On this Day in History ... 15th May

15 May is in May.

1266 Battle of Chesterfield

1464 Battle of Hexham

1536 Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

1536 Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

1567 Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and Lord Bothwell

1692 Battles of Barfleur and La Hougue

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 15th May

On 15 May 1092 Philip "Amorous" I King France (age 39) and Bertrade Montfort Queen Consort France (age 22) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. They were married despite their both having living spouses: Bertha Gerulfing Queen Consort France (age 37) and Fulk "Réchin" Anjou 4th Count Anjou (age 49) respectively. He the son of King Henry I of France and Anne Rurik Queen Consort France.

On 15 May 1254 Isabel Neville of Raby (age 78) died. She has an effigy at St Mary's Church, Staindrop [Map] at the side of which is also an effigy of a child.

Isabel Neville of Raby: Around 1176 she was born. In or before 1197 Robert Fitzmaldred and she were married. The difference in their ages was 26 years.

On 15 May 1266 Henry "Almain" Cornwall (age 30) and John Warenne 6th Earl of Surrey (age 35) fought for the King at Chesterfield [Map] during the Battle of Chesterfield. Henry Hastings (age 31), John Clinton, Roger Mandeville, John Eyvil, Baldwin Wake (age 28) all fought on the rebel side. The rebel Robert Ferrers 6th Earl of Derby (age 27) was captured.

On 15 May 1268 Peter of Savoy 1st Earl of Richmond (age 65) died. He left the Honour of Richmond to his niece Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 45) who transferred it to the crown.

On 15 May 1434 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 16) was appointed Bishop of Worcester.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1464. 15 May 1464. Also in the iiijth yere of the Kynge Edwarde, the monethe of Maij, the Duke of Somersett, the Lorde Roos (deceased), the Lorde Moleyns (age 33), Talboys the Earl [Baron] of Kyme (age 49), Sire Phylippe Wenterworth (age 40), Sire Thomas Fynderne, gadred a grete peple of the northe contre1. And Sere Jhon Nevelle, that tyme beynge Earl of Northumberlonde, with 10,000 men come uppon them, and there the comons fleede that were with them, and ther the forseide lordes were takene and afterward behedede3. But thenne the Lorde Montagu (age 33), the Earl of Warwick (age 35)s brothere, whiche the Kynge had made Earl of Northumberlonde, was mighty and strong by the same, &c. And for so moche as the Kynge and his counselle thought that he wolde holde with his Earl of Warwick (age 35), therfor the Kyng and his counselle made the countre to desire that they might have the ryghtfull heyre Percy, sonne to Henry Percy that was slayne at Yorke Feld, to be the Earl of Northumberlond, and so it was doone. And after this the Kynge made Lorde Montagu (age 33), Marquyus Montagu, and made his sonne (age 3) Duke of Bedford, whiche schulde wedde the princesse, the Kynges heldest doughter, whiche, by possibylite, schuld be Kynge of England, and so he hade many fayre wordys and no lordeschyppys, but alwey he promysed he wuld do, &c,

Note 1. Gadred a grete peple of the northe contre. The following very curious document is from a MS. in the College of Arms (L.9):— "Anno Edwardi quarti quarto et mensis Maij die xxvij. scilicet in die san[c]te Trinitatis.

The Kyng lay in the Palois of York, and kept his astate solemply; and tho there create he Sir John Nevelle, Lord Mowntage, Earl of Northumberland. And than my lorde of Warrewike toke upon hym the jorney, by the Kynges commandement and auctoritee, to resiste the Rebellions of the Northe, acompanyed with hym my sayde Lorde of Northumberland his brother.

"Item, the xxiijti, day of Juyne, my saide Lorde of Warrewike, with the puissaunce, cam before the castelle of Alwike, and ad it delivered by appointement; And also the castell of Dunstanboroughe, where that my said Lord kept the feest of Saint John Baptist."

"Item, my said Lorde of Warrewike, and his broder Earl of Northumberland, the xxv. day of Juyn, leyede siege unto the Castelle of Bamburghe, there within being Sir Rauf Grey, with suche power as attendid for to keepe the said castelle ayen the power of the Kinges and my said Lord, as it apperith by the heroudes reporte, by the whiche my Lord sent to charge them to delyvere it under this forme, as ensewithe; Chester, the Kinges heroude, and Warrewike the heroude, had this commaundement, as foloweth, -to say unto Sir Rauf Gray, and to other that kept his Rebelliouse oppynyon, that they shule delivere that place contynent aftyr that summacion, and every man for the tyme being disposed to receyve the Kynges grace, my said Lord of Warrewike, the Kinges lieutenant, and my Lord of Northumbreland, Wardeyn of themarches, grauntith the Kyng['s] grace and pardon, body, lyvelodes, reservyng ij. persounes, is understoude, Sir Humfrey Neville and Sir Rauf Grey, thoo tweyn to be oute of the Kinges grace, without any redempcion. Than the answere of Sir Rauf Grey followithe unto the said heroudes, he clerely determynyng withinne hymself to liffe or to dye within the said place; the heroudes, according to my Lordes commandement, charged hym with all inconveniences that by possible might fall in offence ayenst Allemighty God, and sheding of bloode; the heroude saying in this wise, My Lordes ensurithe yow, upon their honour, to susteyne siege before yowe these vij. yeres, or elles to wynne yowe."

Item, my sayde Lorde Lieutenant, and my Lord Wardeyn, hath yeven us ferther comaundement to say unto yowe, if ye deliver not this Juelle, the whiche the king our most dradde soverain Lord hath so gretly in favour, seing it marcheth so nygh hys awncient enemyes of Scotland, he specially desirethe to have it, hoole, unbroken, with ordennaunce; if ye suffre any greet gunne laide unto the wal, and be shote and prejudice the wal, it shall cost yowe the Chiftens hede; and so proceding for every gunne shet, to the leest hede of any persoune within the said place. Than the saide Sir Rauf Grey deperted from the saide heroud, ant put hym in devoir to make deffence.

And than my Lorde lieutenant had ordennede alle the Kinges greet gonnes that where charged at oons to shute unto the said Castelle, Newe-Castel the Kinges greet gonne, and London the second gonne of irne; the whiche betyde the place, that stones of the walles flewe unto the see; Dysyon, a brasin gonne of the Kinges, smote thouroughe Sir Rauf Grey's chamber oftentimes; Edward and Richard Bombartell, and other of the Kinges ordennaunce, so occupied by the ordonnaunce of my said Lord, with men of armes and archirs, wonne the castelle of Bamburg with asawte, mawgrey Sir Rauf Grey, and tooke hym, and brought hym to the Kynge to Doncastre, and there was he execut in this fourme as followith. My lorde Earl of Worcestre, Connestable of Englond, sitting in jugement, told hym jugement, and remambrid hym, saying unto hym; "Sir Rauf Grey, thou hast take the ordir of Knyghthode of the Batthe, and any soe taking that ordir ought to kepe his faithe the whiche he makes; therfor remembre the[e] the lawe! wilt thou shall procede to jugement? thees maters shewith so evidently agayn the, that they nedithe not to examyn the of them, by certein persounes of the Kinges true subgettes, the whiche thou hast wounded, and shewithe here that thou canst not deny this; thou hast drawen the with force of armes unto the Kyng oure most natural soverain Lorde, the whiche tho wotest wele yave unto the suche trust, and in suche wise mynystred his grace unto the, that thou haddist his castels in the Northe partie to kepe; thou hast betraied Sir John Asteley Knyght, and brother of the gartier, the whiche remaignethe in the hand of the Kynges oure soverain Lord enemyes in Fraunce.

Item, thou hast withstoud and maade fences ageynst the Kynges maiestie, and his lieutenant the worthy Lorde my broder of Warrwike; it apperith by the strookes of the greet gunnes in the Kyng walles of his castell of Bamburghe. For the[se] causes, dispost the to suffre thy penaunce aftyr the lawe. The Kyng had ordenned that thou shuldest have hadd thy sporys striken of by the hard heles, with the hand of the maister cooke, that whiche is here redy to doo, as was promysed at the tyme that he tooke of thy spurres; he said to yee, as ys accustumed, that 'And thou be not true to thy soverain Lord, I shal smyte of thy sporys with this knyf herd by the helys,' and so shewne hym the maistre cooke redy to doo his office, with apron and his knyff.

"Item, Sir Rauff Grey, the Kyng had ordenned here, thou maist see, the Kynge of armes and heroudes, and thine own propre cote of armes, that whiche they shuld teere of thy body, and so thou shuldist as wel be disgraded of thy worshipp, noblesse, and armes, as of the order of Knyghthode; and also here is an oder cote of thin armes reversed, the which thou shuldest have werne of thy body, going to that dethe warde, for that belongethe aftyr the lawe. Notwithstanding, of the disgrading of knygthode, and of thine armes, et noblesse, the King pardons that for thy noble grauntfader, the whiche suffrid trouble for the Kynges moost noble predecesseurs2. Than, Sir Rauf Grey, this shal be thy penaunce, -thou shalt goo on thy feet unto the towneseend, and there thou shalt be laide downe and drawen to a scaffold maade for thee, and that thou shalt have thyne hede smite of thi body, to be buriede in the freres; thi heede where it pleased the Kyng."

Note 2. Sir Ralph Grey, of Wark, Heton, and Chillingham (lineal ancestor of the Earls of Tankerville, as well as of the present Earl Grey) was the grandson of Sir Thomas Grey, beheaded at Southampton with the Earl of Cambridge, Aug. 5, 1415. See the whole sheet pedigree of Grey in Raine's North Durham. - J.G.N.

Note 3. Were takene and afterward behedede. "Quintodecimo die mensis Maij, apud Exham, decapitati sunt Dux Somersett, Edmundus Fizthu miles, Brasdshaw, Wauter Hunt, Blac Jakis. Decimo-septimo die mensis Maii, apud Novum-Castrum, decapitati sunt Dominus de Hungarforde, Dominus Roos, Dominus Thomas Fynderum, Edwardus de la Mare, Nicholaus Massam. Apud Medetham, xviijo die mensis Maii, decapitati sunt Dominus Philippus Wentworth, Willielmus Penyngton, Warde de Topcliff, Oliverus Wentworth, Willielmus Spilar, Thomas Hunt, le foteman Regis Henrici. Apud Eboracum, xxvº die mensis Maii, decapitati sunt Dominus Thomas Husye, Thomas Gosse, Robertus Merfynn, Johannes Butlerus, Rogerus Water, janitor Regis Henrici, Thomas Fenwyke, Robertus Cocfeld, Willielmus Bryte, Willielmus Dawsonn, Johannes Chapman. Apud Eboracum, xxviijo die mensis Maii, decapitati sunt Johannes Elderbek, Ricardus Cawerum, Johannes Roselle, Robertus Conqueror. [On the fifteenth day of May, at Hexham [Map], the Duke of Somerset (age 28), Edmund Fizthu, Bradshaw, Wauter Hunt, and Black Jakis were decapitated. On the seventeenth day of May, at Newcastle, the Lord of Hungerford (age 33), Lord Roos (deceased), Lord Thomas Fynderum, Edward de la Mare, and Nicholas Massam were decapitated. At Middleham Castle [Map], on the eighteenth day of May, the Lord Philip Wentworth (age 40), William Penyngton, Ward of Topcliff, Oliver Wentworth, William Spilar, Thomas Hunt, the footman of King Henry, were decapitated. At York, on the twenty-fifth day of May, Lord Thomas Husye, Thomas Gosse, Robert Merfynn, John Butler, Roger Water, the doorkeeper of King Henry, Thomas Fenwyke, Robert Cocfeld, William Bryte, William Dawsonn, and John Chapman were decapitated. At York, on the twenty-eighth day of May, John Elderbek, Richard Cawerum, John Roselle, and Robert Conqueror were decapitated.]” — MS. Arundel, Coll. Arm. 5, fol. 170, rº.

Chronicle of England by Jean de Waurin. [15 May 1464]. Chapter 4.30. Of a battle that took place quite near Newcastle upon Tyne where the Duke of Somerset (age 28) was captured, along with several other great lords captured and killed by the Earl of Northumberland (age 33).

It so happened around this time that between Scotland and Northumberland, the Duke of Somerset, the principal governor of Queen Margaret, had assembled a large force to raid and inflict damage upon the Kingdom of England, particularly targeting those loyal to King Edward. Although the said Duke of Somerset had recently received a pardon from the King and returned to his court, he could not hold himself back. Instead, he preferred to return to King Henry's side rather than remain with King Edward's party. He clearly recognized that King Henry's faction lacked the strength to resist against King Edward's power, who had previously shown him great honour and respect. Despite this, he abandoned King Edward's side to rejoin King Henry and support those who had no power to benefit him, as he had previously experienced.

It so happened that in that season, about fifteen miles from Newcastle upon Tyme or Tyne, the brother of the Earl of Warwick, then known as the Earl of Northumberland, accompanied by the Baron of Greystoke (age 50), the Lord of Crup, the Lord of Welles (age 36), and Sir John Buckingham, was informed that there were the Duke of Somerset, the Lord Ros (deceased), the Earl of Helmsley, Sir Thomas Fiderme, and the Lord of Talbot. They rode in that direction and encountered each other in such a way that there was a great slaughter and many men were killed. But eventually, the Earl of Northumberland, brother to the Earl of Warwick, led them all to complete defeat and on the same day captured the Duke of Somerset, who was promptly beheaded. Also captured were those from his party who were there at Newcastle upon Tyne, namely the Earl of Helmsley, the Lords of Ros (deceased) and Talbot (age 49), along with Sir John Fiderme, in the year 1463.

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 28) at Hexham [Map] during the Battle of Hexham.

Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 36).

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 28) was beheaded following the battle. The general pardon which he has previously received was annulled. Duke Somerset, Marquess Dorset, Earl Somerset and Earl Dorset forfeit for the second time. His son Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 25) was styled by supporters of the House of Lancaster as Duke of Somerset but had not right to do so.

Philip Wentworth (age 40) was executed at Middleham [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1464. 15 May 1464. The xv day of May folowynge this good Lord Mountegewe (age 33) let to be smete of the heddys of thes men, the whyche that her namys here folowyn in wrytyng: Henry Beaufort Duke of Somerset (age 28), Edmon Fysche, knyght, Edmon Bradschawe, Water Hunte, Blacke Jakys.

Chronicle of England by William of Worcester. On the [15th] day of the said month of May, John Lord Montagu, Barons Greystoke and Willoughby, with an armed force numbering four thousand, arrived in sight of the Duke of Somerset's army. Upon seeing this, the Duke and a large part of his army fled, and his entire army was dispersed. In the chase, the Duke was captured by servants of John Middleton, knight, and presented to the lords at Hexham. On the same day, he was beheaded and buried in the abbey there. Along with the Duke, Edward Fysshe, knight, Blake Jakes, John Bryce, Thomas Hunt were beheaded. Within the next three days, Thomas Lord Roos and Robert Lord Hungerford, hiding in a certain forest near Hexham, were captured and condemned before the said Lord Montagu at Newcastle and beheaded there, along with Thomas Fynderne, knight. Shortly after, William Tailboys, Earl of Kyme, was likewise captured there and beheaded. Of others captured at Hexham, John Boteler, esquire, from the county of Somerset, Robert Mirfyne, and twelve others were brought to York to the King, condemned by the Constable of England, and beheaded judicially, except John Nayler, a courtier of King Henry VI, who, although condemned, was later pardoned through the special efforts of a former clerk of the chancery, the then-resident chancellor of England, with Henry Upton, one of six chancery clerks.

die dicti mensis Maii Johannes dominus Mountagu, barones de Graystok and Whiloughby, cum gente armata, ad numerum iiij.m. venerunt in conspectu exercitus ducis Somersetiæ. Quo viso, dux cum magna parte sui exercitus fugit et totus exercitus suus diruptus est. Et in chacea dux per servientes Johannis Medelton, militis, captus et præsentatus est dominis apud Hexham, et eodem die decollatus est, et in abbatia ibidem sepultus. Cum dicto duce decollati sunt Edus. Fysshe, miles, Blake Jakes, Johannes Bryce, Thomas Hunt. Et infra tres dies sequentes Thomas dominus Roos et Robertus dominus Hungerford, in quadam silva prope Hexham absconditi, capti sunt, ac apud Novum Castrum coram dicto domino Mountagu damnati et [cum] Thoma Fynderne, milite, ibidem decollati sunt. Et cito post Willelmus Taylboys, comes Kyme, captus ibidem similiter decollatus est. Et de aliis captis apud Hexham, Johannes Boteler, armiger, de comitatu Somersetiæ, Robertus Mirfyne, ac ad numerum xij. personarum, adducti ad Eboracum ad regem, judicialiter coram constabulario Angliæ damnati et decollati sunt, Johanne Nayler, cursario cancellariæ Henrici VI., excepto, qui damnatus et, mediante postea cancellario Angliæ, perdonatus est per specialem laborem unius quondam clerici sui, dicto cancellario tunc temporis commorantis, cum Henrico Upetone, uno vj. clericorum cancellariæ.

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jun 1528. R. O. Wood's Lett., vol. II. 39. 4357. Lady Elizabeth Tailbois (age 57) to Wolsey (age 55).

Has received his letters, dated Durham Place, 15 May, desiring her to deliver to Sir Gilbert Tailbois (age 30), her son, lands to the yearly value of £100, the residue of those worth £200, appointed by Act of Parliament to him and his wife (age 30) after her husband's decease, an annuity of £40, and the money received from the lands from Mayday last. Will give him the lands, but begs to be excused from giving the money for the following reasons:-1. Since her husband's (age 61) visitation, when he was committed to Wolsey by the King, his rents have been employed for household expences and the marriages of his children, and not in wasteful expences. 2. There is now 150 marks owing of the marriage money of one of their children, for which her nearest friends are bound. 3. Her other son (age 26), brother to Sir Gilbert, has no assignment for his living, and must be provided for. 4. William Bongham, an old servant of her husband's (age 61), who was accustomed to provide wheat and grain for the household, has gone away with money enough to provide for the whole year, and she is obliged to make fresh provision with the rents of the lordships for which her son Sir Gilbert asks, and of other lands also. 6. There are 10 score wild beasts in the lordship of Kyme, from which they used to provide beef for the household, but from which they can now get no profit. Has had little comfort since her husband's (age 61) last visitation, "and for the pleasure of God I have yielded me thereunto," and now my husband (age 61) is aged it would be hard to live in penury, and be unable to discharge our friends of the sums in which they are bound for us. If my son obtain his demands, we shall be obliged to break up house and "sparpull" our children and servants. He has now in his hands lands worth £342 17s. 11¾d.,-more than she and her husband (age 61) have. Will do all she can for him when her children are provided for and her debts paid. Goltaght, 11 June. Signed.

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl of Arundel (age 24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).

Edward Powers Lord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. Hannaert has written to Granvelle on the 9th that he had just heard that the king of England's Concubine (age 35) had been surprised in bed with the King's organist (age 24). If this be so, as it is very probable that God has permitted it after her damnable life, we think the King will be more inclined to treat, especially as regards our cousin; but you must use great dexterity lest the King intend a marriage in France, and that he should rather choose one of his own subjects, either the one with whom he is in love or some other. We trust that if there be anything in it you will let us know with diligence. We send letters of credence for you for the dukes of Richmond, Norfolk, and Suffolk, and also for Cromwell, such as you will see by the copies. Pontremulo, 15 May 1536.

P.S.—Since the above was written your man George has arrived, who confirms the news touching the King's Concubine (age 35), and, as we suppose that the King will put her and her accomplices to death and take another wife, as he is of amorous complexion and always desires to have a male child, and as on the side of France they will not fail to offer him a match, you will suggest, when you can, to him or Cromwell, a marriage with the Infanta of Portugal, daughter of our sister the queen of France, who has 400,000 ducats dowry by testament. Another marriage might be arranged for the Infant Don Loys of Portugal, our brother-in-law, with the princess of England. You must point out to them that these matches would be very expedient, both to remove past scruples and to promote strict amity between us, him, and Portugal, and would be very advantageous to England in case the King should have a male child by this marriage, as he may reasonably hope from the youth and bringing up of the Infanta. If you see the King not inclined to these marriages you might propose one between the King and our niece, the duchess dowager of Milan, a beautiful young lady, well brought up and with a good dowry; treating at the same time of the other marriage between Don Loys and our cousin. But we should greatly prefer the former match with the Infanta, for the good of both, and in order to be able to dispose of our niece of Milan otherwise. Bersel, 15 May 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. 908. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On the 15th the said Concubine and her brother (age 33) were condemned of treason by all the principal lords of England, and the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) pronounced sentence. I am told the Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) was quite as ready to assist at the judgment as he had done at the condemnation of the other four. Neither the putain (age 35) nor her brother (age 33) was brought to Westminster like the other criminals. They were condemned within the Tower, but the thing was not done secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present. What she was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris (age 54) to marry after the King's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted to mean that she had poisoned the late Queen and intrigued to do the same to the Princess. These things she totally denied, and gave to each a plausible answer. Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston (age 25), as she had often done to other young gentlemen. She was also charged, and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the King and his dress, and that she showed in various ways she did not love the King but was tired of him. Her brother was charged with having cohabited with her by presumption, because he had been once found a long time with her, and with certain other little follies. To all he replied so well that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted, especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.

I must not omit, that among other things charged against him as a crime was, that his sister (age 35) had told his wife (age 31) that the King "nestoit habile en cas de soy copuler avec femme, et quil navoit ne vertu ne puissance1." This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with a warning not to repeat it. But he immediately declared the matter, in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the King's issue. He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question whether his sister's daughter was the King's child. To which he made no reply. They were judged separately, and did not see each other. The Concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which was to be burnt or beheaded at the King's pleasure, she preserved her composure, saying that she held herself "pour toute saluee de la mort2," and that what she regretted most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the King, were to die for her. She only asked a short space for shrift (pour disposer sa conscience3). Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death. He only begged the King that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid out of his goods.

Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the putain, there are some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and people speak variously of the King; and it will not pacify the world when it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Mrs. Jane Semel (age 27). Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the King, having received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the arrest of the putain; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies, sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river. Most part of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as showing his delight at getting rid of a "maigre vieille et mechante bague4," with hope of change, which is a thing specially agreeable to this King. He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the Bishop of Carlisle, and showed an extravagant joy, as the said Bishop came to tell me next morning, who reported, moreover, that the King had said to him, among other things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him; and, so saying, the King drew from his bosom a little book written in his own hand, but the Bishop did not read the contents. It may have been certain ballads that the King has composed, at which the putain and her brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great crime.

Note 1. "was not skilful in case of copulating with a woman, and that he had neither virtue nor power".

Note 2. "for every death salute".

Note 3. to dispose of one's conscience.

Note 4. skinny old nasty ring

Note 5. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. R. O. 876. Trial of Anne Boleyn (age 35) and Lord Rochford (age 33).

Record of pleas held at the Tower of London before Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), treasurer and Earl marshal, lord high steward, citing:—

1. Patent appointing the said Duke steward of England hac vice for the trial of queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.

2. Mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thos. Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex, to return all indictments found against queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

3. Similar mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners for Kent. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

4. Mandate to Sir William Kyngestone, constable of the Tower, to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) before the Lord High Steward when required. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

5. The Lord High Steward issued his precept, 13 May, to Sir John Baldewyn and his fellows in Middlesex, to return the indictments at the Tower before him on Monday, 15 May, and a similar precept to Sir J. Baldewyn, Luke, and his fellows in Kent; a third precept to the constable of the Tower to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) that day before him; and a fourth to Ralph Felmyngham, serjeant-at-arms, to summon such and so many lords of the kingdom, peers of the said queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33), by whom the truth may appear.

6. Pleas held before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), steward of England, at the Tower, on Monday, 15 May 28 Henry VIII.

The justices bring in the indictments for Middlesex and Kent, Sir William Kingston (age 60) produces the prisoners, and Ralph Felmyngham declares that he has summoned the peers. Proclamation being then made, the peers answer to their names; viz., Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter, William Earl of Arundel, John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 34), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Edward Earl of Derby (age 27), Henry Earl of Worcester, Thomas Earl of Rutland (age 44), Rob. Earl of Sussex, George Earl of Huntingdon, John lord Audeley, Thos. lord La Ware, Henry lord Mountague, Henry lord Morley, Thos. lord Dacre, George lord Cobham, Henry lord Maltravers, Edward lord Powes, Thos. lord Mount Egle, Edward lord Clynton, William lord Sandes, Andrew lord Wyndesore, Thos. lord Wentworth, Thos. lord Burgh, and John lord Mordaunt.

7. Indictment found at Westminster on Wednesday next after three weeks of Easter, 28 Henry VIII.1 before Sir John Baldwin, &c., by the oaths of Giles Heron, Roger More, Richard Awnsham, Thos. Byllyngton, Gregory Lovell, Jo. Worsop, William Goddard, William Blakwall, Jo. Wylford, William Berd, Henry Hubbylthorn, William Hunyng, Rob. Walys, John England, Henry Lodysman, and John Averey; who present that whereas queen Anne has been the wife of Henry VIII. for three years and more, she, despising her marriage, and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust, did falsely and traitorously procure by base conversations and kisses, touchings, gifts, and other infamous incitations, divers of the King's daily and familiar servants to be her adulterers and concubines, so that several of the King's servants yielded to her vile provocations; viz., on 6th Oct. 25 Henry VIII., at Westminster, and divers days before and after, she procured, by sweet words, kisses, touches, and otherwise, Henry Noreys, of Westminster, gentle man of the privy chamber, to violate her, by reason whereof he did so at Westminster on the 12th Oct. 25 Henry VIII.; and they had illicit intercourse at various other times, both before and after, sometimes by his procurement, and sometimes by that of the Queen. Also the Queen, 2 Nov. 27 Henry VIII. and several times before and after, at Westminster, procured and incited her own natural brother, George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, alluring him with her tongue in the said George's mouth, and the said George's tongue in hers, and also with kisses, presents, and jewels; whereby he, despising the commands of God, and all human laws, 5 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., violated and carnally knew the said Queen, his own sister, at Westminster; which he also did on divers other days before and after at the same place, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 3 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and after, at Westminster, procured one William Bryerton, late of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so on 8 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, in the parish of Lytel Hampton, and on several other days before and after, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 8 May 26 Henry VIII., and at other times before and since, procured Sir Fras. Weston, of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, &c., whereby he did so on the 20 May, &c. Also the Queen, 12 April 26 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, at Westminster, procured Mark Smeton (age 24), groom of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so at Westminster, 26 April 27 Henry VIII.

Moreover, the said Lord Rochford (age 33), Norreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24), being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, could not endure any of them to converse with any other woman, without showing great displeasure; and on the 27 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., and other days before and after, at Westminster, she gave them great gifts to encourage them in their crimes. And further the said Queen and these other traitors, 31 Oct. 27 Henry VIII., at Westminster, conspired the death and destruction of the King, the Queen often saying she would marry one of them as soon as the King died, and affirming that she would never love the King in her heart. And the King having a short time since become aware of the said abominable crimes and treasons against himself, took such inward displeasure and heaviness, especially from his said Queen's malice and adultery, that certain harms and perils have befallen his royal body.

And thus the said Queen and the other traitors aforesaid have committed their treasons in contempt of the Crown, and of the issue and heirs of the said King and Queen.

8. Record of indictment and process before Baldewyn, Luke, and others, in co. Kent.

The indictment found at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May 28 Henry VIII., is precisely similar in character to the Middlesex indictment, except as regards times and places; viz., that the Queen at Estgrenewyche, 12 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, allured one Henry Noreys, late of Est Grenewyche, to violate her, whereby he did so on the 19 Nov., &c.; that on 22 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers other days, at Eltham, she allured George Boleyn, Lord Rochford (age 33), &c., whereby he did so, 29 Dec., &c.; that on the 16 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers, &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured one William Bryerton, late of Est Grenewyche, &c., whereby he did so, 27 Nov., &c.; that on the 6 June 26 Henry VIII., &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Sir Fras. Weston, &c., whereby he did so, 20 June, &c.; that on the 13 May 26 Henry VIII. &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Mark Smeton (age 24), &c., whereby he did so, 19 May 26 Henry VIII.

And further that the said Boleyn, &c. grew jealous of each other; and the Queen, to encourage them, at Eltham, 31 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers times before and since, made them presents, &c.; that the Queen and the others, 8 Jan. 27 Henry VIII., conspired the King's death, &c., and that she promised to marry one of the traitors whenever the King was dead, affirming she would never love him, &c.

And afterwards, Monday, 15 May, queen Anne comes to the bar before the Lord High Steward in the Tower, in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), pleads not guilty, and puts herself on her peers; whereupon the said Duke of Suffolk (age 52), marquis of Exeter, and other peers, are charged by the High Steward to say the truth; and being examined from the lowest peer to the highest, each of them severally saith that she is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then, at the King's command, to the Green within the Tower, and there to be burned or beheaded as shall please the King.

The same day, Lord Rochford (age 33) is brought before the High Steward in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), and pleads not guilty. The peers are charged, with the exception of the Earl of Northumberland (age 34), who was suddenly taken ill, and each of them severally saith that he is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then drawn through the city of London, to the gallows at Tyburn, &c., as usual in high treason.

R. O. 2. Originals of the above indictments, commission to the Lord High Steward, mandates and precept, with the original panel of peers. Several of these documents are a good deal injured.

Note 1. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of the Pub. Records, App. ii. 243. The whole of the proceedings are printed by Mr. Hamilton in the Appendix to Vol. I. of Wriothesley's Chronicle.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 May 1536. After this, immediately the Lord of Rocheforde (age 33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower [Map] from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume [Map], and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London.

Calendars. 27. "The Queen exhibited such constancy, patience, and faith towards God that all the spectators, even her enemies, and those persons who previously had rejoiced at her misfortune out of their hatred to the doctrine of the religion which she had introduced into England, testified and proclaimed her innocence and chastity.

28. "Without being questioned they themselves answered the accusations brought against the Queen. It is no new thing, said they, that the King's Chamberlains should dance with the ladies in the bedchamber. Nor can any proof of adultery be collected from the fact that the Queen's brother took her by the hand and led her into the dance among the other ladies, or handed her to another, especially if that person was one of the royal chamberlains. For it is a usual custom thoughout the whole of Britain that ladies married and unmarried, even the most coy, kiss not only a brother, but any honourable person, even in public. It is the custom also with young women to write to their near relatives when they have become pregnant, in order to receive their congratulations. The King also was most anxious for an heir, and longed for nothing more than to know that the Queen was pregnant.

29. "From such arguments as those which were advanced against the Queen they affirmed that no probable suspicion of adultery could be collected; and that therefore there must have been some other reason which moved the King. Possibly it might be the same as that which induced him to seek for a cause of divorce from his former Queen, namely, the desire of having an heir.

30. "He was still further strengthened in his desire for a new marriage by perceiving that all the male children to which the Queen gave birth came into the world dead, and that for some years past she had not conceived. For the King was apprehensive that after his own decease civil wars would break out, and that the crown would again be transferred to the family of the White Rose if he left no heir behind him.

31. "And further, the King was angry with the Queen because of the want of success which attended the embassy which, at her instigation, he had despatched into Germany, the Princes of which would not enter into a league with him against the Emperor, unless for the defence of the purer doctrine. They demanded more money than he was willing to give, nor would they permit Philip [Melancthon] to come into England. And the King was exceedingly indignant because the Princes of Germany doubted his faith.

32. "Moreover, they said that the Emperor, the Pope, Ferdinand, and the other Princes were banded against the King, and that he was in danger from them on account of the change of religion; nor was there anyone among the Kings and Princes who would render him assistance in the event of the Emperor declaring war against him in consequence of the divorce of his aunt, Queen Catherine, and the substitution of a second wife.

33. "How the matter actually stood would, however, they said, speedily be made known; whether he had executed the Queen for having broken her marriage vows, or for fear of the war which was about to break out in consequence of the changes in religion, and the divorce of the Emperor's aunt. For if he executed the Queen only on account of the suspicion of adultery, no change in religion would follow; but if out of fear of the war about religion and the divorce, then Lutheranism would be driven out of England and sent back into Germany, to those Princes who would not make a treaty with the King in the matter of the divorce. If, however, he was already in love with some other woman out of his anxiety for an heir, neither could this long be kept a secret. For so ardent was he when he had begun to form an attachment, that he could give himself no rest; so much so that when he was raving about Queen Anne and some of his friends were dissuading him from the divorce, he said that he preferred the love of the Queen to half his realm. It was in vain that his Councillors, and among the number Thomas More, the Chancellor, opposed this measure; for he sent agents to all the more renowned cities in France, Italy, and Germany, to collect the suffrages of the doctors in the matter of the divorce, not without the expenditure of an immense sum of money, concerning which he also consulted Luther and Philip.

34. "While the guests were thus talking at table in my hearing it so happened that a servant of Crumwell's came from the Court and sitting down at the table, asked the landlord to let him have something to eat, for he was exceedingly hungry.

35. "In the meantime, while the food was being got ready, the other guests asked him what were his news? Where was the King? What was he doing? Was he sorry for the Queen? He answered by asking why should he be sorry for her? As she had already betrayed him in secresy, (fn. 1) so now was he openly insulting her. For just as she, while the King was oppressed with the heavy cares of state, was enjoying herself with others, so he, when the Queen was being beheaded, was enjoying himself with another woman.

36. "While all were astonished and ordered him to hold his tongue, for he was saying what no one would believe, and that he would bring himself into peril if others heard him talking thus, he answered, 'You yourselves will speedily learn from other persons the truth of what I have been saying.'

37. "The landlord, who was a servant of Crumwell's, hearing this, said, 'It is not fitting for us to dispute about such affairs. If they are true they will be no secret. And when I go to Court I will inquire carefully into these matters.'

38. "The person, however, who had first spoken, answered that he had the King's orders that none but the Councillors and secretaries should be admitted, and that the gate of the country house should be kept shut in which the King had secluded himself.

Letters 1536. Norris (age 54), Weston (age 25), Brereton, and Marks (age 24) are already condemned to death, having been arraigned at Westminster on Friday last. The Queen and her brother are to be arraigned tomorrow, and will undoubtedly go the same way. "I write no particularities; the things be so abominable that I think the like was never heard. Gardiner will receive £200 of the £300 that were out amongst these men, notwithstanding great suit hath been made for the whole; which though the King's highness might give in this case, yet his Majesty doth not forget your service; and the third £100 is bestowed of the Vicar of Hell (age 46), upon [whom]1 though it be some charge unto you, his Highness trusteth ye will think it well bestowed." From the Rolls in haste, 14 May.

P.S.—Wallop will not be forgotten, though Cromwell cannot tell at present how much he is to have. The King is highly pleased with the services of both. Signed.

Pp. 3. In Wriothesley's hand. Add. Endd.

Note 1. This word seems to be omitted. The despatch must have been hurriedly written, and two or three verbal errors have been overlooked.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. Item, on Munday,c the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London [Map] Queene Anne (age 35),d for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London [Map], and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the Earle of Surrey (age 20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (age 48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his left hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees.

Note c. Stow's account seems to hare been taken from this, with considerable verbal differences and some omissions.

Note d. There was no precedent for the trial of a Queen for treason, so Henry determined that she should be arraigned before a commission of Lords, as had been practised in the case of the Duke of Buckingham.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (age 60)e and the Lieutenant (age 56) brought forthe the Queene (age 35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her,g whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same,a and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after they had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the Duke of Northfolke (age 63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge: Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene [Map], els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (age 60) and the Ladie Boleyn (age 56), her aunte.

Note e. Sir William Kingston (age 60).

Note f. Sir Edmond Walsingham (age 56).

Note g. Her indictment, which comprised six sereral charges, is preserred in the Public Record Office, with the subsequent proceedings thereon.

Note a. Upon her examination she positively denied she had ever been false to the King; but, being told that Norris, Weston, Brereton, and Smeton had accused her, she said she ought not to conceal certain things which had passed between her and them. See Burnet, tom, i. pp. 191, 280, &c.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 May 1551. The xv day the Lady Mary (age 35) rode through London unto St. John's, her place, with fifty knights and gentlemen in velvet coats and chains of gold afore] her, and after her iiij [score gentlemen and ladies, every] one havyng a peyre of bedes [of black. She rode through] Chepe-syde and thrugh Smythfeld, -the v. K. E. vj.

Note. The lady Mary rode to St. John's, her place. That is, to the house of the late knights hospitallers at Clerkenwell. On the circumstances of the princess's visit to court at this time see her brother's diary in Burnet.

On 15 May 1567 James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney (age 33) and Mary Queen of Scots (age 24) were married in the Great Hall Holyrood House. She the daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland. He the son of Patrick Hepburn 3rd Earl Bothwell and Agnes Sinclair Countess Bothwell. They were half third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 15 May 1613 George Seton Master of Seton was born to George Seton 3rd Earl Winton (age 28) and Anne Hay Countess Winton (age 21).

On 15 May 1645 George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys was born to John Jeffreys (age 37) at Acton Park.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. The Portugalls have choused us1, it seems, in the Island of Bombay, in the East Indys; for after a great charge of our fleets being sent thither with full commission from the King (age 32) of Portugall to receive it, the Governour by some pretence or other will not deliver it to Sir Abraham Shipman, sent from the King (age 32), nor to my Lord of Marlborough (age 45); which the King (age 32) takes highly ill, and I fear our Queen (age 24) will fare the worse for it. The Dutch decay there exceedingly, it being believed that their people will revolt from them there, and they forced to give over their trade. This is talked of among us, but how true I understand not. Sir Thomas showed me his picture and Sir Anthony Vandike's, in crayon in little, done exceedingly well.

Note 1. The word chouse appears to have been introduced into the language at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In 1609, a Chiaus sent by Sir Robert Shirley, from Constantinople to London, had chiaused (or choused) the Turkish and Persian merchants out of £4,000, before the arrival of his employer, and had decamped. The affair was quite recent in 1610, when Jonson's "Alchemist" appeared, in which it is alluded to.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1668. Thence with Lord Brouncker (age 48) to Loriners'-hall1, by Mooregate, a hall I never heard of before, to Sir Thomas Teddiman's burial, where most people belonging to the sea were. And here we had rings: and here I do hear that some of the last words that he said were, that he had a very good King, God bless him! but that the Parliament had very ill rewarded him for all the service he had endeavoured to do them and his country; so that, for certain, this did go far towards his death. But, Lord! to see among [the company] the young commanders, and Thomas Killigrew (age 56) and others that come, how unlike a burial this was, O'Brian taking out some ballads out of his pocket, which I read, and the rest come about me to hear! and there very merry we were all, they being new ballets.

Note 1. The Loriners, or Lorimers (bit-makers), of London are by reputation an ancient mistery, but they were first incorporated by letters patent of 10 Queen Anne (December 3rd, 1711). Their small hall was at the corner of Basinghall Street in London Wall. The company has no hall now.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 May 1692. My niece, M. Evelyn, was now married to Sir Cyril Wyche (age 60), Secretary of State for Ireland. After all our apprehensions of being invaded, and doubts of our success by sea, it pleased God to give us a great naval victory, to the utter ruin of the French fleet, their admiral and all their best men-of-war, transport-ships, etc.

On 15 May 1711 Anne Crewe (age 61) died. Monument at St Bertoline's Church, Barthomley [Map].

Anne Crewe: John Offley of Madely in Staffordshire and she were married. In Sep 1649 she was born to John Crewe of Crewe and Carew Gorges.

On 15 May 1713 Edward Wortley-Montagu was born to Edward Wortley-Montagu (age 35) and Mary Wortley-Montagu née Pierrepont (age 23).

Avebury by William Stukeley. 15 May 1724. Table XXII. Prospect of Kennet Avenue from the Druids tumulus on Hakpen hill. May 15th 1724. [On the left West Kennet Long Barrow [Map], in the middle Silbury Hill [Map], Avebury very right]

On 15 May 1805 Isabella Caroline Ellison was born to Cuthbert Ellison (age 21).

On 15 May 1864 Susannah West Wilson was born to Arthur Wilson (age 28).

On 15 May 2001 Princess Anne Windsor (age 50) visited St Laurence's Church, Ludlow [Map] to celebrate 21 years of restoration work and to commemorate the 800th anniversary of its first rebuilding.

Princess Anne Windsor: On 15 Aug 1950 she was born to Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Births on the 15th May

On 15 May 1580 Seymour Knightley was born to Richard Knightley (age 47) and Elizabeth Seymour (age 28). Named for his mother's family Seymour.

On 15 May 1613 George Seton Master of Seton was born to George Seton 3rd Earl Winton (age 28) and Anne Hay Countess Winton (age 21).

On 15 May 1645 George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys was born to John Jeffreys (age 37) at Acton Park.

On 15 May 1659 Karl Johann von Königsmarck was born in Nyborg.

On 15 May 1662 Clemence Hovell of Hillington was born to William Hovell of Hillington (age 26) and Ethelreda Lilly (age 27).

On 17 Apr 1664 Aubrey de Vere was born to Aubrey de Vere 20th Earl of Oxford (age 37) and Hester Davenport Countess of Oxford (age 22). He was baptised on 15 May 1664 at St Paul's Church, Covent Garden.

On 15 May 1674 John Cecil 6th Earl Exeter was born to John Cecil 5th Earl Exeter (age 26) and Anne Cavendish Countess Exeter (age 25).

On or before 15 May 1676, the date he was baptised at All Saints Church, Woodton, Reverend Maurice Sucking was born.

On 15 May 1699 Sampson Lloyd was born to Sampson Lloyd (age 35).

On 15 May 1706 Charles Mathew Goring 5th Baronet was born to Henry Goring 4th Baronet (age 26).

On 15 May 1713 Edward Wortley-Montagu was born to Edward Wortley-Montagu (age 35) and Mary Wortley-Montagu née Pierrepont (age 23).

On 15 May 1792 Jacob "James" Mayer de Rothschild was born to Mayer Amschel Rothschild (age 48).

On 15 May 1794 Robert John Malet Palk was born to Lawrence Palk 2nd Baronet (age 28) and Dorothy Elizabeth Vaughan (age 30).

On 15 May 1797 Constantine Phipps 1st Marquess Normanby was born to Henry Phipps 1st Earl Mulgrave (age 42) and Martha Sophia Thomson Maling Countess Mulgrave. He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 15 May 1804 Henry Anson was born to Thomas Anson 1st Viscount Anson (age 37) and Anne Margaret Coke Viscountess Anson (age 25).

On 15 May 1805 Isabella Caroline Ellison was born to Cuthbert Ellison (age 21).

On 15 May 1812 William Henry Dawnay 7th Viscount Downe was born.

On 15 May 1826 Charlotte Lyon Bowes was born to Thomas George Lyon Bowes (age 25) and Charlotte Grimstead (age 29).

On 15 May 1842 Henry Amelius Beauclerk Coventry was born to Henry Amelius Beauclerk Coventry (age 26) and Caroline Stirling Dundas (age 27).

On 15 May 1844 Commander Robert Nicholas Hamond was born to Robert Nicholas Hamond (age 34) and Sophia Caroline Musters (age 31).

On 15 May 1862 Reverend John Greville Chester was born to Charles Montague Chester (age 47).

On 15 May 1864 Susannah West Wilson was born to Arthur Wilson (age 28).

On 15 May 1867 Lionel Sackville-West 3rd Baron Sackville was born to William Sackville-West (age 37) and Georgina Dodwell.

On 15 May 1869 Mary Stuart Keppel was born to William Keppel 7th Earl Albermarle (age 37) and Sophia Mary MacNab of Dundurn Castle (age 36).

On 15 May 1871 George Tryon 1st Baron Tryon was born to Vice-Admiral George Tryon (age 39) and Clementia Heathcote (age 39).

On 15 May 1875 Mary Cecil Curzon 17th Baroness Zouche was born to George Augutus Curzon (age 38).

On 15 May 1885 Maurice Roche 4th Baron Fermoy was born to James Roche 3rd Baron Fermoy (age 33) and Frances Ellen Work Lady Fermoy (age 27).

On 15 May 1885 Mary Millicent Erskine-Wemyss was born to Randolph Gordon Erskine-Wemyss (age 27) and Lillian Mary Paulet (age 25). She a great x 2 granddaughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

On 15 May 1901 Kathleen Garman was born to Walter Chancellor Garman (age 41) and Margaret Frances Magill at Wednesbury, Staffordshire [Map].

On 15 May 1903 Marigold Lubbock Countess Londesborough was born to Edgar Lubbock (age 56).

On 15 May 1919 Robert Charles Darling 2nd Baron Darling was born to Major John Clive Darling (age 31) and Eleanor Joan Martin Powell.

Marriages on the 15th May

On 15 May 1092 Philip "Amorous" I King France (age 39) and Bertrade Montfort Queen Consort France (age 22) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. They were married despite their both having living spouses: Bertha Gerulfing Queen Consort France (age 37) and Fulk "Réchin" Anjou 4th Count Anjou (age 49) respectively. He the son of King Henry I of France and Anne Rurik Queen Consort France.

On 15 May 1346 James Butler 2nd Earl Ormonde (age 14) and Elizabeth Darcy Countess Ormonde (age 14) were married at Ormond, County Tipperary. She by marriage Countess Ormonde. She the daughter of John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy of Knayth (age 66) and Joan Burgh Countess Kildare (age 46). He the son of James Butler 1st Earl Ormonde and Eleanor Bohun Countess Ormonde (age 41). They were third cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 15 May 1459 James Douglas 1st Earl Morton and Joan Stewart Countess Morton (age 31) were married. She by marriage Countess Morton. She the daughter of King James I of Scotland and Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland. They were first cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 15 May 1567 James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney (age 33) and Mary Queen of Scots (age 24) were married in the Great Hall Holyrood House. She the daughter of King James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland. He the son of Patrick Hepburn 3rd Earl Bothwell and Agnes Sinclair Countess Bothwell. They were half third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On 15 May 1667 Louis Guise Duke Guise (age 16) and Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans (age 20) were married. They were third cousin once removed.

On 15 May 1684 Heneage Finch 5th Earl Winchilsea (age 27) and Anne Kingsmill Countess Winchelsea (age 23) were married. She by marriage Countess Winchilsea. He the son of Heneage Finch 3rd Earl Winchilsea (age 56) and Mary Seymour Countess Winchelsea. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

On or after 15 May 1689 John Pocklington (age 31) and Mary Hatton were married.

Around 15 May 1692 Cyril Wyche (age 60) and Mary Evelyn were married.

On 15 May 1699 Henry Bunbury 3rd Baronet (age 22) and Susannah Hanmer Lady Bunbury (age 22) were married. They had four sons and five daughters. She by marriage Lady Bunbury of Bunbury in Oxfordshire and Stanney Hall in Cheshire.

On 15 May 1759 James Waldegrave 2nd Earl Waldegrave (age 44) and Maria Walpole Duchess Gloucester and Edinburgh (age 22) were married. She by marriage Countess Waldegrave. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of James Waldegrave 1st Earl Waldegrave and Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave. He a great grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 15 May 1775 Frederick Irby 2nd Baron Boston (age 25) and Christian Methuen were married.

On 15 May 1776 Samuel Hoare (age 24) and Sarah Gurney (age 19) were married.

On 15 May 1792 Lawrence Palk 2nd Baronet (age 26) and Dorothy Elizabeth Vaughan (age 28) were married. She the daughter of Wilmot Vaughan 1st Earl Lisburne (age 64) and Dorothy Shafto Countess Lisburne (age 59).

On 15 May 1818 Horace Beauchamp Seymour-Conway (age 26) and Elizabeth Malet Palk (age 21) were married. He a great x 3 grandson of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Before 15 May 1844 Robert Nicholas Hamond (age 34) and Sophia Caroline Musters (age 31) were married.

On 15 May 1845 Lawrence Palk 1st Baron Haldon (age 27) and Maria Harriett Hesketh Baroness Haldon were married. They had four sons and two daughters.

Before 15 May 1867 William Sackville-West (age 37) and Georgina Dodwell were married. He the son of George Sackville-West 5th Earl De La Warr (age 75) and Elizabeth Sackville Countess De La Warr (age 71).

On 15 May 1901 John Frecheville Ramsden 6th Baronet (age 24) and Joan Buxton Lady Ramsden (age 20) were married.

Before 15 May 1941 Lieutenant-Commander John Thurburn Currie (age 36) and Rita Emily Carr-Ellison Duchess Grafton (age 29) were married.

On 15 May 1958 Charles John Robert Manners 10th Duke Rutland (age 38) and Frances Helen Sweeny Duchess of Rutland (age 21) were married. She by marriage Duchess Rutland. She the daughter of Charles Francis Sweeny (age 48) and Margaret Whigham (age 45). He the son of John Henry Montagu Manners 9th Duke Rutland and Kathleen Tennant Duchess Rutland (age 63).

Deaths on the 15th May

On 15 May 733 Bercthun of Beverley died.

On 15 May 1091 Roger Tosny (age 11) died.

Before 15 May 1218 Robert Marmion 3rd Baron Marmion (age 65) was killed in a fight with the forces of Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 48) at Scrivelsby. His son Robert Marmion 4th Baron Marmion (age 36) succeeded 4th Baron Marmion of Tamworth in Staffordshire Feudal.

On 15 May 1254 Isabel Neville of Raby (age 78) died. She has an effigy at St Mary's Church, Staindrop [Map] at the side of which is also an effigy of a child.

Isabel Neville of Raby: Around 1176 she was born. In or before 1197 Robert Fitzmaldred and she were married. The difference in their ages was 26 years.

On 15 May 1268 Peter of Savoy 1st Earl of Richmond (age 65) died. He left the Honour of Richmond to his niece Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 45) who transferred it to the crown.

On 15 May 1464 a Yorkist army commanded by John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 33) defeated a Lancastrian army commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 28) at Hexham [Map] during the Battle of Hexham.

Those fighting for York included John Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 36), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 26) and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 36).

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 28) was beheaded following the battle. The general pardon which he has previously received was annulled. Duke Somerset, Marquess Dorset, Earl Somerset and Earl Dorset forfeit for the second time. His son Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 25) was styled by supporters of the House of Lancaster as Duke of Somerset but had not right to do so.

Philip Wentworth (age 40) was executed at Middleham [Map].

On 15 May 1465 Philippa Lovell died.

Around 15 May 1470 Elizabeth Wemyss Countess Sutherland 1718 1747 (age 76) died.

On 15 May 1486 Marguerite Foix Duchess Brittany (age 37) died.

On 15 May 1498 William Radclyffe (age 62) died.

On 15 May 1513 Mungo Home of Ersiltoun (age 20) died.

On 15 May 1524 Ralph Vernon (age 30) died.

On 15 May 1555 Thomas Bromley died. He was buried at St Andrew's Church, Wroxeter [Map].

On 15 May 1555 Nicholas Tichborne (age 49) died.

On 15 May 1568 Anna of Lorraine (age 45) died.

On 15 May 1591 Robert Crichton 6th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar (age 51) died.

On 15 May 1600 Muriel Carey (age 21) died.

On 15 May 1609 Edward Stradling (age 80) died. His second cousin John Stradling 1st Baronet (age 46) inherited St Donat's Castle.

Around 15 May 1617 Ursula Tyrwhitt (age 77) died in Boston [Map]. See Diary of Anne Clifford.

Around 15 May 1657 Susanna Style Lady Reade died.

On 15 May 1658 Dorothea Oldenburg died.

On 15 May 1670 John Browne 1st Baronet (age 66) died. His son George Browne 2nd Baronet (age 43) succeeded 2nd Baronet Browne of The Neale in County Mayo. Alicia Bingham Lady Browne (age 39) by marriage Lady Browne of The Neale in County Mayo.

On 15 May 1682 Bishop Henry Bridgeman died.

On 15 May 1693 John Hamilton 2nd Lord of Bargeny died.

On 15 May 1711 Mary Bruce (age 53) died.

On 15 May 1711 Anne Crewe (age 61) died. Monument at St Bertoline's Church, Barthomley [Map].

Anne Crewe: John Offley of Madely in Staffordshire and she were married. In Sep 1649 she was born to John Crewe of Crewe and Carew Gorges.

On 15 May 1713 Thomas Delves 3rd Baronet (age 82) died. His son Thomas Delves 4th Baronet (age 60) succeeded 4th Baronet Delves of Dodington in Cheshire.

On 15 May 1727 Frederik Christian Oldenburg died.

On 15 May 1747 Borlase Warren (age 70) died.

On 15 May 1771 Thomas Morgan of Rhiwpera (age 43) died unmarried. Charles Morgan (age 35) inherited Tredegar House, Monmouthshire.

On 15 May 1785 Lucy Stanhope (age 70) died.

On 15 May 1792 Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (age 46) died.

On 15 May 1834 William Cavendish (age 2) died.

On 15 May 1837 Henry Calveley Cotton (age 81) died.

On 15 May 1843 George Coventry 8th Earl Coventry (age 58) died. His grandson George Coventry 9th Earl Coventry (age 5) succeeded 9th Earl Coventry.

On 15 May 1846 Mary Elizabeth Stuart (age 34) died.

On 15 May 1854 Bishop Richard Bagot (age 71) died.

On 15 May 1866 John Morewood Gresley (age 49) died.

On 15 May 1870 Dorothea Fitzclarence (age 24) died.

On 15 May 1878 William Grey (age 60) died.

On 15 May 1893 Mary Wentworth-Fitzwilliam (age 83) died.

On 15 May 1909 Gillian Mary Birkbeck (age 26) died at Kobe Japan whilst working as a Missionary.

On 15 May 1911 John Graham Menzies (age 50) died.

On 15 May 1915 Edith Somerset Countess Londesborough (age 76) died.

On 15 May 1941 Lieutenant-Commander John Thurburn Currie (age 36) died whilst under anæsthetic whilst having a tooth extracted.

On 15 May 1983 Dorothy Charlotte Forster Baroness Wardington (age 92) died.

On 15 May 1988 Tatiana Mountbatten (age 70) died.

On 15 May 2000 Ziki Robertson 11th Baroness Wharton (age 66) died. Her son Myles Christopher David Robertson 12th Baron Wharton (age 35) succeeded 12th Baron Wharton.

On 15 May 2021 Edward John Peregrine Cust 7th Baron Brownlow (age 85) died.