On this Day in History ... 25 January

25 Jan is in January.

1164 Constitutions of Clarendon

1308 Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1494 Ferdinand I King Naples Dies Alfonso II King Naples Succeeds

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1667 Poll Bill

1679 Long Parliament

1807 Abolition of the Slave Trade

1858 Marriage of the future King Frederick III King Prussia and Victoria Saxe Coburg Gotha

On 25 Jan 1016 Renauld I Count of Nevers (age 11) and Hedwig Capet Couness Nevers (age 13) were married. She the daughter of Robert "Pious" II King France (age 43) and Constance Arles Queen Consort France (age 30).

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 25 Jan 1129. William, bishop of Winchester, died on the eighth of the calends of February (25th January), and was buried at Winchester.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 25 Jan 1129. This same year died the Bishop William Giffard of Winchester; and was there buried, on the eighth day before the calends of February. And the King Henry (age 61) gave the bishopric after Michaelmas to the Abbot Henry of Glastonbury, his nephew, and he was consecrated bishop by the Archbishop William of Canterbury (age 59) on the fifteenth day before the calends of December.

On 25 Jan 1139 Godfrey Reginar I Count Louvain (age 79) died. His son Godfrey Reginar VII Duke Lower Lorraine (age 32) succeeded II Count Louvain.

Constitutions of Clarendon

On 25 Jan 1164 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 30) attempted to constrain ecclesiastical privileges by the sixteen articles of the Constitutions of Clarendon. Archbishop Thomas Becket (age 44) rejected the articles.

On 25 Jan 1306 John Strange 2nd Baron Strange Blackmere was born to Fulk Strange 1st Baron Strange Blackmere (age 39) and Eleanor Giffard Baroness Strange Blackmere at Longnor. He a great x 3 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

On 25 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Boulogne sur Mer [Map]. She the daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 39) and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre. He the son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England. They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 King Edward II of England (age 42) Abdicated II King England. His son King Edward III of England (age 14) succeeded III King England.

On 25 Jan 1356 Maurice Fitzgerald 1st Earl Desmond died at Dublin Castle, Dublin. His son Maurice Fitzgerald 2nd Earl Desmond succeeded 2nd Earl Desmond 1C 1329.

On 25 Jan 1406 Stephen Scrope 2nd Baron Scrope Masham (age 61) died. His son Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 33) succeeded 3rd Baron Scrope Masham.

On 25 Jan 1412 Ernest "The Iron" Habsburg I Duke Austria (age 35) and Cymburgis Masovia Duchess Austria (age 18) were married. She by marriage Duchess Austria. He the son of Leopold "The Just" Habsburg III Duke Austria and Viridis Visconti Duchess Austria (age 60).

On 25 or 26 Jan 1431 Bishop Richard Fleming (age 46) died. He was buried at Lincoln Cathedral [Map] where he has a Chantrey Chapel with an effigy above and cadaver beneath.

On 25 Jan 1431 or 26 Jan 1431 Richard Fleming Bishop Lincoln (age 44) died.

Ferdinand I King Naples Dies Alfonso II King Naples Succeeds

On 25 Jan 1494 Ferdinand I King Naples (age 70) died. His son Alfonso II King Naples (age 45) succeeded II King Naples.

On 25 Jan 1502 Patrick Hepburn 1st Earl Bothwell (age 50) stood proxy for King James IV of Scotland (age 28) at the betrothal with Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 12).


Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.NOTEXT

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

Letters 1536. Vienna Archives. 284. Death and Burial of Katharine of Arragon.

The good Queen (deceased) died in a few days, of God knows what illness, on Friday, 7 Jan. 1536. Next day her body was taken into the Privy Chamber and placed under the canopy of State (sous le dhoussier et drapt destat), where it rested seven days, without any other solemnity than four flambeaux continually burning. During this time a leaden coffin was prepared, in which the body was enclosed on Saturday, the 15th, and borne to the chapel. The vigils of the dead were said the same day, and next day one mass and no more, without any other light than six torches of rosin. On Sunday, the 16th, the body was removed again into the Privy Chamber, where it remained till Saturday following. Meanwhile an "estalage," which we call a chapelle ardente, was arranged, with 56 wax candles in all, and the house hung with two breadths of the lesser frieze of the country. On Saturday, the 22nd, it was again brought to the chapel, and remained until the masses of Thursday following, during which time solemn masses were said in the manner of the country, at which there assisted by turns as principals the Duchess of Suffolk (age 16), the Countess of Worcester (age 34), the young Countess of Oxford (age 18), the Countess of Surrey (age 19), and Baronesses Howard (age 21), Willoughby (age 24), Bray, and Gascon (sic). NOTEXT

25 Jan 1536. On Tuesday1 following, as they were beginning mass, four banners of crimson taffeta were brought, two of which bore the arms of the Queen, one those of England, with three "lambeaulx blancs," which they say are of Prince Arthur; the fourth had the two, viz., of Spain and England, together. There were also four great golden [standards]. On one was painted the Trinity, on the second Our Lady, on the third St. Katharine, and on the fourth St. George; and by the side of these representations the said arms were depicted in the above order; and in like manner the said arms were simply, and without gilding (? dourance), painted and set over all the house, and above them a simple crown, distinguished from that of the kingdom which is closed. On Wednesday after the robes of the Queen's 10 ladies were completed, who had not till then made any mourning, except with kerchiefs on their heads and old robes. This day, at dinner, the countess of Surrey held state, who at the vigils after dinner was chief mourner. On Thursday, after mass, which was no less solemn than the vigils of the day before, the body was carried from the chapel and put on a waggon, to be conveyed not to one of the convents of the Observant Friars, as the Queen had desired before her death, but at the pleasure of the King, her husband, to the Benedictine Abbey of Peterborough, and they departed in the following order:—First, 16 priests or clergymen in surplices went on horseback, without saying a word, having a gilded laten cross borne before them; after them several gentlemen, of whom there were only two of the house, "et le demeurant estoient tous emprouvez," and after them followed the maître d'hotel and chamberlain, with their rods of office in their hands; and, to keep them in order, went by their sides 9 or 10 heralds, with mourning hoods and wearing their coats of arms; after them followed 50 servants of the aforesaid gentlemen, bearing torches and "bâtons allumés," which lasted but a short time, and in the middle of them was drawn a waggon, upon which the body was drawn by six horses all covered with black cloth to the ground. The said waggon was covered with black velvet, in the midst of which was a great silver cross; and within, as one looked upon the corpse, was stretched a cloth of gold frieze with a cross of crimson velvet, and before and behind the said waggon stood two gentlemen ushers with mourning hoods looking into the waggon, round which the said four banners were carried by four heralds and the standards with the representations by four gentlemen. Then followed seven ladies, as chief mourners, upon hackneys, that of the first being harnessed with black velvet and the others with black cloth. After which ladies followed the waggon of the Queen's gentlemen; and after them, on hackneys, came nine ladies, wives of knights. Then followed the waggon of the Queen's chambermaids; then her maids to the number of 36, and in their wake followed certain servants on horseback.

In this order the royal corpse was conducted for nine miles of the country, i.e., three French leagues, as far as the abbey of Sautry, where the abbot and his monks received it and placed it under a canopy in the choir of the church, under an "estalage" prepared for it, which contained 408 candles, which burned during the vigils that day and next day at mass. Next day a solemn mass was chanted in the said abbey of Sautry, by the Bishop of Ely, during which in the middle of the church 48 torches of rosin were carried by as many poor men, with mourning hoods and garments. After mass the body was borne in the same order to the abbey of Peterborough, where at the door of the church it was honorably received by the bishops of Lincoln, Ely, and Rochester, the Abbot of the place, and the abbots of Ramsey, Crolain (Crowland), Tournan (Thorney), Walden and Thaem (Tame), who, wearing their mitres and hoods, accompanied it in procession till it was placed under the chapelle ardente which was prepared for it there, upon eight pillars of beautiful fashion and roundness, upon which were placed about 1,000 candles, both little and middle-sized, and round about the said chapel 18 banners waved, of which one bore the arms of the Emperor, a second those of England, with those of the King's mother, prince Arthur, the Queen of Portugal, sister of the deceased, Spain, Arragon, and Sicily, and those of Spain and England with three "lambeaulx," those of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, who married the daughter of Peter the Cruel, viz., "le joux des beufz," the bundle of Abbot of arrows, the pomegranate (granade), the lion and the greyhound. Likewise there were a great number of little pennons, in which were portrayed the devices of king Ferdinand, father of the deceased, and of herself; and round about the said chapel, in great gold letters was written, as the device of the said good lady, "Humble et loyale." Solemn vigils were said that day, and on the morrow the three masses by three bishops: the first by the Bishop of Rochester, with the Abbot of Thame as deacon, and the Abbot of Walden as sub-deacon; the second by the Bishop of Ely, with the Abbot of Tournay (Thorney) as deacon, and the Abbot of Peterborough as sub-deacon; the third by the Bishop of  Lincoln (age 63), with the Bishop of Llandaff as deacon, and that of Ely as sub-deacon; the other bishops and abbots aforesaid assisting at the said masses in their pontificals, so the ceremony was very sumptuous. The chief mourner was lady Eleanor (age 17), daughter of the Duke of Suffolk (age 52) and the French Queen, and niece of King Henry, widower now of the said good Queen. She was conducted to the offering by the Comptroller and Mr. Gust (Gostwick), new receiver of the moneys the King takes from the Church. Immediately after the offering was completed the Bishop of Rochester preached the same as all the preachers of England for two years have not ceased to preach, viz., against the power of the Pope, whom they call Bishop of Rome, and against the marriage of the said good Queen and the King, alleging against all truth that in the hour of death she acknowledged she had not been Queen of England. I say against all truth, because at that hour she ordered a writing to be made in her name addressed to the King as her husband, and to the ambassador of the Emperor, her nephew, which she signed with these words—Katharine, Queen of England—commending her ladies and servants to the favor of the said ambassador. At the end of the mass all the mourning ladies offered in the hands of the heralds each three ells in three pieces of cloth of gold which were upon the body, and of this "accoutrements" will be made for the chapel where the annual service will be performed for her. After the mass the body was buried in a grave at the lowest step of the high altar, over which they put a simple black cloth. In this manner was celebrated the funeral of her who for 27 years has been true Queen of England, whose holy soul, as every one must believe, is in eternal rest, after worldly misery borne by her with such patience that there is little need to pray God for her; to whom, nevertheless, we ought incessantly to address prayers for the weal (salut) of her living image whom she has left to us, the most virtuous Princess her daughter, that He may comfort her in her great and infinite adversities, and give her a husband to his pleasure, &c. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 6.

Note 1. This would be Tuesday, 1 Feb., if the chronology were strict; but the latest Tuesday that can be intended is 25 Jan.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Jan 1555. [The xxv day of January, being saint Paul's day, was a general procession of saint Paul by every parish, both priests and clarkes, in copes to the number of a hundred and sixty, singing Salve festa dies, with ninety crosses borne. The procession was through Cheap into Leadenhall. And before went the] chyldryn of the Gray-frers and Powlles skolle. [There were eight bishops, and the] bysshope of London myteryd, bayryng the sacre[ment, with .. eym] of torchys bornyng, and a canepe borne [over]; so a-bowtt the chyrch-yerde, and in at the west dore, [with the] lord mayre and the althermen, and all the craftes in ther best leverays. And with-in a wylle after the Kyng (age 27) cam, and my lord cardenall (age 54), and the prynsse of Pyamon (age 26), and dyvers lordes and knyghtes; thay hard masse, and after to the court to dener, and at nyght bone-fyres and grett ryngyng in evere [church].


On 25 Jan 1559 Christian II King Denmark II King Norway (age 77) died.

On 25 Jan 1665 Thomas Wenman 2nd Viscount Wenman (age 69) died. His brother Philip Wenman 3rd Viscount Wenman (age 55) succeeded 3rd Viscount Wenman of Tuam.

Poll Bill

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1667. This afternoon I saw the Poll Bill, now printed; wherein I do fear I shall be very deeply concerned, being to be taxed for all my offices, and then for my money that I have, and my title, as well as my head. It is a very great tax; but yet I do think it is so perplexed, it will hardly ever be collected duly. The late invention of Sir G. Downing's (age 42) is continued of bringing all the money into the Exchequer; and Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) three pence is turned for all the money of this act into but a penny per pound, which I am sorry for.

On 25 Jan 1670 John Cecil 4th Earl Exeter (age 42) and Mary Fane Countess Exeter (age 31) were married. She by marriage Countess Exeter. She the daughter of Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl of Westmoreland and Mary Vere Countess of Westmoreland. He the son of David Cecil 3rd Earl Exeter and Elizabeth Egerton Countess Exeter. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.


Long Parliament

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jan 1679. The Long Parliament, which had sat ever since the Restoration, was dissolved by persuasion of the Lord Treasurer (age 46), though divers of them were believed to be his pensioner. At this, all the politicians were at a stand, they being very eager in pursuit of the late plot of the Papists.

On 25 Jan 1685 Richard Butler 1st Earl Arran (age 45) died.

On 25 Jan 1704 Henry Roper 8th Baron Teynham (age 28) and Catherine Smythe Baroness Teynham were married. She by marriage Baroness Teynham of Teynham in Kent.

On 25 Jan 1726 Francis Willoughby 3rd Baron Middleton was born to Francis Willoughby 2nd Baron Middleton (age 33) and Mary Edwards Baroness Middleton.

On 25 Jan 1733 Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet (age 81) died. His son John Heathcote 2nd Baronet (age 44) succeeded 2nd Baronet Heathcote of London. Monument in St Mary's Church, Edith Weston, Rutlandshire [Map]. Sculpted by John Michael Rysbrack (age 38).

Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet: On 02 Jan 1652 he was born to Gilbert Heathcote and Ann Dickens (age 22) at Chesterfield. In 1711 Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet (age 58) was elected Lord Mayor of London. On 17 Jan 1733 Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet (age 81) was created 1st Baronet Heathcote of London.

John Heathcote 2nd Baronet: In 1689 he was born to Gilbert Heathcote 1st Baronet (age 36). In 1720 John Heathcote 2nd Baronet (age 31) and Bridget White Lady Heathcote (age 15) were married. She by marriage Lady Heathcote of London. On 09 Feb 1733 John Heathcote 2nd Baronet (age 44) was appointed MP Bodmin.


On 25 Jan 1783 John Evans 6th Baron Carbery (age 17) and Catherine Charlotte Gore Baroness Carbery (age 16) were married. She the daughter of Arthur Saunders Gore 2nd Earl Arran (age 48) and Catherine Annesley. They were half first cousins.

On 25 Jan 1795 Edwin Lascelles 1st Baron Harewood (age 82) died.

On 25 Jan 1797 John Stuart 12th Earl Moray was born to Francis Stuart 10th Earl Moray (age 25) and Lucy Scott (age 21).

Abolition of the Slave Trade

On 25 Mar 1807 the Slave Trade Act received Royal Assent. The Act prohibited the slave trade in the British Empire. The Bill was first introduced to Parliament in January 1807. It went to the House of Commons on 10 Feb 1807. After a debate lasting ten hours, the House agreed to the second reading of the bill to abolish the Atlantic slave trade by an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16. The Act took effect on 01 May 1807.

The last legal slave voyage was that of Kitty's Amelia which sailed on 27 Jul 1807 having received permission to sale on 27 Apr 1807 before the Act came into force. Kitty's Amelia arrived with 233 slaves at Jamaica 25 Jan 1808.

On 25 Jan 1808 George Augustus Herbert 11th Earl Pembroke 8th Earl Montgomery (age 48) and Yekaterina Semyonovna Vorontsova Countess Pembroke and Montgomery (age 23) were married. She by marriage Countess Pembroke, Countess Montgomery. The difference in their ages was 25 years. He the son of Henry Herbert 10th Earl Pembroke 7th Earl Montgomery and Elizabeth Spencer Countess Pembroke and Montgomery (age 70).


Marriage of the future King Frederick III King Prussia and Victoria Saxe Coburg Gotha

On 25 Jan 1858 Frederick III King Prussia (age 26) and Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia (age 17) were married in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. She the daughter of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha (age 38) and Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom (age 38). He the son of William I King Prussia (age 60). He a great x 4 grandson of King George I of Great Britain and Ireland.

PAINTINGS/PHILLIP/Victorias_Wedding.jpg PAINTINGS/WINTERHALTER/Frederick_And_Victoria.jpg PAINTINGS/WINTERHALTER/Princess_Royal.jpg PAINTINGS/WINTERHALTER/Princes_Royal_And_Sisters.jpg PAINTINGS/GRAFLE/Victoria_Princess_Royal.jpg

Times Newspaper Marriages. 25 Jan 1865. MARRIAGE IN HIGH LIFE. The marriage of the Earl of Coventry (age 26) and Lady Blanche Craven (age 22), third daughter of Earl Craven (age 55), was solemnized yesterday morning at St. George's Church, Hanover-square. The bridegroom and the friends of both families assembled at the church at 11 o'clock, and shortly afterwards were joined by the bride (age 22), accompanied by her mother, the Countess Craven (age 48). The bride (age 22) was received by her father (age 26) at the church door, and, attended by eight bridesmaids, proceeded at once to the communion table, in front ot which a numerous company had assembled, including the Earl (age 65) and Countess of Clarendon (age 54) and Lady Emily Villiers (age 22), the Countess of Verulam (age 40) and Lady Harriet Grimston (age 20), Viscount (age 49) and Viscountess Folkestone (age 43) and Hon. Miss Bouverie, the Countess of Sefton (age 27) and Lady Cecilia Molyneux, Viscount Chelsea (age 24), and Lady Caroline Townley (age 27) and Miss Townley, Viscount Uffington (age 23), Sir Henry (age 58) and Lady Sophia Des Voeux, Hon. Mr. and Mrs Coventry, Hon. Gerald (age 35) and Lady Maria Ponsonby (age 28), Mr. Oswald andl Miss Oswald, Dr. Quin, Mr. Cecil Boothby (age 51), Mr. James Oswald, Miss Talbot, Viscount (age 32) and Viscountess Grey de Wilton (age 28), Lady Evelyn Bruce (age 25), Hon. Mrs. Grimston and Miss Grimston, &c.

The Hon. and Rev. Edward Grimston (age 52), uncle of the bride, performed the religious rite. After the registration of the marriage the wedding party left the church, and procceded to the Earl (age 55) and Countess Craven's (age 48) mansion in Charles-street, Mayfair. At 2 o'clock the newly-wedded couple took their departure for Croome Court, tbe Earl of Coventry's (age 26) seat, near Upton-upon-Severn [Map], there to pass the honeymoon. At Croome Pirton and Severn Stoke, the marriage was celebrated yesterday by the tenantry and neighbours of the Earl of Coventry (age 26). The tenantry of the Crome Pirton and Severn Stoke estates, to ths number of about 100, dined together in two parties yesterday at Severn Stoke and High-green. At Pirton and Severn Stoke garlands of evergreens and flags were hung out over the roads, and at night a bonfire was lighted at High-green. The rejoicings have extended over all his Lordship's (age 26) large estates in the southern portion of Worcestershire. The inhabitants of Worcester [Map] celebrated the marriage by hoisting flags from tile windows and streamers across the streets. The bells from the various churches rang merry peals all day.

On 24 Jan 1865 George Coventry 9th Earl Coventry (age 26) and Blanche Craven Countess Coventry (age 22) were married. She by marriage Countess Coventry. She the daughter of William Craven 2nd Earl Craven (age 55) and Emily Mary Grimston Countess Craven (age 48). She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 25 Jan 1872 Charles Henry Chandos Henniker-Major 6th Baron Henniker was born to John Major Henniker-Major 5th Baron Henniker (age 29) and Alice Mary Cuffe Baroness Henniker (age 27).

On 25 Jan 1893 Frederick Charles I King Finland (age 24) and Margaret Hohenzollern (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Frederick III King Prussia and Victoria Empress Germany Queen Consort Prussia (age 52). He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland. She a granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

On 25 Jan 1896 Frederick Leighton (age 65) died. Baron Leighton of Stretton in Shropshire and Baronet Leighton of Holland Park Road in St Mary Abbots in Kensington in Middlesex extinct. He left Ada Alice "Dorothy Dene" Pullen (age 37) £5,000, plus another £5,000 in trust for herself and her sisters; the largest bequest he made.

PAINTINGS/LAFAYETTE/Countess_Ilchester.jpg PAINTINGS/JENKINS/Countess_Ilchester.png

25 Jan 1918. All Saints Church, Sudbury [Map]. Grave of William Tildsley Groom in the Service of Her Majesty the Queen Dowager who was accidentally killed in the incautious use of a gun aged twenty-one.

After 25 Jan 1951. St Bartholemew's Church Tong [Map]. Memorial to Charles Arthur Mander 2nd Baronet (deceased) and Monica Claire Neame (age 62).

Charles Arthur Mander 2nd Baronet: On 25 Jun 1884 he was born. Before 25 Jan 1951 Charles Arthur Mander 2nd Baronet (age 66) and Monica Claire Neame (age 62) were married. On 25 Jan 1951 Charles Arthur Mander 2nd Baronet (age 66) died.

Monica Claire Neame: On 12 Apr 1888 she was born to George Harding Neame. On 28 Feb 1964 Monica Claire Neame (age 75) died.