Treasurer's (age 59) order, which vexed [me] so much that I would not bestow more time and trouble among a company of dunces, and so back again home, and to dinner, whither Creed come and dined with me and after dinner Mr. Moore, and he and I abroad, thinking to go down the river together, but the tide being against me would not, but returned and walked an houre in the garden, but, Lord! to hear how he pleases himself in behalf of my Lord Sandwich (age 40), in the miscarriage of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and do inveigh against Sir W. Coventry (age 38) as a cunning knave, but I thinke that without any manner of reason at all, but only his passion. He being gone I to my chamber at home to set my Journall right and so to settle my Tangier accounts, which I did in very good order, and then in the evening comes Mr. Yeabsly to reckon with me, which I did also, and have above £200 profit therein to myself, which is a great blessing, the God of heaven make me thankfull for it.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jun 1666. I went to Chatham, Kent [Map]. 16th. In the Jemmy yacht (an incomparable sailer) to sea, arrived by noon at the fleet at the Buoy at the Nore, dined with Prince Rupert (age 46) and the General (age 57).

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1666. Came his Majesty (age 36), the Duke (age 57), and many Noblemen. After Council, we went to prayers. My business being dispatched, I returned to Chatham, Kent [Map], having lain but one night in the Royal Charles; we had a tempestuous sea. I went on shore at Sheerness [Map], where they were building an arsenal for the fleet, and designing a royal fort with a receptacle for great ships to ride at anchor; but here I beheld the sad spectacle, more than half that gallant bulwark of the Kingdom miserably shattered, hardly a vessel entire, but appearing rather so many wrecks and hulls, so cruelly had the Dutch mangled us. The loss of the Prince, that gallant vessel, had been a loss to be universally deplored, none knowing for what reason we first engaged in this ungrateful war; we lost besides nine or ten more, and near 600 men slain and 1,100 wounded, 2,000 prisoners; to balance which, perhaps we might destroy eighteen or twenty of the enemy's ships, and 700 or 800 poor men.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1666. Up, and to my office, there to fit business against the rest meet, which they did by and by, and sat late. After the office rose (with Creed with me) to Wm. Joyce's to dinner, being invited, and there find my father (age 65) and sister (age 25), my wife and Mercer, with them, almost dined. I made myself as complaisant as I could till I had dined, but yet much against my will, and so away after dinner with Creed to Penny's, my Tailor, where I bespoke a thin stuff suit, and did spend a little time evening some little accounts with Creed and so parted, and I to Sir. G. Carteret's (age 56) by appointment; where I perceive by him the King (age 36) is going to borrow some money of the City; but I fear it will do no good, but hurt. He tells me how the Generall [The Duke of Albemarle (age 57).] is displeased, and there have been some high words between the Generall and Sir W. Coventry (age 38). And it may be so; for I do not find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) so highly commending the Duke (age 32) as he used to be, but letting fall now and then some little jerkes: as this day, speaking of newes from Holland, he says, "I find their victory begins to shrinke there, as well as ours here".

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1666. Up, and at the office all the morning; whereby several circumstances I find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) do not agree as they used to do; Sir W. Coventry (age 38) commending Aylett (in some reproach to the Duke (age 32)), whom the Duke (age 32) hath put out for want of courage; and found fault with Steward, whom the Duke (age 32) keeps in, though as much in fault as any commander in the fleete.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1666. In the gallery among others met with Major Halsey, a great creature of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57); who tells me that the Duke, by name, hath said that he expected to have the worke here up in the River done, having left Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Mr. Phipps there. He says that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) do say that this is a victory we have had, having, as he was sure, killed them 8000 men, and sunk about fourteen of their ships; but nothing like this appears true. He lays much of the little success we had, however, upon the fleete's being divided by order from above, and the want of spirit in the commanders; and that he was commanded by order to go out of the Downes to the Gun-fleete, and in the way meeting the Dutch fleete, what should he do? should he not fight them? especially having beat them heretofore at as great disadvantage. He tells me further, that having been downe with the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), he finds that Holmes and Spragge do govern most business of the Navy; and by others I understand that Sir Thomas Allen (age 33) is offended thereat; that he is not so much advised with as he ought to be. He tells me also, as he says, of his own knowledge, that several people before the Duke went out did offer to supply the King (age 36) with £100,000 provided he would be treasurer of it, to see it laid out for the Navy; which he refused, and so it died. But I believe none of this. This day I saw my Lady Falmouth (age 21), with whom I remember now I have dined at my Lord Barkeley's (age 64) heretofore, a pretty woman: she was now in her second or third mourning, and pretty pleasant in her looks.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1666. But he did adde (as the Catholiques call 'le secret de la Masse'), that Sir Edward Spragge (age 46)-who had even in Sir Christopher Mings's (deceased) time put in to be the great favourite of the Prince, but much more now had a mind to be the great man with him, and to that end had a mind to have the Prince at a distance from the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), that they might be doing something alone-did, as he believed, put on this business of dividing the fleete, and that thence it came1. He tells me as to the business of intelligence, the want whereof the world did complain much of, that for that it was not his business, and as he was therefore to have no share in the blame, so he would not meddle to lay it any where else. That De Ruyter (age 59) was ordered by the States not to make it his business to come into much danger, but to preserve himself as much as was fit out of harm's way, to be able to direct the fleete. He do, I perceive, with some violence, forbear saying any thing to the reproach of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57); but, contrarily, speaks much of his courage; but I do as plainly see that he do not like the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) proceedings, but, contrarily, is displeased therewith. And he do plainly diminish the commanders put in by the Duke, and do lessen the miscarriages of any that have been removed by him. He concurs with me, that the next bout will be a fatal one to one side or other, because, if we be beaten, we shall not be able to set out our fleete again. He do confess with me that the hearts of our seamen are much saddened; and for that reason, among others, wishes Sir Christopher Mings (deceased) was alive, who might inspire courage and spirit into them. Speaking of Holmes, how great a man he is, and that he do for the present, and hath done all the voyage, kept himself in good order and within bounds; but, says he, a cat will be a cat still, and some time or other out his humour must break again. He do not disowne but that the dividing of the fleete upon the presumptions that were then had (which, I suppose, was the French fleete being come this way), was a good resolution. Having had all this discourse, he and I back to White Hall; and there I left him, being [in] a little doubt whether I had behaved myself in my discourse with the policy and circumspection which ought to be used to so great a courtier as he is, and so wise and factious a man, and by water home, and so, after supper, to bed.

Note 1. This division of the fleet was the original cause of the disaster, and at a later period the enemies of Clarendon charged him with having advised this action, but Coventry's communication to Pepys in the text completely exonerates Clarendon.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1666. By and by the Council rises, and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) comes out; and he and I went aside, and discoursed of much business of the Navy; and afterwards took his coach, and to Hide-Parke, he and I alone: there we had much talke. First, he started a discourse of a talke he hears about the towne, which, says he, is a very bad one, and fit to be suppressed, if we knew how which is, the comparing of the successe of the last year with that of this; saying that that was good, and that bad. I was as sparing in speaking as I could, being jealous of him and myself also, but wished it could be stopped; but said I doubted it could not otherwise than by the fleete's being abroad again, and so finding other worke for men's minds and discourse. Then to discourse of himself, saying, that he heard that he was under the lash of people's discourse about the Prince's not having notice of the Dutch being out, and for him to comeback again, nor the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) notice that the Prince was sent for back again: to which he told me very particularly how careful he was the very same night that it was resolved to send for the Prince back, to cause orders to be writ, and waked the Duke, who was then in bed, to sign them; and that they went by expresse that very night, being the Wednesday night before the fight, which begun on the Friday; and that for sending them by the post expresse, and not by gentlemen on purpose, he made a sport of it, and said, I knew of none to send it with, but would at least have lost more time in fitting themselves out, than any diligence of theirs beyond that of the ordinary post would have recovered. I told him that this was not so much the towne talke as the reason of dividing the fleete. To this he told me he ought not to say much; but did assure me in general that the proposition did first come from the fleete, and the resolution not being prosecuted with orders so soon as the Generall thought fit, the Generall did send Sir Edward Spragge (age 46) up on purpose for them; and that there was nothing in the whole business which was not done with the full consent and advice of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1666. After dinner to White Hall to a Committee of Tangier, but I come a little too late, they were up, so I to several places about business, among others to Westminster Hall [Map], and there did meet with Betty Michell at her own mother's shop. I would fain have carried her home by water, but she was to sup at that end of the town. So I away to White Hall, and thence, the Council being up, walked to St. James's, and there had much discourse with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) at his chamber, who I find quite weary of the warr, decries our having any warr at all, or himself to have been any occasion of it, that he hopes this will make us shy of any warr hereafter, or to prepare better for it, believes that one overthrow on the Dutch side would make them desire peace, and that one on ours will make us willing to accept of one: tells me that Commissioner Pett (age 55) is fallen infinitely under the displeasure of the Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), not giving them satisfaction in the getting out of the fleete, and that the complaint he believes is come to the King (age 36), and by Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) discourse I find he do concur in it, and speaks of his having of no authority in the place where he is, and I do believe at least it will end in his being removed to some other yarde, and I am not sorry for it, but do fear that though he deserves as bad, yet at this time the blame may not be so well deserved.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1666. Sunday. Up betimes, and to the office receiving letters, two or three one after another from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and sent as many to him, being full of variety of business and hurry, but among the chiefest is the getting of these pressed men out of the City down the river to the fleete. While I was hard at it comes Sir W. Pen (age 45) to towne, which I little expected, having invited my Lady (age 42) and her daughter Pegg (age 15) to dine with me to-day; which at noon they did, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) with them: and pretty merry we were. And though I do not love him, yet I find it necessary to keep in with him; his good service at Shearnesse [Map] in getting out the fleete being much taken notice of, and reported to the King (age 36) and Duke (age 32) [of York], even from the Prince (age 46) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) themselves, and made the most of to me and them by Sir W. Coventry (age 38): therefore I think it discretion, great and necessary discretion, to keep in with him.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1666. I dined with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and after dinner had much discourse about our publique business; and he do seem to fear every day more and more what I do; which is, a general confusion in the State; plainly answering me to the question, who is it that the weight of the warr depends [upon]? that it is only Sir W. Coventry (age 38). He tells me, too, the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is dissatisfied, and that the [his wife] Duchesse (age 47) do curse Coventry (age 38) as the man that betrayed her husband to the sea: though I believe that it is not so.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1666. But was up again by five o'clock, and was forced to rise, having much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs. Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the Tower [Map], and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want of sleep, I by coach to St. James's, to Goring House [Map], there to wait on my Lord Arlington (age 48) to give him an account of my night's worke, but he was not up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house below,-being the house I was once at Hartlib's sister's wedding, and is a very fine house and finely furnished,-and then thinking it too much for me to lose time to wait my Lord's rising, I away to St. James's, and there to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington (age 48) giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and his people about him, saying, that he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke (deceased), and Riggs, and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at, that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have been borne with from the King (age 36), nor Duke (age 32), nor any man else in England, and I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did further say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that the Duke (age 32) did intend to go to sea and to leave him his agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W. Coventry (age 38), I did believe but the Duke of Yorke (age 32) would expect to be his agent on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say, that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple; and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse (age 29) bid him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in the world, by which his lie was found at then.

St James' Day Battle

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1666. He gone, I away by water from the Old Swan [Map] to White Hall. The waterman tells me that newes is come that our ship Resolution is burnt, and that we had sunke four or five of the enemy's ships. When I come to White Hall I met with Creed, and he tells me the same news, and walking with him to the Park I to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) lodging, and there he showed me Captain Talbot's letter, wherein he says that the fight begun on the 25th; that our White squadron begun with one of the Dutch squadrons, and then the Red with another so hot that we put them both to giving way, and so they continued in pursuit all the day, and as long as he stayed with them: that the Blue fell to the Zealand squadron; and after a long dispute, he against two or three great ships, he received eight or nine dangerous shots, and so come away; and says, he saw The Resolution burned by one of their fire-ships, and four or five of the enemy's. But says that two or three of our great ships were in danger of being fired by our owne fire-ships, which Sir W. Coventry (age 38), nor I, cannot understand. But upon the whole, he and I walked two or three turns in the Parke under the great trees, and do doubt that this gallant is come away a little too soon, having lost never a mast nor sayle. And then we did begin to discourse of the young gentlemen captains, which he was very free with me in speaking his mind of the unruliness of them; and what a losse the King (age 36) hath of his old men, and now of this Hannam, of The Resolution, if he be dead, and that there is but few old sober men in the fleete, and if these few of the Flags that are so should die, he fears some other gentlemen captains will get in, and then what a council we shall have, God knows. He told me how he is disturbed to hear the commanders at sea called cowards here on shore, and that he was yesterday concerned publiquely at a dinner to defend them, against somebody that said that not above twenty of them fought as they should do, and indeed it is derived from the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) himself, who wrote so to the King (age 36) and Duke (age 32), and that he told them how they fought four days, two of them with great disadvantage. The Count de Guiche, who was on board De Ruyter (age 59), writing his narrative home in French of the fight, do lay all the honour that may be upon the English courage above the Dutch, and that he himself [Sir W. Coventry (age 38)] was sent down from the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) after the fight, to pray them to spare none that they thought had not done their parts, and that they had removed but four, whereof Du Tell is one, of whom he would say nothing; but, it seems, the Duke of Yorke (age 32) hath been much displeased at his removal, and hath now taken him into his service, which is a plain affront to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57); and two of the others, Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did speake very slenderly of their faults. Only the last, which was old Teddiman, he says, is in fault, and hath little to excuse himself with; and that, therefore, we should not be forward in condemning men of want of courage, when the Generalls, who are both men of metal, and hate cowards, and had the sense of our ill successe upon them (and by the way must either let the world thinke it was the miscarriage of the Captains or their owne conduct), have thought fit to remove no more of them, when desired by the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) to do it, without respect to any favour any of them can pretend to in either of them.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1666. Thence abroad to pay several debts at the end of the month, and so to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), at St. James's, where I find him in his new closett, which is very fine, and well supplied with handsome books. I find him speak very slightly of the late victory: dislikes their staying with the fleete up their coast, believing that the Dutch will come out in fourteen days, and then we with our unready fleete, by reason of some of the ships being maymed, shall be in bad condition to fight them upon their owne coast: is much dissatisfied with the great number of men, and their fresh demands of twenty-four victualling ships, they going out but the other day as full as they could stow. I asked him whether he did never desire an account of the number of supernumeraries, as I have done several ways, without which we shall be in great errour about the victuals; he says he has done it again and again, and if any mistake should happen they must thanke themselves. He spoke slightly of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), saying, when De Ruyter (age 59) come to give him a broadside-"Now", says he, chewing of tobacco the while, "will this fellow come and give, me two broadsides, and then he will run"; but it seems he held him to it two hours, till the Duke himself was forced to retreat to refit, and was towed off, and De Ruyter (age 59) staid for him till he come back again to fight. One in the ship saying to the Duke, "Sir, methinks De Ruyter (age 59) hath given us more: than two broadsides";-"Well", says the Duke, "but you shall find him run by and by", and so he did, says Sir W. Coventry (age 38); but after the Duke himself had been first made to fall off. The Resolution had all brass guns, being the same that Sir J. Lawson had in her in the Straights. It is observed that the two fleetes were even in number to one ship.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1666. Mighty well, and end this month in content of mind and body. The publique matters looking more safe for the present than they did, and we having a victory over the Dutch just such as I could have wished, and as the Kingdom was fit to bear, enough to give us the name of conquerors, and leave us masters of the sea, but without any such great matters done as should give the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) any honour at all, or give him cause to rise to his former insolence.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1666. Good friends in the morning and up to the office, where sitting all the morning, and while at table we were mightily joyed with newes brought by Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Batten (age 65) of the death of De Ruyter (age 59), but when Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come, he told us there was no such thing, which quite dashed me again, though, God forgive me! I was a little sorry in my heart before lest it might give occasion of too much glory to the Duke of Albemarle (age 57). Great bandying this day between Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) about Captain Cocke (age 49), which I am well pleased with, while I keepe from any open relyance on either side, but rather on Sir W. Coventry's (age 38).

Calendars. 05 Aug 1666. 86. Instructions given to Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36), returning to the fleet, to be communicated to Prince Rupert (age 46) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), generals, viz.: to assure them of the King's satisfaction with their conduct in the last happy engagement; to acquaint them with the state of supplies, the condition of ships sent in disabled, the state of the fleet bound for Gottenburg; to consult about that for Hamburg which waits a convoy, as do the vessels ready to come thence with naval provisions, &c.; to tell them of the disadvantages that may arise from their remaining on the Holland coast, many ships being presumed to be too much: hurt to bear foul weather or the shcck of another engagement, when the Dutch are strengthened with De Beaufort's (age 50) fleet, and perhaps some ships from "Denmark, especially as unless their East India and merchant ships come in a few days, they will put into harbour, on notice that their fleet is disabled, and ours: waiting them on their coasts; to tell them that the complaint of Sir Jeremy Smith's misbehaviour in the late engagement being so universal, unless he have fully satisfied the generals, he should be brought to trial by court martial, and there purged or condemned, but sentence not executed till further orders; to represent that the fleet will run less risk, more easily refresh and refit itself, sooner join the ships making ready, especially the fire-ships, and receive expected recruits, by returning to the Downs, Sole Bay [Map], or the Isle of Wight, but as, on the other hand, the reputation of the victory will be best maintained by the fleet's continuing on the enemy's coast, the generals are to reflect seriously on these points and decide for themselves whether to stay or return; to recommend them to let His Majesty hear often from them, and especially their resolutions upon these several directions. [3 pages, draft, corrected by Lord Arlington.]

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1666. And by and by dinner come up, and then to my sport again, but still honest; and then took coach and up and down in the country toward Acton, and then toward Chelsy, and so to Westminster, and there set her down where I took her up, with mighty pleasure in her company, and so I by coach home, and thence to Bow, with all the haste I could, to my Lady Pooly's, where my wife was with Mr. Batelier and his sisters, and there I found a noble supper, and every thing exceeding pleasant, and their mother, Mrs. Batelier, a fine woman, but mighty passionate upon sudden news brought her of the loss of a dog borrowed of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) son to line a bitch of hers that is very pretty, but the dog was by and by found, and so all well again, their company mighty innocent and pleasant, we having never been here before.

Calendars. 14 Aug 1666. 20 leagues from land. 132. Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to the King. Thanks for his gracious letter. Prince Rupert (age 46) and he think it their greatest honour to serve His Majesty. They are sailing for Solebay [Map] with a fair wind, and hope to find provisions, having sent to Comr. Taylor to forward them. Wishes to clear a gallant man falsely accused, Sir Jeremiah Smith, who had more men killed and hurt, and his ship received more shot than any in the fleet. There is not a more spirited man serves in the fleet. A vessel is taken laden with masts and iron. Endorsed, "Received 16th August." [2 pages.] Encloses, 132. 1. Account of the masts, de., on the above ship.

Holme's Bonfire

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. Mighty sleepy; slept till past eight of the clock, and was called up by a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), which, among other things, tells me how we have burned one hundred and sixty ships of the enemy within the Fly1. I up, and with all possible haste, and in pain for fear of coming late, it being our day of attending the Duke of Yorke (age 32), to St. James's, where they are full of the particulars; how they are generally good merchant ships, some of them laden and supposed rich ships. We spent five fire-ships upon them. We landed on the Schelling (Sir Philip Howard (age 35) with some men, and Holmes (age 44), I think; with others, about 1000 in all), and burned a town; and so come away.

Note 1. On the 8th August the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) reported to Lord Arlington (age 48) that he had "sent 1000 good men under Sir R. Holmes (age 44) and Sir William Jennings to destroy the islands of Vlie and Schelling". On the 10th James Hayes wrote to Williamson: "On the 9th at noon smoke was seen rising from several places in the island of Vlie, and the 10th brought news that Sir Robert had burned in the enemy's harbour 160 outward bound valuable merchant men and three men-of-war, and taken a little pleasure boat and eight guns in four hours. The loss is computed at a million sterling, and will make great confusion when the people see themselves in the power of the English at their very doors. Sir Robert then landed his forces, and is burning the houses in Vlie and Schelling as bonfires for his good success at sea" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 21,27).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. By and by the Duke of Yorke (age 32) with his books showed us the very place and manner, and that it was not our design or expectation to have done this, but only to have landed on the Fly, and burned some of their store; but being come in, we spied those ships, and with our long boats, one by one, fired them, our ships running all aground, it being so shoal water. We were led to this by, it seems, a renegado captain of the Hollanders, who found himself ill used by De Ruyter (age 59) for his good service, and so come over to us, and hath done us good service; so that now we trust him, and he himself did go on this expedition. The service is very great, and our joys as great for it. All this will make the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) in repute again, I doubt, though there is nothing of his in this. But, Lord! to see what successe do, whether with or without reason, and making a man seem wise, notwithstanding never so late demonstration of the profoundest folly in the world.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Aug 1666. Dined with the Lord Chancellor (age 57), whom I entreated to visit the Hospital of the Savoy, and reduce it (after the great abuse that had been continued) to its original institution for the benefit of the poor, which he promised to do.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Aug 1666. Waited on Sir William D'Oyly (age 52), now recovered, as it were, miraculously. In the afternoon, visited the Savoy Hospital, where I stayed to see the miserably dismembered and wounded men dressed, and gave some necessary orders. Then to my Lord Chancellor (age 57), who had, with the Bishop of London (age 74) and others in the commission, chosen me one of the three surveyors of the repairs of Paul's [Map], and to consider of a model for the new building, or, if it might be, repairing of the steeple, which was most decayed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Aug 1666. After dinner the young women went to dance; among others Mr. Christopher Pett (age 46) his daughter, who is a very pretty, modest girle, I am mightily taken with her; and that being done about five o'clock, home, very well pleased with the afternoon's work. And so we broke up mightily civilly, the bride and bridegroom going to Greenwich, Kent [Map] (they keeping their dinner here only for my sake) to lie, and we home, where I to the office, and anon am on a sudden called to meet Sir W. Pen (age 45) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) at the Victualling Office, which did put me out of order to be so surprised. But I went, and there Sir William Coventry did read me a letter from the Generalls to the King (age 36)1, a most scurvy letter, reflecting most upon Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and then upon me for my accounts (not that they are not true, but that we do not consider the expence of the fleete), and then of the whole office, in neglecting them and the King's service, and this in very plain and sharp and menacing terms. I did give a good account of matters according to our computation of the expence of the fleete. I find Sir W. Coventry (age 38) willing enough to accept of any thing to confront the Generalls. But a great supply must be made, and shall be in grace of God! But, however, our accounts here will be found the true ones. Having done here, and much work set me, I with greater content home than I thought I should have done, and so to the office a while, and then home, and a while in my new closet, which delights me every day more and more, and so late to bed.

Note 1. The letter from Prince Rupert (age 46) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) to the King (age 36) (dated August 27th, from the "Royal Charles", Sole Bay [Map]) is among the State Papers. The generals complain of the want of supplies, in spite of repeated importunities. The demands are answered by accounts from Mr. Pepys of what has been sent to the fleet, which will not satisfy the ships, unless the provisions could be found "... Have not a month's provision of beer, yet Sir Wm. Coventry assures the ministers that they are supplied till Oct. 3; unless this is quickened they will have to return home too soon.... Want provisions according to their own computation, not Sir Wm. Coventry's, to last to the end of October" ("Calendar", 1666-67, p. 71).

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1666. Thence with Sir W. Batten (age 65) to the Cock-pit [Map], whither the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is come. It seems the King (age 36) holds him so necessary at this time, that he hath sent for him, and will keep him here. Indeed, his interest in the City, being acquainted, and his care in keeping things quiet, is reckoned that wherein he will be very serviceable. We to him; he is courted in appearance by every body. He very kind to us; I perceive he lays by all business of the fleete at present, and minds the City, and is now hastening to Gresham College, to discourse with the Aldermen. Sir W. Batten (age 65) and I home (where met by my brother John (age 25), come to town to see how things are with us), and then presently he with me to Gresham College; where infinity of people, partly through novelty to see the new place, and partly to find out and hear what is become one man of another. I met with many people undone, and more that have extraordinary great losses. People speaking their thoughts variously about the beginning of the fire, and the rebuilding; of the City. Then to Sir W. Batten's (age 65), and took my brothet with me, and there dined with a great company of neighbours; and much good discourse; among others, of the low spirits of some rich men in the City, in sparing any encouragement to the poor people that wrought for the saving their houses. Among others, Alderman Starling, a very rich man, without; children, the fire at next door to him in our lane, after our men had saved his house, did give 2s. 6d. among thirty of them, and did quarrel with some that would remove the rubbish out of the way of the fire, saying that they come to steal. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) told me of another this morning, in Holborne, which he shewed the King (age 36) that when it was offered to stop the fire near his house for such a reward that came but to 2s. 6d. a man among the neighbours he would, give but 18d.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1666. Went to see Clarendon House, now almost finished, a goodly pile to see, but had many defects as to the architecture, yet placed most gracefully. After this, I waited on the Lord Chancellor (age 57), who was now at Berkshire House, since the burning of London.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and after visiting my father in his chamber, to church, and then home to dinner. Little Michell and his wife come to dine with us, which they did, and then presently after dinner I with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) to White Hall, where met by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Lord Bruncker (age 46), to attend the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 32) at the Cabinet; but nobody had determined what to speak of, but only in general to ask for money. So I was forced immediately to prepare in my mind a method of discoursing. And anon we were called in to the Green Room, where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 32), Prince Rupert (age 46), Chancellor (age 57), Lord Treasurer (age 59), Duke of Albemarle (age 57), [Sirs] G. Carteret (age 56), W. Coventry (age 38), Morrice (age 63). Nobody beginning, I did, and made a current, and I thought a good speech, laying open the ill state of the Navy: by the greatness of the debt; greatness of work to do against next yeare; the time and materials it would take; and our incapacity, through a total want of money. I had no sooner done, but Prince Rupert (age 46) rose up and told the King (age 36) in a heat, that whatever the gentleman had said, he had brought home his fleete in as good a condition as ever any fleete was brought home; that twenty boats would be as many as the fleete would want: and all the anchors and cables left in the storm might be taken up again. This arose from my saying, among other things we had to do, that the fleete was come in-the greatest fleete that ever his Majesty had yet together, and that in as bad condition as the enemy or weather could put it; and to use Sir W. Pen's (age 45) words, who is upon the place taking a survey, he dreads the reports he is to receive from the Surveyors of its defects. I therefore did only answer, that I was sorry for his Highness's offence, but that what I said was but the report we received from those entrusted in the fleete to inform us. He muttered and repeated what he had said; and so, after a long silence on all hands, nobody, not so much as the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), seconding the Prince, nor taking notice of what he said, we withdrew. I was not a little troubled at this passage, and the more when speaking with Jacke Fenn about it, he told me that the Prince (age 46) will be asking now who this Pepys is, and find him to be a creature of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), and therefore this was done only to disparage him.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1666. Thence with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) when the House rose and Sir W. Batten (age 65) to St. James's, and there agreed of and signed our paper of extraordinaries, and there left them, and I to Unthanke's, where Mr. Falconbridge's girle is, and by and by comes my wife, who likes her well, though I confess I cannot (though she be of my finding out and sings pretty well), because she will be raised from so mean a condition to so high all of a sudden; but she will be much to our profit, more than Mercer, less expense. Here we bespoke anew gowne for her, and to come to us on Friday. She being gone, my wife and I home by coach, and then I presently by water with Mr. Pierce to Westminster Hall [Map], he in the way telling me how the Duke of York (age 32) and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) do not agree. The Duke of York (age 32) is wholly given up to this bitch (age 26) of Denham (age 51). The Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Prince Rupert (age 46) do less agree. So that we are all in pieces, and nobody knows what will be done the next year.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Oct 1666. He and I did bemoan our public condition. He tells me the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is under a cloud, and they have a mind at Court to lay him aside. This I know not; but all things are not right with him, and I am glad of it, but sorry for the time.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1666. He being ready, he and my Chancellor (age 57), and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and Prince Rupert (age 46), Lord Bellasses (age 52), Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), Povy (age 52), and myself, met at a Committee for Tangier. My Lord Bellasses's (age 52) propositions were read and discoursed of, about reducing the garrison to less charge; and indeed I am mad in love with my Chancellor (age 57), for he do comprehend and speak out well, and with the greatest easinesse and authority that ever I saw man in my life. I did never observe how much easier a man do speak when he knows all the company to be below him, than in him; for though he spoke, indeed, excellent welt, yet his manner and freedom of doing it, as if he played with it, and was informing only all the rest of the company, was mighty pretty. He did call again and again upon Mr. Povy (age 52) for his accounts. I did think fit to make the solemn tender of my accounts that I intended. I said something that was liked, touching the want of money, and the bad credit of our tallys. My Chancellor (age 57) moved, that without any trouble to any of the rest of the Lords, I might alone attend the King (age 36), when he was with his private Council; and open the state of the garrison's want of credit; and all that could be done, should. Most things moved were referred to Committees, and so we broke up. And at the end Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come; so I away with him, and he discoursed with me something of the Parliament's business. They have voted giving the [King] for next year £1,800,000; which, were it not for his debts, were a great sum. He says, he thinks the House may say no more to us for the present, but that we must mend our manners against the next tryall, and mend them we will. But he thinks it not a fit time to be found making of trouble among ourselves, meaning about Sir J. Minnes (age 67), who most certainly must be removed, or made a Commissioner, and somebody else Comptroller. But he tells me that the House has a great envy at Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and that had he ever thought fit in all his discourse to have touched upon the point of our want of money and badness of payment, it would have been laid hold on to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) hurt; but he hath avoided it, though without much reason for it, most studiously, and in short did end thus, that he has never shewn so much of the pigeon in all his life as in his innocence to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) at this time; which I believe, and will desire Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to thank him for it.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. He tells me, what I wonder at, but that I find it confirmed by Mr. Pierce, whom I met by-and-by in the Hall, that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) is of the caball with the Duke of York (age 33), and Bruncker (age 46), with this Denham (age 26); which is a shame, and I am sorry for it, and that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) do make her visits; but yet I hope it is not so. Pierce tells me, that as little agreement as there is between the Prince (age 46) [Rupert] and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), yet they are likely to go to sea again; for the first will not be trusted alone, and nobody will go with him but this Duke of Albemarle (age 57).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1666. He tells me he wishes he had sold his place at some good rate to somebody or other at the beginning of the warr, and that he would do it now, but no body will deale with him for it. He tells me the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is very much discontented, and the Duke of York (age 33) do not, it seems, please him. He tells me that our case as to money is not to be made good at present, and therefore wishes a good and speedy peace before it be too late, and from his discourse methinks I find that there is something moving towards it. Many people at the office, but having no more of the office I did put it off till the next meeting.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1666. He being gone, there comes to me Commissioner Middleton, whom I took on purpose to walk in the garden with me, and to learn what he observed when the fleete was at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]. He says that the fleete was in such a condition, as to discipline, as if the Devil had commanded it; so much wickedness of all sorts. Enquiring how it come to pass that so many ships miscarried this year, he tells me that he enquired; and the pilots do say, that they dare not do nor go but as the Captains will have them; and if they offer to do otherwise, the Captains swear they will run them through. He says that he heard Captain Digby (my Lord of Bristol's (age 53) son, a young fellow that never was but one year, if that, in the fleete) say that he did hope he should not see a tarpaulin have the command of a ship within this twelve months. He observed while he was on board the Admirall, when the fleete was at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], that there was a faction there. Holmes (age 44) commanded all on the Prince's (age 46) side, and Sir Jeremy Smith on the Duke's (age 33), and every body that come did apply themselves to one side or other; and when the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) was gone away to come hither, then Sir Jeremy Smith did hang his head, and walked in the Generall's ship but like a private commander. He says he was on board The Prince, when the newes come of the burning of London; and all the Prince (age 46) said was, that now Shipton's prophecy was out; and he heard a young commander presently swear, that now a citizen's wife that would not take under half a piece before, would be occupied for half-a-crowne: and made mighty sport of it.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1666. I to the Hall and there walked long, among others talking with Mr. Hayes (age 29), Prince Rupert's (age 46) Secretary, a very ingenious man, and one, I think, fit to contract some friendship with. Here I staid late, walking to and again, hearing how the Parliament proceeds, which is mighty slowly in the settling of the money business, and great factions growing every day among them. I am told also how Holmes (age 44) did last Sunday deliver in his articles to the King (age 36) and Cabinet against [Sir Jeremy] Smith, and that Smith hath given in his answer, and lays his not accompanying the fleete to his pilot, who would not undertake to carry the ship further; which the pilot acknowledges. The thing is not accommodated, but only taken up, and both sides commanded to be quiet; but no peace like to be. The Duke of Albemarle (age 57) is Smith's friend, and hath publiquely swore that he would never go to sea again unless Holmes's (age 44) commission were taken from him1. I find by Hayes (age 29) that they did expect great glory in coming home in so good condition as they did with the fleete, and therefore I the less wonder that the Prince was distasted with my discourse the other day about the bad state of the fleete. But it pleases me to hear that he did expect great thanks, and lays the fault of the want of it upon the fire, which deadened everything, and the glory of his services. About seven at night home, and called my wife, and, it being moonshine, took her into the garden, and there layed open our condition as to our estate, and the danger of my having it [his money] all in the house at once, in case of any disorder or troubles in the State, and therefore resolved to remove part of it to Brampton [Map], and part some whither else, and part in my owne house, which is very necessary, and will tend to our safety, though I shall not think it safe out of my owne sight. So to the office, and then to supper and to bed.

Note 1. In the instructions given to Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) (August 5th, 1666) to be communicated to Prince Rupert (age 46) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), we read: "to tell them that the complaint of Sir Jeremy Smith's misbehaviour in the late engagement being so universal, unless he have fully satisfied the generals he should be brought to trial by court-martial, and there purged or condemned". The Duke of Albemarle (age 57) answered the King (age 36) (August 14th?): "Wishes to clear a gallant man falsely accused, Sir Jeremiah Smith, who had more men killed and hurt, and his ship received more shot than any in the fleet. There is not a more spirited man serves in the fleet". On October 27th H. Muddiman wrote to Sir Edward Stradling: "Sir Jeremy Smith has got as much credit by his late examination as his enemies wished him disgrace, the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) being fully satisfied of his valour in the engagement. It appears that he had 147 men killed and wounded, while the most eminent of his accusers had but two or three". With regard to Sir Jeremy's counter-charges, we read: "Nov. 3. The King (age 36) having maturely considered the charges brought against Sir Rob. Holmes (age 44) by Sir Jeremy Smith, finds no cause to suspect Sir Robert of cowardice in the fight with the Dutch of June 25 and 26, but thinks that on the night of the 26th he yielded too easily to the opinion of his pilot, without consulting those of the other ships, muzzled his ship, and thus obliged the squadron to do the same, and so the enemy, which might have been driven into the body of the King's fleet, then returning from the pursuit, was allowed to escape" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 14, 40, 222, 236).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1666. Up, and to the office to do business, and thither comes to me Sir Thomas Teddiman, and he and I walked a good while in the garden together, discoursing of the disorder and discipline of the fleete, wherein he told me how bad every thing is; but was very wary in speaking any thing to the dishonour of the Prince (age 46) or Duke of Albemarle (age 57), but do magnify my Lord Sandwich (age 41) much before them both, for ability to serve the King (age 36), and do heartily wish for him here. For he fears that we shall be undone the next year, but that he will, however, see an end of it.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1666. The Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) have got no great credit by this year's service. Our losses both of reputation and ships having been greater than is thought have ever been suffered in all ages put together before; being beat home, and fleeing home the first fight, and then losing so many ships then and since upon the sands, and some falling into the enemy's hands, and not one taken this yeare, but the Ruby, French prize, now at the end of the yeare, by the Frenchmen's mistake in running upon us. Great folly in both Houses of Parliament, several persons falling together by the eares, among others in the House of Lords, the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) and my Lord Ossory (age 32). Such is our case, that every body fears an invasion the next yeare; and for my part, I do methinks foresee great unhappiness coming upon us, and do provide for it by laying by something against a rainy day, dividing what I have, and laying it in several places, but with all faithfulness to the King (age 36) in all respects; my grief only being that the King (age 36) do not look after his business himself, and thereby will be undone both himself and his nation, it being not yet, I believe, too late if he would apply himself to it, to save all, and conquer the Dutch; but while he and the Duke of York (age 33) mind their pleasure, as they do and nothing else, we must be beaten. So late with my mind in good condition of quiet after the settling all my accounts, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1666. Lord's Day. Comes my taylor's man in the morning, and brings my vest home, and coate to wear with it, and belt, and silver-hilted sword. So I rose and dressed myself, and I like myself mightily in it, and so do my wife. Then, being dressed, to church; and after church pulled my Lady Pen (age 42) and Mrs. Markham into my house to dinner, and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) he got Mrs. Pegg along with him. I had a good dinner for them, and very merry; and after dinner to the waterside, and so, it being very cold, to White Hall, and was mighty fearfull of an ague, my vest being new and thin, and the coat cut not to meet before upon my breast. Here I waited in the gallery till the Council was up, and among others did speak with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, who tells me my Lord Generall is become mighty low in all people's opinion, and that he hath received several slurs from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33). The people at Court do see the difference between his and the Prince's (age 46) management, and my Lord Sandwich's (age 41). That this business which he is put upon of crying out against the Catholiques and turning them out of all employment, will undo him, when he comes to turn-out the officers out of the Army, and this is a thing of his own seeking. That he is grown a drunken sot, and drinks with nobody but Troutbecke, whom nobody else will keep company with. Of whom he told me this story: That once the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) in his drink taking notice as of a wonder that Nan Hide (age 29) should ever come to be Duchesse of York (age 29), "Nay", says Troutbecke, "ne'er wonder at that; for if you will give me another bottle of wine, I will tell you as great, if not greater, a miracle". And what was that, but that our dirty Besse (meaning his [his wife] Duchesse (age 47)) should come to be Duchesse of Albemarle? Here we parted, and so by and by the Council rose, and out comes Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and they and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I went to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, there to discourse about some money demanded by Sir W. Warren, and having done that broke up. And Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I alone together a while, where he shows a long letter, all in cipher, from my Lord Sandwich (age 41) to him. The contents he hath not yet found out, but he tells me that my Lord is not sent for home, as several people have enquired after of me. He spoke something reflecting upon me in the business of pursers, that their present bad behaviour is what he did foresee, and had convinced me of, and yet when it come last year to be argued before the Duke of York (age 33) I turned and said as the rest did. I answered nothing to it, but let it go, and so to other discourse of the ill state of things, of which all people are full of sorrow and observation, and so parted, and then by water, landing in Southwarke [Map], home to the Tower, and so home, and there began to read "Potter's Discourse upon 1666", which pleases me mightily, and then broke off and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1666. But by and by Sir W. Batten (age 65) and Sir R. Ford (age 52) do tell me, that the seamen have been at some prisons, to release some seamen, and the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) is in armes, and all the Guards at the other end of the town; and the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) is gone with some forces to Wapping, to quell the seamen; which is a thing of infinite disgrace to us.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1667. After dinner I with my brother away by water to White Hall, and there walked in the Parke, and a little to my Chancellor's (age 57), where the King (age 36) and Cabinet met, and there met Mr. Brisband, with whom good discourse, to White Hall towards night, and there he did lend me "The Third Advice to a Paynter", a bitter satyre upon the service of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) the last year. I took it home with me, and will copy it, having the former, being also mightily pleased with it. So after reading it, I to Sir W. Pen (age 45) to discourse a little with him about the business of our prizes, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1667. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner by coach to my Chancellor's (age 57), and there a meeting: the Duke of York (age 33), Duke of Albemarle (age 58), and several other Lords of the Commission of Tangier. And there I did present a state of my accounts, and managed them well; and my Chancellor (age 57) did say, though he was, in other things, in an ill humour, that no man in England was of more method, nor made himself better understood than myself.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1667. Lay long in bed, talking with pleasure with my poor wife, how she used to make coal fires, and wash my foul clothes with her own hand for me, poor wretch! in our little room at my Lord Sandwich's (age 41); for which I ought for ever to love and admire her, and do; and persuade myself she would do the same thing again, if God should reduce us to it. So up and by coach abroad to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) about sending soldiers down to some ships, and so home, calling at a belt-maker's to mend my belt, and so home and to dinner, where pleasant with my wife, and then to the office, where mighty busy all the day, saving going forth to the 'Change [Map] to pay for some things, and on other occasions, and at my goldsmith's did observe the King's new medall, where, in little, there is Mrs. Steward's (age 19) face as well done as ever I saw anything in my whole life, I think: and a pretty thing it is, that he should choose her face to represent Britannia by. So at the office late very busy and much business with great joy dispatched, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. So to the yard and spoke a word or two, and then by water home, wondrous cold, and reading a ridiculous ballad made in praise of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), to the tune of St. George, the tune being printed, too; and I observe that people have some great encouragement to make ballads of him of this kind. There are so many, that hereafter he will sound like Guy of Warwicke.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (age 58), Monsieur Kiviet's (age 40) undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple [Map] to the Tower [Map], as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.-Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1667. After dinner he and I alone awhile and did joy ourselves in my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) being out of the way all this time. He concurs that we are in a way of ruin by thus being forced to keep only small squadrons out, but do tell me that it was not choice, but only force, that we could not keep out the whole fleete. He tells me that the King (age 36) is very kind to my Lord Sandwich (age 41), and did himself observe to him (Sir G. Carteret (age 57)), how those very people, meaning the Prince (age 47) and Duke of Albemarle (age 58), are punished in the same kind as they did seek to abuse my Lord Sandwich (age 41).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. So home and to the office, where did business, and so home to my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. Landing at the Tower [Map] to-night I met on Tower Hill [Map] with Captain Cocke (age 50) and spent half an hour walking in the dusk of the evening with him, talking of the sorrowful condition we are in, that we must be ruined if the Parliament do not come and chastize us, that we are resolved to make a peace whatever it cost, that the King (age 36) is disobliging the Parliament in this interval all that may be, yet his money is gone and he must have more, and they likely not to give it, without a great deal of do. God knows what the issue of it will be. But the considering that the Duke of York (age 33), instead of being at sea as Admirall, is now going from port to port, as he is at this day at Harwich [Map], and was the other day with the King (age 36) at Sheernesse [Map], and hath ordered at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] how fortifications shall be made to oppose the enemy, in case of invasion, [which] is to us a sad consideration, and as shameful to the nation, especially after so many proud vaunts as we have made against the Dutch, and all from the folly of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), who made nothing of beating them, and Sir John Lawson he always declared that we never did fail to beat them with lesser numbers than theirs, which did so prevail with the King (age 36) as to throw us into this war.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1667. Away thence, and met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that he do believe the government of Tangier is bought by my Lord Allington (age 27) for a sum of money to my Lord Arlington (age 49), and something to Lord Bellasses (age 52), who (he did tell me particularly how) is as very a false villain as ever was born, having received money of him here upon promise and confidence of his return, forcing him to pay it by advance here, and promising to ask no more there, when at the same time he was treating with my Lord Allington (age 27) to sell his command to him, and yet told Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) nothing of it, but when Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) told him what he had heard, he confessed that my Lord Allington (age 27) had spoken to him of it, but that he was a vain man to look after it, for he was nothing fit for it, and then goes presently to my Lord Allington (age 27) and drives on the bargain, yet tells Lord Allington what he himself had said of him, as [though] Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) had said them. I am glad I am informed hereof, and shall know him for a Lord, &c. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me further that he is confident there will be a peace, and that a great man did tell him that my Lord Albemarle (age 58) did tell him the other day at White Hall as a secret that we should have a peace if any thing the King of France (age 28) can ask and our King can give will gain it, which he is it seems mad at.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1667. So to the office till noon, busy, and then (which I think I have not done three times in my life) left the board upon occasion of a letter of Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and meeting Balty (age 27) at my house I took him with me by water, and to the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) to give him an account of the business, which was the escaping of some soldiers for the manning of a few ships now going out with Harman (age 42) to the West Indies, which is a sad consideration that at the very beginning of the year and few ships abroad we should be in such want of men that they do hide themselves, and swear they will not go to be killed and have no pay. I find the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) at dinner with sorry company, some of his officers of the Army; dirty dishes, and a nasty wife at table, and bad meat, of which I made but an ill dinner. Pretty to hear how she talked against Captain Du Tell, the Frenchman, that the Prince and her husband put out the last year; and how, says she, the Duke of York (age 33) hath made him, for his good services, his Cupbearer; yet he fired more shot into the D. Gawden's ship, and others of the King's ships, than of the enemy. And the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) did confirm it, and that somebody in the fight did cry out that a little Dutchman, by his ship, did plague him more than any other; upon which they were going to order him to be sunk, when they looked and found it was Du Tell, who, as the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) says, had killed several men in several of our ships. He said, but for his interest, which he knew he had at Court, he had hanged him at the yard's-arm, without staying for a Court-martiall. One Colonel Howard, at the table, magnified the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) fight in June last, as being a greater action than ever was done by Caesar. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58), did say it had been no great action, had all his number fought, as they should have done, to have beat the Dutch; but of his 55 ships, not above 25 fought. He did give an account that it was a fight he was forced to: the Dutch being come in his way, and he being ordered to the buoy of the Nore, he could not pass by them without fighting, nor avoid them without great disadvantage and dishonour; and this Sir G. Carteret (age 57), I afterwards giving him an account of what he said, says that it is true, that he was ordered up to the Nore. But I remember he said, had all his captains fought, he would no more have doubted to have beat the Dutch, with all their number, than to eat the apple that lay on his trencher. My Lady Duchesse, among other things, discoursed of the wisdom of dividing the fleete; which the General said nothing to, though he knows well that it come from themselves in the fleete, and was brought up hither by Sir Edward Spragge (age 47). Colonel Howard, asking how the Prince did, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) answering, "Pretty well"; the other replied, "But not so well as to go to sea again".-"How!" says the Duchess, "what should he go for, if he were well, for there are no ships for him to command? And so you have brought your hogs to a fair market", said she1. One at the table told an odd passage in this late plague: that at Petersfield, Hampshire, I think, he said, one side of the street had every house almost infected through the town, and the other, not one shut up. Dinner being done, I brought Balty (age 27) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) to kiss his hand and thank him far his kindness the last year to him, and take leave of him, and then Balty (age 27) and I to walk in the Park, and, out of pity to his father, told him what I had in my thoughts to do for him about the money-that is, to make him Deputy Treasurer of the fleete, which I have done by getting Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) consent, and an order from the Duke of York (age 33) for £1500 to be paid to him. He promises the whole profit to be paid to my wife, for to be disposed of as she sees fit, for her father and mother's relief. So mightily pleased with our walk, it being mighty pleasant weather, I back to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57), and there he had newly dined, and talked, and find that he do give every thing over for lost, declaring no money to be raised, and let Sir W. Coventry (age 39) name the man that persuaded the King (age 36) to take the Land Tax on promise, of raising present money upon it. He will, he says, be able to clear himself enough of it. I made him merry, with telling him how many land-admirals we are to have this year: Allen at Plymouth, Devon [Map], Holmes at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], Spragge for Medway, Teddiman at Dover, Smith to the Northward, and Harman (age 42) to the Southward. He did defend to me Sir W. Coventry (age 39) as not guilty of the dividing of the fleete the last year, and blesses God, as I do, for my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) absence, and tells me how the King (age 36) did lately observe to him how they have been particularly punished that were enemies to my Lord Sandwich (age 41). Mightily pleased I am with his family, and my Baroness Carteret (age 65) was on the bed to-day, having been let blood, and tells me of my Lady Jemimah's being big-bellied.

Note 1. It was pretty to hear the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) himself to wish that they would come on our ground, meaning the French, for that he would pay them, so as to make them glad to go back to France again; which was like a general, but not like an admiral.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. My Lord Chancellor (age 58) showed me all his newly finished and furnished palace and library; then, we went to take the air in Hyde-Park [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. Thence I to St. James's, to meet Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and did, and Lord Berkely (age 65), to get them (as we would have done the Duke of Albemarle (age 58)) to the meeting of the Lords of Appeale in the business of one of our prizes. With them to the meeting of the Guinny company, and there staid, and went with Lord Berkely. While I was waiting for him in the Matted Gallery, a young man was most finely working in Indian inke the great picture of the King (age 36) and Queen (age 28) sitting, [Charles I and Henrietta Maria.] by Van Dyke; and did it very finely.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. Up, and by coach with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) to White Hall, and there saw the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), who is not well, and do grow crazy.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68), Sir W. Batten (age 66), and Sir W. Pen (age 46) in the last man's coach to St. James's, and thence up to the Duke of York's (age 33) chamber, which, as it is now fretted at the top, and the chimney-piece made handsome, is one of the noblest and best-proportioned rooms that ever, I think, I saw in my life, and when ready, into his closet and did our business, where, among other things, we had a proposition of Mr. Pierce's, for being continued in pay, or something done for him, in reward of his pains as Chyrurgeon-Generall; forasmuch as Troutbecke, that was never a doctor before, hath got £200 a year settled on him for nothing but that one voyage with the Duke of Albemarle (age 58). The Duke of York (age 33) and the whole company did shew most particular kindness to Mr. Pierce, every body moving for him, and the Duke himself most, that he is likely to be a very great man, I believe. Here also we had another mention of Carcasses business, and we directed to bring in a report of our opinion of his case, which vexes us that such a rogue shall make us so much trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1667. Thence we to Islington, to the Old House, and there eat and drank, and then it being late and a pleasant evening, we home, and there to my chamber, and to bed. It is remarkable that this afternoon Mr. Moore come to me, and there, among other things, did tell me how Mr. Moyer, the merchant, having procured an order from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) and Council, with the consent of my Chancellor (age 58), and by assistance of Lord Arlington (age 49), for the releasing out of prison his brother, Samuel Moyer, who was a great man in the late times in Haberdashers'-hall, and was engaged under hand and seal to give the man that obtained it so much in behalf of my Chancellor (age 58); but it seems my Lady [his wife] Duchess of Albemarle (age 48) had before undertaken it for so much money, but hath not done it. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) did the next day send for this Moyer, to tell him, that notwithstanding this order of the King (age 36) and Council's being passed for release of his brother, yet, if he did not consider the pains of some friends of his, he would stop that order. This Moyer being an honest, bold man, told him that he was engaged to the hand that had done the thing to give him a reward; and more he would not give, nor could own any kindness done by his Grace's interest; and so parted. The next day Sir Edward Savage did take the said Moyer in tax about it, giving ill words of this Moyer and his brother; which he not being able to bear, told him he would give to the person that had engaged him what he promised, and not any thing to any body else; and that both he and his brother were as honest men as himself, or any man else; and so sent him going, and bid him do his worst. It is one of the most extraordinary cases that ever I saw or understood; but it is true.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1667. Up betimes, and comes my flagelette master to set me a new tune, which I played presently, and shall in a month do as much as I desire at it. He being gone, I to several businesses in my chamber, and then by coach to the Commissioners of Excise, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spoke with several persons I had to do with. Here among other news, I hear that the Commissioners for the Treasury were named by the King (age 36) yesterday; but who they are nobody could tell: but the persons are the Chancellor (age 58), the two Secretaries, Lord Ashly (age 45), and others say Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Sir John Duncomb (age 44), but all conclude the Duke of Albemarle (age 58); but reports do differ, but will be known in a day or two.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1667. Mrs. Turner (age 44) says she do believe their coming here is only out of a belief of getting purchase by it, and that their servants (which was wittily said of her touching his clerks) do act only as privateers, no purchase, no pay. And in my conscience she is in the right. Then we fell to talk of Sir W. Pen (age 46), and his family and rise. She [Mrs. Turner (age 44)] says that he was a pityfull [fellow] when she first knew them; that his lady (age 43) was one of the sourest, dirty women, that ever she saw; that they took two chambers, one over another, for themselves and child, in Tower Hill [Map]; that for many years together they eat more meals at her house than at their own; did call brothers and sisters the husbands and wives; that her husband was godfather to one, and she godmother to another (this Margaret) of their children, by the same token that she was fain to write with her own hand a letter to Captain Twiddy, to stand for a godfather for her; that she brought my Lady, who then was a dirty slattern, with her stockings hanging about her heels, so that afterwards the people of the whole Hill did say that Mrs. Turner (age 44) had made Mrs. Pen (age 43) a gentlewoman, first to the knowledge of my Lady Vane (age 50), Sir Henry's lady, and him to the knowledge of most of the great people that then he sought to, and that in short his rise hath been his giving of large bribes, wherein, and she agrees with my opinion and knowledge before therein, he is very profuse. This made him General; this got him out of the Tower when he was in; and hath brought him into what he is now, since the King's coming in: that long ago, indeed, he would drink the King's health privately with Mr. Turner; but that when he saw it fit to turn Roundhead, and was offered by Mr. Turner to drink the King's health, he answered "No"; he was changed, and now, he that would make him drink the King's health, or any health but the Protector's and the State's, or to that purpose, he would be the first man should sheath his sword in his guts. That at the King's coming in, he did send for her husband, and told him what a great man Sir W. Coventry (age 39) was like to be, and that he having all the records in his hands of the Navy, if he would transcribe what was of most present use of the practice of the Navy, and give them him to give Sir W. Coventry (age 39) from him, it would undoubtedly do his business of getting him a principal officer's place; that her husband was at £5 charge to get these presently writ; that Sir W. Pen (age 46) did give them Sir W. Coventry (age 39) as from himself, which did set him up with W. Coventry (age 39), and made him what he is, and never owned any thing of Mr. Turner in them; by which he left him in the lurch, though he did promise the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) to do all that was possible, and made no question of Mr. Turner's being what he desired; and when afterwards, too, did propose to him the getting of the Purveyor's place for him, he did tell Mr. Turner it was necessary to present Sir W. Coventry (age 39) 100 pieces, which he did, and W. Coventry took 80 of them: so that he was W. Coventry's mere broker, as Sir W. Batten (age 66) and my Lady did once tell my Lady [his wife] Duchess of Albemarle (age 48), in the case of Mr. Falconer, whom W. Pen (age 46) made to give W. Coventry £200 for his place of Clerk of the Rope Yard of Woolwich, Kent [Map], and to settle £80 a year upon his daughter Pegg (age 16), after the death of his wife, and a gold watch presently to his wife.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who tells me now for certain how the Commission for the Treasury is disposed of: viz., to Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Lord Ashly (age 45), Sir W. Coventry (age 39), Sir John Duncomb (age 44), and Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36): at which, he says, all the whole Court is disturbed; it having been once concluded otherwise into the other hands formerly mentioned in yesterday's notes, but all of a sudden the King's choice was changed, and these are to be the men; the first of which is only for a puppet to give honour to the rest. He do presage that these men will make it their business to find faults in the management of the late Lord Treasurer (deceased), and in discouraging the bankers: but I am, whatever I in compliance do say to him, of another mind, and my heart is very glad of it, for I do expect they will do much good, and that it is the happiest thing that hath appeared to me for the good of the nation since the King (age 36) come in.

1667 Raid on the Medway

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, Kent [Map], by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Lord Middleton (age 59), Prince Rupert (age 47), and the Duke (age 33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, Kent [Map], fortifying Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1667. Yet partly ourselves, being used to be idle and in despair, and partly people that have been used to be deceived by us as to money, won't believe us; and we know not, though we have it, how almost to promise it; and our wants such, and men out of the way, that it is an admirable thing to consider how much the King (age 37) suffers, and how necessary it is in a State to keep the King's service always in a good posture and credit. Here I eat a bit, and then in the afternoon took boat and down to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where I find the stairs full of people, there being a great riding1 there to-day for a man, the constable of the town, whose wife beat him. Here I was with much ado fain to press two watermen to make me a galley, and so to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to give order for the dispatch of a ship I have taken under my care to see dispatched, and orders being so given, I, under pretence to fetch up the ship, which lay at Grays (the Golden Hand)2, did do that in my way, and went down to Gravesend, Kent [Map], where I find the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) just come, with a great many idle lords and gentlemen, with their pistols and fooleries; and the bulwarke not able to have stood half an hour had they come up; but the Dutch are fallen down from the Hope and Shell-haven as low as Sheernesse [Map], and we do plainly at this time hear the guns play. Yet I do not find the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) intends to go thither, but stays here to-night, and hath, though the Dutch are gone, ordered our frigates to be brought to a line between the two blockhouses; which I took then to be a ridiculous thing.

Note 1. It was an ancient custom in Berkshire, when a man had beaten his wife, for the neighbours to parade in front of his house, for the purpose of serenading him with kettles, and horns and hand-bells, and every species of "rough music", by which name the ceremony was designated. Perhaps the riding mentioned by Pepys was a punishment somewhat similar. Malcolm ("Manners of London") quotes from the "Protestant Mercury", that a porter's lady, who resided near Strand Lane, beat her husband with so much violence and perseverance, that the poor man was compelled to leap out of the window to escape her fury. Exasperated at this virago, the neighbours made a "riding", i.e. a pedestrian procession, headed by a drum, and accompanied by a chemise, displayed for a banner. The manual musician sounded the tune of "You round-headed cuckolds, come dig, come dig!" and nearly seventy coalheavers, carmen, and porters, adorned with large horns fastened to their heads, followed. The public seemed highly pleased with the nature of the punishment, and gave liberally to the vindicators of injured manhood. B.

Note 2. The "Golden Hand" was to have been used for the conveyance of the Swedish Ambassadors' horses and goods to Holland. In August, 1667, Frances, widow of Captain Douglas and daughter of Lord Grey, petitioned the King (age 37) "for a gift of the prize ship Golden Hand, now employed in weighing the ships sunk at Chatham, Kent [Map], where her husband lost his life in defence of the ships against the Dutch" (Calendar of State Papers, 1667, p. 430).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jun 1667. By and by, after dinner, my wife out by coach to see her mother; and I in another, being afraid, at this busy time, to be seen with a woman in a coach, as if I were idle, towards The. Turner's (age 15); but met Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) boy; and there in his letter find that the Dutch had made no motion since their taking Sheernesse [Map]; and the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) writes that all is safe as to the great ships against any assault, the boom and chaine being so fortified; which put my heart into great joy1. When I come to Sir W: Coventry's (age 39) chamber, I find him abroad; but his clerk, Powell, do tell me that ill newes is come to Court of the Dutch breaking the Chaine at Chatham, Kent [Map]; which struck me to the heart.

Note 1. There had been correspondence with Pett respecting this chain in April and May. On the 10th May Pett wrote to the Navy Commissioners, "The chain is promised to be dispatched to-morrow, and all things are ready for fixing it". On the 11th June the Dutch "got twenty or twenty-two ships over the narrow part of the river at Chatham, Kent [Map], where ships had been sunk; after two and a half hours' fighting one guard-ship after another was fired and blown up, and the enemy master of the chain" (Calendar of State Papers, 1667, pp. 58, 87, 215).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. At dinner we discoursed of Tom of the Wood, a fellow that lives like a hermit near Woolwich, Kent [Map], who, as they say, and Mr. Bodham, they tell me, affirms that he was by at the justice's when some did accuse him there for it, did foretell the burning of the City, and now says that a greater desolation is at hand. Thence we read and laughed at Lilly's prophecies this month, in his Almanack this year! So to the office after dinner; and thither comes Mr. Pierce, who tells me his condition, how he cannot get his money, about £500, which, he says, is a very great part of what he hath for his family and children, out of Viner's (age 36) hand: and indeed it is to be feared that this will wholly undo the bankers. He says he knows nothing of the late affronts to my Chancellor's (age 58) house, as is said, nor hears of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) being made High Constable; but says that they are in great distraction at White Hall, and that every where people do speak high against Sir W. Coventry (age 39): but he agrees with me, that he is the best Minister of State the King (age 37) hath, and so from my heart I believe.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. At noon I am told that my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 58) is made Constable of England; the meaning whereof at this time I know not, nor whether it, be true or no.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. At night come home Sir W. Batten (age 66) and W. Pen (age 46), who only can tell me that they have placed guns at Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map], and sunk some ships below Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Blackewall [Map], and are in hopes that they will stop the enemy's coming up. But strange our confusion! that among them that are sunk they have gone and sunk without consideration "The Franakin",' one of the King's ships, with stores to a very considerable value, that hath been long loaden for supply of the ships; and the new ship at Bristoll, and much wanted there; and nobody will own that they directed it, but do lay it on Sir W. Rider. They speak also of another ship, loaden to the value of £80,000, sunk with the goods in her, or at least was mightily contended for by him, and a foreign ship, that had the faith of the nation for her security: this Sir R. Ford (age 53) tells us: And it is too plain a truth, that both here and at Chatham, Kent [Map] the ships that we have sunk have many, and the first of them, been ships completely fitted for fire-ships at great charge. But most strange the backwardness and disorder of all people, especially the King's people in pay, to do any work, Sir W. Pen (age 46) tells me, all crying out for money; and it was so at Chatham, Kent [Map], that this night comes an order from Sir W. Coventry (age 39) to stop the pay of the wages of that Yard; the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) having related, that not above three of 1100 in pay there did attend to do any work there.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. This evening having sent a messenger to Chatham, Kent [Map] on purpose, we have received a dull letter from my Lord Bruncker (age 47) and Peter Pett (age 56), how matters have gone there this week; but not so much, or so particularly, as we knew it by common talk before, and as true. I doubt they will be found to have been but slow men in this business; and they say the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) did tell my Lord Bruncker (age 47) to his face that his discharging of the great ships there was the cause of all this; and I am told that it is become common talk against my Lord Bruncker (age 47). But in that he is to be justified, for he did it by verbal order from Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and with good intent; and it was to good purpose, whatever the success be, for the men would have but spent the King (age 37) so much the more in wages, and yet not attended on board to have done the King (age 37) any service; and as an evidence of that, just now, being the 15th day in the morning that I am writing yesterday's passages, one is with me, Jacob Bryan, Purser of "The Princesse", who confesses to me that he hath about 180 men borne at this day in victuals and wages on that ship lying at Chatham, Kent [Map], being lately brought in thither; of which 180 there was not above five appeared to do the King (age 37) any service at this late business. And this morning also, some of the Cambridge's men come up from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], by order from Sir Fretcheville Hollis (age 25), who boasted to us the other day that he had sent for 50, and would be hanged if 100 did not come up that would do as much as twice the number of other men: I say some of them, instead of being at work at Deptford, Kent [Map], where they were intended, do come to the office this morning to demand the payment of their tickets; for otherwise they would, they said, do no more work; and are, as I understand from every body that has to do with them, the most debauched, damning, swearing rogues that ever were in the Navy, just like their prophane commander.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1667. At night comes Captain Cocke (age 50) to see me, and he and I an hour in the garden together. He tells me there have been great endeavours of bringing in the Presbyterian interest, but that it will not do. He named to me several of the insipid lords that are to command the armies that are to be raised. He says the King (age 37) and Court are all troubled, and the gates of the Court were shut up upon the first coming of the Dutch to us, but they do mind the business no more than ever: that the bankers, he fears, are broke as to ready-money, though Viner (age 36) had £100,000 by him when our trouble begun: that he and the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) have received into their own hands, of Viner (age 36), the former £10,000, and the latter £12,000, in tallies or assignments, to secure what was in his hands of theirs; and many other great men of our. masters have done the like; which is no good sign, when they begin to fear the main. He and every body cries out of the office of the Ordnance, for their neglects, both at Gravesend, Kent [Map] and Upnor [Map], and everywhere else.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1667. While we were discoursing over our publique misfortunes, I am called in to a large Committee of the Council: present the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Anglesey (age 52), Arlington (age 49), Ashly (age 45), Carteret (age 57), Duncomb (age 44), Coventry (age 39), Ingram (age 52), Clifford (age 36), Lauderdale (age 51), Morrice (age 64), Manchester (age 65), Craven (age 59), Carlisle (age 38), Bridgewater (age 44).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1667. At noon home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and Jane (mighty fine the girle) to go to see Jane's old mistress, who was to see her, and did see my wife the other day, and it is pleasant to hear with what kindness her old mistress speaks of this girle, and how she would still have her, and how the wench cried when she told her that she must come to her old mistress my wife. They gone, I to my chamber, and there dallied a little with my maid Nell.... [Missing text 'to touch her thing, but nothing more'] and so to the office where busy till night, and then comes Mrs. Turner (age 44), and walks with me in the garden to talk with me about her husband's business, and to tell me how she hears at the other end of the town how bad our office is spoken of by the King (age 37) and Prince (age 47) and Duke of Albemarle (age 58), and that there is not a good word said of any of us but of me; and me they all do speak mightily of, which, whether true or no, I am mighty glad to hear, but from all put together that I hear from other people, I am likely to pass as well as anybody. So, she gone, comes my wife and to walk in the garden, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) being still ill and so keeping us from singing, and by and by Sir W. Pen (age 46) come and walked with us and gave us a bottle of Syder, and so we home to supper and to bed. This day I am told that poor Tooker is dead, a very painfull poor man as ever I knew.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to my chamber, there to settle some papers, and thither comes Mr. Moore to me and talked till church time of the news of the times about the peace and the bad consequences of it if it be not improved to good purpose of fitting ourselves for another war. He tells me he heard that the discontented Parliament-men are fearful that the next sitting the King (age 37) will put for a general excise, by which to raise him money, and then to fling off the Parliament, and raise a land-army and keep them all down like slaves; and it is gotten among them, that Bab. May (age 39), the Privy-purse, hath been heard to say that £300 a-year is enough for any country gentleman; which makes them mad, and they do talk of 6 or £800,000 gone into the Privy-purse this war, when in King James's time it arose but to £5,000, and in King Charles's but £10,000 in a year. He tells me that a goldsmith in town told him that, being with some plate with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) lately, she directed her woman (the great beauty), "Wilson", says she, "make a note for this, and for that, to the Privy-purse for money". He tells me a little more of the baseness of the courses taken at Court in the case of Mr. Moyer, who is at liberty, and is to give £500 for his liberty; but now the great ones are divided, who shall have the money, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) on one hand, and another Lord on the other; and that it is fain to be decided by having the person's name put into the King's warrant for his liberty, at whose intercession the King (age 37) shall own that he is set at liberty; which is a most lamentable thing, that we do professedly own that we do these things, not for right and justice sake, but only to gratify this or that person about the King (age 37). God forgive us all!

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1667. So up to my Chancellor's (age 58), where was a Committee of Tangier in my Lord's roome, where he is to hear causes, where all the judges' pictures hang up, very fine. Here I read my letter to them, which was well received, and they did fall seriously to discourse the want of money and other particulars, and to some pretty good purpose. But to see how Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did oppose both my Chancellor (age 58) and the Duke of York (age 33) himself, about the Order of the Commissioners of the Treasury to me for not paying of pensions, and with so much reason, and eloquence so natural, was admirable. And another thing, about his pressing for the reduction of the charge of Tangier, which they would have put off to another time; "But", says he, "the King (age 37) suffers so much by the putting off of the consideration of reductions of charge, that he is undone; and therefore I do pray you, sir, to his Royal Highness, that when any thing offers of the kind, you will not let it escape you". Here was a great bundle of letters brought hither, sent up from sea, from a vessel of ours that hath taken them after they had been flung over by a Dutchman; wherein, among others, the Duke of York (age 33) did read the superscription of one to De Witt, thus "To the most wise, foreseeing and discreet, These, &c."; which, I thought with myself, I could have been glad might have been duly directed to any one of them at the table, though the greatest men in this kingdom. The Duke of York (age 33), the Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Arlington, Ashley, Peterborough, and Coventry (the best of them all for parts), I perceive they do all profess their expectation of a peace, and that suddenly, and do advise of things accordingly, and do all speak of it (and expressly, I remember, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58)), saying that they hoped for it. Letters were read at the table from Tangier that Guiland is wholly lost, and that he do offer Arzill to us to deliver it to us. But Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did declare his opinion that we should have nothing to do with it, and said that if Tangier were offered us now, as the King's condition is, he would advise against the taking it; saying, that the King's charge is too great, and must be brought down, it being, like the fire of this City, never to be mastered till you have brought it under you; and that these places abroad are but so much charge to the King (age 37), and we do rather hitherto strive to greaten them than lessen them; and then the King (age 37) is forced to part with them, "as", says he, "he did with Dunkirke", by my Lord Tiviott's making it so chargeable to the King (age 37) as he did that, and would have done Tangier, if he had lived: I perceive he is the only man that do seek the King's profit, and is bold to deliver what he thinks on every occasion. Having broke up here, I away with Mr. Gawden in his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there a little, and then home and dined, and then to the office, and by and by with my wife to White Hall (she to Unthanke's), and there met Creed and did a little business at the Treasury chamber, and then to walk in Westminster Hall [Map] an hour or two, with much pleasure reflecting upon our discourse to-day at the Tangier meeting, and crying up the worth of Sir W. Coventry (age 39). Creed tells me of the fray between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Duke's playhouse the last Saturday (and it is the first day I have heard that they have acted at either the King's or Duke's houses this month or six weeks) and Henry Killigrew (age 30), whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did soundly beat and take away his sword, and make a fool of, till the fellow prayed him to spare his life; and I am glad of it; for it seems in this business the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did carry himself very innocently and well, and I wish he had paid this fellow's coat well. I heard something of this at the 'Change [Map] to-day: and it is pretty to hear how people do speak kindly of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), as one that will enquire into faults; and therefore they do mightily favour him. And it puts me in mind that, this afternoon, Billing (age 44), the Quaker, meeting me in the Hall, come to me, and after a little discourse did say, "Well", says he, "now you will be all called to an account"; meaning the Parliament is drawing near. This done I took coach and took up my wife, and so home, and after a little at the office I home to my chamber a while, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. By and by up to the Duke of York's (age 33) chamber; and there all the talk was about Jordan's coming with so much indiscretion, with his four little frigates and sixteen fire-ships from Harwich [Map], to annoy the enemy. His failures were of several sorts, I know not which the truest: that he come with so strong a gale of wind, that his grapplings would not hold; that he did come by their lee; whereas if he had come athwart their hawse, they would have held; that they did not stop a tide, and come up with a windward tide, and then they would not have come so fast. Now, there happened to be Captain Jenifer by, who commanded the Lily in this business, and thus says that, finding the Dutch not so many as they expected, they did not know but that there were more of them above, and so were not so earnest to the setting upon these; that they did do what they could to make the fire-ships fall in among the enemy; and, for their lives, neither Sir J. Jordan nor others could, by shooting several times at them, make them go in; and it seems they were commanded by some idle fellows, such as they could of a sudden gather up at Harwich [Map]; which is a sad consideration that, at such a time as this, where the saving the reputation of the whole nation lay at stake, and after so long a war, the King (age 37) had not credit to gather a few able men to command these vessels. He says, that if they had come up slower, the enemy would, with their boats and their great sloops, which they have to row with a great many men, they would, and did, come and cut up several of our fireships, and would certainly have taken most of them, for they do come with a great provision of these boats on purpose, and to save their men, which is bravely done of them, though they did, on this very occasion, shew great fear, as they say, by some men leaping overboard out of a great ship, as these were all of them of sixty and seventy guns a-piece, which one of our fireships laid on board, though the fire did not take. But yet it is brave to see what care they do take to encourage their men to provide great stores of boats to save them, while we have not credit to find one boat for a ship. And, further, he told us that this new way used by Deane (age 33), and this Sir W. Coventry (age 39) observed several times, of preparing of fire-ships, do not do the work; for the fire, not being strong and quick enough to flame up, so as to take the rigging and sails, lies smothering a great while, half an hour before it flames, in which time they can get her off safely, though, which is uncertain, and did fail in one or two this bout, it do serve to burn our own ships. But what a shame it is to consider how two of our ships' companies did desert their ships for fear of being taken by their boats, our little frigates being forced to leave them, being chased by their greater! And one more company did set their ship on fire, and leave her; which afterwards a Feversham fisherman come up to, and put out the fire, and carried safe into Feversham, where she now is, which was observed by the Duke of York (age 33), and all the company with him, that it was only want of courage, and a general dismay and abjectness of spirit upon all our men; and others did observe our ill management, and God Almighty's curse upon all that we have in hand, for never such an opportunity was of destroying so many good ships of theirs as we now had. But to see how negligent we were in this business, that our fleete of Jordan's should not have any notice where Spragg was, nor Spragg of Jordan's, so as to be able to meet and join in the business, and help one another; but Jordan, when he saw Spragg's fleete above, did think them to be another part of the enemy's fleete! While, on the other side, notwithstanding our people at Court made such a secret of Jordan's design that nobody must know it, and even this Office itself must not know it; nor for my part I did not, though Sir W. Batten (age 66) says by others' discourse to him he had heard something of it; yet De Ruyter (age 60), or he that commanded this fleete, had notice of it, and told it to a fisherman of ours that he took and released on Thursday last, which was the day before our fleete came to him. But then, that, that seems most to our disgrace, and which the Duke of York (age 33) did take special and vehement notice of, is, that when the Dutch saw so many fire-ships provided for them, themselves lying, I think, about the Nore, they did with all their great ships, with a North-east wind, as I take it they said, but whatever it was, it was a wind that we should not have done it with, turn down to the Middle-ground; which the Duke of York (age 33) observed, never was nor would have been undertaken by ourselves. And whereas some of the company answered, it was their great fear, not their choice that made them do it, the Duke of York (age 33) answered, that it was, it may be, their fear and wisdom that made them do it; but yet their fear did not make them mistake, as we should have done, when we have had no fear upon us, and have run our ships on ground. And this brought it into my mind, that they managed their retreat down this difficult passage, with all their fear, better than we could do ourselves in the main sea, when the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) run away from the Dutch, when the Prince was lost, and the Royal Charles and the other great ships come on ground upon the Galloper. Thus, in all things, in wisdom, courage, force, knowledge of our own streams, and success, the Dutch have the best of us, and do end the war with victory on their side. The Duke of York (age 33) being ready, we into his closet, but, being in haste to go to the Parliament House, he could not stay. So we parted, and to Westminster Hall [Map], where the Hall full of people to see the issue of the day, the King (age 37) being come to speak to the House to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1667. Then to the office, where we sat upon a particular business all the morning: and my Lord Anglesey (age 53) with us: who, and my Lord Bruncker (age 47), do bring us news how my Chancellor's (age 58) seal is to be taken away from him to-day. The thing is so great and sudden to me, that it put me into a very great admiration what should be the meaning of it; and they do not own that they know what it should be: but this is certain, that the King (age 37) did resolve it on Saturday, and did yesterday send the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), the only man fit for those works, to him for his purse: to which the Chancellor (age 58) answered, that he received it from the King (age 37), and would deliver it to the King's own hand, and so civilly returned the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) without it; and this morning my Chancellor (age 58) is to be with the King (age 37), to come to an end in the business. After sitting, we rose, and my wife being gone abroad with Mrs. Turner (age 44) to her washing at the whitster's, I dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where Mr. Boreman was, who come from White Hall; who tells us that he saw my Chancellor (age 58) come in his coach with some of his men, without his Seal, to White Hall to his chamber; and thither the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) come and staid together alone, an hour or more: and it is said that the King (age 37) do say that he will have the Parliament meet, and that it will prevent much trouble by having of him out of their enmity, by his place being taken away; for that all their enmity will be at him. It is said also that my Chancellor (age 58) answers, that he desires he may be brought to his trial, if he have done any thing to lose his office; and that he will be willing, and is most desirous, to lose that, and his head both together. Upon what terms they parted nobody knows but the Chancellor (age 58) looked sad, he says. Then in comes Sir Richard Ford (age 53), and says he hears that there is nobody more presses to reconcile the King (age 37) and Chancellor (age 58) than the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and Duke of Buckingham (age 39): the latter of which is very strange, not only that he who was so lately his enemy should do it, but that this man, that but the other day was in danger of losing his own head, should so soon come to be a mediator for others: it shows a wise Government. They all say that he [Clarendon] is but a poor man, not worth above £3000 a-year in land; but this I cannot believe: and all do blame him for having built so great a house, till he had got a better estate. Having dined, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and I to White Hall, where we could be informed in no more than we were told before, nobody knowing the result of the meeting, but that the matter is suspended. So I walked to the King's playhouse, there to meet Sir W. Pen (age 46), and saw "The Surprizall", a very mean play, I thought: or else it was because I was out of humour, and but very little company in the house. But there Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I had a great deal of discourse with Moll; who tells us that Nell (age 17) is already left by my Lord Buckhurst (age 24), and that he makes sport of her, and swears she hath had all she could get of him; and Hart1, her great admirer, now hates her; and that she is very poor, and hath lost my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who was her great friend also but she is come to the House, but is neglected by them all2. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 46) home, and I to the office, where late about business, and then home to supper, and so to bed.

Note 1. Charles Hart, great-nephew of Shakespeare, a favourite actor. He is credited with being Nell Gwyn's (age 17) first lover (or Charles I, as the wits put it), and with having brought her on the stage. He died of stone, and was buried at Stanmore Magna, Middlesex, where he had a country house.

Note 2. Lord Buckhurst's (age 24) liaison with Nell Gwyn probably came to an end about this time. We learn from Pepys that in January, 1667-68, the King (age 37) sent several times for Nelly (age 17) (see January 11th, 1667-68). Nell's eldest son by Charles II, Charles Beauclerc, was not born till May 8th, 1670. He was created Earl of Burford in 1676 and Duke of St. Albans in 1684.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Aug 1667. Visited the Lord Chancellor (age 58), to whom his Majesty (age 37) had sent for the seals a few days before; I found him in his bedchamber, very sad. The Parliament had accused him, and he had enemies at Court, especially the buffoons and ladies of pleasure, because he thwarted some of them, and stood in their way; I could name some of the chief. The truth is, he made few friends during his grandeur among the royal sufferers, but advanced the old rebels. He was, however, though no considerable lawyer, one who kept up the form and substance of things in the Nation with more solemnity than some would have had. He was my particular kind friend, on all occasions. The cabal, however, prevailed, and that party in Parliament. Great division at Court concerning him, and divers great persons interceding for him.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1667. Up, and several come to me, among others Mr. Yeabsly of Plymouth, Devon [Map], to discourse about their matters touching Tangier, and by and by Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who was with me a good while; who tells me that the Duke of York's (age 33) child is christened, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and the Marquis of Worcester (age 38) godfathers, and my Lady Suffolke (age 45) godmother; and they have named it Edgar, which is a brave name. But it seems they are more joyful in the Chancellor's (age 58) family, at the birth of this Prince, than in wisdom they should, for fear it should give the King (age 37) cause of jealousy.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and put on my new tunique of velvett; which is very plain, but good. This morning is brought to me an order for the presenting the Committee of Parliament to-morrow with a list of the commanders and ships' names of all the fleetes set out since the war, and particularly of those ships which were divided from the fleete with Prince Rupert (age 47)1 which gives me occasion to see that they are busy after that business, and I am glad of it.

Note 1. This question of the division of the fleet in May, 1666, was one over which endless controversy as to responsibility was raised. When Prince Rupert (age 47), with twenty ships, was detached to prevent the junction of the French squadron with the Dutch, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) was left with fifty-four ships against eighty belonging to the Dutch. Albemarle's tactics are praised by Captain Mahan.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1667. So I alone to church, and then home, and there Deane (age 33) comes and dines with me by invitation, and both at and after dinner he and I spent all the day till it was dark in discourse of business of the Navy and the ground of the many miscarriages, wherein he do inform me in many more than I knew, and I had desired him to put them in writing, and many indeed they are and good ones; and also we discoursed of the business of shipping, and he hath promised me a draught of the ship he is now building, wherein I am mightily pleased. This afternoon comes to me Captain O'Bryan, about a ship that the King (age 37) hath given him; and he and I to talk of the Parliament; and he tells me that the business of the Duke of York's (age 34) slackening sail in the first fight, at the beginning of the war, is brought into question, and Sir W. Pen (age 46) and Captain Cox are to appear to-morrow about it; and it is thought will at last be laid upon Mr. Bruncker's giving orders from the Duke of York (age 34) (which the Duke of York (age 34) do not own) to Captain Cox to do it; but it seems they do resent this very highly, and are mad in going through all business, where they can lay any fault. I am glad to hear, that in the world I am as kindly spoke of as any body; for, for aught I see, there is bloody work like to be, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) having been forced to produce a letter in Parliament wherein the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) did from Sheernesse [Map] write in what good posture all things were at Chatham, Kent [Map], and that the chain was so well placed that he feared no attempt of the enemy: so that, among other things, I see every body is upon his own defence, and spares not to blame another to defend himself, and the same course I shall take. But God knows where it will end! He gone, and Deane (age 33), I to my chamber for a while, and then comes Pelling the apothecary to see us, and sat and supped with me (my wife being gone to bed sick of the cholique), and then I to bed, after supper. Pelting tells me that my [his wife] Lady Duchesse Albemarle (age 48) was at Mrs. Turner's (age 44) this afternoon, she being ill, and did there publickly talk of business, and of our Office; and that she believed that I was safe, and had done well; and so, I thank God! I hear every body speaks of me; and indeed, I think, without vanity, I may expect to be profited rather than injured by this inquiry, which the Parliament makes into business.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1667. Thus this business ended to-day, having kept them till almost two o'clock; and then I by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 46) as far as St. Clement's, talking of this matter, and there set down; and I walked to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57), and there dined with him and several Parliament-men, who, I perceive, do all look upon it as a thing certain that the Parliament will enquire into every thing, and will be very severe where they can find any fault. Sir W. Coventry (age 39), I hear, did this day make a speech, in apology for his reading the letter of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), concerning the good condition which Chatham, Kent [Map] was in before the enemy come thither: declaring his simple intention therein, without prejudice to my Lord. And I am told that he was also with the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) yesterday to excuse it; but this day I do hear, by some of Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) friends, that they think he hath done himself much injury by making this man, and his interest, so much his enemy.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1667. Slept but ill all the last part of the night, for fear of this day's success in Parliament: therefore up, and all of us all the morning close, till almost two o'clock, collecting all we had to say and had done from the beginning, touching the safety of the River Medway and Chatham, Kent