On this Day in History ... 28th July

28 Jul is in July.

1399 Execution of Richard II's Favourites

1461 Edward IV Rewards his Followers

1488 Siege of Loja

1488 Battle of Saint Aubin du Cormier

1540 Execution of Thomas Cromwell

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1541 Executions

1643 Battle of Gainsborough

1683 Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

1793 Siege of Valciennes

1809 Battle of Talavera

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 28th July

On 28 Jul 1332 King John "The Good" II of France (age 13) and Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of King John I of Bohemia (age 35) and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia. He the son of King Philip "Fortunate" VI of France (age 38) and Joan "Lame" Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 39). He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 28 Jul 1399 William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49), Henry Green (age 52) and John Bussy were captured at Bristol Castle, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 28 Jul 1461 Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41) was appointed Keeper of the Privy Seal.

Before 28 Jul 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 32) fought at Loja during the Siege of Loja.

On 28 Jul 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Saint Aubin du Cormier.

Letters of Thomas Cromwell. 28 Jul 1540. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 55) Scaffold Speech.

I am come hither to die, and not to purge my self, as some think peradventure that I will. For if I should so do, I were a very wretch and a Miser. I am by the Law condemned to die, and thank my Lord God, that hath appointed me this death for mine Offence. For sithence the time that I have had years of discretion, I have lived a sinner, and offended my Lord God, for the which I ask him heartily forgiveness. And it is not unknown to many of you, that I have been a great Traveller in this World, and being but of a base degree, was called to high estate, and sithence the time I came thereunto I have offended my Prince, for the which I ask him heartily forgiveness, and beseech you all to pray to God with me, that he will forgive me. And now I pray you that be here, to bear me record, I die in the Catholic Faith, not doubting in any Article of my Faith, no nor doubting in any Sacrament of the Church. Many have slandered me and reported that I have been a bearer of such as have maintained evil Opinions, which is untrue. But I confess, that like as God by his holy Spirit doth instruct us in the Truth, so the Devil is ready to seduce us, and I have been seduced; but bear me witness that I die in the Catholic Faith of the holy Church; and I heartily desire you to pray for the Kings Grace, that he may long live with you in health and prosperity; and that after him his Son Prince Edward that goodly Imp may long Reign over you. And once again I desire you to pray for me, that so long as life remaineth in this flesh, I waver nothing in my Faith.

O Lord Jesus, which art the only health of all men living, and the everlasting life of them which die in thee; I wretched sinner do submit my self wholly unto thy most blessed will, and being sure that the thing cannot Perish which is committed unto thy mercy, willingly now I leave this frail and wicked flesh, in sure hope that thou wilt in better wise restore it to me again at the last day in the resurrection of the just. I beseech thee most merciful Lord Jesus Christ, that thou wilt by thy grace make strong my Soul against all temptations, and defend me with the Buckler of thy mercy against all the assaults of the Devil. I see and knowledge that there is in my self no hope of Salvation, but all my confidence, hope and trust is in thy most merciful goodness. I have no merits nor good works which I may allege before thee. Of sins and evil works, alas, I see a great heap; but yet through thy mercy I trust to be in the number of them to whom thou wilt not impute their sins; but wilt take and accept me for righteous and just, and to be the inheritor of everlasting life. Thou merciful Lord wert born for my sake, thou didst suffer both hunger and thirst for my sake; thou didst teach, pray, and fast for my sake; all thy holy Actions and Works thou wroughtest for my sake; thou sufferedst most grievous Pains and Torments for my sake; finally, thou gavest thy most precious Body and thy Blood to be shed on the Cross for my sake. Now most merciful Saviour, let all these things profit me, which hast given thy self also for me. Let thy Blood cleanse and wash away the spots and fulness of my sins. Let thy righteousness hide and cover my unrighteousness. Let the merit of thy Passion and blood shedding be satisfaction for my sins. Give me, Lord, thy grace, that the Faith of my salvation in thy Blood waver not in me, but may ever be firm and constant. That the hope of thy mercy and life everlasting never decay in me, that love wax not cold in me. Finally, that the weakness of my flesh be not overcome with the fear of death. Grant me, merciful Saviour, that when death hath shut up the eyes of my Body, yet the eyes of my Soul may still behold and look upon thee, and when death hath taken away the use of my Tongue, yet my heart may cry and say unto thee, Lord into thy hands I commend my Soul, Lord Jesus receive my spirit, Amen.

Life of Henry VIII by Edward Herbert. And thus the 28 of July [28 Jul 1540], (being four days after the Dissolution of the Parliament,) he was brought‘to the Tower-Hill, where, after Profession that he would die in the Catholike Faith, his head was cut off; And to this end came Cromwel, who from being but a Blacksmiths son, found means to travel into divers forraign Countries, to learn their Languages, and to see the Wars (being a Souldier of Bourbon at the sacking of Rome); whence returning, he was received into the Cardinal Wolseys service: To whom, he so approved himself, by his fidelity, and diligence, That the King after his fall, voluntarily took him for his servant; in which place,he became a special Instrument for dissolving the Abbeys, and other Religious Houses, and keeping down the Clergy; whom in regard of their Oath to the Pope, he usually termed the Kings half Subjects: And for expelling the Monks, he said it was no more, then a restoring them to the first Inftitution of being lay, and laboring Persons: Neither did it move him, That so much strictness and austerity of life was injoyn’d them in their several Orders, since he said they might keep it, in any condition: But as thefe Reasons again were not admitted by divers learned and able persons, so he got him many enemies, who at last, procured his fall; but not before he had obtained successively the Dignities of Master of the Rolls, a Baron, b Lord Privy Seal, c Vicegerent to the King in Spiritualities, d Knight of the Garter, e Earl of Essex, Great Chamberlain of England, &c. He was noted in the exercise of his places of Judicature, to have used much moderation; and in his greatest pomp, to have taken notice, and been thankful to mean persons of his old acquaintance, and therein had a vertue which his Master the Cardinal wanted: As for his other descriptions, I leave them to be taken out of Cranmers Letter formerly mentioned, with some deduction; For it seems written to the King, in more then ordinary favor of his ancient service.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1540. 28 Jul 1540. This yeare, the 28th dale of Julie Sir Thomas Crumwell (age 55), Earle of Essex, was beheaded at the Tower Hill, and Walter Lord named Hungerforde (age 37) was beheaded with him, also for treason of boggery,d their heades sett on London Bridge, and their bodies were buried within the Tower of London; they were condemned by the whole bodie of this last Perliament,e Thomas Cromwell for heresie, treason, I and fellonie, and extortion.f

Note d. Lord Hungerford (age 37) at the hour of his death seemed so unqoiet that many judged him rather frenzied than otherwise; he suffered, as it was said, for buggery. Stow.

Note e. The unanimity of Parliament is attested by the entries on the Journals, "Hodie (June 19) lecta est pro secundo et tertio, villa attincturs Thorns Comitis Essex, et communi omnium procerum tunc prssentium concessu, nemine discrepante, expedita est."

Note f. The summary process of an attainder without a trial, which Crumwell had first devised against the aged Countess of Salisbury (age 66), was resorted to against himself. He was declared by his peers a manifold traitor and detestable heretic, but his real crime was having urged his royal master, as a means of advancing his grand Protestant scheme, to solicit the hand of Anne of Cleves.

On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury (age 37) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.

Hall's Chronicle 1540. And the xxviii. day of July [28 Jul 1540] was brought to the scaffold on the Tower Hill, where he said these words following.

I am come hither to die, and not to purge myself, as may happen, some think that I will, for if I should so do, I were a very wretch and miser. I am by the Law condemned to die, and thank my Lord God that hath appointed me this death, for mine offence: For sithence the time that I have had years of discretion, I have lived a sinner, and offended my Lord God, for the which I ask him heartly forgiveness. And it is not unknown to many of you, that I have been a great traveller in this world, and being but of a base degree, was called to high estate, and sithens the time I came thereunto, I have offended my Prince, for the which I ask him heartily forgiveness, and beseech you all to pray to God with me, that he will forgive me. O father forgive me, O son forgive me, O holy ghost forgive me. O three persons in one God forgive me. And now I pray you that be here, to bear me record, I die in the Catholic faith, not doubting in any article of my faith, no nor doubting in any Sacrament of the Church. Many hath slandered me, and reported that I have been a bearer, of such as hath maintained evil opinions, which is untrue, but I confess that like as God by his holy spirit, doth instruct us in the truth, so the devil is ready to seduce us, and I have been seduced: but bear me witness that I die in the Catholic faith of the Holy Church. And I heartly desire you to pray for the King’s Grace, that he may long live with you, in health and prosperity. And after him that his son Prince Edward, that goodly imp, may long reign over you. And once again I desire you to pray for me, that so long as life remains in this flesh, I waver nothing in my faith.

And then made he his prayer, which was long, but not so long, as both Godly and learned, and after committed his soul, into the hands of God, and so patiently suffered the stroke of the axe, by a ragged and butcherly miser, which very ungoodly performed the office.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 28 Jul 1540 ... and the 28th day of July was he [Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 55)] and Lorde Walter Hungerforthe (age 37) beheaded at at Tower Hill, Cromwell for treasone and lord Hungerforthe for buggery.

On 28 Jul 1540 Henry VIII (age 49) and Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

Hall's Chronicle 1541. [Before 28 Jul 1541]. During this season, the commissioners that before were sent into Ireland, to inquire of the lord Gray (deceased), certified twenty articles of high treason against him, whereupon he was arraigned and tried by knights, because he was a Lord of name, but no Lord of the Parliament. Howbeit he discharged the jury, and confessed the inditement, and thereupon was judged, and after beheaded at the Tower Hill, where he ended his life very quietly and godly.

On 28 Jul 1608 Maximilian Colt (age 33) was nominated the king's Master Carver.

On 28 Jul 1643 the Parliamentary arms commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 44) and the Royalist army commanded by Charles Cavendish (age 23) fought at the Battle of Gainsborough at North Scarle.

Charles Cavendish (age 23) was killed by James Berry. He was buried at Newark on Trent, Nottinghamshire [Map].

On 04 Aug 1643 the Royalist Newdigate Poyntz (age 34) died probably from wounds received at the battle.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1662. His Majesty (age 32) going to sea to meet the Queen-Mother (age 52), now coming again for England, met with such ill weather as greatly endangered him. I went to Greenwich, to wait on the Queen (age 23), now landed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1662. So I took leave of her and walked to the waterside, and there took boat for the Tower; hearing that the Queen-Mother (age 52) is come this morning already as high as Woolwich, Kent [Map]: and that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) was with her; at which my heart was glad, and I sent the waterman, though yet not very certain of it, to my wife to carry news thereof to my Lady.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1683. He was married to the Lady Anne (age 18) at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled as the Duke's, her father (age 49), had been, and they to continue in England. See Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George.

On 28 Jul 1740 Martin ffolkes (age 20) died. Grave slab in the Church of St Mary, Hillington [Map]. Arms quartered ffolkes Arms and Hovell Arms differenced with a label three points.

Martin ffolkes: In 1720 he was born to Martin Folkes and Lucretia Bradshaw Actor.

On 28 Jul 1773 Joseph Wright of Derby (age 38) and Hannah Swift were married.

After 28 Jul 1773 Joseph Wright of Derby (age 38). Portrait of Hannah Swift (assumed to be the artist's wife).

Hannah Swift: On 28 Jul 1773 Joseph Wright of Derby and she were married. On 17 Aug 1790 she died.

On 28 Jul 1777 Wilhelm Hesse-Kassel was born to William Elector of Hesse (age 34) and Electress Wilhelmina Caroline Oldenburg (age 30). He a great grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland. Coefficient of inbreeding 6.89%.

On 28 Jul 1783 George Chetwynd 2nd Baronet was born to George Chetwynd 1st Baronet (age 44).

Between 13 Jun 1793 and 28 Jul 1793 the French garrison at Valciennes under Jean Henri Becays Ferrand was blockaded by part of the army of Prince Frederick Josias Saxe Coburg Saalfeld (age 55), commanded by the Prince Frederick Hanover Duke of York of York (age 29).

Between 27 Jul 1809 and 28 Jul 1809 the Battle of Talavera, part of the Peninsular War, was fought between an Anglo Spanish army commanded by Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke Wellington (age 40) against the French. The French army withdrew at night after several of its attacks had been repulsed. Following the battle Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke Wellington (age 40) was created 1st Viscount Wellington of Talavera.

Hugh Gough 1st Viscount Gough (age 29) commanded the 2nd Battalion of the 87th (Royal Irish Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot.

General Henry Fane (age 30) commanded the 3rd Prince of Wales Dragoon Guards, 4th Queen's Own Dragoons.

1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The upshot came on the 28th of July, when Shelley aided Mary (age 16) [Mary Godwin aka Shelley (age 16)] to elope from her father's house, Claire Clairmont (age 16) deciding to accompany them. They crossed to Calais, and proceeded across France into Switzerland. Godwin (age 58) and his wife were greatly incensed. Though he and Mary Wollstonecraft had entertained and avowed bold opinions regarding the marriage-bond, similar to Shelley's own, and had in their time acted upon these opinions, it is not clearly made out that Mary Godwin had ever been encouraged by paternal influence to think or do the like. Shelley and she chose to act upon their own likings and responsibility - he disregarding any claim which Harriet had upon him, and Mary setting at nought her father's authority. Both were prepared to ignore the law of the land and the rules of society. The three young people returned to London in September.

After 28 Jul 1828. Monument to Edward Lloyd Rowland (deceased)

Edward Lloyd Rowland: Around 1789 he was born. On 28 Jul 1828 he died.

On 28 Jul 1869 Frederick VIII King Denmark (age 26) and Louise of Sweden Queen Consort Denmark (age 17) were married. He the son of King Christian IX of Denmark (age 51) and Queen Louise Hesse-Kassel of Denmark (age 51). He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 28 Jul 1876 Augusta Boyle (age 74) died. She was buried at Etal Chapel [Map]. The remains of her husband Frederick Fitzclarence, their daughter Augusta Fitzclarence (age 51) were disinterred and buried next to her. Her son-in-law Captain Theodore Williams was subsequently buried at Etal Chapel [Map].

Augusta Boyle: On 14 Aug 1801 she was born to George Boyle 4th Earl Glasgow. On 19 May 1821 Frederick Fitzclarence and she were married. He the illegitmate son of King William IV of the United Kingdom and Dorothea Bland aka "Mrs Jordan". In 1856 Augusta Boyle commissioned the building of Etal Chapel. It was consecrated for worship in 1859.

Frederick Fitzclarence: On 09 Dec 1799 he was born illegitimately to King William IV of the United Kingdom and Dorothea Bland aka "Mrs Jordan". On 30 Oct 1854 Frederick Fitzclarence died.

Augusta Fitzclarence: In Dec 1824 she was born to Frederick Fitzclarence and Augusta Boyle. She a granddaughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom. On 18 Oct 1885 Augusta Fitzclarence died.

Henry Chaplin A Memoir: 2 Family and Social Life Part II. By the end of July [1876], Lady Florence had promised to become his wife, and he had every reason to consider himself the happiest of men. His letters to her throughout their engagement give a good picture of his life at this time and, incidentally, not a little insight into both their characters. By her wish it was agreed that the engagement should not be announced until their friends had left London, but secrecy in so large and at the same time intimate a circle was not easy, and on his arrival at Goodwood Mr. Chaplin found that suspicions of the real truth had been already aroused, and not the least in the highest quarter.

At last, you dear One, I have a quiet moment, and I only wish it was to talk to you instead of writing, in that charming little summer-house for instance, where you underwent so many frights on Monday afternoon. Really, what with gardeners, carpenters, artists, and eminent people coming to say good-bye, there is no peace in this life, or little at all events for us that afternoon, and yet I never passed a happier hour in my life. And now I've only escaped with difficulty and no little chaff from the attractions of the smoking-room, to write one line to a certain little lady who is, I hope, sleeping soundly at this moment... and who will perhaps be pleased to get this when she wakes. Dearest, you do not know how much I think of you and how much more to-day. I have had to dissemble—omcious people twice would insist upon congratulating me, but I repelled them with the greatest skill and the most complete discomfiture, though I do say so myself, and yet with perfect truth, putting it all to the fact that our horse was favourite and the winner of the Stewards' Cup.1 And it is, I think, the perfect happiness which I feel and which you, Dear, have given me, that enables me to do so with a degree of composure which has puzzled all our friends and upset their calculations and their gossip, in a way which if you were here would make you die of laughter. I got here so late to-day that I've really hardly learnt at present who compose the party, but I sat next to Lady Westmoreland (age 41), a dear old friend, at dinner, and I was as little bored upon the whole, as I could expect to be without you. But I was discretion itself, and nothing could induce me, in spite of many flies skilfully thrown, to be drawn for a moment. There were between thirty and forty at dinner, mostly habitués for this H.R.H., evidently fishing, was particular in his week enquiries as to how far I had finished Blankney and volunteering to pay me a visit there whenever I am married, "which you know, my dear Harry, may happen to all of us sooner than we expect". Of course, I expressed my deep sense of the honour he proposed to do me under those most improbable circumstances, but that was all the change he got, and then I went away. And now, I think I must go to bed for it is between two and three, after writing I am afraid as much nonsense or more than you can read. Still, Dear, I could not sleep without a word to you, even though it be on paper only. Perhaps you'll laugh a little at me, perhaps you won't. I think myself that you will sympathise, not laugh, when I tell you once again how much I think of you and how much I love you.

Note 1. The Stewards Cup this year was won by Lord Hartington's chestnut colt Monaco—a four-year-old with 6 st. 7 lbs. The horse won by half a length in a field of 27 runners.

On 28 Jul 1884 Valentine Cameron Prinsep (age 46) and Florence Leyland (age 24) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square. The difference in their ages was 21 years.

After 28 Jul 1914. Memorials to members of the Finch family. First: Top: Louisa Finch (deceased). Bottom: George Finch and Louisa Elizabeth Somerset. Second: Alan George Finch (age 51) and Wilfred Henry Montgomery Finch (age 32). Holy Cross Church, Burley-on-the-Hill [Map].

On 28 Jul 1915 Lieutenant Theodore William Warlow (age 20) died from wounds received whilst trying to take a wounded man into safety on 19 Jul 1915. He was buried at Boulogne Eastern Cemetery. Memorial in All Saints Church, Ledsham [Map].

Lieutenant Theodore William Warlow: Around 1895 he was born to Reverend George Edmund Warlow and Ellen Constance Eiloart. Before 19 Jul 1915 he was appointed Lieutenant of the 6th Battalion King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.

Births on the 28th July

On 28 Jul 1516 William La Marck Duke of Jülich Cleves Berg was born to John La Marck III Duke Cleves (age 25) and Maria Jülich Berg Duchess Cleves.

On 28 Jul 1588 Elizabeth Cherry was born.

On 28 Jul 1622 George Montagu was born to Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester (age 59) and Margaret Crouch Countess Manchester (age 17).

On 28 Jul 1623 Allen Brodrick was born to Thomas Brodrick.

On 28 Jul 1635 Robert Hooke was born in Freshwater Isle of Wight.

On 28 Jul 1645 Marguerite Louise d'Orléans was born to Gaston Bourbon (age 37) and Marguerite Lorraine Duchess Montpensier (age 30).

On 28 Jul 1650 Sidney Wortley-Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 25) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 25).

On 28 Jul 1667 William Forster of Bamburgh Castle was born to William Forster of Bamburgh Castle (age 31) and Dorothy Selby (age 20).

On 28 Jul 1674 Oswald Mosley 1st Baronet was born to Oswald Mosley (age 34).

On 28 Jul 1679 James Grant 6th Baronet was born to Ludovick Grant of Freuchie and Grant.

On 28 Jul 1747 Ralph Milbanke aka Noel 6th Baronet was born to Ralph Milbanke 5th Baronet (age 22).

Before 28 Jul 1750 Frances Mordaunt was born illegitimately to Charles Mordaunt 4th Earl Peterborough 2nd Earl Monmouth (age 42) and Robiana Brown.

On 28 Jul 1753 Reginald Pole aka Pole-Carew was born to Reginald Pole (age 36) and Anne Buller (age 28).

On 28 Jul 1758 John West was born.

On 28 Jul 1758 John West 4th Earl De La Warr was born to John West 2nd Earl De La Warr (age 29).

On 28 Jul 1775 Hussey Vivian 1st Baron Vivian was born to John Vivian of Truro (age 25) and Betsey Cranch.

On 28 Jul 1777 Wilhelm Hesse-Kassel was born to William Elector of Hesse (age 34) and Electress Wilhelmina Caroline Oldenburg (age 30). He a great grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland. Coefficient of inbreeding 6.89%.

On 28 Jul 1783 General John Reeve of Leadenham House was born to William Reeve of Leadenham (age 32) and Millicent Mary King (age 28).

On 28 Jul 1783 George Chetwynd 2nd Baronet was born to George Chetwynd 1st Baronet (age 44).

On 28 Jul 1794 Reverend Charles Thomas Longley was born.

On 28 Jul 1800 General Marcus Beresford was born to Reverend George de la Poer Beresford (age 24) and Susan Gorges (age 23).

On 28 Jul 1812 George Augustus Frederick Liddell was born to Thomas Liddell 1st Baron Ravensworth (age 37) and Maria Susannah Simpson Baroness Calthorpe (age 39).

On 28 Jul 1814 Major-General Caledon Richard Egerton was born to Philip Egerton 9th Baronet (age 47) and Rebecca Du Pre Lady Egerton (age 34).

On 28 Jul 1822 John Francis Tottenham was born to Reverend Robert Ponsonby Tottenham (age 48) and Alicia Maude (age 39).

On 28 Jul 1826 William Bateman-Hanbury 2nd Baron Bateman was born to William Bateman-Hanbury 1st Baron Bateman (age 46).

On 28 Jul 1839 Willoughby John Trevelyan was born to John Trevelyan.

On 28 Jul 1851 James Roche 3rd Baron Fermoy was born to Edmund Roche 1st Baron Fermoy (age 35).

On 28 Jul 1858 Major Charles Edward Clowes was born to John Clowes (age 35).

On 28 Jul 1867 Harriet Castalia Godolphin Osborne was born to George Godolphin Osborne 9th Duke Leeds (age 38) and Fanny Georgiana Pitt-Rivers Duchess Leeds (age 30). Coefficient of inbreeding 3.94%.

On 28 Jul 1867 Adrian George Allgood was born to Major-General George Allgood (age 39) and Elizabeth Clayton (age 30) at Murree, India.

On 28 Jul 1890 William Ralph Talbot Chetwynd was born to Arthur Chetwynd (age 33).

On 28 Jul 1890 Beatrix Elinor Paul Baroness Aldenham and Hunsdon was born to Herbert Woodfield Paul (age 37).

On 28 Jul 1894 Winifred "Freda" May Birkin was born to Charles Wilfred Birkin.

On 28 Jul 1924 Francis Curzon 3rd Viscount Scarsdale was born to Francis Nathaniel Curzon (age 59) and Winifred Phyllis Combe.

On 28 Jul 1937 Michael Le Marchant was born to Alfred Gaspard Le Marchant (age 31).

On 28 Jul 1948 Mary Annunziata Asquith was born to Julian Asquith 2nd Earl of Oxford and Asquith (age 32) and Anne Palairet Countess of Oxford and Asquith (age 31).

Marriages on the 28th July

On 28 Jul 1332 King John "The Good" II of France (age 13) and Bonne Luxemburg Queen Consort France (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of King John I of Bohemia (age 35) and Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia. He the son of King Philip "Fortunate" VI of France (age 38) and Joan "Lame" Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 39). He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 28 Jul 1540 Henry VIII (age 49) and Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

On 28 Jul 1658 Richard Sherard of Lobthorpe (age 41) and Margaret Dewe were married at St Margaret Pattens.

After 28 Jul 1686 John Gage 4th Baronet (age 44) and Mary Stanley Lady Gage were married. She by marriage Lady Gage of Firley in Sussex.

On 28 Jul 1720 John Dolben 2nd Baronet (age 36) and Elizabeth Digby Lady Dolben were married.

On 28 Jul 1720 Anthony Browne 6th Viscount Montagu (age 34) and Barbara Webb Viscountess Montague (age 23) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Montagu. They were second cousin once removed.

On 28 Jul 1726 John Blackwood (age 29) and Anne Shovell were married at St Luke's Church Charlton.

On 28 Jul 1752 Owen Wynne of Llwyn in Denbighshire (age 29) and Eleanor aka Helen Seel were married at Liverpool.

On 28 Jul 1755 Henry Oxenden 6th Baronet (age 33) and Margaret Chudleigh Lady Oxenden (age 31) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 28 Jul 1773 Joseph Wright of Derby (age 38) and Hannah Swift were married.

Before 28 Jul 1775 John Vivian of Truro (age 25) and Betsey Cranch were married.

Before 28 Jul 1783 William Reeve of Leadenham (age 32) and Millicent Mary King (age 28) were married.

Before 28 Jul 1800 Reverend George de la Poer Beresford (age 24) and Susan Gorges (age 23) were married.

On 28 Jul 1806 Henry Monck 1st Earl of Rathdowne (age 21) and Frances Mary Trench (age 18) were married. She the daughter of William Trench 1st Earl of Clancarty.

On 28 Jul 1806 Charles Augustus Bennet 5th Earl Tankerville (age 30) and Corisande Armandine Sophie Léonie Hélène Gramont Countess Tankerville (age 23) were married at Devonshire House. She the daughter of Antoine 8th Duke Gramont (age 50) and Aglae de Polignac "Guichette" Duchess Gramont. He the son of Charles Bennet 4th Earl Tankerville (age 62) and Emma Colebrooke Countess Tankerville (age 54).

On 28 Jul 1836 Edward Seymour 11th Duke of Somerset (age 61) and Margaret Shaw Stewart Duchess Somerset were married at Marylebone. She by marriage Duchess Somerset. He the son of Webb Seymour 10th Duke of Somerset and Anne Maria Bonnell Duchess Somerset.

On 28 Jul 1845 Horatio Nelson 3rd Earl Nelson (age 21) and Mary Jane Agar Countess Nelson (age 23) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square. She the daughter of Welbore Ellis Agar 2nd Earl Normanton (age 67) and Diana Herbert Countess Normanton. He the son of Thomas Bolton aka Nelson 2nd Earl Nelson. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 28 Jul 1849 John Scott Bankes (age 23) and Annie Jervis (age 21) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square.

On 28 Jul 1866 Anthony Evelyn Melbourne Ashley-Cooper (age 30) and Sybella Charlotte Farquhar were married. He the son of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 7th Earl Shaftesbury (age 65) and Emily Caroline Catherine Frances Cowper Countess Shaftesbury.

On 28 Jul 1868 Frederick William Duncombe (age 26) and Katherine French Acheson (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Archibald Acheson 3rd Earl Gosford and Theodosia Brabazon Countess Gosford (age 57).

On 28 Jul 1869 Frederick VIII King Denmark (age 26) and Louise of Sweden Queen Consort Denmark (age 17) were married. He the son of King Christian IX of Denmark (age 51) and Queen Louise Hesse-Kassel of Denmark (age 51). He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

On 28 Jul 1881 Edward Hamilton Seymour 16th Duke of Somerset (age 21) and Rowena Wall Duchess Somerset (age 20) were married.

On 28 Jul 1883 Gabriele D'Annunzio (age 20) and Maria Hardouin (age 19) were married.

On 28 Jul 1883 Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound 4th Earl Minto (age 38) and Mary Caroline Grey Countess Minto (age 25) were married. He the son of Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound 3rd Earl Minto (age 69) and Emma Eleanor Elizabeth Hislop.

On 28 Jul 1884 Valentine Cameron Prinsep (age 46) and Florence Leyland (age 24) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square. The difference in their ages was 21 years.

On 28 Jul 1890 William Dudgeon Graham Menzies and Cecilia Clementia Wombwell (age 25) were married.

On 28 Jul 1916 William Curzon and Maud Kathleen Cairnes Plantagenet Hastings (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Warner Hastings 15th Earl Huntingdon (age 48) and Maud Margaret Wilson Countess Huntingdon (age 48).

On 28 Jul 1949 Anthony FitzClarence 7th Earl of Munster (age 23) and Louise Delvigne Countess Munster were married. He the son of Edward FitzClarence 6th Earl of Munster (age 49) and Monica Sheila Grayson. He a great x 3 grandson of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

Before 28 Jul 1953 Robert Renwick 1st Baron Renwick (age 48) and Dorothy Mary Parkes were divorced.

On 28 Jul 1953 Robert Renwick 1st Baron Renwick (age 48) and Edith Joan Clarke Baroness Renwick were married.

Deaths on the 28th July

On 28 Jul 1255 Eva de Braose (age 28) died.

On 28 Jul 1260 Ralph Bigod (age 45) died.

On 28 Jul 1271 Walter Burgh 1st Earl Ulster (age 41) died at County Galway. His son Richard "Red Earl" Burgh 2nd Earl Ulster (age 12) succeeded 2nd Earl Ulster.

On 28 Jul 1310 Thomas Grey (age 43) died at Forfar.

On 28 Jul 1441 Andrew Gray of Broxmouth (age 86) died.

On 28 Jul 1450 Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 26) died.

On 28 Jul 1453 Philip Boteler (age 38) died.

On 28 Jul 1472 Gaston IV Count Foix (age 49) died.

On 28 Jul 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Saint Aubin du Cormier.

On 28 Jul 1500 John Fortescue (age 66) died.

On 28 Jul 1522 William Hay 5th Earl Erroll (age 27) died. His son William Hay 6th Earl Erroll (age 1) succeeded 6th Earl Erroll.

On 28 Jul 1524 Richard Sackville of Buckhurst (age 64) died.

On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury (age 37) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.

On 28 Jul 1564 Anne Barne (age 31) died.

On 28 Jul 1585 Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 58) died. His grandson Edward Russell 3rd Earl Bedford (age 12) succeeded 3rd Earl Bedford, 3rd Baron Russell of Cheneys.

On 28 Jul 1643 the Parliamentary arms commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 44) and the Royalist army commanded by Charles Cavendish (age 23) fought at the Battle of Gainsborough at North Scarle.

Charles Cavendish (age 23) was killed by James Berry. He was buried at Newark on Trent, Nottinghamshire [Map].

On 04 Aug 1643 the Royalist Newdigate Poyntz (age 34) died probably from wounds received at the battle.

On 28 Jul 1645 Lettice West (age 55) died.

On 28 Jul 1667 Abraham Cowley (age 49) died in Porch House. He was buried in Westminster Abbey [Map] where John Sheffield 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby (age 19) subsequently commissioned a monument.

On 28 Jul 1675 Bulstrode Whitelocke (age 69) died.

On 28 Jul 1676 Bishop Edward Reynolds (age 76) died.

On 28 Jul 1686 Thomas Holt (age 70) died. He was buried at St James' Church, Clerkenwell.

On 28 Jul 1686 Mary Middlemore died.

On 28 Jul 1690 Baptist Noel (age 31) died. He was buried at Church of St Peter and St Paul, Exton, Rutlandshire [Map].

On 28 Jul 1696 Charles Colbert Marquis de Croissy (age 71) died.

On 28 Jul 1710 Eléonore Lorraine died.

On 28 Jul 1714 Thomas Crispe of Dornford (age 73) died. He was buried at St Mildred's Church, Bread Street.

On 28 Jul 1720 Wilhelm Frederick Saxe Coburg Saalfeld (age 28) died at Saalfield.

On 28 Jul 1726 William Brownlow (age 27) died.

Around 28 Jul 1728 George Mordaunt (age 58) died.

On 28 Jul 1740 Martin ffolkes (age 20) died. Grave slab in the Church of St Mary, Hillington [Map]. Arms quartered ffolkes Arms and Hovell Arms differenced with a label three points.

Martin ffolkes: In 1720 he was born to Martin Folkes and Lucretia Bradshaw Actor.

On 28 Jul 1758 George Henry Hay 8th Earl Kinnoull (age 69) died in Ashford, Surrey. His son Thomas Hay 9th Earl Kinnoul (age 48) succeeded 9th Earl Kinnoull.

On 28 Jul 1767 Simon Yorke (age 71) died.

On 28 Jul 1782 Robert Child (age 43) died.

On 28 Jul 1795 John West (age 37) died.

On 28 Jul 1808 Joseph Bonaparte (age 40) died.

On 28 Jul 1814 William Stuart (age 35) died.

On 28 Jul 1828 Edward Lloyd Rowland (age 39) died.

On 28 Jul 1836 Nathan Mayer Rothschild (age 58) died.

On 28 Jul 1846 George Murray (age 74) died.

On 28 Jul 1850 Matilda Abigail Stanley (age 44) died.

On 28 Jul 1852 George Henry Hoare (age 73) died.

On 28 Jul 1855 Salomon Mayer von Rothschild (age 80) died.

On 28 Jul 1861 Jane Elizabeth Howard (age 52) died.

On 28 Jul 1862 Charlotte Cavendish-Bentinck (age 86) died.

On 28 Jul 1863 Constantine Phipps 1st Marquess Normanby (age 66) died. His son George Phipps 2nd Marquess Normanby (age 44) succeeded 2nd Marquess Normanby, 3rd Earl Mulgrave, 3rd Viscount Normanby, 5th Baron Mulgrave of New Ross in Wexford and 3rd Baron Mulgrave. Laura Russell Marchioness Normanby (age 47) by marriage Marchioness Normanby.

On 28 Jul 1876 Augusta Boyle (age 74) died. She was buried at Etal Chapel [Map]. The remains of her husband Frederick Fitzclarence, their daughter Augusta Fitzclarence (age 51) were disinterred and buried next to her. Her son-in-law Captain Theodore Williams was subsequently buried at Etal Chapel [Map].

Augusta Boyle: On 14 Aug 1801 she was born to George Boyle 4th Earl Glasgow. On 19 May 1821 Frederick Fitzclarence and she were married. He the illegitmate son of King William IV of the United Kingdom and Dorothea Bland aka "Mrs Jordan". In 1856 Augusta Boyle commissioned the building of Etal Chapel. It was consecrated for worship in 1859.

Frederick Fitzclarence: On 09 Dec 1799 he was born illegitimately to King William IV of the United Kingdom and Dorothea Bland aka "Mrs Jordan". On 30 Oct 1854 Frederick Fitzclarence died.

Augusta Fitzclarence: In Dec 1824 she was born to Frederick Fitzclarence and Augusta Boyle. She a granddaughter of King William IV of the United Kingdom. On 18 Oct 1885 Augusta Fitzclarence died.

On 28 Jul 1880 Greville Theophilus Howard (age 43) died.

On 28 Jul 1895 Marie Luise Charlotte Hesse-Kassel (age 81) died.

On 28 Jul 1895 Edward Joseph Bellew 2nd Baron Bellew (age 65) died at Kaiserhof, Frankfurt-am-Main-Bad Mannheim. His son Charles Bertram Bellew 3rd Baron Bellew (age 40) succeeded 3rd Baron Bellew of Barmeath in Louth, 9th Baronet Bellew of Barmeath in Louth. Mildred Mary Josephine de Trafford Baroness Bellow (age 39) by marriage Baroness Bellew of Barmeath in Louth.

On 28 Jul 1909 Aline Caroline de Rothschild (age 41) died.

On 28 Jul 1914 Louisa Finch (age 80) died.

On 28 Jul 1915 Lieutenant Theodore William Warlow (age 20) died from wounds received whilst trying to take a wounded man into safety on 19 Jul 1915. He was buried at Boulogne Eastern Cemetery. Memorial in All Saints Church, Ledsham [Map].

Lieutenant Theodore William Warlow: Around 1895 he was born to Reverend George Edmund Warlow and Ellen Constance Eiloart. Before 19 Jul 1915 he was appointed Lieutenant of the 6th Battalion King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.

On 28 Jul 1915 Francis Needham 3rd Earl of Kilmorey (age 72) died at his home 5 Aldford Street, Mayfair.

On 28 Jul 1921 William Lehman Ashmead-Bartlett Baron Burdett-Coutts (age 70) died.

On 28 Jul 1922 Adele Beach Grant Countess Essex (age 55) died. She had a heart attack whilst in her bath at her home 72 Brook Street, New York - see Obituary, New York Times.

On 28 Jul 1923 Doreen Buxton Duchess Grafton (age 25) died from childbirth after giving birth to her third child Charles Oliver Edward Fitzroy on 13 Jul 1923.

On 28 Jul 1925 Henry Charles FitzRoy Somerset (age 64) died.

On 28 Jul 1942 Flinders Petrie (age 89) died.

On 28 Jul 1945 Emma Margaret "Margot" Tennant (age 81) died.

On 28 Jul 1956 Major James Hugh Hamilton Crewe died.

On 28 Jul 1986 Dorothy Mary Findlay (age 81) died.

On 28 Jul 1997 Ian George Eden 9th Baron Auckland (age 71) died. His son Robert Ian Eden 10th Baron Auckland (age 35) succeeded 10th Baron Auckland of West Auckland.