Europe, France, Paris [Map]

Paris is in France.

1087 King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

1165 Louis VII's Heir

1393 Bal de Ardents

1407 Murder of Louis of Orléans

1420 Funeral of Thomas Fitzgerald

1422 Death of Charles VI

1431 French Coronation of Henry VI

1445 Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

1558 Surrender of Calais

1558 Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France

1567 Battle of St Denis

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1625 Proxy Marriage of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

1701 Death of King James II

1793 Execution of Louis XVI

On 18 Sep 1180 Louis VII King Franks (age 60) died in Paris [Map]. His son King Philip II of France (age 15) succeeded II King France: Capet.

On 19 Aug 1186 Geoffrey Plantagenet 2nd Duke Brittany (age 27) died at Paris [Map].

In Jan 1212 Ferdinand Burgundy (age 23) and Joan I Countess Flanders (age 13) were married in Paris [Map]. She the daughter of Baldwin IX Count Flanders VI Count Hainault and Marie Blois Countess Flanders. He the son of Sancho "Populator" I King Portugal and Dulce Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

On 05 Dec 1250 Bishop Aymer de Valence (age 28) died at Paris [Map].

In 1262 Robert Artois II Count Artois (age 11) and Amice Countenay Countess Artois were married at Paris [Map]. She by marriage Countess Artois. He the son of Robert Capet Count of Artois and Matilda Reginar Countess Saint Pol (age 38). They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

After Apr 1273 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 33) travelled to Paris [Map] to pay homage to Philip "Bold" III King France (age 27) for his lands in Gascony.

Froissart. 1324. When queen Isabel (age 29) was arrived at Boulogne [Map], and her son (age 11) with her and the earl of Kent (age 22), the captains and abbot of the town came against her and joyously received her and her company into the abbey, and there she abode two days: then she departed and rode so long by her journeys that she arrived at Paris [Map]. Then king Charles (age 29) her brother, who was informed of her coming, sent to meet her divers of the greatest lords of his realm, as the lord sir Robert de Artois (age 37), the lord of Coucy, the lord of Sully, the lord of Roye and divers other, who honourably did receive her and brought her into the city of Paris to the king her brother (age 29). And when the king (age 29) saw his sister (age 29), whom he had not seen long before, as she should have entered into his chamber he met her and took her in his arms and kissed her, and said, ' Ye be welcome, fair sister, with my fair nephew your son,' and took them by the hands and led them forth. The queen, who had no great joy at her heart but that she was so near to the king her brother, she would have kneeled down two or three times at the feet of the king, but the king would not suffer her, but held her still by the right hand, demanding right sweetly of her estate and business. And she answered him right sagely, and lamentably recounted to him all the felonies and injuries done to her by sir Hugh Spencer (age 38), and required him of his aid and comfort. When the noble King Charles of France (age 29) had heard his sister's lamentation, who weepingly had shewed him all her need and business, be said to her: ' Fair sister, appease yourself, for by the faith I owe to God and to Saint Denis I shall right well purvey for you some remedy.' The queen then kneeled down, whether the king would or not, and said: 'My right dear lord and fair brother, I pray God reward you.' The king then took her in his arms and led her into another chamber, the which was apparelled for her and for the young Edward her son, and so departed from her, and caused at his costs and charges all things to be delivered that was behoveful for her and for her son. After it was not long, but that for this occasion Charles king of France (age 29) assembled together many great lords and barons of the realm of France, to have their counsel and good advice how they should ordain for the need and besynes of his sister queen of England. Then it was counselled to the king that he should let the queen his sister to purchase for herself friends, whereas she would, in the realm of France or in any other place, and himself to feign and be not known thereof; for they said, to move war with the king of England (age 39), and to bring his own realm into hatred, it were nothing appertinent nor profitable to him nor to his realm. But they concluded that conveniently he might aid her with gold and silver, for that is the metal whereby love is attained both of gentlemen and of poor soldiers. And to this counsel and advice accorded the king, and caused this to be shewed to the queen privily by sir Robert d'Artois (age 37), who as then was one of the greatest lords of all France.

On 12 Apr 1326 Eudo Zouche (age 28) died at Paris [Map].

On 04 Jun 1337 Charles "Saint" Chatillon Duke Brittany (age 18) and Joan "Lame" Capet Countess Penthièvre (age 18) were married at Paris [Map]. She the daughter of Guy Capet Count Penthièvre and Jeanne Avaugour Countess Penthièvre. He the son of Guy Chatillon I Count Blois and Margaret Valois (age 42). They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

In 1344 Raoul Brienne I Count Eu I Count Guînes was killed in a tournament at Paris [Map]. His son Raoul Brienne II Count Eu II Count Guînes (age 29) succeeded II Count Eu, II Count Guînes. Catherine Countess Eu and Guînes by marriage Countess Eu, Countess Guînes.

Before Feb 1388 Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) fled to Paris [Map].

On 05 Sep 1389 Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 59) died in Paris [Map]. His son Michael de la Pole 2nd Earl Suffolk (age 28) succeeded 2nd Earl Suffolk.

In 1400 John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 19) and Marie Valois I Duchess Auverge (age 25) were married at Paris [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Bourbon. She the daughter of John Valois 1st Duke Berry (age 59) and Joanne Armagnac Duchess Berry. He the son of Louis Bourbon II Duke Bourbon (age 62) and Anne Auvergne Duchess Bourbon (age 42). They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry III of England.

Murder of Louis of Orléans

On 23 Nov 1407 Louis Valois Duke Touraine I Duke Orléans (age 35) was murdered on the orders of John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 36) at Paris [Map]. His son Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 12) succeeded Duke Orléans.

In 1418 Hector de Chartres Lord of Lyons-en-Beauvaisis was beheaded in Paris [Map].

Funeral of Thomas Fitzgerald

After 10 Aug 1420 Thomas Fitzgerald 5th Earl Desmond (age 34) was buried in Paris [Map]. Henry V (age 34) and Charles V (age 51) were present.

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 03 Dec 1431. Ande that yere the kyng (age 9) passyde the see in to Fraunce, and wente unto Parysse [Map]; and he come thedyr the thyrde day of Decembyr.

On 14 Nov 1432 Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford (age 28) died at Paris [Map].

On 16 Mar 1509 Agnes Savoy Duchess Longueville (age 63) died at Paris [Map].

Before 1533 Nicholas Bacon Lord Keeper (age 22) continued his education in Paris [Map].

On 13 Jul 1566 Thomas Hoby (age 36) died at Paris [Map]. He was buried at Bisham, Berkshire.

On 06 May 1580 Charles Gonzaga I Duke Mantua was born to Louis Gonzaga Duke Nevers (age 40) at Paris [Map].

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

Calendars. 28 Feb 1587. Paris [Map]. Bernardino De Mendoza (age 47) to the King (age 59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.

The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (age 54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (age 59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to confess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (age 59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (age 59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (age 53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the Queen of Scotland (deceased). It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (age 66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (age 54), Lord Hunsdon (age 60), Lord Admiral Howard (age 51) and Walsingham (age 55), had represented to the Queen (age 53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the Queen of Scotland (deceased). Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland (deceased) conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (age 55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (age 53) for her signature by Davison (age 46), and after she had signed it she ordered him not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison (age 46), who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the Queen of Scotland (deceased), like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the Queen of Scotland (deceased) was. The moment the justice received it, on the 8th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the Queen of Scotland's (deceased) chamber with Paulet (age 54) and Lord Grey (age 46), who had charge of her, and there they had her head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (age 53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (age 59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most advisable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the Queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. .

On 09 Dec 1587 Charles Arundell (age 54) died in Paris [Map].

On 14 May 1610 Henry IV King France (age 56) was murdered in Paris [Map]. His son Louis XIII King France (age 8) succeeded XIII King France: Capet Valois Bourbon.

On 10 Apr 1617 Henri Valois II Duke Longueville (age 22) and Louise Bourbon Condé Duchess Longueville (age 13) were married at Paris [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Longueville. She the daughter of Charles Bourbon Condé Count Soissons and Anne Montafié Countess Soissons (age 39). He the son of Henri Valois I Duke Longueville and Catherine Gonzaga Duchess Longueville (age 49). They were second cousins.

In 1635 Henri Gascar was born in Paris [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1643. Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good note, and having the first vineyards we had seen. The next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to Paris [Map], having taken our repast at St Denis, two leagues from that great city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathedral, and the dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed as ours at Westminster Abbey. The treasury is esteemed one of the richest in Europe. The church was built by King Dagobert, but since much enlarged, being now 390 feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without comprehending the cover: it has also a very high shaft of stone, and the gates are of brass. Here, while the monks conducted us, we were showed the ancient and modern sepulchers of their kings, beginning with the founder to Louis his son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and father of Charlemagne. These lie in the choir, and without it are many more: among the rest that of Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France; in the chapel of Charles V., all his posterity; and near him the magnificent sepulcher of Francis I., with his children, wars, victories, and triumphs engraven in marble. In the nave of the church lies the catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIII., Henry II, a noble tomb of Francis II, and Charles IX. Above are bodies of several Saints; below, under a state of black velvet, the late Louis XIII., father of this present monarch. Every one of the ten chapels, or oratories, had some Saints in them; among the rest, one of the Holy Innocents. The treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in which are crosses of massy gold and silver, studded with precious stones, one of gold three feet high, set with sapphires, rubies, and great oriental pearls. Another given by Charles the Great, having a noble amethyst in the middle of it, stones and pearls of inestimable icon. Among the still more valuable relics are, a nail from our Savior's Cross, in a box of gold full of precious stones; a crucifix of the true wood of the Cross, carved by Pope Clement III., enchased in a crystal covered with gold; a box in which is some of the Virgin's hair; some of the linen in which our blessed Savior was wrapped at his nativity; in a huge reliquary, modeled like a church, some of our Savior's blood, hair, clothes, linen with which he wiped the Apostles' feet; with many other equally authentic toys, which the friar who conducted us would have us believe were authentic relics. Among the treasures is the crown of Charlemagne, his seven-foot high scepter and hand of justice, the agraffe of his royal mantle, beset with diamonds and rubies, his sword, belt, and spurs of gold; the crown of St. Louis, covered with precious stones, among which is one vast ruby, uncut, of inestimable value, weighing 300 carats (under which is set one of the thorns of our blessed Savior's crown), his sword, seal, and hand of justice. The two crowns of Henry IV., his scepter, hand of justice, and spurs. The two crowns of his son Louis. In the cloak-royal of Anne of Bretagne is a very great and rare ruby. Divers books covered with solid plates of gold, and studded with precious stones. Two vases of beryl, two of agate, whereof one is esteemed for its bigness, color, and embossed carving, the best now to be seen: by a special favor I was permitted to take the measure and dimensions of it; the story is a Bacchanalia and sacrifice to Priapus; a very holy thing truly, and fit for a cloister! It is really antique, and the noblest jewel there. There is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge urn of porphyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx, the largest I had ever seen of that stone; two of crystal; a morsel of one of the waterpots in which our Savior did his first miracle; the effigies of the Queen of Saba, of Julius, Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, upon sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians: that of the queen of Saba16 has a Moorish face; those of Julius and Nero on agates are rarely colored and cut. A cup in which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a great amethyst. There lay in a window a mirror of a kind of stone said to have belonged to the poet Virgil. Charlemagne's chessmen, full of Arabic characters. In the press next the door, the brass lantern full of crystals, said to have conducted Judas and his company to apprehend our blessed Savior. A fair unicorn's horn, sent by a king of Persia, about seven feet long. In another press (over which stands the picture in oil of their Orléans Amazon with her sword), the effigies of the late French kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered with their robes; with a world of other rarities. PARISHaving rewarded our courteous friar, we took horse for Paris, where we arrived about five in the afternoon. In the way were fair crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at every furlong's end, where they affirm St. Denis rested and laid down his head after martyrdom, carrying it from the place where this monastery is builded. We lay at Paris at the Ville de Venice; where, after I had something refreshed, I went to visit Sir Richard Browne (age 38), his Majesty's Resident with the French king.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1644. The Queen of England (age 34) came to Tours, having newly arrived in France, and going for Paris [Map]. She was very nobly received by the people and clergy, who went to meet her with the trained bands. After the harangue, the Archbishop entertained her at his Palace, where I paid my duty to her. The 20th she set forward to Paris.

Before 10 Sep 1647 John Evelyn (age 26) and Mary Browne (age 12) were married by Bishop John Earle (age 46) at Paris [Map]. She is first mentioned in his diary John Evelyn's Diary 1647 September 10.

Before 09 Jun 1648 Anne Webb died at Paris [Map]. She was buried at Charenton on 09 Jun 1648.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Feb 1649. Paris [Map] being now strictly besieged by the Prince de Condé (age 27), my wife (age 14) being shut up with her father (age 44) and mother (age 39), I wrote a letter of consolation to her: and, on the 22d, having recommended Obadiah Walker (age 33), a learned and most ingenious person, to be tutor to, and travel with, Mr. Hillyard's two sons, returned to Sayes Court, Deptford [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jul 1649. Visited Baroness Hatton (age 37), her lord (age 44) sojourning at Paris [Map] with my father-in-law (age 44).

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Aug 1650. Set out for Paris [Map], taking post at Gravesend, Kent [Map], and so that night to Canterbury, Kent [Map], where being surprised by the soldiers, and having only an antiquated pass, with some fortunate dexterity I got clear of them though not without extraordinary hazard, having before counterfeited one with success, it being so difficult to procure one of the rebels without entering into oaths, which I never would do. At Dover, money to the searchers and officers was as authentic as the hand and seal of Bradshawe himself, where I had not so much as my trunk opened.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Feb 1651. Cardinal Mazarin (age 48) was proscribed by Arrêt du Parlement, and great commotions began in Paris [Map].

In Nov 1651 Henry Wood 1st Baronet (age 54) and Mary Gardiner (age 24) were married at Paris [Map]. The difference in their ages was 29 years.

On 23 Aug 1652 John Byron 1st Baron Byron (age 53) died at Paris [Map]. His brother Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron (age 46) succeeded 2nd Baron Byron of Rochdale in Lancashire.

On 21 Jan 1653 John Digby 1st Earl Bristol (age 72) died in Paris [Map]. His son George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol (age 40) succeeded 2nd Earl Bristol. Anne Russell Countess Bristol (age 33) by marriage Countess Bristol.

In Apr 1659 Henry Percy (age 55) died unmarried in Paris [Map].

On 10 Aug 1660 Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox (age 11) died of smallpox at Paris [Map]. He was buried in on 04 Sep 1660 in the Richmond Vault, Westminster Abbey. His first cousin Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond (age 21) succeeded 6th Duke Lennox, 3rd Duke Richmond. 4th Earl March. Elizabeth Rogers Duchess Richmond by marriage Duchess Richmond. His sister Mary Stewart Countess Arran (age 9) succeeded 5th Baroness Clifton of Leighton Bromswold in Huntingdonshire.

On 10 Mar 1663 Edward Palatinate Simmern (age 37) died at Paris [Map].

On 03 Sep 1669 Mary St Leger Baroness Lexington (age 29) died in Paris [Map].

Before 1672 Anne Home (age 60) died at Paris [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Oct 1672. I took leave of my Lady Sunderland (age 26), who was going to Paris [Map] to my Lord, now ambassador there. She made me stay to dinner at Leicester House, and afterward sent for Richardson, the famous fire-eater. He devoured brimstone on glowing coals before us, chewing and swallowing them; he melted a beer-glass and ate it quite up; then, taking a live coal on his tongue, he put on it a raw oyster, the coal was blown on with bellows till it flamed and sparkled in his mouth, and so remained till the oyster gaped and was quite boiled. Then, he melted pitch and wax with sulphur, which he drank down as it flamed; I saw it flaming in his mouth a good while; he also took up a thick piece of iron, such as laundresses use to put in their smoothing boxes, when it was fiery hot, held it between his teeth, then in his hand, and threw it about like a stone; but this, I observed, he cared not to hold very long; then he stood on a small pot, and, bending his body, took a glowing iron with his mouth from between his feet, without touching the pot, or ground, with his hands; with divers other prodigious feats.

In 1673 James Stanhope 1st Earl Stanhope was born to Alexander Stanhope (age 35) at Paris [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Nov 1675. Being the day appointed for my Lord Ambassador (age 47) to set out, I met them with my coach at New Cross. There were with him my Lady his wife, and my dear friend, Mrs. Godolphin (age 23), who, out of an extraordinary friendship, would needs accompany my lady to Paris [Map], and stay with her some time, which was the chief inducement for permitting my son (age 20) to travel, but I knew him safe under her inspection, and in regard my Lord (age 47) himself had promised to take him into his special favor, he having intrusted all he had to my care.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Apr 1676. I had now notice that my dear friend Mrs. Godolphin (age 23), was returning from Paris [Map]. On the 6th, she arrived to my great joy, whom I most heartily welcomed.

In 1677 John Butler 1st Earl Gowran (age 34) died at Paris [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Jul 1679. I went to see how things stood at Parson's Green, my Lady Viscountess Mordaunt (now sick in Paris [Map], whither she went for health) having made me a trustee for her children, an office I could not refuse to this most excellent, pious, and virtuous lady, my long acquaintance.

In 1681 William Carnegie (age 19) was killed in a duel with William Tollemache (age 32) at Paris [Map].

On 25 Dec 1681 Stephen Goffe (age 76) died in Paris [Map].

On 11 Nov 1714 John Stafford-Howard (age 54) died in Paris [Map].

On 01 Jul 1720 Simon Harcourt (age 35) died at Paris [Map].

On 15 Nov 1726 Mary Tudor Countess Derwentwater (age 53) died in Paris [Map].

On 29 Sep 1728 Robert Dashwood (age 41) died at Paris [Map].

On 14 Nov 1734 Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 85) died in Paris [Map]. Duke Portsmouth, Earl Fareham and Baron Petersfield extinct since the creations were for life only.

In 1741 Barbara Lennard (age 64) died at Paris [Map].

On 12 Nov 1744 William Bateman 1st Viscount Culmore (age 49) died in Paris [Map]. His son John Bateman 2nd Viscount Culmore (age 23) succeeded 2nd Viscount Culmore, 2nd Baron Culmore in Londonderry. Elizabeth Sambroke Viscountess Bateman (age 19) by marriage Viscountess Culmore.

On 08 Sep 1749 Yolande Martine Gabrielle Polastron Duchess Gramont was born in Paris [Map].

On 12 Mar 1752 Charles Hastings 1st Baronet was born illegitimately to Francis Hastings 10th Earl Huntingdon (age 22) at Paris [Map]. His mother was a famous French courtesan, la demoiselle Lany, "danseuse de l'Opéra".

On 28 May 1753 Henry Hyde (age 42) died at Paris [Map]. Baron Hyde of Hindon in Wiltshire extinct. Or the title possibly reverted to his father Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Rochester 4th Earl Clarendon (age 80).

On 16 Apr 1755 Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun was born in Paris [Map].

On 25 Feb 1773 Jacobo Fitz James Stuart 10th Duke Veragua 5th Duke Berwick was born to Carlos Fitz James Stuart 10th Duke Veragua 4th Duke Berwick (age 20) and Caroline Stolberg Gedern Duchess Veragua Duchess Berwick (age 18) at Paris [Map]. He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Execution of Louis XVI

On 21 Jan 1793 Louis XVI King France (age 38) was guillotined in Paris [Map]. His son Louis XVII King France (age 7) de jure XVII King France: Capet Valois Bourbon.

In 1814 or 1815 Anne aka Nancy Parsons Viscountess Maynard (age 80) died at Paris [Map].

On 22 Aug 1817 Francis Charles Charteris 9th Earl of Wemyss (age 21) and Louisa Bingham Countess Wemyss (age 19) were married in Paris [Map]. She the daughter of Richard Bingham 2nd Earl Lucan (age 52) and Elizabeth Belasyse Duchess Norfolk (age 47). He the son of Francis Charteris 8th Earl of Wemyss Douglas 4th Earl March (age 45).

In 1823 Federico de Madrazo y Kuntz (age 7) went to Paris [Map] and studied under Franz Xaver Winterhalter (age 17).

In 1824 Henry Charles Fitzroy Somerset 8th Duke Beaufort was born to Henry Somerset 7th Duke Beaufort (age 31) and Emily Frances Smith Duchess Beaufort (age 23) at Paris [Map].

On 09 Oct 1830 Harriet Clark Lady Graham died in a carriage accident in Paris [Map].

On 30 Aug 1831 Duchess Louise Dorothea of Saxe Coburg Altenburg (age 30) died at Paris [Map].

On 23 Oct 1834 William Robert Spencer (age 65) died at Paris [Map].

On 17 Jun 1839 William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (age 64) died in Paris [Map]. He was buried at Bentinck Family Vault St Marylebone Church.

On 14 Nov 1841 Thomas Bruce 11th Earl Kincardine 7th Earl Elgin (age 75) died at Paris [Map]. His son James Bruce 12th Earl Kincardine 8th Earl Elgin (age 30) succeeded 12th Earl Kincardine, 8th Earl Elgin. Elizabeth Mary Cumming Bruce Countess Kincardine and Elgin by marriage Countess Kincardine, Countess Elgin.

In 1842 Ford Brown (age 62) died at Paris [Map].

On 30 Mar 1842 Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun (age 86) died in Paris [Map].

On 19 Jul 1843 Emma Lucy Madox Brown was born to Ford Madox Brown (age 22) and Elizabeth Bromley (age 24) at Paris [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.12%.

On 05 Jun 1846 Elizabeth Bromley (age 27) died of tuberculosis in Paris [Map]. She was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery.

On 13 Nov 1848 Albert Grimaldi was born at Paris [Map].

On 21 Feb 1850 Mary Wellesley MacTavish (age 24) died in Paris [Map].

Adeline Horsey Recollections. On September 28, 1858, my marriage took place at the Military Chapel Gibraltar, and I was the first Countess of Cardigan to be married on foreign soil, I wore a white silk gown draped with a blue scarf, and a large hat adorned with many feathers; Lord Cardigan's (age 60) friends, Stuart Paget, Mrs, Paget and the Misses Paget, were present, and we gave a ball on the yacht in the evening. We spent a very gay week at Gibraltar, and then left for Cádiz, touching at Malacca and Alicante; then we took rail to Madrid, where we arrived on October 16 in time to witness a review of 30,000 troops on Queen Isabella's (age 27) birthday. After a short stay at Madrid we rejoined the Airedale at Barcelona, and went 500 miles by sea to Leghorn. We experienced bad weather and many storms, and every one on board was ill except myself. The cook was a great sufferer, and his absence was naturally felt by those who were able to look at food without aversion.

From Leghorn we went to Elba, when I saw the place Napoleon embarked from after the "hundred days". We left the Airedale at Civiti Vecchia and started for Rome, Italy in our travelling-carriage with six horses, escorted by some of the Papal Guard sent by the Pope to protect us. I met many of my friends in the Eternal City; I saw everything worth seeing during my delightful sojourn there, and before we left Lord Cardigan and I were blessed by the Pope at an audience we had with his Holiness. As I wished to go to Genoa by sea, we returned to Civita Vecchia and set out in the yacht for Genoa, where we landed; we went from there to Turin, and on by rail by the Mont Cenis route to Paris [Map].

Paris was then a city of delight, revelling in the palmy days of the Second Empire, and I greatly enjoyed my visit there. One night I went to the Opera with Cardigan and we saw Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Trelawney in a box. Mrs. Trelawney was the famous Miss Howard, once the English mistress of Louis Napoleon (age 50), who paid her £250,000 when he renounced her to marry Eugenie de Montijo (age 32). Mrs. Trelawney annoyed the Emperor (age 50) and Empress (age 32) as much as she dared by sitting opposite the Royal box at the Opera, and driving almost immediately behind the Empress's (age 32) carriage in the Bois de Boulogne. She was a very fat woman, and her embonpoint increased to such an extent that the doors of her carriage had to be enlarged to allow her to get in and out with comfort.

Clarence Trelawney was a friend of mine, and the poor fellow came to a sad end. After his wife's death he married an American lady, but unfortunately he got into debt. He appealed to his relations, who were very wealthy but apparently equally mean, for they refused to lend him the £400 he asked for, and driven desperate by worry he blew out his brains.

From Paris we came to London and stayed at Lord Cardigan's town-house in Portman Square Marylebone; then we went to Deene [Map] on December 14, where we met with a royal reception, six hundred tenants on horseback escorting our carriage from the station to the house.

Memorials of Edward Burne-Jones 1860. 09 Jun 1860. The 9th of June fell on a Saturday, and we decided to go no further that day than to Chester, where we should see its curious streets and attend service at the Cathedral [Map] on Sunday; Gabriel (age 32) and his wife (age 30) were by this time in Paris [Map], and we hoped to join them a few days later. But this was not in store for us, for unhappily Edward (age 26) had been caught in a rain-storm a day or two before and already had a slight sore-throat, which now so quickly grew worse that by noon on Sunday he was almost speechless from it and in the hands of a strange doctor. This illness was a sharp check, and we found ourselves shut up for some days in a dreary hotel in an unknown place; but a gleam of satisfaction reached us when the doctor spoke of me to Edward (age 26) as "your good lady," and gave me directions about what was to be done for the patient, with no apparent suspicion that I had not often nursed him before. Trusting in this and in some half-used reels of sewing cotton ostentatiously left about, as well as a display of boots which had already been worn, we felt great confidence that no one would guess how ignominiously newly-married we were.

On 16 Sep 1860 María Francisca "Paca" Palafox Duchess Veragua Duchess Berwick Duchess Alba (age 35) died at Paris [Map].

In 1868 Charles Molloy Westmacott (age 80) died at Paris [Map].

In 1874 Simeon Solomon (age 33) was arrested in Paris [Map] and sentenced to three months in prison.

On 16 Jun 1875 Henry Cyril "Toppy" Paget 5th Marquess Anglesey was born to Henry Paget 4th Marquess Anglesey (age 39) and Blanche Mary Boyd in Paris [Map]. There were rumours his biological father was Benoît Constant Coquelin (age 34).

On 15 Nov 1876 Princess Anna Elisabeth Bibesco Bassaraba de Brancovan was born to Prince Grégoire Bibesco Bassaraba (age 48) at Paris [Map].

In Jul 1908 María Dolores "Lala" Piñeiro (age 15) celebrated her sixteenth birthday in Paris [Map].

On 08 Nov 1910 Marie Adeline Plunkett Ballet (age 86) died in Paris [Map].

On 08 Jun 1913 George Wyndham (age 49) died in Paris [Map].

Around Oct 1921. Philip de László (age 52). Portrait of Mercedes Santamarina Gastañaga (age 25). Painted in Paris [Map].

Mercedes Santamarina Gastañaga: On 18 Jun 1896 she was born to Ramón Santamarina Alduncín and María Sebastiana de Gastañaga at Buenos Aires. On 23 May 1972 she died at Buenos Aires.

On 13 May 1948 Kathleen "Kick" Kennedy (age 28) and William Henry Lawrence Peter Wentworth-Fitzwilliam 8th and 6th Earl Fitzwilliam (age 37) died in a plane crash at the Plateau du Coiron, Saint-Bauzile during the course of their journey from Paris [Map]. His first cousin once removed Eric Spencer Wentworth-Fitzwilliam 9th and 7th Earl Fitzwilliam (age 64) succeeded 9th Earl Fitzwilliam, 7th Earl Fitzwilliam, 11th Baron Fitzwilliam of Liffer in Donegal. His wealth, estimated at 45 million pounds, including half of the Wentworth Woodhouse estate, the Coolattin estate in County Wicklow, Ireland, and a large part of the Fitzwilliam art collection went to his daughter Ann Juliet Dorothea Maud Wentworth-Fitzwilliam Marchioness Bristol (age 13).

Charles Booth died in Paris [Map].

Europe, France, Avenue Marigny Paris

On 21 Oct 1867 Aline Caroline de Rothschild was born to Gustave Samuel de Rothschild (age 38) and Cécile Anspach (age 27) at her parents home on Avenue Marigny Paris in Paris.

Europe, France, Paris, Bastille [Map]

On 07 Jan 1558 the English surrendered Calais to the French following a one week siege. It had been in English hands since 1347. At 6am Thomas Wentworth (age 33), Governor of Calais, surrendered Calais [Map] to François de Lorraine-Guise, 2nd Duke of Guise (age 38), after a seven-day siege. Calais was the last English owned territory in France. The loss was a huge blow for Queen Mary I (age 41) and it is said that upon hearing the news she stated "When I am dead and opened, you shall find 'Philip' and 'Calais' lying in my heart" although the source for this is unknown.

Edward Grimston (age 50) was captured and imprisoned at the Bastille [Map].

In Oct 1559 Edward Grimston escaped from the Bastille [Map] and returned to England to face the charges of high treason for a private agreement with the king of the French to surrender Calais.

Europe, France, Paris, British Embassy

On 21 Oct 1824 George Godolphin Osborne 8th Duke Leeds (age 22) and Harriet Emma Arundel Stewart Duchess Leeds (age 24) were married at the British Embassy, Paris. She the illegitmate daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Earl Granville (age 51) and Henrietta Frances Spencer Countess Bessborough. They were fourth cousins.

On 02 Feb 1833 George Pitt-Rivers 4th Baron Rivers (age 22) and Susan Georgiana Leveson-Gower Baroness Rivers (age 23) were married at British Embassy, Paris. She by marriage Baroness Rivers of Stratfield Saye in Hampshire. She the daughter of Granville Leveson-Gower 1st Earl Granville (age 59) and Harriet Cavendish Countess Granville (age 47).

On 15 Apr 1874 Randolph Henry Spencer-Churchill (age 25) and Jenny Jerome (age 20) were married at British Embassy, Paris. Regarded by some as the original Dollar Princess although there are much earlier examples. He the son of John Winston Spencer-Churchill 7th Duke of Marlborough (age 51) and Frances Anne Emily Vane Duchess of Marlborough (age 52).

Europe, France, Paris, Charenton

Before 09 Jun 1648 Anne Webb died at Paris [Map]. She was buried at Charenton on 09 Jun 1648.

Europe, France, Paris, Church of the English Benedictines

On 16 Sep 1701 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 67) died at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. He was buried in the Church of the English Benedictines.

Europe, France, Paris, Château de Saint Cloud

On 30 Jun 1670 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 26) (sister of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover, Kent [Map]. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

Europe, France, Paris, Château du Loir [Map]

On 07 Sep 1151 Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 38) died at Château du Loir [Map]. He was buried at St Julien's Cathedral [Map].

Europe, France, Paris, College of Sorbonne

Before 1506 Bishop Richard Sampson commenced his educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge University receiving B.Civ.L in 1506 and D.Civ.L in 1513. Thereafter the studied at the College of Sorbonne and Sens.

Europe, France, Paris, Columbes

Europe, France, Paris, Gonesse

On 22 Aug 1165 King Philip II of France was born to Louis VII King Franks (age 45) and Adèle Blois in Gonesse. The much longed for heir to the crown of France; named after his father. He was also given the name 'Dieu Donné' meaning God Given. He a great x 2 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England.

Europe, France, Paris, Hôtel Saint Pol [Map]

On 28 Jan 1393 the Bal de Ardents (aka Ball of the Burning Men or Ball of the Wild Men) was a masquerade ball held at the Hôtel Saint Pol [Map] in Paris by Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 24) who performed with five members of the French nobility. The performers were dressed as wild men of the woods; four were killed when their costumes caught fire.

Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 24) was rescued by his aunt Joan II Countess of Auvergne Duchess Berry (age 15) who smothered him in her dress.

Sieur de Nantouillet jumped into an open vat of wine and remained there until the flames were extinguished.

Count de Joigny died.

Yvain de Foix, son of Gaston Fébus, Count of Foix died after two days.

Aimery Poitiers, son of the Count of Valentinois died after two days.

Huguet de Guisay died after three days.

On 21 Oct 1422 Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 53) died at Hôtel Saint Pol [Map]. The succession of the French throne was disputed between:

King Henry VI  succeeded II King France: Lancaster

Charles "Victorious" VII King France (age 19) succeeded VII King France: Capet Valois. Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France (age 18) by marriage Queen Consort France.

Europe, France, Paris, Montreuil [Map]

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1074. This year King William (age 46) went over sea to Normandy; and child Edgar (age 23) came from Flanders into Scotland on St. Grimbald's mass-day; where King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister Margaret (age 29) received him with much pomp. At the same time sent Philip, the King of France (age 21), a letter to him, bidding him to come to him, and he would give him the castle of Montreuil [Map]; that he might afterwards daily annoy his enemies. What then? King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister Margaret (age 29) gave him and his men great presents, and many treasures; in skins ornamented with purple, in pelisses made of martin-skins, of grey-skins, and of ermine-skins, in palls, and in vessels of gold and silver; and conducted him and his crew with great pomp from his territory. But in their voyage evil befel them; for when they were out at sea, there came upon them such rough weather, and the stormy sea and the strong wind drove them so violently on the shore, that all their ships burst, and they also themselves came with difficulty to the land. Their treasure was nearly all lost, and some of his men also were taken by the French; but he himself and his best men returned again to Scotland, some roughly travelling on foot, and some miserably mounted. Then King Malcolm (age 42) advised him to send to King William (age 46) over sea, to request his friendship, which he did; and the king gave it him, and sent after him. Again, therefore, King Malcolm (age 42) and his sister gave him and all his men numberless treasures, and again conducted him very magnificently from their territory. The sheriff of York came to meet him at Durham, and went all the way with him; ordering meat and fodder to be found for him at every castle to which they came, until they came over sea to the king. Then King William (age 46) received him with much pomp; and he was there afterwards in his court, enjoying such rights as he confirmed to him by law.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1643. The next morning, in some danger of parties [Spanish] surprising us, we came to Montreuil [Map], built on the summit of a most conspicuous hill, environed with fair and ample meadows; but all the suburbs had been from time to time ruined, and were now lately burnt by the Spanish inroads. This town is fortified with two very deep dry ditches; the walls about the bastions and citadel are a noble piece of masonry. The church is more glorious without than within; the market place large; but the inhabitants are miserably poor. The next day, we came to Abbeville [Map], having passed all this way in continual expectation of the volunteers, as they call them. This town affords a good aspect toward the hill from whence we descended: nor does it deceive us; for it is handsomely built, and has many pleasant and useful streams passing through it, the main river being the Somme, which discharges itself into the sea at St. Valery, almost in view of the town. The principal church is a very handsome piece of Gothic architecture, and the ports and ramparts sweetly planted for defense and ornament. In the morning, they brought us choice of guns and pistols to sell at reasonable rates, and neatly made, being here a merchandise of great account, the town abounding in gunsmiths.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1652. I dined at Abbeville [Map]; 2nd, dined at Montreuil [Map], lay at Boulogne; 3rd, came to Calais [Map], by eleven in the morning; I thought to have embarked in the evening, but, for fear of pirates plying near the coast, I dared not trust our small vessel, and stayed till Monday following, when two or three lusty vessels were to depart.

Froissart. The king of England departed from Fervaques and went to Montreuil [Map], and there lodged a night, and the next day he went to the Flamengerie and made all his men to lodge near about him, whereof he had more than forty thousand: and there he was counselled to abide king Philip and to fight with him.

The French king departed from Saint-Quentin's, and daily men came to him from all parts, and so came to Buironfosse. There the king tarried, and said how he would not go thence till he had fought with the king of England and with his allies, seeing they were within two leagues together. And when the earl of Hainault, who was at Quesnoy ready purveyed of men of war, knew that the French king was at Buironfosse thinking there to give battle to the Englishmen, he rode forth till he came to the French host with five hundred spears, and presented himself to the king his uncle, who made him but small cheer, because he had been with his adversary before Cambray. Howbeit the earl excused himself so sagely, that the king and his council were well content. And it was ordained by the marshals, that is to say by the marshal Bertrand and by the marshal of Trie1, that the earl should be lodged next the English host.

Thus these two kings were lodged between Buironfosse and Flamengerie, in the plain fields without any advantage. I think there was never seen before so goodly an assembly of noblemen together as was there2. When the king of England, being in the Chapel of Thierache2, knew how that king Philip was within two leagues, then he called the lords of his host together and demanded of them what he should do, his honour saved, for he said that his intention was to give battle. Then the lords beheld each other, and they desired the duke of Brabant to shew first his intent. The duke said that he was of the accord that they should give battle, for otherwise, he said, they could not depart, saving their honours: wherefore he counselled that they should send heralds to the French king to demand a day of battle. Then an herald of the duke of Gueldres, who could well the language of French, was informed what he should say, and so he rode till he came into the French host. And then he drew him to king Philip and to his council and said, 'Sir, the king of England is in the field and desireth to have battle, power against power.' The which thing king Philip granted, and took the day, the Friday next after, and as then it was Wednesday. And so the herald returned, well rewarded with good furred gowns given him by the French king and other lords because of the tidings that he brought. So thus the journey was agreed, and knowledge was made thereof to all the lords of both the hosts, and so every man made him ready to the matter.

The Thursday in the morning there were two knights of the earl of Hainault's, the lord Fagnolle and the lord of Tupigny, they mounted on their horses and they two all only departed from the French host and rode to aview the English host. So they rode coasting the host, and it fortuned that the lord of Fagnolle's horse took the bridle in the teeth in such wise, that his master could not rule him; and so, whether he would or not, the horse brought him into the English host, and there he fell into the hands of the Almains, who perceived well that he was none of their company and set on him and took him and his horse. And so he was prisoner to a five or six gentlemen of Almaine, and anon they set him to his ransom. And when they understood that he was a Hainowe, they demanded of him if he knew sir John of Hainault, and he answered, 'Yes,' and desired them for the love of God to bring him to his presence, for he knew well that he would quit him his ransom. Thereof were the Almains joyous, and so brought him to the lord Beaumont, who incontinent did pledge him out from his master's hands; and the lord of Fagnolle returned again to the earl of Hainault, and he had his horse again delivered him at the request of the lord Beaumont. Thus passed that day, and none other thing done that ought to be remembered.

Note 1. The marshals of the French host were Robert Bertrand and Matthieu de Trie.

Note 2. In the fuller text it is observed that there were in the French army four kings, France, Bohemia, Navarre and Scotland.

Note 3. La Capelle-en-Thirache, a village in the department of Aisne.

Europe, France, Paris, Palais de la Légion d'Honneur

Europe, France, Paris, Place de la Révolution

On 16 Oct 1793 at 12:15 Queen Marie Antoinette of France (age 37) was guillotined at the Place de la Révolution. Her last words were "Pardonnez-moi, monsieur. Je ne l'ai pas fait exprès" or "Pardon me, sir, I did not do it on purpose" after she accidentally stepped on the executioners shoe.

Europe, France, Paris, Pontoise [Map]

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 33) met Margaret of Anjou (age 14) at Pontoise [Map] on his mission to bring her back to England for her marriage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

Europe, France, Paris, Pére Lachaise Cemetery

On 05 Jun 1829 Emma Durant (age 19) died. She was buried at Pére Lachaise Cemetery.

Europe, France, Paris, Rue de la Victoire

On 19 Oct 1887 Edward Albert Sassoon 2nd Baronet (age 31) and Aline Caroline de Rothschild (age 19) were married two days before her twentieth birthday in a ceremony in the synagogue at the Rue de la Victoire in Paris. The couple set up home at 25 Kensington Gore, where Aline, a talented artist, set up her own studio.

Europe, France, Paris, St Denis

On 10 Nov 1567 brothers John Norreys 1547-1597 and William Norreys (age 19) were present at St Denis during the Battle of St Denis.

On 12 Nov 1567 Anne I Duke of Montmorency (age 74) died having been wounded two days before when leading the royal army to victory at St Denis.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1643. Hence we advanced to Beauvais, another town of good note, and having the first vineyards we had seen. The next day to Beaumont, and the morrow to Paris [Map], having taken our repast at St Denis, two leagues from that great city. St. Denis is considerable only for its stately cathedral, and the dormitory of the French kings, there inhumed as ours at Westminster Abbey. The treasury is esteemed one of the richest in Europe. The church was built by King Dagobert, but since much enlarged, being now 390 feet long, 100 in breadth, and 80 in height, without comprehending the cover: it has also a very high shaft of stone, and the gates are of brass. Here, while the monks conducted us, we were showed the ancient and modern sepulchers of their kings, beginning with the founder to Louis his son, with Charles Martel and Pepin, son and father of Charlemagne. These lie in the choir, and without it are many more: among the rest that of Bertrand du Guesclin, Constable of France; in the chapel of Charles V., all his posterity; and near him the magnificent sepulcher of Francis I., with his children, wars, victories, and triumphs engraven in marble. In the nave of the church lies the catafalque, or hearse, of Louis XIII., Henry II, a noble tomb of Francis II, and Charles IX. Above are bodies of several Saints; below, under a state of black velvet, the late Louis XIII., father of this present monarch. Every one of the ten chapels, or oratories, had some Saints in them; among the rest, one of the Holy Innocents. The treasury is kept in the sacristy above, in which are crosses of massy gold and silver, studded with precious stones, one of gold three feet high, set with sapphires, rubies, and great oriental pearls. Another given by Charles the Great, having a noble amethyst in the middle of it, stones and pearls of inestimable icon. Among the still more valuable relics are, a nail from our Savior's Cross, in a box of gold full of precious stones; a crucifix of the true wood of the Cross, carved by Pope Clement III., enchased in a crystal covered with gold; a box in which is some of the Virgin's hair; some of the linen in which our blessed Savior was wrapped at his nativity; in a huge reliquary, modeled like a church, some of our Savior's blood, hair, clothes, linen with which he wiped the Apostles' feet; with many other equally authentic toys, which the friar who conducted us would have us believe were authentic relics. Among the treasures is the crown of Charlemagne, his seven-foot high scepter and hand of justice, the agraffe of his royal mantle, beset with diamonds and rubies, his sword, belt, and spurs of gold; the crown of St. Louis, covered with precious stones, among which is one vast ruby, uncut, of inestimable value, weighing 300 carats (under which is set one of the thorns of our blessed Savior's crown), his sword, seal, and hand of justice. The two crowns of Henry IV., his scepter, hand of justice, and spurs. The two crowns of his son Louis. In the cloak-royal of Anne of Bretagne is a very great and rare ruby. Divers books covered with solid plates of gold, and studded with precious stones. Two vases of beryl, two of agate, whereof one is esteemed for its bigness, color, and embossed carving, the best now to be seen: by a special favor I was permitted to take the measure and dimensions of it; the story is a Bacchanalia and sacrifice to Priapus; a very holy thing truly, and fit for a cloister! It is really antique, and the noblest jewel there. There is also a large gondola of chrysolite, a huge urn of porphyry, another of calcedon, a vase of onyx, the largest I had ever seen of that stone; two of crystal; a morsel of one of the waterpots in which our Savior did his first miracle; the effigies of the Queen of Saba, of Julius, Augustus, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, and others, upon sapphires, topazes, agates, and cornelians: that of the queen of Saba16 has a Moorish face; those of Julius and Nero on agates are rarely colored and cut. A cup in which Solomon was used to drink, and an Apollo on a great amethyst. There lay in a window a mirror of a kind of stone said to have belonged to the poet Virgil. Charlemagne's chessmen, full of Arabic characters. In the press next the door, the brass lantern full of crystals, said to have conducted Judas and his company to apprehend our blessed Savior. A fair unicorn's horn, sent by a king of Persia, about seven feet long. In another press (over which stands the picture in oil of their Orléans Amazon with her sword), the effigies of the late French kings in wax, like ours in Westminster, covered with their robes; with a world of other rarities. PARISHaving rewarded our courteous friar, we took horse for Paris, where we arrived about five in the afternoon. In the way were fair crosses of stone carved with fleur-de-lis at every furlong's end, where they affirm St. Denis rested and laid down his head after martyrdom, carrying it from the place where this monastery is builded. We lay at Paris at the Ville de Venice; where, after I had something refreshed, I went to visit Sir Richard Browne (age 38), his Majesty's Resident with the French king.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Aug 1650. As we passed St Denis, the people were in uproar, the guards doubled, and everybody running with their movables to Paris, on an alarm that the enemy was within five leagues of them; so miserably exposed was even this part of France at this time.

Europe, France, Paris, Basilica of St Denis

On 07 Feb 1587 Mary Queen of Scots (age 44) having been informed that she was to be executed the next day wrote her will ...

From The Last Days of Mary Stuart, Samuel Cowan, 1907 ...

In the name of the Father, son, and Holy Ghost, I, Mary, by the grace of God, Queen of Scotland and Dowager of France, being on the point of death and not having any means of making my will, have myself committed these articles in writing, and I will and desire that they have the same force as if they were made in due form:-.

In the first place, I declare that I die in the Catholic Apostolic and Romish faith. First, I desire that a complete service be performed for my soul in the Church of St. Denis in France, and another in St. Peter's at Rheims [Map], where all my servants are to attend in such manner as they may be ordered to do by those to whom I have given directions and who are named therein.

Further, that an annual obit be founded for prayers for my soul in perpetuity in such place and after such manner as shall be deemed most convenient. To furnish funds for this I will that my houses at Fontainebleau be sold, hoping that the King will render me assistance, as I have requested him to do in my memorandum.

I will that my estate of Trespagny be kept by my cousin de Guise for one of his daughters, if she should come to be married. In these quarters I relinquish half of the arrears due to me, or a part, on condition that the others be paid, in order to be expended by my executors in perpetual alms. To carry this into effect the better, the documents shall be looked out and delivered according to the assignment for accomplishing this.

I will also that the money which may arise from my lawsuit with Secondat, be distributed as follows:- First, in the discharge of my debts and orders first place mentioned and which are not yet paid; in the first place, the 2000 crowns to Curle, which I desire to be paid without any hesitation, they being a marriage portion, upon which neither Nau nor any other person has any claim, whatever obligation he may hold, inasmuch as it is only fictitious, and the money is mine, not borrowed, which since I did but show him, and afterwards withdrew it; and it was taken from me with the rest at Chartley [Map]; the which I give him, provided he can recover it agreeably to my promise in payment of the four thousand francs as promised at my death, one thousand as a marriage portion for an own sister, and he having asked me for the rest for his expenses in prison.

As to the payment of a similar sum to Nau it is not obligatory, and therefore it has always been my intention that it should be paid last, and then only in case he should make it appear that he has not acted contrary to the conditions upon which I gave it him, and to which my servants were witnesses. As regards the 1200 crowns which he has placed to my account as having been borrowed by him for my use - 600 of Beauregard, 300 from Jervis, and the remainder from I know not whom, he must repay them out of his own money, and I must be quit and my order annulled, as I have not received any part of it, consequently it must be still in his possession, unless he has paid it away. Be this as it may, it is necessary that this sum should revert to me, I having received nothing; and in case it has not been paid away, I must have recourse to his property.

I further direct that Pasquier shall account for the moneys that he has expended and received by order of Nau, from the hands of the servants of Mons. de Chateauneuf, the French Ambassador.

Further, I will that my accounts be audited and my treasure paid.

Further, that the wages and sums due to my household, as well for the last as for the present year, be paid them before all other things, both wages and pensions, excepting the pensions of Nau and Curle, until it is ascertained what there is remaining, or whether they merited any pensioning from me, unless the wife of Curle be in necessity or be ill-treated on my account; the wages of Nau after the same manner.

I will that the 2400 francs which I have given to Jane Kennedy (afterwards married to Sir Andrew Melville; and was drowned by the upsetting of a boat, the year of the marriage of James VI,) be paid to her in money, as it was stated in my first deed of gift, which done, the pension of Willie Douglas shall revert to me, which I give to Fontenay (Nau's brother) for services and expenses for which he has had no compensation.

I will that the 4000 francs of that banker's be applied for and repaid; I have forgotten his name, but the Bishop of Glasgow will readily recollect it; and if the first order be not honoured, I desire that another may be given in the first money from Secondat.

The 10,000 francs which the ambassador has received for me, I will that they be distributed among my servants who are now going away, viz-.

First, 2000 francs to my physician; 2000 francs to Elizabeth Curle; 2000 to Sebastian Page; 2000 to Mary Page, my goddaughter; 1000 to Beauregard; 1000 to Gourgon; 1000 to Jervis.

Further, that out of the rest of my revenue with the remainder of Secondats and all other casualties, I will that:

5000 francs be given to the Foundling Hospital at Rheims; to my scholars 2000 francs. To four mendicants such sum as my executors may think fit, according to the means in their hands; 500 francs to the hospitals; to Martin escuyer de cuisine, 1000 francs; 1000 francs to Annibal, whom I recommend to my cousin de Guise, his godfather, to place in some situation for his life, in his service. I leave 500 francs to Nicholas, and 500 francs to his daughters when they marry. I leave 500 francs to Robert Hamilton, and beg my son to take him and Monsieur de Glasgow, or the Bishop of Ross. I leave to Didier his registership, subject to the approbation of the King. I give 500 francs to Jean Lauder, and beg my cousin of Guise, or of Mayne, to take him into their service, and Messieurs de Glasgow and de Ross to see him provided for. I will that his father be paid his wages and leave him 500 francs; 1000 francs to be paid to Gourgon for money and other things with which he supplied me in my necessity.

I will that if Bourgoyne should perform the journey agreeably to the vow which he made for me to St. Nicholas, that 1500 francs be paid to him for this purpose.

I leave according to my slender means, 6000 francs to the Bishop of Glasgow, and 3000 to the Bishop of Ross.

And I leave the gift of casualties and reserved seigneurial rights to my godson the son of Monsieur de Ruissieu.

I give 300 francs to Laurenz, and 300 to Suzanne; and I leave 10,000 francs among the four persons who have been m y sureties and to Varmy the solicitor.

I will that the money arising from the furniture which I have ordered to be sold in London shall go to defray the travelling expenses of my servants to France.

My coach I leave to carry my ladies, and the horses, which they can sell or do what they like with.

There remain about 300 crowns due to Bourgoyne for the wages of past years, which I desire may be paid him,.

I leave 2000 francs to Sir Andrew Melville, my steward.

I appoint my cousin the Duke of Guise (age 36), principal executor of my will; after him, the Archbishop of Glasgow, the Bishop of Ross, and Monsieur de Ruissieu, my chancellor.

I desire that Le Preau may without obstacle hold his two prebends.

I recommend Mary Page, my goddaughter, to my cousin, Madame de Guise, and beg her to take her into her service, and my aunt de Saint Pierre to get Mowbray some good situation or retain her in her service for the honour of God.

Done this day 7th February, 1587. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots.

Europe, France, Paris, Vincennes

On 01 Jul 1336 Philip Duke Valois was born to King Philip "Fortunate" VI of France (age 42) and Joan "Lame" Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 43) at Vincennes. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.00%.

On 30 Nov 1340 John Valois 1st Duke Berry was born to King John "The Good" II of France (age 21) and Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France (age 25) at Vincennes.

Europe, France, Paris, Yvelines

Europe, France, Paris, Yvelines, Mantes-la-Jolie

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, King William (age 59) went from Normandy [Map] into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king (age 34), and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus done, King William (age 59) returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster [Map], which he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king (age 59), and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called Robert (age 36), who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called William (age 31), who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called Henry (age 19), to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William (age 59) then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England. This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession-he that would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison. At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king (age 59). He had an earldom in England; and when the king (age 59) was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.110 The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king (age 59) himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's (age 59) will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.

Europe, France, Paris, Yvelines, Saint Germain en Laye

Europe, France, Paris, Écouen

Europe, France, Paris, Château d'Écouen

On 06 May 1579 Francis Montmorency (age 48) died at the Château d'Écouen.

Europe, Paris, Île-de-France

In 1882 Marie Louise de Pfeffel was born to Christian Hubert von Pfeffel (age 38) at Île-de-France.

Europe, Île-de-France, Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map]

On 30 Jan 1164 William Plantagenet (age 27) died at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map] said to have been of a broken heart since he was unable to marry Isabella Warenne Countess Boulogne 4th Countess of Surrey (age 27) as a result of Archbishop Thomas Becket (age 44) refusing to grant the necessary dispensation.

On 04 Jan 1265 Archbishop Walter Giffard (age 40) was consecrated as Bishop of Bath and Wells at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map].

On 16 Dec 1431 Henry VI (age 10) was crowned II King France: Lancaster at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map] by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 56). A somewhat futile exercise; the last gasps of the Hundred Years War. The ceremony had been arranged by John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 42). His wife Anne Valois Duchess of Bedford (age 27) attended.

Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 53) was appointed Carver.

Thomas Harrington (age 31), Richard Archer (age 44), Hugh Courtenay 12th Earl Devon and his son Thomas (age 17) attended.

On 01 Jan 1537 King James V of Scotland (age 24) and Madeleine Valois (age 16) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of King Francis I of France (age 42) and Claude Valois Orléans Queen Consort France. He the son of King James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 47). They were third cousin once removed. He a grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 24 Apr 1558 Dauphin of France (age 14) and Mary Queen of Scots (age 15) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map]. He by marriage King Consort Scotland. She the daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland (age 42). He the son of King Henry II of France (age 39) and Catherine Medici Queen Consort France (age 39). They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 01 May 1625 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15) were married by proxy at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map]. Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Dec 1643. On Christmas eve, I went to see the Cathedral at Nôtre Dame [Map], erected by Philip Augustus, but begun by King Robert, son of Hugh Capet. It consists of a Gothic fabric, sustained with 120 pillars, which make two aisles in the church round about the choir, without comprehending the chapels, being 174 paces long, 60 wide, and 100 high. The choir is inclosed with stonework graven with the sacred history, and contains forty-five chapels chancelled with iron. At the front of the chief entrance are statues in relievo of the kings, twenty-eight in number, from Childebert to the founder, Philip; and above them are two high square towers, and another of a smaller size, bearing a spire in the middle, where the body of the church forms a cross. The great tower is ascended by 389 steps, having twelve galleries from one to the other. They greatly reverence the crucifix over the screen of the choir, with an image of the Blessed Virgin. There are some good modern paintings hanging on the pillars. The most conspicuous statute is the huge colossal one of St. Christopher; with divers other figures of men, houses, prospects and rocks, about this gigantic piece; being of one stone, and more remarkable for its bulk than any other perfection. This is the prime church of France for dignity, having archdeacons, vicars, canons, priests, and chaplains in good store, to the number of 127. It is also the palace of the archbishop. The young king was there with a great and martial guard, who entered the nave of the church with drums and fifes, at the ceasing of which I was entertained with the church music; and so I left him.