On this Day in History ... 12 April

12 Apr is in April.

1385 Double Marrige of the Burgundian Court

1477 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1587 Singeing the King of Spain's Beard

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1692 William III Creation of New Lords

1961 First Manned Space Flight

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 626. This year came Eamer from Cwichelm King of Wessex, king of the West-Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin (age 40); but he killed Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king (age 40). The same night a daughter was born to Edwin (age 40), whose name was Eanfleda. Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him. He then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the spot five kings, and slew many of their men. This year Eanfleda, the daughter of King Edwin (age 40), was baptized, on the holy eve of Pentecost. And the king within twelve months was baptized, at Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of April. This was done at York [Map], where he had ordered a church to be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter. There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. This year Penda began to reign; and reigned thirty winters. He had seen fifty winters when he began to reign. Penda was the son of Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden.

On 12 Apr 1363 Thomas Ros 4th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 28) and Beatrice Stafford Countess Desmond (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford (age 61) and Margaret Audley Countess Stafford. They were third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Double Marrige of the Burgundian Court

On 12 Apr 1385 a double wedding of the Burgundian Court was celebrated with brother and sister John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 13) and Margaret Valois Countess Holland (age 10) getting married ...

John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 13) and Margaret Wittelsbach Duchess Burgundy (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Albert Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria (age 48) and Margaret Silesia. He the son of Philip "Bold" Valois II Duke Burgundy (age 43) and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Burgundy (age 37). They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

William Wittelsbach IV Count Holland VI Count Hainault V Count Zeeland (age 20) and Margaret Valois Countess Holland (age 10) were married. She the daughter of Philip "Bold" Valois II Duke Burgundy (age 43) and Margaret Dampierre Duchess Burgundy (age 37). He the son of Albert Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria (age 48) and Margaret Silesia. They were third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 12 Apr 1411 Robert of Bar 1st Duke of Bar (age 66) died.

On 12 Apr 1443 Archbishop Henry Chichele (age 80) died. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral [Map].

Around 12 Apr 1471 Richard Fiennes 4th Baron Saye and Sele was born to Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) and Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele at Chorlebury.

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho was arrested at Keyford and taken to Bath [Map]. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) believed she had murdered his wife Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence who had died four months before.

On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho taken to Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Twynyho and John Thursby were hanged at Myton Gallows, Warwick [Map].

In 1478 Ankarette Twynyho was pardoned by King Edward IV of England (age 34).

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

Hall's Chronicle 1533. After the King perceiving his new wife Queen Anne (age 32), to be great with child, caused all officers necessary, to be appointed to her, and so on Easter eve, she went to her Closet openly as Queen, with all solemnity, and then the King appointed the day of her Coronation, to be kept on Whit Sunday next following, and writings were sent to all Shires, to certify the names of men of forty pound, to receive the Order of Knighthood, or else to make a fine: the assessment of which fines, were appointed to Thomas Cromwell, Master of the Kings Jewel House, and counsellor to the king, and newly in his high favour, which so politicly handled the matter, that he raised of that seizing of fines, a great sum of money to the Kings use. Also the King wrote letters to the city of London, to prepare pageants against the same coronation.


Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Apr 1533. Memorandum: the 12th day of Aprill, Anno Domini 1533, beinge Easter eaven, Anne Bulleine (age 32), Marques of Pembroke,d was proclaymed Queene at Greenewych, and ofired that daie in the Kinges Chappell as Queene of England.e

Note d. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was raised to the dignity of Marchioness of Pembroke on Sunday, September 1st, 1532, at Windsor Castle, an honour which had never before been conferred on any unmarried female.

Note e. She had been some months preriously married to Henry VIII in great privacy by Dr. Rowland Lee (age 46), afterwards Bishop of Lichfield and Coyentry, but whether the marriage took place, as Sanders says, November 14th, 1532, on their arrival at Dover from France, or was deferred, as Cranmer (age 43) [?] supposed, to January 25th, 1533, still remains uncertain.

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet at Greenwich Palace [Map]. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton.

The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (age 41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".


On 12 Apr 1541 Robert Stewart 1st Earl Albany was born to King James V of Scotland (age 29) and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland (age 25). Possibly named Arthur? He died eight days later. He a great grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.


On 12 Apr 1550 Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise (age 53) died. His son Francis II Duke Guise (age 31) succeeded 1st Duke Guise.

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On 12 Apr 1555 Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 76) died.


Singeing the King of Spain's Beard

On 12 Apr 1587 an English fleet commanded by Francis Drake (age 47) left Plymouth, Devon [Map].


On 12 Apr 1639 Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth (age 79) died. His son Henry Carey 2nd Earl Monmouth (age 43) succeeded 2nd Earl Monmouth 1C 1626. Martha Cranfield Countess Monmouth (age 38) by marriage Countess Monmouth.


On 12 Apr 1651 John Hough Bishop was born.

On 12 Apr 1651 August Philipp Oldenburg I Duke Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (age 38) and Marie Sibylle Nassau Saarbrücken Duchess Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck were married at Beck. She by marriage Duchess Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck. He the son of Alexander Oldenburg I Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg and Dorothea Schwarzburg Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg.

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On 12 Apr 1672 Aubrey de Vere 20th Earl of Oxford (age 45) and Diana Kirke Countess of Oxford were married. She by marriage Countess of Oxford. He the son of Robert de Vere 19th Earl of Oxford and Beatrice Van Hemmema Countess of Oxford.

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Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. Scotland declares for King William (age 38) and Queen Mary (age 26), with the reasons of their setting aside King James (age 55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.


Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. King James (age 55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades, whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King (age 55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (age 50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor Prince (age 55) is managed by the French.

Coronation William III and Mary II

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. I went with the Bishop of St. Asaph (age 61) to visit my Lord of Canterbury (age 58) at Lambeth [Map], who had excused himself from officiating at the coronation, which was performed by the Bishop of London (age 57), assisted by the Archbishop of York (age 74). We had much private and free discourse with his Grace (age 58) concerning several things relating to the Church, there being now a bill of comprehension to be brought from the Lords to the Commons. I urged that when they went about to reform some particulars in the Liturgy, Church discipline, Canons, etc., the baptizing in private houses without necessity might be reformed, as likewise so frequent burials in churches; the one proceeding much from the pride of women, bringing that into custom which was only indulged in case of imminent danger, and out of necessity during the rebellion, and persecution of the clergy in our late civil wars; the other from the avarice of ministers, who, in some opulent parishes, made almost as much of permission to bury in the chancel and the church, as of their livings, and were paid with considerable advantage and gifts for baptizing in chambers. To this they heartily assented, and promised their endeavor to get it reformed, utterly disliking both practices as novel and indecent.

William III Creation of New Lords

Before 12 Apr 1713 Matthew Robinson 2nd Baron Rokeby was born to Matthew Robinson (age 19). On 12 Apr 1713 Matthew Robinson 2nd Baron Rokeby was baptised.

On 12 Apr 1715 Thomas Wharton 1st Marquess Wharton (age 66) died. He was buried at Upper Winchendon. His son Philip Wharton 1st Duke Wharton succeeded 2nd Marquess Wharton, 2nd Earl Wharton, 6th Baron Wharton.


On 12 Apr 1757 Basil Feilding 5th Earl Desmond 6th Earl Denbigh (age 38) and Mary Cotton Countess Desmond and Denbigh (age 4) were married. She by marriage Countess Desmond, Countess Denbigh. The difference in their ages was 33 years. He the son of William Feilding 4th Earl Desmond 5th Earl Denbigh and Isabella Jong Countess Desmond and Denbigh.

On 12 Apr 1775 William Henry Kerr 4th Marquess Lothian (age 65) died at Bath [Map]. His son William John Kerr 5th Marquess Lothian (age 38) succeeded 5th Marquess Lothian. Elizabeth Fortescue 5th Marchioness Lothian (age 30) by marriage Marchioness Lothian.


On 12 Apr 1814 George Pitt-Rivers 6th Baron Rivers was born to Horace Beckford aka Pitt-Rivers 3rd Baron Rivers (age 36) and Frances Rigby.

On 12 Apr 1823 Diana Middleton 2nd Baroness Barham (age 60) died. Her son Charles Noel 1st Earl Gainsborough (age 41) succeeded 3rd Baron Barham.

On 12 Apr 1842 Edward Harris 4th Earl Malmesbury was born to Admiral Edward Harris (age 33).

On 12 Apr 1845 John Neville 3rd Earl Abergavenny (age 55) died. His brother William Neville 4th Earl Abergavenny (age 52) succeeded 4th Earl Abergavenny, 20th Baron Bergavenny 1C 1392, 18th Baron Bergavenny 2C 1450. Caroline Leeke Countess Abergavenny by marriage Countess Abergavenny.

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On 12 Apr 1916 Hubert George Burgh 2nd Marquess Clanricarde (age 83) died.

First Manned Space Flight

On 12 Apr 1961 Russian astronaunt Yuri Gagarin completed the first manned space flight.