On this Day in History ... 20th July

20 Jul is in July.

1304 Siege of Stirling Castle

1405 Northern Rising

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1559 Henry II of France Dies Francis and Mary "Queen of Scots" Succeed

1665 Great Plague of London

1683 Rye House Plot

Events on the 20th July

On 20 Jul 1031 Robert "Pious" II King France (age 59) died at Melun, Seine et Marne. His son King Henry I of France (age 23) succeeded I King France: Capet.

On 20 Jul 1153 Sancho "Wise" King Navarre (age 21) and Sancha Ivrea (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Alfonso VII King Castile VII King Leon (age 48) and Berenguela Barcelona Queen Consort Castile and Leon. He the son of García "Restorer" IV King Navarre and Marguerite Aigle Queen Consort Navarre. They were fourth cousins.

On 20 Jul 1304 William Oliphant Governor of surrendered Stirling Castle [Map] to King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 65).

On 20 Jul 1426 Cardinal John Kempe (age 46) was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.

On 20 Jul 1454 John II King Castile (age 49) died. His son Henry IV King Castile (age 29) succeeded IV King Castile. Blanche Trastámara II Queen Navarre (age 30) by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jul 1520. R.O. 4534. Henry Duke of Richmond (age 1) to Henry VIII (age 29).

I have received your letters and the goodly apparel you sent me by Master Magnus, director of my council. According to the purport of your said letters, I shall apply myself to learning, and proceed in virtue. Sheriffhutton [Map], 20 July.

On 20 Jul 1524 Claude Valois Orléans Queen Consort France (age 24) died.

Letters and Papers 1537. 20 Jul 1537. 292. Richard Coren to Cromwell.

R. O. St. P. i. 557.

Excuses his slack letters by his absence from my Lord of Norfolk at the expedition of the last post. Was present at Aske's (deceased) execution, as well as at that of Sir Robert Constable (deceased), which no doubt Thomas Hossy has described. Noted in both men "that they thought a religion to keep secret between God and them certain things rather than open their whole stomach; from the which opinion I could not abduce them." For Robert Aske's demeanour, refers to the schedule enclosed. Sherifhoton, 20 July.

ii. Goods which Robert Aske had during the commotion, whereof no satisfaction is made, to his remembrance.

First, Mr. Lacy sent to him to Hull £10 of Dr. Halsworth's goods, and an obligation of the Abbot of Kirkstead, Linc, which the subprior of Watton had. 2. The vicar of Braton sent him 10 sheep and 30s., but of whose goods he knows not. 3. Had sent from Drake Abbey to Wresill 10 or 12 qrs. of oats and 3 qrs. of wheat. 4. From Wato[n], 40 sheep. 5. Had of Mr. Krake's goods, sheep to the value of £4 10s. Thinks that is all he had, "not given and not restored," and begs the King to pay them out of his goods for the discharge of his conscience.

In Aske's hand and subscribed: "This is Ask's own hand delivered unto me, Richard Coren."

St. P. i. 558.

iii. "The saying of Robert Aske to me, Richard Coren, out of confession to-for his death.

"First, he said that my lord Darcy (deceased) did tell him that he had spoken with the emperor's ambassador concerning his purpose in this late rebellion, for the causes of the Church, as he said, and that the said ambassador should encourage him unto the same, saying that he should lack none help."

2. Lord Darcy (deceased), Sir Robt. Constable (deceased), and he were about to send Doctor Marmaduke to the Council in Flanders for aid and ordnance.

3. That my lord Privy Seal "did not bear so great favour to my Lord of Norfolk as he thought he did; which thing I have kept secret from my said Lord of Norfolk."

4. When he "should be" laid on the hurdle to be drawn he openly confessed he had offended God, the King, and the world. After this he declared that the King was so gracious that none should be troubled for offences comprised in the pardon. He was then laid on the hurdle and drawn through the notable places of the city "desiring the people ever as he passed by to pray for him."

5. At the place of execution he was taken off the hurdle, repeated like confession, and ascended up into the dungeon to wait the coming of my Lord of Norfolk.

6. "Item, there were two things, wherewithal he was aggrieved. The one was, that he said my lord Privy Seal spake a sore word and affirmed it with a stomach, swearing that all the Northern men were but traitors: where-withal he was somewhat offended. The second was that my lord Privy Seal sundry times promised him a pardon of his life, and at one time he had a token from the King's Majesty of pardon for confessing the truth. These two things he showed to no man in these North parts, as he said, but to me only; which I have and will ever keep secret."

7. At Norfolk's arrival Aske ascended the tower to the gallows, repeated his former confession and asked forgiveness of the King, my lord Chancellor, my Lord of Norfolk, my lord Privy Seal, my Lord of Sussex, and all the world; and after orisons made on the ladder, commended his soul to God.

Pp. 5. All in Coren's hand, except § ii. Add.: Privy Seal. Sealed and endd.

On 20 Jul 1542 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 51) purchased the premises at Stanmore, with a windmill, lands in Great and Little Stanmore and Harrow, others in Essex, and also the "premises in the parish of St Sepulchre in the ward of Faryngton Without" from Geoffrey Chamber of Stanmore in Middlesex -1550.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 20 Jul 1554. Fryday the xxth of Julie tydinges came to the Lord Mayre payne that the Prince of Spayne (age 27) was come into Englande, and landed at Southampton, Hampshire [Map] this daye, and came with viiixx sayle of Spanish shippes well appoynted, beside the navie of Flaunders and the Queens navie, which were to the number of lx [60] shippes and more, Lord Wm. Howarde, Lord Admirall of England (age 44), conductinge them, after they came into the costes of Englande.

On 20 Jul 1559 Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 32) and Elizabeth Valois Queen Consort Spain (age 14) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain. She the daughter of King Henry II of France (deceased) and Catherine Medici Queen Consort France (age 40). He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1559. The xx day of July kyng Phelype (age 32) was mared [married] unto the Frenche kyng('s) (deceased) dowthur (age 14), and grett justes mad ther, and the Frenche kyng (deceased) dyd just [joust], and ther he had on of ys ees stryken owtt with a spyld [splinter] of a spayre, that he ded of the stroke, by one (blank).

On 20 Jul 1572 Frederick II King Denmark (age 38) and Sophie Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark (age 14) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Denmark. The difference in their ages was 23 years. He the son of Christian III King Denmark and Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway. They were second cousin once removed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. Up, and a while to my office, and then home with Deane (age 30) till dinner, discoursing upon the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber in Clarendon Parke, and how to make a report therein without offending him; which at last I drew up, and hope it will please him. But I would to God neither I nor he ever had had any thing to have done with it! Dined together with a good pig, and then out by coach to White Hall, to the Committee for Fishing; but nothing done, it being a great day to-day there upon drawing at the Lottery of Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41). I got in and stood by the two Queenes [Note. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 25) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 54) ] and the Duchesse of Yorke (age 27), and just behind my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), whom I do heartily adore; and good sport it was to see how most that did give their ten pounds did go away with a pair of globes only for their lot, and one gentlewoman, one Mrs. Fish, with the only blanke. And one I staid to see drew a suit of hangings valued at £430, and they say are well worth the money, or near it. One other suit there is better than that; but very many lots of three and fourscore pounds. I observed the King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) did get but as poor lots as any else. But the wisest man I met with was Mr. Cholmley (age 31), who insured as many as would, from drawing of the one blank for 12d.; in which case there was the whole number of persons to one, which I think was three or four hundred. And so he insured about 200 for 200 shillings, so that he could not have lost if one of them had drawn it, for there was enough to pay the £10; but it happened another drew it, and so he got all the money he took.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1665. So walked to Redriffe [Map], where I hear the sickness is, and indeed is scattered almost every where, there dying 1089 of the plague this week. My Baroness Carteret (age 63) did this day give me a bottle of plague-water home with me.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1670. We went to dine at Lord Allington's (age 30), who had newly built a house of great cost, I believe a little less than £20,000. His architect was Mr. Pratt (age 50). It is seated in a park, with a sweet prospect and stately avenue; but water still defective; the house has also its infirmities. Went back to Mr. Slingsby's (age 49).

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1683. Several of the conspirators of the lower form were executed at Tyburn [Map]; and the next day.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1685. The Trinity House met this day, which should have ben on ye Monday after Trinity, but was put off by reason of the Royal Charter being so large that it could not be ready before. Some immunities were super-added. Mr. Pepys (age 52), Secretary to ye Admiralty, was a second time chosen Master. There were present the Duke of Grafton (age 21), Lord Dartmouth (age 12), Master of ye Ordnance, the Commissioners of ye Navy, and brethren of the Corporation. We went to Church according to costome, and then took barge to the Trinity House [Map], in London, where we had a great dinner, above 80 at one table.

On 20 Jul 1729 William Stukeley (age 41) was ordained as a Deacon by Archbishop William Wake (age 72).

On 20 Jul 1742 Arthur Devis (age 30) and Elizabeth Faulkener (age 23) were married at Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map]. They had twenty-two children of which only six survived infancy.

On 20 Jul 1890 George II King Hellenes was born to Constantine I King Greece (age 21) and Sophia Hohenzollern Queen Consort Greece (age 20). He a great grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

On 20 Jul 1947 Sylvia Storey Countess Poulett (age 57) died.

On 20 Jul 2011 Lucian Freud (age 88) died.

Births on the 20th July

On 20 Jul 1345 Thomas Fauconberg 5th Baron Fauconberg was born to Walter Fauconberg 4th Baron Fauconberg (age 26) and Maud Pateshull Baroness Fauconberg (age 22).

On 20 Jul 1346 Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke was born to King Edward III of England (age 33) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 32) at Windsor Castle [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

On 20 Jul 1358 William Coggeshall was born to Henry Coggeshall (age 27).

On 20 Jul 1368 William Paulet was born to John Paulett (age 14) at Melcomb Paulet, Somerset.

On 20 Jul 1372 Janet Stewart was born to Robert Stewart 1st Duke Albany (age 32) and Margaret Graham Countess Menteith and Fife (age 38).

On 20 Jul 1385 Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge was born to Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 44) and Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 30) at Conisbrough Castle [Map] although there was speculation the father was John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 33) with whom Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 30) was suspected of having an affair. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

Around 20 Jul 1417 John Pympe was born.

On 20 Jul 1470 John Bourchier 1st Earl Bath was born to Fulk Bourchier 10th Baron Fitzwarin (age 24) and Elizabeth Dynham Baroness Fitzwarin. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On or before 20 Jul 1578 Edward Fox was born. He was baptised on 20 Jul 1578.

Before 20 Jul 1600 Edward Acton 1st Baronet was born to Walter Acton of Aldenham (age 28) and Frances Acton (age 18).

On 20 Jul 1601 Robert Wallop was born to Henry Wallop (age 32) and Elizabeth Corbet (age 18).

On or before 20 Jul 1622 John Duncombe of Battlesden was born to William Duncombe of Battlesden and Elizabeth Poyntz.

On 20 Jul 1649 William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland was born.

On 20 Jul 1655 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville was born to Ralph Grey 2nd Baron Grey Werke (age 25) and Catherine Anna Ford (age 21).

On 20 Jul 1667 Philip Astley 2nd Baronet was born to Jacob Astley 1st Baronet (age 28) and Blanche Wodehouse Lady Astley (age 25).

On 20 Jul 1673 John Dalrymple 2nd Earl of Stair was born to John Dalrymple 1st Earl of Stair (age 24).

After 20 Jul 1673 Colonel William Dalrymple Earl Dumfries was born to John Dalrymple 1st Earl of Stair (age 24).

On 20 Jul 1682 William Cavendish of Doveridge Hall was born to Henry Cavendish (age 35) and Mary Tyrrell.

On 20 Jul 1687 Justinian Isham 5th Baronet was born to Justinian Isham 4th Baronet (age 28) and Elizabeth Turnor Lady Isham (age 21).

On 20 Jul 1700 Mary Slack m Carrington was born to Robert Slack of Little Hayfield (age 76).

On 20 Jul 1723 Robert Shirley 6th Earl Ferrers was born to Laurence Shirley (age 29) and Anne Clarges (age 28) at St James'.

On 20 Jul 1747 Thomas Mansel Talbot was born to Reverend Thomas Talbot (age 28).

On 20 Jul 1764 Robert Williams 9th Baronet was born to Hugh Williams 8th Baronet (age 46) and Emma Bridget Rowlands Viscountess Bulkeley.

On 20 Jul 1766 Thomas Bruce 11th Earl Kincardine 7th Earl Elgin was born to Charles Bruce 9th Earl Kincardine 5th Earl Elgin (age 34) at Broomhall House, Broomhall.

On 20 Jul 1799 Grenville Temple 10th Baronet was born to Grenville Temple 9th Baronet (age 30).

On 20 Jul 1800 Lucy Coke was born to Francis Coke (age 36) and Anne Whitcombe (age 33).

On 20 Jul 1807 Charles Vincent Loraine 7th Baronet was born.

On 20 Jul 1811 James Bruce 12th Earl Kincardine 8th Earl Elgin was born to Thomas Bruce 11th Earl Kincardine 7th Earl Elgin (age 45) and Mary Nisbet Countess Elgin (age 33).

On 20 Jul 1811 John Dunn-Gardner was born to John Margetts Brewer and Sarah Dunn-Gardner Marchioness Townshend. His mother had married John Margetts Brewer bigamously so legally John Dunn-Gardner was the son of her first husband George Ferrars Townshend 3rd Marquess Townshend (age 32) and was, therefore, styled by the courtesy title Earl of Leicester.

On 20 Jul 1812 Henry Edwards 1st Baronet was born to Henry Lees Edwards and Lea Priestley at Pye Nest, Halifax.

On 20 Jul 1821 Frances Elizabeth Greenhow was born to Thomas Michael Greenhow (age 29) and Elizabeth Martineau (age 26).

On 20 Jul 1821 Alexander Frederick Oldenburg was born to Christian August Oldenburg II Duke Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg (age 23) and Louise Sophie Danneskiold Samsøe Duchess Schleswig Holstein Sonderburg Augustenburg. He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 20 Jul 1834 Henry Head was born to Jeremiah Head (age 45).

On 20 Jul 1842 Alfred de Rothschild was born to Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (age 33) and Charlotte von Rothschild.

On 20 Jul 1844 Major-General Hugh Richard Dawnay 8th Viscount Downe was born to William Henry Dawnay 7th Viscount Downe (age 32) and Mary Isabel Bagot.

On 20 Jul 1848 Thomas William Coke 3rd Earl of Leicester was born to Thomas Coke 2nd Earl of Leicester (age 25) and Juliana Whitbread Countess Leicester (age 23).

On 20 Jul 1851 Cromartie Sutherland-Leveson-Gower 4th Duke of Sutherland was born to George Leveson-Gower 3rd Duke Sutherland (age 22) and Anne Hay Mackenzie Duchess Sutherland (age 22).

Before 20 Jul 1856 Ellen Palmer Morewood Countess Shrewsbury Waterford Talbot was born to Charles Rowland Palmer Morewood (age 36) and Georgiana Byron (age 32).

On 20 Jul 1857 Reginald George Dutton was born to John Thomas Dutton (age 46) and Lavinia Parker (age 41).

On 20 Jul 1860 William Murray 5th and 4th Earl Mansfield was born to William David Murray (age 24).

On 20 Jul 1890 George II King Hellenes was born to Constantine I King Greece (age 21) and Sophia Hohenzollern Queen Consort Greece (age 20). He a great grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

On 20 Jul 1918 Fiona Colquhoun Countess of Arran was born to Iain Colquhoun 7th Baronet (age 31) and Geraldine Bryde Dinah Tennant Lady Colquhoun (age 29).

On 20 Jul 1931 Rosemary Tyrwhit Williams was born to Harold Williams Baron Berners and Vera Ruby Tyrwhitt 15th Baroness Berners (age 29).

Marriages on the 20th July

On 20 Jul 1153 Sancho "Wise" King Navarre (age 21) and Sancha Ivrea (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Alfonso VII King Castile VII King Leon (age 48) and Berenguela Barcelona Queen Consort Castile and Leon. He the son of García "Restorer" IV King Navarre and Marguerite Aigle Queen Consort Navarre. They were fourth cousins.

Before 20 Jul 1345 Walter Fauconberg 4th Baron Fauconberg (age 26) and Isabel Bigod (age 9) were married.

Before 20 Jul 1399 Thomas Dacre 6th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 11) and Philippa Neville Baroness Dacre Gilsland (age 13) were married. She by marriage Baroness Dacre Gilsland. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 35) and Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 20 Jul 1424 John Seymour (age 24) and Isabel Williams were married.

Before 20 Jul 1470 Fulk Bourchier 10th Baron Fitzwarin (age 24) and Elizabeth Dynham Baroness Fitzwarin were married. She by marriage Baroness Fitzwarin. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 20 Jul 1559 Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 32) and Elizabeth Valois Queen Consort Spain (age 14) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain. She the daughter of King Henry II of France (deceased) and Catherine Medici Queen Consort France (age 40). He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 20 Jul 1562 Edmund Cooke of Lizens in Kent and Elizabeth Nicholls were married.

On 20 Jul 1572 Frederick II King Denmark (age 38) and Sophie Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark (age 14) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Denmark. The difference in their ages was 23 years. He the son of Christian III King Denmark and Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway. They were second cousin once removed.

Before 20 Jul 1600 Walter Acton of Aldenham (age 28) and Frances Acton (age 18) were married. They were second cousin once removed.

Around 20 Jul 1603 William Douglas 1st Earl Queensberry (age 21) and Isabel Kerr Countess Queensberry were married. She the daughter of Mark Kerr 1st Earl Lothian (age 50).

On 20 Jul 1615 Henry Portman 2nd Baronet (age 18) and Anne Stanley (age 15) were married. She brought £5000 to the marriage. She the daughter of William Stanley 6th Earl of Derby (age 54) and Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby (age 40). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Before 20 Jul 1628 John Cooper 1st Baronet (age 30) and Anne Ashley Lady Cooper were married.

After 20 Jul 1628 John Cooper 1st Baronet (age 30) and Mary Hicks Lady Cooper were married. She by marriage Lady Cooper of Rockbourne in Southampton.

On 20 Jul 1639, some sources say 11 Jul 1639, Henry Spencer 1st Earl of Sunderland (age 18) and Dorothy Sidney Countess Sunderland (age 21) were married at Penhurst Rother. She by marriage Baroness Spencer Wormleighton. Her long-term suitor, she was the 'Sacharissa' of his poems, Edmund Waller (age 33) wrote a letter to the bride's sister (age 12) on the occasion of the wedding. She the daughter of Robert Sidney 2nd Earl of Leicester (age 43) and Dorothy Percy Countess Leicester (age 41).

Madam,

In this common joy at Penshurst, I know none to whom complaints may come less unseasonably than to your ladyship, the loss of a bedfellow being almost equal to that of a mistress; and therefore you ought at least to pardon, if you consent not to the imprecations of, the deserted, which just Heaven no doubt will hear. May my lady Dorothy (age 21), if we may yet call her so, suffer as much, and have the like passion for this young lord, whom she has preferred to the rest of mankind, as others have had for her; and may his love, before the year go about, make her taste of the first curse imposed upon womankind, the pains of becoming a mother. May her first born be none of her own sex, nor so like her but that he may resemble her lord as much as herself. May she that always affected silence and retirement have the house filled with the noise and number of her children, and hereafter of her grandchildren; and then may she arrive at that great curse, so much declined by fair ladies, old age; may she live to be very old and yet seem young; be told so by her glass, and have no aches to inform her of the truth; and when she shall appear to be mortal, may her lord not mourn for her, but go hand in hand with her to that place where we are told there is neither marrying nor giving in marriage, that being there divorced we may all have an equal interest in her again! My revenge being immortal, I wish all this may befall her posterity to the world's end and afterwards! To you, madam (age 12), I wish all good things, and that this loss may in good time be happily supplied with a more constant bedfellow of the other sex. Madam, I humbly kiss your hands, and beg pardon for this trouble, from

Your ladyship's

most humble servant,

E. Waller.

On 20 Jul 1654 John Skeffington 2nd Viscount Massereene and Mary Clotworthy were married at St Paul's Church, Covent Garden.

Before 20 Jul 1682 Henry Cavendish (age 35) and Mary Tyrrell were married.

On 20 Jul 1700 Louis Otto Salm Count Salm Salm (age 25) and Albertine Johannette Nassau Hadamar Countess Salm (age 25) were married. He the son of Charles Theodore Salm Prince Salm (age 55) and Luise Marie Palatinate Simmern Countess Salm. He a great x 2 grandson of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland.

On 20 Jul 1730 Charles Calvert 5th Baron Baltimore (age 30) and Mary Janssen Baroness Baltimore were married. She by marriage Baroness Baltimore of Longford in Leinster. He a great grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 20 Jul 1742 Arthur Devis (age 30) and Elizabeth Faulkener (age 23) were married at Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map]. They had twenty-two children of which only six survived infancy.

Before 20 Jul 1764 Hugh Williams 8th Baronet (age 46) and Emma Bridget Rowlands Viscountess Bulkeley were married. She by marriage Lady Williams of Penrhyn in Caernarfonshire.

On 20 Jul 1765 George Byng 4th Viscount Torrington (age 24) and Lucy Boyle Viscountess Torrington were married. She the daughter of John Boyle 5th Earl Cork.

On 20 Jul 1805 Peter Nassau Clavering-Cowper 5th Earl Cowper (age 27) and Emily Lamb Countess Cowper (age 18) were married. She by marriage Countess Cowper. He the son of George Nassau Clavering-Cowper 3rd Earl Cowper and Hannah Anna Gore 3rd Countess Cowper.

On or after 20 Jul 1810, the date of the licence, William Corbett of Darnhall and Jane Eleanor Ainslie were married.

Before 20 Jul 1821 Thomas Michael Greenhow (age 29) and Elizabeth Martineau (age 26) were married.

On 20 Jul 1841 John Russell 1st Earl Russell (age 48) and Frances Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound Countess Russell (age 25) were married. The difference in their ages was 23 years. She the daughter of Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound 2nd Earl Minto (age 58). He the son of John Russell 6th Duke Bedford and Georgiana Elizabeth Byng. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 20 Jul 1842 Thomas Taylour 3rd Marquess of Headfort (age 19) and Amelia Thompson were married. He the son of Thomas Taylour 2nd Marquess of Headfort (age 55) and Olivia Stevenson.

On 20 Jul 1842 Isaac Lowthian Bell 1st Baronet (age 38) and Margaret Pattinson were married.

On 20 Jul 1846 Admiral Frederick William Grey (age 40) and Barbara Sullivan were married. He the son of Charles Grey 2nd Earl Grey and Mary Elizabeth Ponsonby Countess Grey (age 70).

On 20 Jul 1848 George Hay-Drummond 12th Earl Kinnoull (age 21) and Emily Blanche Charlotte Somerset Countess Kinnoul (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Henry Somerset 7th Duke Beaufort (age 56) and Emily Frances Smith Duchess Beaufort (age 48). He the son of Thomas Hay-Drummond 11th Earl Kinnoull (age 63) and Louisa Burton Rowley Countess Kinnoul.

On 20 Jul 1852 Charles William Grenfell (age 29) and Georgiana Caroline Lascelles were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 20 Jul 1853 Richard Boyle 9th Earl Cork (age 24) and Emily Charlotte Burgh Countess Cork (age 24) were married. She the daughter of Ulick Burgh 1st Marquess Clanricarde (age 50) and Harriet Canning Marchioness Clanricarde (age 49).

Before 20 Jul 1856 Charles Rowland Palmer Morewood (age 36) and Georgiana Byron (age 32) were married.

On 20 Jul 1858 Arthur Walsh 2nd Baron Ormathwaite (age 31) and Katherine Somerset Baroness Ormathwaite (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Henry Somerset 7th Duke Beaufort and Emily Frances Smith Duchess Beaufort (age 58).

On 20 Jul 1867 Robert Grosvenor 2nd Baron Ebury (age 33) and Emilie Beaujolais White were married.

Before 20 Jul 1874 William Topham (age 64) and Mary Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck (age 65) were married. She the daughter of William Henry Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck 4th Duke Portland and Henrietta Scott Duchess Portland.

On 20 Jul 1878 Claud Hamilton (age 35) and Caroline Chandos-Pole (age 21) were married. He the son of James Hamilton 1st Duke Abercorn (age 67) and Louisa Jane Russell Duchess Abercorn (age 66). He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 20 Jul 1889 Colonel Geoffrey Carr Glyn (age 25) and Winifred Harbord (age 24) were married.

On 20 Jul 1892 Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Ward (age 29) and Jeanette Octavia Cliff (age 34) were married.

On 20 Jul 1912 William Ham Kenny and Corina Kavanagh (age 22) were married.

On 20 Jul 1917 Harold Augustus Wernher 3rd Baronet (age 24) and Countess Anastasia Torby (age 24) were married.

On 20 Jul 1921 Wentworth Henry Canning Beaumont 2nd Viscount Allendale (age 30) and Violet Lucy Emily Seely Viscountess Allendale (age 24) were married at St Martin in the Fields [Map].

On 20 Jul 1931 Gerard Henry Fleetwood Fuller 2nd Baronet (age 25) and Fiona Pratt were married. They were divorced in 1944. She by marriage Lady Fuller of Neston Park in Corsham in Wiltshire. She the daughter of John Pratt 4th Marquess Camden (age 59) and Joan Marion Neville Marchioness Camden (age 54).

Deaths on the 20th July

On 20 Jul 1031 Robert "Pious" II King France (age 59) died at Melun, Seine et Marne. His son King Henry I of France (age 23) succeeded I King France: Capet.

On 20 Jul 1220 Guy Montfort died.

Around 20 Jul 1293 Agnes Neville (age 72) died.

On 20 Jul 1304 Hugh Mortimer 3rd Baron Mortimer (age 49) died from poisoning. He was buried in Worcester Cathedral [Map]. He was succeeded by his daughter Joan Mortimer Baroness Talbot

His Matilda Unknown Baroness Mortimer was suspected. She sought the protection of Margaret of France Queen Consort England (age 25). After the death of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 65) in 1307 she, Matilda Unknown Baroness Mortimer died suddenly, probabnly murdered in revenge for the murder of her husband.

On 20 Jul 1332 Thomas Randolph 1st Earl Moray (age 54) died. His son Thomas Randolph 2nd Earl Moray succeeded 2nd Earl Moray. He would be Earl for twenty days only.

On 20 Jul 1363 William Trussell (age 55) died.

On 20 Jul 1430 Robert Keith (age 67) died.

On 20 Jul 1450 Robert Plumpton (age 20) died.

On 20 Jul 1454 John II King Castile (age 49) died. His son Henry IV King Castile (age 29) succeeded IV King Castile. Blanche Trastámara II Queen Navarre (age 30) by marriage Queen Consort Castile.

On 20 Jul 1457 William Culpepper (age 70) died at Oxenheath West Peckham, Surrey.

Before Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) and Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns (age 29) were commissioned to hold London for the Lancastrians. They retreated to the Tower of London [Map] where they set the guns of the Tower towards the City; it isn't known whether they were fired or not. They eventually surrendered for lack of food. He was sent to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 20 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) was murdered by boatmen whilst travelling from the Tower of London [Map] to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map]. His daughter Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers succeeded 8th Baroness Scales. She was, or had been married to, Henry Bourchier (the year of his death may been 1458). She was in 1466 married to Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20), brother of King Edward IV's (age 18) wife Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 23); an example of the Woodville family marrying rich heiresses.

On 20 Jul 1465 William Eure (age 69) died at Malton Priory [Map].

On 20 Jul 1484 Thomas Lewknor (age 40) died.

On 20 Jul 1496 Thomas Meverell (age 71) died.

On 20 Jul 1524 Claude Valois Orléans Queen Consort France (age 24) died.

On 20 Jul 1539 William Cromer (age 58) died.

On 20 Jul 1540 John Hales (age 70) died.

On 20 Jul 1545 Cuthbert Radclyffe (age 53) died.

On 20 Jul 1552 George Mecklenburg-Schwerin (age 24) died.

On 20 Jul 1578 Thomas Tempest of Stanley (age 48) died.

On 20 Jul 1581 George Blount (age 68) died.

On 20 Jul 1590 James Stewart 1st Lord Doune (age 61) was assassinated (the first in Scotland by a fiream). His son James "The Bonnie Earl" Stewart 2nd Earl Moray (age 25) succeeded 2nd Lord Doune.

On 20 Jul 1600 William More (age 80) died.

On 20 Jul 1616 Hugh O'Neill 1st Earl of Tyrone (age 66) died.

On 20 Jul 1618 Bishop James Montagu (age 50) died. He was buried at Bath Abbey [Map].

On 20 Jul 1628 Anne Ashley Lady Cooper died.

On 07 Sep 1633 Francis Smallman (age 68) died. He was buried at St James' Church, Kinnersley [Map] on 09 Sep 1633. He had made his will on 20 Jul 1633 leaving his only daughter a portion of £1,000. His son William Smallman of Kinnersley Castle (age 18) inherited Kinnersley Castle, Herefordshire [Map].

On 20 Jul 1640 John Crouch (age 90) died.

On 20 Jul 1640 Elizabeth Gage (age 60) died.

On 20 Jul 1644 Peter Hausted (age 39) died at the Siege of Banbury Castle [Map].

On 20 Jul 1649 John Gayer (age 65) died.

On 20 Jul 1657 Sophie Auguste Oldenburg died.

On 20 Jul 1675 Giles Strangeways (age 60) died.

Around 20 Jul 1680 Alice Leman Countess Norwich died.

On 20 Jul 1686 Anne Murray (age 1) died.

Around 20 Jul 1690 Geoffrey Nightingale died.

On 20 Jul 1695 Jane Salusbury died.

On 20 Jul 1709 John Carleton (age 67) died.

Around 20 Jul 1709 William Byron died.

On 20 Jul 1725 Edward Winnington aka Jeffreys (age 55) died without issue. His estate were inherited by his elder brother Salwey Winnington (age 58).

On 20 Jul 1728 John Gage (age 40) died.

On 20 Jul 1733 Elizabeth Russell Lady Thirkleby (age 69) died.

On 20 Jul 1736 Lucy Pelham Countess Lincoln died.

On 20 Jul 1754 Catherine Tipping Baroness Archer died.

On 20 Jul 1765 Edward Hoare (age 88) died.

On 20 Jul 1770 Sarah Frances Seymour-Conway (age 22) died.

On 20 Jul 1780 Hester Pitt (age 24) died.

On 20 Jul 1784 Friedrich Hesse-Kassel (age 11) died.

On 20 Jul 1786 Thomas Robinson 2nd Baron Grantham (age 47) died. His son Thomas de Grey 2nd Earl de Grey (age 4) succeeded 3rd Baron Grantham.

On 20 Jul 1807 Mary Wray (age 77) died.

On 20 Jul 1813 Henry Butler 2nd Earl Carrick (age 67) died.

On 20 Jul 1826 Captain Robert Rodney (age 40) died.

On 20 Jul 1833 Other Archer Windsor 6th Earl Plymouth (age 44) died aboard his yacht at Deptford, Kent [Map]. His uncle Andrew Windsor 7th Earl (age 69) succeeded 7th Earl Plymouth. Baron Windsor of Stanwell in Buckinghamshire abeyant between his daughters Maria Windsor Marchioness Downshire (age 43) and Harriet Windsor (age 35).

On 20 Jul 1841 Ferdinando Smith (age 62) died.

On 20 Jul 1852 John Trevelyan died.

On 20 Jul 1855 George Fenton Fletcher Boughey (age 41) died.

On 20 Jul 1864 Mary Sackville Countess Plymouth Amherst (age 71) died.

On 20 Jul 1868 Augusta Julia Maynard died.

On 20 Jul 1874 Mary Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck (age 65) died.

On 20 Jul 1877 Thomas Neville Abdy 1st Baronet (age 66) died. His son William Neville Abdy 2nd Baronet (age 33) succeeded 2nd Baronet Abdy of Albyns in Essex.

On 20 Jul 1879 Jane Constance Biddulph (age 50) died.

On 20 Jul 1899 Charlotte de Rothschild (age 74) died.

On 20 Jul 1900 William Charles Wynn 4th Baron Newborough (age 26) died.

On 20 Jul 1901 Harriett Louisa Hester Gough (age 69) died.

On 20 Jul 1905 Captain Arthur Edmund Mansel (age 77) died.

On 20 Jul 1921 Agnes Mary Pia Feilding died.

On 20 Jul 1927 Ferdinand "The Unfier" Hohenzollern Sigmaringen (age 61) died. His grandson Michael Hohenzollern Sigmaringen (age 5) succeeded I King Romania.

On 20 Jul 1935 Kathleen Mary Bateson died.

On 20 Jul 1947 Sylvia Storey Countess Poulett (age 57) died.

On 20 Jul 1949 Pamela Georgina Douglas-Pennant (age 86) died.

On 20 Jul 1951 Wilhelm Hohenzollern (age 69) died.

On 20 Jul 1952 Lieutenant-Colonel Josslyn Vere Ramsden (age 75) died.

On 20 Jul 1974 Geraldine Bryde Dinah Tennant Lady Colquhoun (age 85) died.

On 20 Jul 2011 Lucian Freud (age 88) died.