On this Day in History ... 04 April

04 Apr is in April.

1461 Battle of Towton

1547 Death of King Francis I of France Accession of Henry II

1660 Declaration of Breda

Flowers of History. 04 Apr 1070. On the fourth day of April, king William (age 42), being now become more secure on his throne, violated his promises in many respects; and he caused the monasteries to be searched throughout the whole of England, and commanded the money found in them, and the charters, in the privileges granted by which the nobles of England placed their trust, and which the king, when in a position of difficulty, had sworn to observe himself, to be carried off by force from the churches where they had been deposited, and where they had hitherto lain in security, and to be taken to his own treasury.

John of Worcester. 04 Apr 1070. In the octaves of Easter [4th April] a great synod was held at Winchester, by command of king William (age 42), who was present himself, and with the concurrence of the lord Alexander the pope; his legates, Ermenfrid, bishop of Sion, and John and Peter, cardinal-priests of the apostolic see, representing his authority. In this synod, Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury, was degraded on three charges: first, for having unlawfully held the bishopric of Winchester with the archbishopric; next, for having taken the archbishopric while archbishop Robert was living, and even sometimes, in saying mass, wearing the pallium which Robert left behind him at Canterbury when he was unjustly driven from England; and lastly, for having accepted the pallium from Benedict, who was excommunicated by the Holy Roman Church for having systematically usurped the apostolic see. His brother, Ethelmar;, bishop of the East-Angles, was also degraded; as were also a few abbots, the king doing his utmost to deprive the English of their dignities, that he might appoint persons of his own nation to their preferments, and thus confirm his power in his new kingdom. He also deprived several bishops and abbots, convicted of no open crimes either by the councils or the laws of the realm, and detained them in prison, to the end of their lives on mere suspicion, as we have said, of their being dangerous to his newly-acquired power. In this synod also, while the rest, aware of the king's bias, were trembling at the risk they ran of losing their appointments, Wulfstan (age 62), bishop of Worcester, boldly demanded the restoration of many of the possessions of his see which had been retained in his own power by archbishop Aldred, when he was translated from Worcester to York, and on his death had fallen into the king's hands; and demanded, not only from those who presided at the synod, but from the king himself, that justice should be done him. But as the church of York was silent, not having a pastor to plead her cause, it was decided that the suit should stand over until such time as, by the appointment of an archbishop, there should be some one who could reply to Wulfstan's (age 62) claims, and after hearing the pleadings on both sides, a clearer and more equitable judgement might be given. Thus the case was adjourned for the present.

Before 04 Apr 1336 Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 35) and Mary Brewes Countess Norfolk (age 34) were married. She by marriage Countess Norfolk. He the son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England and Margaret of France Queen Consort England. They were half second cousin twice removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

On 04 Apr 1339 Maud Plantagenet Duchess Lower Bavaria was born to Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 29) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 19) at Bolingbroke Castle [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

On 04 Apr 1340 Henry Beaumont 3rd Baron Beaumont was born to John Beaumont 2nd Baron Beaumont (age 22) and Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey (age 21). He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry III of England.

On 04 Apr 1373 John Luxemburg Archbishop Mainz died.

On 04 Apr 1386 John Botetort 2nd Baron Botetort (age 68) died. His granddaughter Joyce Botetort 3rd Baroness Botetort (age 18) succeeded 3rd Baroness Botetort.

On 04 Apr 1406 Ralph Neville 2nd Earl of Westmoreland was born to John Neville (age 19) and Elizabeth Holland at Cockermouth Castle [Map]. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 04 Apr 1406 King Robert III of Scotland (age 69) died at Rothesay Castle, Isle of Bute. His son King James I of Scotland (age 11) succeeded I King Scotland.

On 04 Apr 1444 Cardinal Regnault de Chartres (age 64) died at Tours.

Battle of Towton

Paston Letters Volume 2 450. 04 Apr 1461. William Paston and John Playters to John Paston (age 39).

To my maister, John Paston, in hast,

Please you to knowe and wete of suche tydyngs as my Lady of York hath by a lettre of credens, under the signe manuel of oure Soverayn Lord King Edward, whiche lettre cam un to oure sayd Lady this same day, Esterne Evyn, at xj. clok, and was sene and red by me, William Paston.

Fyrst, oure Soverayn Lord (age 18) hath wonne the feld, and uppon the Munday next after Palmesunday, he was resseved in to York with gret solempnyte and processyons. And the Mair the Yorkist cause and Comons of the said cite mad ther menys to have grace be Lord Montagu (age 30) and Lord Barenars (age 45), whiche be for the Kyngs coming in to the said cite desyred hym of grace for the said cite, whiche graunted hem grace. On the Kyngs parte is slayn Lord Fitz Water (deceased), and Lord Scrop (age 23) sore hurt; John Stafford, Horne of Kent ben ded; and Umfrey Stafford, William Hastyngs (age 30) mad knyghts with other; Blont is knygth, &c.

Un the contrary part is ded Lord Clyfford (deceased), Lord Nevyle (deceased), Lord Welles (deceased), Lord Wyllouby, Antony Lord Scales, Lord Harry, and be supposyng the Erle of Northumberland, Andrew Trollop, with many other gentyll and comons to the nomber of xx.ml. (20000).

Item, Kyng Harry, the Qwen, the Prince, Duke of Somerset, Duke of Exeter, Lord Roos, be fledde in to Scotteland, and they be chased and folwed, &c. We send no er un to you be cause we had non certynges tyl now; for un to this day London was as sory cite as myght. And because Spordauns had no certeyn tydyngs, we thought ye schuld take them a worthe tyl more certayn.

Item, Thorp Waterfeld is yeldyn, as Spordauns can telle you. And Jesu spede you. We pray you that this tydyngs my moder may knowe.

Be your Broder,



Comes Northumbriæ (deceased).

Comes Devon (deceased).

Dominus de Beamunde.

Dominus de Clifford (deceased).

Dominus de Nevyll (deceased).

Dominus de Dacre (deceased).

Dominus Henricus de Bokyngham.

Dominus de Well[es] (deceased).

Dominus de Scales Antony Revers.

Dominus de Wellugby.

Dominus de Malley Radulfus Bigot Miles.


Sir Rauff Gray.

Sir Ric. Jeney.

Sir Harry Bekingham.

Sir Andrew Trollop.

With xxviij.ml. (28000) nomberd by Harralds.

Death of King Francis I of France Accession of Henry II

Wriothesley's Chronicle. The fourth daie of Aprill, 1547, tidinges was brought to London Death of the that Frances the French King (deceased) was deade, and died the first daie of April last, and it was said that he neaver rejoyced synce he had heard of the Kinges Majesties death.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Apr 1555. The iiij day of Aprell the Kyng('s) (age 27) grace and the Quen (age 39) removyd unto Hamtun [Map] cowrte to kepe Ester ther, and so her grace to her chambur ther.


On 04 Apr 1586 Frances Kitson was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map].

Scire ne vis lector quænam suit ista sepulta hic, Ex patre aurato milite quata suit Uxor erat domii Fitzwaren et auia tandem Bathoniæ comitis inclita mater erat. Quæ suit (o lector) quo coniuge quoq parente. Quen sobolem peperit sunt tibi dicta satis. Qualis erat tibi linor et indignatio dicant. Quæ mala si vellent dicere nulla queunt. Prosuit hæc multis nulli nocuisse notatur. Hanc terris demptan dives inopsq dolent. Non ego te longo cupio sermone morari. Plena decore suit plenaq honore suit. Terrea Franciscæ tibi mors, en debita pars est. Fama manet mundo mens animusq deo. Here lieth buried Francis lady Fitzwaren ye daughter of Sr Thomas Kitson Knight & wief to John lord Fitzwaren the sone & heire apparant of John Erle of Bath By whom she had Issue Thomas, John, Margaret & Willm (age 28) now Erle of Bath she patintly departed the mortality of this lyf in ye trew faith on Ester day Ao 1586. Elizabeth Regine XXVIII

Wilte thou o reader know what wighte she was thats buried here even of a famous worthie Knighte the childe and dawghter deare she wife unto fitzwarren Lorde at lengthe and grandam was and Mother to the Earle of Bathe erre she from life did passe O reader what she was whose wife whose childe & whom she bore my former words doe unto she sufficientlie declare. Let spite & malice speake the truthe what was this worthy wife Whoe if they would some will say yet cannot for their life She many noted was to helpe and to doe hurte to none Whom taken from the earth her death bothe riche & poor doe mone To hold thee here wth speaches longe is not ye thinge I crave of honor vertue and renowne none could more plenty have O Death this Frauncis earthlie parte is to they lotte befell In worlde her fame remayne her mind & soule wth God do dwell

Frances Kitson: She was born to Thomas Kitson and Margaret Donnington Countess Bath. Around Sep 1557 William Barnaby and she were married. He was land agent to her former father-ine-law the John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath (age 58); the marriage as a consequence gave great offence to her friends. On 28 Apr 1581 the marriage of William Bourchier 3rd Earl Bath (age 23) and Mary Cornwallis Countess Bath was annulled. A letter of Sir Thomas Cornwallis, dat. Brome, 10 June 1601, states "By deposition of 10 witnesses, it was most manifestly proved in the Arches, that the marriage was lawfully, clearly, and honestly compassed," that the Earl's mother "did by great means attempt to corrupt the then Judge of that Court ... but not prevailing that way, all course of law was then broken, for they appealed to the Delegates, slne gravamlne ... who thereupon proceeded in so violent a course as the like hath not been heard of .... Her adversaries effected the end of their desire ; and yet the Commissioners' Sentence was with this corrective, viz. leaving the Earl to his own conscience." (Hist. MSS. Com., Hatfield MSS., Part xi, p. 223). This Mary was a legatee, 25 June 1601, in the will of Sir Thomas Kitson (age 40), her sister's (age 40) husband, who mentions her said marriage, and that it afterwards proved most unfortunate and to her great hindrance. W. Lewyn, also, speaks of this Earl as having "made an untimely marriage by night with the da. of Sir Thomas Cornwallys, which was undone and the Earl since married to another, the da. (as I think) of the late Earl of Bedford (age 54)." (Letter to Lord Cobham, 29 May 1596). V.G. On 03 Apr 1586 she died. She was buried at St Peter's Church, Tawstock.

On 04 Apr 1588 Frederick II King Denmark (age 53) died. His son Christian IV King Denmark (age 10) succeeded IV King Denmark.

Charles Cavendish: On 28 Nov 1553 he was born to William Cavendish (age 48) and Bess of Hardwick Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 26). Before 06 Dec 1592 Charles Cavendish (age 39) and Catherine Ogle 8th Baroness Ogle (age 22) were married. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward IV of England. On 04 Apr 1617 Charles Cavendish (age 63) died.

Catherine Ogle 8th Baroness Ogle: Around 1570 she was born to Cuthbert Ogle 7th Baron Ogle (age 30) and Catherine Carnaby Baroness Ogle (age 27). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward IV of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 1.60%. On 20 Nov 1597 Cuthbert Ogle 7th Baron Ogle (age 57) died at Cockle Park. Baron Ogle abeyant between his two daughters Joane Ogle Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 31) and Catherine Ogle 8th Baroness Ogle (age 27). Around 04 Jan 1626 Joane Ogle Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 60) died. Her sister Catherine Ogle 8th Baroness Ogle (age 56) abeyance terminated 8th Baroness Ogle. On 18 Apr 1629 Catherine Ogle 8th Baroness Ogle (age 59) died at Bothal.

Declaration of Breda

04 Apr 1660 The Declaration of Breda, written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

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On 04 Apr 1661 Alexander Leslie 1st Earl Leven (age 81) died. His grandson Alexander Leslie 2nd Earl Leven (age 23) succeeded 2nd Earl Leven. Margaret Howard Countess Leven (age 26) by marriage Countess Leven.NOTEXT

On 04 Apr 1693 John West 1st Earl De La Warr was born to John West 6th Baron De La Warr (age 30).

On 04 Apr 1721 Frederick IV King Denmark and Norway (age 49) and Anne Sophie Reventlow Queen Consort Denmark and Norway (age 27) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Denmark and Norway. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of Christian V King Denmark and Norway and Charlotte Amalie Hesse-Kassel Queen Consort Denmark and Norway.

On 04 Apr 1725 James Darcy 1st Baron Darcy of Navan (age 75) and Margaret Garth Baroness Darcy were married. She by marriage Baroness Darcy of Navan.

On 04 Apr 1747 William Fitzmaurice 2nd Earl Kerry (age 53) died. His son Francis Thomas-Fitzmaurice 3rd Earl Kerry (age 6) succeeded 3rd Earl Kerry.

On 04 Apr 1751 John Repps of Mattishall (age 46) died. On 25 Oct 1733 Virtue Boardman (age 38) died. Memorials in Church of St Peter and St Paul Salle [Map].

John Repps of Mattishall: Around 1705 he was born to John Repps (age 27) and Dorothy Fountaine. Before 04 Apr 1705 he and Virtue Boardman (age 10) were married.

Virtue Boardman: In 1695 she was born.

On 04 Apr 1761 Henry Ingram 7th Viscount Irvine (age 69) died. His brother George Ingram 8th Viscount Irvine (age 67) succeeded 8th Viscount Irvine.


On 04 Apr 1762 John Fleming Leicester 1st Baron Tabley was born to Peter Leicester 4th Baronet (age 30) and Catherine Fleming at Tabley House.

On 04 Apr 1763 Marcus Beresford 1st Earl Tyrone (age 68) died in Tyrone House, Dublin.

On 04 Apr 1793 William Kerr 6th Marquess Lothian (age 29) and Harriet Hobart Viscountess Belmore (age 30) were married. She the daughter of John Hobart 2nd Earl Buckinghamshire (age 69) and Mary Anne Drury Countess Buckinghamshire. He the son of William John Kerr 5th Marquess Lothian (age 56) and Elizabeth Fortescue 5th Marchioness Lothian. He a great x 5 grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.

On 04 Apr 1793 Prince Augustus Frederick Hanover 1st Duke Sussex (age 20) and Augusta Murray Duchess Sussex (age 25) were married at Rome in secret contrary to the Royal Marriages Act which required him to seek permission before marrying. She the daughter of John Murray 4th Earl Dunmore (age 63) and Charlotte Stewart Countess Dunmore (age 63). He the son of King George III of Great Britain and Ireland (age 54) and Charlotte Mecklenburg Strelitz Queen Consort England (age 48).

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On 04 Apr 1817 Cornwallis Maude 1st Earl Montalt was born to Cornwallis Maude 3rd Viscount Hawarden (age 37) and Jane Crawfurd Bruce.

On 04 Apr 1818 Hugh Fortescue 3rd Earl Fortescue was born to Hugh Fortescue 2nd Earl Fortescue (age 35) and Susan Ryder (age 21).

On 04 Apr 1821 Randall Plunkett 13th Baron Dunsany (age 82) died. His son Edward Wadding Plunkett 14th Baron Dunsany (age 48) succeeded 14th Baron Dunsany.

On 04 Apr 1825 Ulick Burgh 1st Marquess Clanricarde (age 22) and Harriet Canning Marchioness Clanricarde (age 20) were married at Gloucester Lodge. She by marriage Marchioness Clarincade. He the son of John Thomas Burgh 13th Earl Clanricarde.

On 04 Apr 1836 Bishop Bowyer Sparke (age 76) died at his home Ely House.

After 04 Apr 1843 Monument to Jacob John Hornby.

On 04 Apr 1846 James Joicey 1st Baron Joicey was born to George Joicey (age 32) and Dorothy Gowland (age 30).

On 04 Apr 1851 James Hozier 2nd Baron Newlands was born to William Hozier 1st Baron Newlands (age 26).

On 04 Apr 1866 John "Jacky" Fisher 1st Baron Fisher (age 25) and Frances "Kitty" Katharine Broughton Baroness Fisher were married.


On 04 Apr 1872 Ferdinando Dudley William Lea Smith 12th Baron Dudley was born to Ferdinando Dudley Lea Smith (age 37).

On 04 Apr 1900 Henry Hugh Arthur Fitzroy Somerset 10th Duke Beaufort was born to Henry Adelbert Wellington Fitzroy 9th Duke Beaufort (age 52) and Louise Emily Harford 9th Duchess Beaufort (age 35).

04 Apr 1908. St Peter's Church, Edensor [Map]. Pictures from The Sphere of the funeral of Spencer Cavendish 8th Duke Devonshire (deceased).

Louisa Vonalten Duchess Devonshire and Manchester: Adeline Horsey Recollections. I used often to meet Louise, Duchess of Devonshire (then Duchess of Manchester) in the country. At that time she was in the freshness of her somewhat opulent German beauty, but we were never intimate, and have always disliked each other. On 15 Jun 1832 she was born to Karl Franz Viktor Vonalten (age 31). On 22 Jul 1852 William Drogo Montagu 7th Duke Manchester (age 28) and Louisa Vonalten Duchess Devonshire and Manchester (age 20) were married at Hanover Lower Saxony. He the son of George Montagu 6th Duke Manchester (age 53) and Millicent Sparrow Duchess Manchester. On 18 Aug 1855 George Montagu 6th Duke Manchester (age 56) died. His son William Drogo Montagu 7th Duke Manchester (age 31) succeeded 7th Duke Manchester, 10th Earl Manchester, 10th Viscount Mandeville, 10th Baron Montagu of Kimbolton. Louisa Vonalten Duchess Devonshire and Manchester (age 23) by marriage Duchess Manchester. On 16 Aug 1892 Spencer Cavendish 8th Duke Devonshire (age 59) and Louisa Vonalten Duchess Devonshire and Manchester (age 60) were married at Christ Church. She by marriage Duchess Devonshire. He the son of William Cavendish 7th Duke Devonshire and Blanche Georgiana Howard Duchess Devonshire.NOTEXT On 15 Jul 1911 Louisa Vonalten Duchess Devonshire and Manchester (age 79) died.

"The Bishop of Derby officiated ... The little boy is the new Marquis of Hartington (age 12). His father (age 39) is seen supporting the Dowager Duchess (age 75).