2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide

1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide is in 17th Century Events.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Short Parliament

In 1640 Edward Phelips (age 27) was elected MP Ilchester during the Short Parliament.

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In 1640 Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet (age 27) was elected MP Denbighshire during the Short Parliament.

In 1640 Thomas Lyttelton 1st Baronet (age 47) was elected MP Worcestershire in the Short Parliament.

In 1640 Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 40) was elected MP Bath during the Short Parliament.

In Feb 1640 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford (age 19) was elected MP Shrewsbury during the Short Parliament.

On 20 Feb 1640 Henry Berkeley of Bruton (age 61) was elected MP Ilchester

John Glanville (age 54) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons.

In Mar 1640 Sidney Godolphin (age 30) was elected MP Helston during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Edward Hussey 1st Baronet (age 54) was elected MP Lincolnshire in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 32) was elected MP Westmoreland in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Anthony Hungerford (age 32) was elected MP Malmesbury during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Gervase Holles (age 33) was elected MP Grimsby in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Dudley North 4th Baron North (age 38) was elected MP Cambridgeshire in the Short Parliament.

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In Apr 1640 William Pierrepont of Thoresby (age 32) was elected MP Shropshire during the Short Parliament.

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In Apr 1640 Francis Pierrepont (age 27) was elected MP East Retford during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Edward Rodney (age 49) was elected MP Wells during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 William Glynne was elected MP Caernarfonshire during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 54) was elected MP Dorset during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Giles Strangeways (age 24) was elected MP Weymouth and Melcombe Regis during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 John Wray 2nd Baronet (age 53) was elected MP Lincolnshire during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Christopher Wray (age 39) was elected MP Grimsby during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Charles Cecil (age 21) was elected MP Hertford during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Simon Archer (age 58) was elected MP Tamworth during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 William Fitzwilliam 2nd Baron Fitzwilliam (age 31) was elected MP Peterborough during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Henry Mildmay (age 47) was elected MP Maldon during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 William Waller (age 43) was elected MP Andover during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Edmund Waller (age 34) was elected MP Amersham in the Short Parliament.

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In Apr 1640 Thomas Tomkins (age 35) was elected MP Weobley in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Henry Poole (age 48) was elected MP Chichester during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 James Fiennes 2nd Viscount Saye and Sele (age 38) was elected MP Oxfordshire in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 William Heveningham (age 36) was elected MP Stockbridge during the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester (age 21) was elected MP Yarmouth Isle of Wight during the Short Parliament.

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In Apr 1640 Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet (age 19) was elected MP Much Wenlock in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Roger Twysden 2nd Baronet (age 42) was elected MP Kent in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Framlingham Gawdy of West Harling (age 50) was elected MP Thetford in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Thomas Godfrey (age 54) was elected MP New Romney in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Thomas Liddell 1st Baronet (age 62) was elected MP Newcastle on Tyne in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Isaac Penington Lord Mayor (age 56) was elected MP City of London in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Samuel Sandys (age 24) was elected MP Droitwich.

Thomas Jermyn (age 67) was elected MP Cambridge University.

Thomas Jermyn (age 23) was elected MP Corfe Castle.

Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans (age 35) was elected MP Corfe Castle.

John Jennings was elected MP St Albans.

Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet was elected MP Surrey.

John Curzon 1st Baronet (age 41) was elected MP Derbyshire.

George Fane of Burston (age 59) was elected MP Maidstone.

In Apr 1640 Robert Bernard 1st Baronet (age 39) was elected MP Huntingdon in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 Robert Crane 1st Baronet (age 54) was elected MP Sudbury in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 William Jephson (age 32) was elected MP Stockbridge in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 John Borlase 1st Baronet (age 20) was elected MP Great Marlow in the Short Parliament.

In Apr 1640 John Glynne Judge (age 38) was elected MP Westminster during the Short Parliament.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1640. I went to London to see the solemnity of his Majesty's (age 39) riding through the city in state to the Short Parliament, which began the 13th following,-a very glorious and magnificent sight, the King (age 39) circled with his royal diadem and the affections of his people: but the day after I returned to Wotton, Surrey [Map] again, where I stayed, my father's (age 53) indisposition suffering great intervals, till April 27th, when I was sent to London to be first resident at the Middle Temple: so as my being at the University, in regard of these avocations, was of very small benefit to me. Upon May the 5th following, was the Parliament unhappily dissolved; and, on the 20th I returned with my brother George to Wotton, Surrey [Map], who, on the 28th of the same month, was married at Albury to Mrs. Caldwell (an heiress of an ancient Leicestershire family, where part of the nuptials were celebrated).

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On 05 May 1640 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) dissolved the Short Parliament.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Attack on Lambeth Palace

On 11 May 1640 apprentices attacked Lambeth Palace [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1640. London, and especially the Court, were at this period in frequent disorders, and great insolences were committed by the abused and too happy City: in particular, the Bishop of Canterbury's (age 66) Palace [Map] at Lambeth was assaulted by a rude rabble from Southwark, Surrey [Map], my Lord Chamberlain (age 55) imprisoned and many scandalous libels and invectives scattered about the streets, to the reproach of Government, and the fermentation of our since distractions: so that, upon the 25th of June, I was sent for to Wotton, Surrey [Map], and the 27th after, my father's (age 53) indisposition augmenting, by advice of the physicians he repaired to the Bath [Map].

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2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Bishop's War

Between Jun 1640 and Oct 1640 the Second Bishop's War was an attack by the Scottish Covenanters into England against King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39). The Scots crossed into Northumberland reaching Newcastle upon Tyne [Map]. In Oct 1640 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) sued for peace.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Bishop's War, Battle of Newburn

On 28 Aug 1640 the Battle of Newburn was fought at the Newburn [Map] ford over the River Tyne between the Scottish army of 20,000 men commanded by Alexander Leslie 1st Earl Leven (age 60) and the English army of 5000 commanded by Edward Conway 2nd Viscount Conway (age 46). The Scottish army was successful.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Bishop's War, Treaty of Ripon

On 26 Oct 1640 the Treaty of Ripon was a peace treaty signed by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) to cease the war with Scotland in the North. Charles agreed the Scots could retain large parts of northern England, and to pay them £850 per day until the Aug 1641 1641 Treaty of London.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Dec 1640. I saw his Majesty (age 40) (coming from his Northern Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all the marks of a happy peace, restored to the affections of his people, being conducted through London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d of November following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), to that long ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our sorrows for twenty years after, and the period of the most happy monarch in the world: Quis talia fando!

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Long Parliament

In 1626 John Hobart 2nd Baronet (age 32) was elected MP Norfolk in the Long Parliament which seat he held until his death.

In 1640 Edward Phelips (age 27) was elected MP Ilchester during the Long Parliament.

In 1640 Simonds D'Ewes 1st Baronet (age 37) was elected MP Sudbury during the Long Parliament.

In 1640 Hugh Pollard 2nd Baronet (age 37) was elected MP Bere Alston in the Long Parliament.

In 1640 John Paulett 2nd Baron Paulett (age 25) was elected MP Somerset during the Long Parliament.

In Oct 1640 Sidney Godolphin (age 30) was elected MP Helston during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Francis Godolphin (age 34) was elected MP Hereford during the Long Parliament.

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In Nov 1640 Gervase Holles (age 33) was elected MP Grimsby in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Anthony Hungerford (age 32) was elected MP Malmesbury during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 33) was elected MP Westmoreland in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford (age 20) was elected MP Shrewsbury during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Dudley North 4th Baron North (age 38) was elected MP Cambridgeshire in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 James Fiennes 2nd Viscount Saye and Sele (age 38) was elected MP Oxfordshire in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 William Pierrepont of Thoresby (age 32) was elected MP Great Wenlock during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 William Jephson (age 32) was elected MP Stockbridge in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 John Curzon 1st Baronet (age 41) was elected MP Derbyshire during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 John Craven 1st Baron Craven (age 30) was elected MP Tewkesbury during the Long Parliament.

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In Nov 1640 Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester (age 21) was elected MP Yarmouth Isle of Wight during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 55) was elected MP Dorset during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Giles Strangeways (age 25) was elected MP Bridport during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Humfrey Tufton 1st Baronet (age 56) was elected MP Maidstone during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 John Wray 2nd Baronet (age 53) was elected MP Lincolnshire during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Christopher Wray (age 39) was elected MP Grimsby during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Charles Cecil (age 21) was elected MP Hertford during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet was elected MP Surrey during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Isaac Penington Lord Mayor (age 56) was elected MP City of London in the Long Parliament which seat he held until 1653.

In Nov 1640 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 31) was elected MP Cornwall during the Long Parliament.

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In Nov 1640 Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet (age 52) was elected MP East Retford during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 William Fitzwilliam 2nd Baron Fitzwilliam (age 31) was elected MP Peterborough during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Edward Rodney (age 50) was elected MP Wells during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Henry Mildmay (age 47) was elected MP Maldon during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Framlingham Gawdy of West Harling (age 51) was elected MP Thetford in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Thomas Littleton 2nd Baronet (age 19) was elected MP Much Wenlock in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Edmund Waller (age 34) was elected MP Ives in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Thomas Tomkins (age 35) was elected MP Weobley in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Humphrey Coningsbury (age 17) was elected MP Herefordshire in the Long Parliament.

William Heveningham (age 36) was elected MP Stockbridge during the Long Parliament.

Robert Crane 1st Baronet (age 54) was elected MP Sudbury in the Long Parliament holding the seat until his death in 1643.

John Jennings was elected MP St Albans during the Long Parliament.

John Glynne Judge (age 38) was elected MP Westminster during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Archbishop William Laud (age 67) was accused of treason during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Thomas Jermyn (age 23) was elected MP Bury St Edmunds during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans (age 35) was elected MP Bury St Edmunds during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Thomas Fanshawe of Jenkins (age 33) was elected MP Lancaster in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 Samuel Sandys (age 25) was elected MP Droitwich in the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1640 John Coke (age 33) was elected MP Derbyshire in the Long Parliament which seat he held until his death in 1650.

In Nov 1640 John Borlase 1st Baronet (age 21) was elected MP Great Marlow in the Long Parliament but the election was subequently declared void.

In Dec 1640 Robert Pye (age 20) was elected MP Woodstock during the Long Parliament.

In 1641 John Burgoyne 2nd Baronet (age 22) was elected MP Bedfordshire in the Long Parliament.

In 1641 Colonel John Russell (age 21) was elected MP Tavistock in the Long Parliament.

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On 03 May 1642 William Waller (age 45) was elected MP Andover during the Long Parliament.

In Nov 1642 Roger Palmer (age 65) was elected MP Newton during the Long Parliament.

In 1645 Francis Pierrepont (age 32) was elected MP Nottingham during the Long Parliament.

In 1645 John Burgoyne 1st Baronet (age 52) was elected MP Warwickshire in the Long Parliament which seat he held until 1648 when excluded by Pride's Purge.

In 1645 Francis Bacon (age 44) was elected MP Ipswich in the Long Parliament.

In 1645 John Spelman (age 38) was elected MP Castle Rising in the Long Parliament.

In May 1646 James Herbert (age 23) was elected MP Wiltshire in the Long Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Mar 1664. Lady-day. Up and by water to White Hall, and there to chappell; where it was most infinite full to hear Dr. Critton (age 71). Being not knowne, some great persons in the pew I pretended to, and went in, did question my coming in. I told them my pretence; so they turned to the orders of the chappell, which hung behind upon the wall, and read it; and were satisfied; but they did not demand whether I was in waiting or no; and so I was in some fear lest he that was in waiting might come and betray me. The Doctor (age 71) preached upon the thirty-first of Jeremy, and the twenty-first and twenty-second verses, about a woman compassing a man; meaning the Virgin conceiving and bearing our Saviour. It was the worst sermon I ever heard him make, I must confess; and yet it was good, and in two places very bitter, advising the King (age 33) to do as the Emperor Severus did, to hang up a Presbyter John (a short coat and a long gowne interchangeably) in all the Courts of England. But the story of Severus was pretty, that he hanged up forty senators before the Senate house, and then made a speech presently to the Senate in praise of his owne lenity; and then decreed that never any senator after that time should suffer in the same manner without consent of the Senate: which he compared to the proceeding of the Long Parliament against my Lord Strafford. He said the greatest part of the lay magistrates in England were Puritans, and would not do justice; and the Bishopps, their powers were so taken away and lessened, that they could not exercise the power they ought. He told the King (age 33) and the ladies plainly, speaking of death and of the skulls and bones of dead men and women1, how there is no difference; that nobody could tell that of the great Marius or Alexander from a pyoneer; nor, for all the pains the ladies take with their faces, he that should look in a charnels-house could not distinguish which was Cleopatra's, or fair Rosamond's, or Jane Shoare's.

Note 1. The preacher appears to have had the grave scene in "Hamlet" in his mind, as he gives the same illustration of Alexander as Hamlet does.

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Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jan 1679. The Long Parliament, which had sat ever since the Restoration, was dissolved by persuasion of the Lord Treasurer (age 46), though divers of them were believed to be his pensioner. At this, all the politicians were at a stand, they being very eager in pursuit of the late plot of the Papists.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Dec 1640. I saw his Majesty (age 40) (coming from his Northern Expedition) ride in pomp and a kind of ovation, with all the marks of a happy peace, restored to the affections of his people, being conducted through London with a most splendid cavalcade; and on the 3d of November following (a day never to be mentioned without a curse), to that long ungrateful, foolish, and fatal Parliament, the beginning of all our sorrows for twenty years after, and the period of the most happy monarch in the world: Quis talia fando!

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

PAINTINGS/HOLLAR/Trial_Strafford.jpgOn 13 Apr 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) was attainted by 204 votes to 59 ostensibly for his authoritarian rule as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Despite his promise not to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) signed the death warrant on the 10 May 1641 in the light of increasing pressure from Parliament and the commons.

Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver (age 33). Engraving of the Trial of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) with the following marked:

A. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40).

C. Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31).

D. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 10).

E. Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk (age 55), Lord High Steward.NOTEXT

F. Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester (age 78), Lord Keeper of the Great Seal.

G. John Paulet 5th Marquess Winchester (age 43).

H. Robert Bertie 1st Earl Lindsey (age 58), Lord Chamberlain.

I. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 56), Lord Chamberlain of the Household.

V. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48).

Z. Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk (age 56).

Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver: On 23 Jul 1607 he was born. Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) did show me Hollar's (age 59) new print of the City, with a pretty representation of that part which is burnt, very fine indeed; and tells me that he was yesterday sworn the King's servant, and that the King (age 36) hath commanded him to go on with his great map of the City, which he was upon before the City was burned, like Gombout of Paris, which I am glad of. On 25 Mar 1677 Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver (age 69) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (age 48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall [Map], which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King (age 40), Queen (age 31), Prince (age 10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (age 55), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.NOTEXT

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Evelyn's Diary. 12 May 1641, I beheld on Tower-hill [Map] the fatal stroke which severed the wisest head in England from the shoulders of the Earl of Strafford (age 48), whose crime coming under the cognizance of no human law, or statute, a new one was made, not to be a precedent, but his destruction. With what reluctancy the King (age 40) signed the execution, he has sufficiently expressed; to which he imputes his own unjust suffering - to such exorbitancy were things arrived.

PAINTINGS/HOLLAR/Execution_Strafford.jpgOn 12 May 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His execution was attended by an enormous crowd.

Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver (age 33). Engraving of the execution of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) marked as C with James Ussher Primate of Ireland (age 60) marked as A.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of La Marfée

On 06 Jul 1641 Louis Bourbon Condé Count Soissons (age 37) was killed at the Battle of La Marfée. His sister Marie Bourbon Condé Countess Soissons (age 35) succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Jul 1641 Creation of Baronets

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, 1641 Treaty of London

On 26 Oct 1640 the Treaty of Ripon was a peace treaty signed by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) to cease the war with Scotland in the North. Charles agreed the Scots could retain large parts of northern England, and to pay them £850 per day until the Aug 1641 1641 Treaty of London.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1641. I returned to London; and, on the 25th, saw his Majesty (age 41) ride through the City after his coming out of Scotland, and a Peace proclaimed, with great acclamations and joy of the giddy people.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, 1641 Irish Rebellion

On 23 Oct 1641 the 1641 Irish Rebellion was an attempt by Catholic gentry to seize Dublin Castle. The Rebellion was foiled when details of its plot were revealed to Owen O'Connolly who informed the Irish Justices. The leaders were arrested.

In 1645 Connor Maguire 2nd Baron of Enniskillen (age 29) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map].

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, King Charles I Attacks Parliament

On 04 Jan 1642 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) sent soldiers into Parliament to arrest a five MPs: Pym, John Hampden Politician (age 46), Hazlerigg, Holies and Strode (age 44). They had received warning and sought safety. After this Civil War was certain, and men began to choose their side.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Liscarroll

In Jul 1642 David Barry 1st Earl Barrymore (age 37) led a regiment at the Battle of Liscarroll.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Powick Bridge

On 23 Sep 1642 Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 21) was wounded at during the Battle of Powick Bridge.

Lawrence Carey (age 32) was killed.

Charles Lucas (age 29) was wounded.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Siege of Portsmouth

Between 10 Aug 1642 and 07 Sep 1642 Portsmouth [Map] was besieged by Parliamentary forces.

In Sep 1642 William Waller (age 45) concluded the Siege of Portsmouth.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Oct 1642. To Chichester [Map], and hence the next day to see the Siege of Portsmouth; for now was that bloody difference between the King and Parliament broken out, which ended in the fatal tragedy so many years after. It was on the day of its being rendered to Sir William Waller (age 45); which gave me an opportunity of taking my leave of Colonel Goring (age 34), the governor, now embarking for France. This day was fought that signal battle at Edgehill. Thence I went to Southampton [Map] and Winchester [Map], where I visited the castle, school, church, and King Arthur's Round Table; but especially the church [Map], and its Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed a worthy antiquity.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Europeans Discover New Zealand

On 18 Sep 1642 Dutch Seafarer Abel Janszoon Tasman anchored his two ships near Wainui in Mohua (Golden Bay). He was the first European visitor to visit Aotearoa, New Zealand. Tasman is responsible for the name New Zealand ie Nieuw Zeeland. Tasman sent boats to gather water which were attacked by Māori; four of his men were killed.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Edge Hill

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Oct 1642. To Chichester [Map], and hence the next day to see the Siege of Portsmouth; for now was that bloody difference between the King and Parliament broken out, which ended in the fatal tragedy so many years after. It was on the day of its being rendered to Sir William Waller (age 45); which gave me an opportunity of taking my leave of Colonel Goring (age 34), the governor, now embarking for France. This day was fought that signal battle at Edgehill. Thence I went to Southampton [Map] and Winchester [Map], where I visited the castle, school, church, and King Arthur's Round Table; but especially the church [Map], and its Saxon kings' monuments, which I esteemed a worthy antiquity.

On 14 Oct 1642 Richard Newport 1st Baron Newport (age 55) was created 1st Baron Newport of High Ercall in Shropshire; by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) in return for having provided £6000 for the purchase of artillery before the Battle of Edge Hill.

On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill [Map]. The Royal army was commanded by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) (with his son King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 12) present), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 22) and Richard Spencer (age 49) commanded the army that included Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 21), Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron (age 36), Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland (age 32), Charles Cavendish (age 22), Henry Newton aka Puckering 3rd Baronet (age 24), Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton (age 41), Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet (age 30), John Byron 1st Baron Byron (age 43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh (age 55).

George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny (age 24) was killed.

Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh (age 34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex (age 51). Oliver St John 5th Baron St John Bletso (age 39) was wounded.

Samuel Sandys (age 27) commanded a troop of horse.

Richard Sandys (age 26) was killed.

Thomas Strickland (age 20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry.

Henry Hunloke 1st Baronet (age 24) was knighted by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

William Dugdale (age 37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.

John Hinton (age 38) was present.

Edward Verney (age 52) was killed.

John Assheton (age 29) was killed.

Robert Bertie 1st Earl Lindsey (age 59) was killed. His son Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey (age 34) succeeded 2nd Earl Lindsey, 15th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Martha Cockayne Countess Lindsey and Holderness by marriage Countess Lindsey.

William Pennyman 1st Baronet (age 35) commanded a regiment, of which he served as Colonel, which he led for the King.

Edward Stradling 2nd Baronet (age 42) fought for the King, was captured imprisoned for seven months, and died a month after his release.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Brentford

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1642. The 12th of November was the Battle of Brentford, surprisingly fought; and to the great consternation of the City, had his Majesty (age 41) (as it was believed he would) pursued his advantage. I came in with my horse and arms just at the retreat; but was not permitted to stay longer than the 15th, by reason of the army marching to Gloucester, Gloucestershire [Map]; which would have left both me and my brothers exposed to ruin, without any advantage to his Majesty (age 41).

On 12 Nov 1642 the Battle of Brentford was a small pitched battle which took place on 12 November 1642, between a detachment of the Royalist army (predominantly horse with one regiment of Welsh foot) under the command of Prince Rupert (age 22), and two infantry regiments of Parliamentarians with some horse in support. The result was a victory for the Royalists.

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2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Birth of Isaac Newton

On 25 Dec 1642 Isaac Newton Scientist was born to Isaac Newton and Hannah Ayscough posthumously at Woolsthorpe Manor [Map]. His father had died three months before Isaac was born.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Hopton Heath

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Camp Hill

On 03 Apr 1643 a company of Parliamentarians from the Lichfield garrison with the support of some of the local townsmen, approximately 300 men, attempted to stop a detachment of 1,400 Royalists under the command of Prince Rupert (age 23) from passing through the unfortified parliamentary town of Birmingham.

William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh (age 56) was wounded during the Battle of Camp Hill.

PAINTINGS/VANDYCK/William_Fielding.png

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Stratton

On 16 May 1643 Henry Grey 1st Earl Stamford (age 44) fought for the Parliamentary army at Stratton, Cornwall.

PAINTINGS/JOHNSON/Henry_Grey.jpg

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Gainsborough

After Mar 1643 the town of Gainsborough [Map] was placed under the command of the Royalist Robert Pierrepont 1st Earl Kingston (age 58) from which they harassed Parliamentarians in Lincolnshire. Royalist attacks at Louth and Market Rasen, together with the capture of gunpowder intended for Rotherham, provoked Parliament into action.

On 28 Jul 1643 the Parliamentary arms commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 44) and the Royalist army commanded by Charles Cavendish (age 23) fought at the Battle of Gainsborough at North Scarle.

Charles Cavendish (age 23) was killed by James Berry. He was buried at Newark on Trent [Map].

On 04 Aug 1643 the Royalist Newdigate Poyntz (age 34) died probably from wounds received at the battle.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Destruction of Cheapside Cross

On 04 May 1643 the Cheapside Cross [Map] was destroyed by order of the Committee for the Demolition of Monuments of Superstition and Idolatry.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Lansdowne

On 05 Jul 1643 the Battle of Lansdowne was an inconclusive battle between a Royalist army commanded by Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton (age 47) and a Parliamentary Army commanded by William Waller (age 46) at Lansdown Hill, Bath. The two commanders being old friends.

Edward Leke was killed.

Bevil Grenville (age 48) was killed at the at the head of the Cornish infantry as it reached the top of Lansdown Hill. He received a blow to the head with a pole-axe and was taken to the rectory at nearby Cold Ashton, Gloucestershire where he died.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Roundway Down

On 13 Jul 1643 a Royalist cavalry force under Lord Wilmot (age 30) won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarian Army of the West under Sir William Waller (age 46) at Roundway Down Devizes, Wiltshire.

Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 22) fought.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Siege of Bristol

In 1643 Edward Fitton 2nd Baronet (age 40) died of consumption at the Siege of Bristol without surviving issue. He was buried at the Church of St James, Gawsworth [Map]. Baronet Fitton of Gawsworth Hall extinct.

Originally a canopied monument what remains of the canopy is fixed to the wall. His daughter Margaret Fitton who predeceased him kneeling.

Edward Fitton 2nd Baronet: In 1603 he was born to Edward Fitton 1st Baronet (age 30) and Anne Barratt (age 32). Before 1631 Edward Fitton 2nd Baronet (age 28) and Jane Trevor were married.

Margaret Fitton: Around 1631 she was born to Edward Fitton 2nd Baronet (age 28) and Jane Trevor. In 1638 Margaret Fitton (age 7) died.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Portlester

On 07 Aug 1643 Charles Moore 2nd Viscount Moore of Drogheda (age 40) was killed at Ballivor, County Meath. His son Henry Moore 1st Earl Drogheda (age 21) succeeded 3rd Viscount Moore of Drogheda, 3rd Baron Moore of Mellefont in Louth.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, First Battle of Newbury

On 20 Sep 1643 the First Battle of Newbury was fought at Newbury [Map] with King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 42) commanding the Royalist army and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex (age 52) commanding the victorious Parliamentary army. For King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 42) John Byron 1st Baron Byron (age 44) fought with distinction.

Henry Bertie was killed.

Robert Dormer 1st Earl Carnarvon (age 33) was killed. His son Charles Dormer 2nd Earl Carnarvon (age 10) succeeded 2nd Earl Carnarvon 1C 1628, 3rd Baron Dormer of Wyng in Buckinghamshire, 3rd Baronet Dormer of Wyng in Buckinghamshire.

William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison (age 29) was killed. His brother John Villiers 3rd Viscount Grandison succeeded 3rd Viscount Grandison 1C 1620.

Edward Villiers (age 23) fought.

Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland (age 33) was killed. His son Lucius Carey 3rd Viscount Falkland (age 11) succeeded 3rd Viscount Falkland.

Richard Neville (age 28) served under the Earl Carnarvon (age 33). Carnarvon was killed and Neville took up the command as a Colonel of Horse.

Major General Charles Fleetwood (age 25) was wounded.

After 20 Sep 1643. Monument to Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland (deceased) who was killed at the First Battle of Newbury and who is buried in St Michael & All Angels Church Great Tew [Map].

On 27 Oct 1644 Anthony Mansel of Ischoed was killed at the First Battle of Newbury fighting for the Royalists.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Cheriton

On 29 Mar 1644 John Stewart (age 22) was killed during the Battle of Cheriton fighting for the Royalists.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Oswestry

On 22 Jun 1644 Francis Newport 1st Earl Bradford (age 24) was captured during the Battle of Oswestry fighting for the Royalists.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Cropredy Bridge

On 29 Jun 1644 the Battle of Cropredy Bridge was fought near Banbury [Map].

Robert Howard (age 18) fought.NOTEXT

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 36) led out a brigade of suburban Trained Bands, the Tower Hamlets Regiment and the Southwark White Auxiliaries and the Westminster Yellow Auxiliaries, to join William Waller (age 47) in the campaign that culminated at the Battle of Cropredy Bridge.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Marston Moor

On 02 Jul 1644 the Battle of Marston Moor was fought near Tockwith [Map] in Yorkshire. Alexander Seton aka Montgomerie 6th Earl Eglinton (age 56) fought for the Royal army. Lionel Carey (age 22) was killed. John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale (age 18) fought for the Parliamentary army.

At the Battle of Marston Moor Lucas (age 31) swept Fairfax's Yorkshire horse before him, but later in the day he was taken prisoner, in a battle won decisively by Parliament.

John Dolben (age 19) fought for the Royalists.

William Eure was killed.

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 37) fought for the Royalists.

John Fenwick (age 42) was killed.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Baptism of Henrietta Maria

On 21 Jul 1644 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was baptised at Exeter Cathedral [Map]. John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley (age 42) attended. Elizabeth Villiers Countess Morton (age 35) was her godmother in whose care she was left.

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2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Battle of Newbury

On 27 Oct 1644 Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport (age 47) fought for the Royalist Army at the Second Battle of Newbury.

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On 27 Oct 1644 Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 23) fought for the defeated Royalist army at the Second Battle of Newbury at Speen Newbury [Map]. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 53) was captured. Edward St John (age 27) was killed.

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 36), who had his horse shot from under him, commanded five regiments.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall [Map].

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet (age 9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

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2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Trial and Execution of the Hothams

Around Feb 1643, John Hotham (age 33) was ready to switch to the Royalist side. He considered himself a better commander than Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax (age 31) and resented being under his command. In February or March 1643, Hotham started negotiating with the William Cavendish 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 50), the Royalist commander in Yorkshire at Bridlington, supposedly about a prisoner exchange. In exchange for surrendering Hull and changing sides, Hotham demanded 20,000 pounds cash, the rank of viscount for his father and the rank of baron for himself.

In Apr 1643 John Hotham (age 33) joined his troops with the Parliamentarian forces in Lincolnshire. The bad behaviour of Hotham's troops, coupled with what appeared to be attempts by Hotham to co-opt the Parliamentarian officers, raised suspicions with then Colonel Oliver Cromwell (age 43) and John Hutchinson, the governor of Nottingham Castle. They denounced him to the Parliamentary Committee of Safety. In summer 1643 his (age 33) arrest was ordered. He fled to Nottingham then attempted to travel to Hull. He was arrested with his father John Hotham 1st Baronet (age 53).

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In Dec 1644 Parliament decided to execute the Hothams, father and son, John Hotham 1st Baronet (age 55) and John Hotham (age 34).

On 01 Jan 1645 John Hotham (age 35) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians at Tower Hill [Map]. His father was executed the next day.

On 02 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1st Baronet (age 55) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians; his son having been executed the previous day. His grandson John Hotham 2nd Baronet (age 12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Hotham of Scorborough in Yorkshire.

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 01 Jan 1645. The first of Janua Mr Jo: hothum (age 35) was beheaded on tower hill [Map].

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 02 Jan 1645. The 2 of Janu Sr Jo: hothum (age 55) (father to Mr hothum) was beheaded on tower hill [Map].

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, King Charles I Rewards his Supporters

On 03 Jan 1645 King Charles I (age 44) rewarded his supporters with Baronies ...

John Brooke 1st Baron Cobham (age 69) was created 1st Baron Cobham 5C 1645. Frances Bampfield Baroness Cobham by marriage Baroness Cobham.

John Lucas 1st Baron Lucas Shenfield (age 38) was created 1st Baron Lucas of Shenfield with special remainder to the male issue of his brother Thomas Lucas (age 66).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, 1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 10 Jan 1645. The 10 of Janu: my lo: of canterbury (age 71) was beheaded on tower hill [Map] and was buried at barking church [Map].

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, 1645 Battle of Inverlochy

On 02 Feb 1645 Duncan Campbell 2nd Baronet (age 48) was captured and killed at the 1645 Battle of Inverlochy possibly in retaliation for his killing of members of the MacDonald clan at Rathlin Island three years before. His son Dugald Campbell 3rd Baronet (age 20) succeeded 3rd Baronet Campbell of Auchinbreck.

On 02 Feb 1645 a Royalist force of Highlanders and Confederate Irish troops under the overall command of James Graham 1st Marquess Montrose (age 32) defeated the forces of Archibald Campbell 1st Marquess Argyll (age 37) who had been camped at Inverlochy Castle.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Treaty of Uxbridge

In 1645 Bulstrode Whitelocke (age 39) was appointed Commissioner at Uxbridge during the Treaty of Uxbridge.

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Siege of Scarborough Castle

In 1645 Michael Wharton (age 51) was killed during the Siege of Scarborough Castle.

In 1645 Henry Constable 1st Viscount Dunbar (age 56) was killed at the Siege of Scarborough Castle. His son John Constable 2nd Viscount Dunbar (age 30) succeeded 2nd Viscount Dunbar. Mary Brudenell Viscountess Dunbar by marriage Viscountess Dunbar.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Naseby

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 14 Jun 1645. the 14 of June Sr Tho: farfax had a great victory at nasby where he took 12 peces of ornance 4000 foote sholders, and the Sc. letters.

On 14 Jun 1645 Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 24) fought at Naseby [Map] during the Battle of Naseby for the Royalist army.

John Lucas 1st Baron Lucas Shenfield (age 38) fought for the King.

Colonel John Russell (age 25) was wounded.

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 28 Jun 1645. the 28 June there was brought in to Lambeth hous [Map] from the atillirer yard 680 pore prisoners, part of those which were taken at nasby.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Lanport

On 10 Jul 1645 the Battle of Lanport was fought at Langport [Map].

Charles Goring 2nd Earl Norwich (age 30) was Colonel of a Regiment of Horse.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Rowton Heath aka Moor

Archaeologia Cambrensis 1820 Page 464. Sept. 24. "Being Wednesday, the King's forces were routed by the Parlm army in a place called Rowton Moor.

"From Chester the King retreated to Denbigh Castle, and, having layed there two or three nights, retourned to Chirk Castle [Map]. The next morning, viz. 29th, he advanced from thence with his army through Llan-Silin, and quartered that night in Halchdyn1 and so passed through Mountgomeryshyre towards Ludlow.

Note 1. Halchdyn is in Deuddwr, between the rivers Havren and Vyrnwy, aad near Llandrinio. The name of the place has been anglicised into Haughton.

On 24 Sep 1645 the Battle of Rowton Heath aka Moor was a significant defeat for the Royalists, commanded in person by King Charles (age 44) with heavy losses and prevented Charles from relieving the siege of Chester.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Battle of Torrington

On 16 Feb 1646 the Royalist Army commanded by Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton (age 49) was defeated at Great Torrington bringing to an end Royalist resistance in the West Counntry. The battle was brought to an end when eighty barrels of gunpowder stored in St Michael and All Angels Church exploded killing the prisoners held there and nearly killing Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax (age 34).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Siege of Exeter

In Apr 1646 Exeter, Devon [Map] was besieged by Parliamentary forces. Elizabeth Villiers Countess Morton (age 37) with the infant Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 1) escaped incognito to France.

Daubigny Turberville (age 34) fought for the King. He and a friend ran in debt £100 each, "in chalk behind the door; he told me that his landlord came into their chamber, leading his daughter by the hand, and courteously proffered to cancel the debts of either of us who should marry her." Turberville "valiantly resisted this temptation and chose rather to pay his debts in ready money, which he did shortly after; the other accepted the terms, and had his wife's portion presently paid him, viz., his scores wiped out with a wet dishclout." Source. THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY SEPTEMBER, 1926.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Charles I's Flight from Hampton Court Palace

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Plum Pudding Riots

The Dec 1647 Plum Pudding Riots was a response to Puritan attempts to cease the celebration of Holy Days. The attempt to cancel Christmas in particular, with its twelve days of festivities, caused riots to break out in Canterbury, Kent [Map].

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, 1648 Kentish Rebellion

The May 1648 Kentish Rebellion was, in effect, the commencement of the Second Civil War of 1648. The rebels, commanded by George Goring 1st Earl Norwich, raised forces across Kent. Deal Castle [Map], Walmer Castle [Map] and Sandown Castle surrendered. The rebels then besieged Dover Castle [Map]. Parliament dispatched troops commanded by Nathaniel Rich of Stondon to suppress the rebels.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, Battle of Willoughby Field

On 05 Jul 1648 Michael Stanhope (age 24) was killed at Willoughby-on-the-Wolds [Map] during the Battle of Willoughby Field.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, Battle of St Neots

On 07 Jul 1648 Kenelm Digby (age 23) and Francis Villiers (age 19) were killed.

On 10 Jul 1648 Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland (age 57) fought for the Royalist army, and surrendered, by his account, on condition his life would be spared. He was executed ten months later.

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2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, Battle of St Neots, Battle of Preston

On 17 Aug 1648 John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale (age 23) for the Royalist army at Walton en le Dale Preston during the Battle of Preston.

Brothers William Widdrington 4th Baron Widdrington, Charles Widdrington and Peregrine Widdrington were captured and attainted. Baron Widdrington of Blankney in Lincolnshire forfeit.

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In 1715 William Widdrington 4th Baron Widdrington (age 37) took part in the Jacobite Rising, and with two of his brothers, Charles Widdrington and Peregrine Widdrington, was taken prisoner after the Battle of Preston. He was convicted of high treason and condemned to death, and his title Baron Widdrington of Blankney in Lincolnshire and estates were forfeit. He was reprieved after an intervention by his wife, Catherine Graham.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, Battle of St Neots, Siege of Colchester

Evelyn's Diary. 30 May 1648. There was a rising now in Kent, my Lord of Norwich (age 63) being at the head of them. Their first rendezvous was in Broome-field, next my house at Sayes Court [Map], whence they went to Maidstone, and so to Colchester [Map], where was that memorable siege.

On 28 Aug 1648 Colchester [Map] surrendered to Parliament forces after a three month siege.

Charles Lucas (age 35) and George Lisle surrendered, subjected to a trial and were shot and killed in Colchester Castle.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1656. To Colchester [Map], a fair town, but now wretchedly demolished by the late siege, especially the suburbs, which were all burned, but were then repairing. The town is built on a rising ground, having fair meadows on one side, and a river with a strong ancient castle, said to have been built by King Coilus, father of Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, of whom I find no memory save at the pinnacle of one of their wool-staple houses, where is a statue of Coilus, in wood, wretchedly carved. The walls are exceedingly strong, deeply trenched, and filled with earth. It has six gates, and some watchtowers, and some handsome churches. But what was shown us as a kind of miracle, at the outside of the Castle, the wall where Sir Charles Lucas (age 43) and Sir George Lisle, those valiant and noble persons who so bravely behaved themselves in the last siege, were barbarously shot, murdered by Ireton in cold blood, after surrendering on articles; having been disappointed of relief from the Scotch army, which had been defeated with the King at Worcester. The place was bare of grass for a large space, all the rest of it abounding with herbage. For the rest, this is a ragged and factious town, now swarming with sectaries. Their trading is in cloth with the Dutch, and baize and says with Spain; it is the only place in England where these stuffs are made unsophisticated. It is also famous for oysters and eringo root, growing hereabout, and candied for sale.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Mar 1688. I went with Sir Charles Littleton (age 60) to Sheen [Map], a house and estate given him by Lord Brounker; one who was ever noted for a hard, covetous, vicious man; but for his worldly craft and skill in gaming few exceeded him. Coming to die, he bequeathed all his land, house, furniture, etc., to Sir Charles (age 60), to whom he had no manner of relation, but an ancient friendship contracted at the famous siege of Colchester, forty years before. It is a pretty place, with fine gardens, and well planted, and given to one worthy of them, Sir Charles (age 60) being an honest gentleman and soldier. He is brother to Sir Henry Littleton (age 64) of Worcestershire, whose great estate he is likely to inherit, his brother being without children. They are descendants of the great lawyer of that name, and give the same arms and motto. He is married to one Mrs. Temple (age 39), formerly Maid of Honour to the late Queen (age 49), a beautiful lady, and he has many fine children, so that none envy his good fortune.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, Treaty of Newport

Between 15 Sep 1648 and 27 Nov 1648 the Treaty of Newport attempted to reconcile King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 47) (who was imprisoned at nearby Carisbrooke Castle [Map]) with Parliament. Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles (age 48) and Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 35) represented Parliament. James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 37) represented King Charles. The Treaty eventually came to nothing.

Parliament was also represented by John Crew 1st Baron Crew (age 50), John Glynne Judge (age 46), Nathaniel Fiennes (age 40), William Pierrepont of Thoresby (age 40), Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland (age 45), William Fiennes 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (age 66), Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 63), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury (age 57), James Cranfield 2nd Earl Middlesex (age 27) and Thomas Wenman 2nd Viscount Wenman (age 52).

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1648. The Parliament now sat up the whole night, and endeavored to have concluded the Isle of Wight Treaty; but were surprised by the rebel army; the members dispersed, and great confusion every where in expectation of what would be next.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. Thence I took leave of them, and so having taken up something at my wife's tailor's, I home by coach and there to my office, whither Shales came and I had much discourse with him about the business of the victualling, and thence in the evening to the Coffee-house, and there sat till by and by, by appointment Will brought me word that his uncle Blackburne was ready to speak with me. So I went down to him, and he and I to a taverne hard by, and there I begun to speak to Will friendlily, advising him how to carry himself now he is going from under my roof, without any reflections upon the occasion from whence his removal arose. This his uncle seconded, and after laying down to him his duty to me, and what I expect of him, in a discourse of about a quarter of an houre or more, we agreed upon his going this week, towards the latter (end) of the week, and so dismissed him, and Mr. Blackburne and I fell to talk of many things, wherein I did speak so freely to him in many things agreeing with his sense that he was very open to me: first, in that of religion, he makes it great matter of prudence for the King (age 33) and Council to suffer liberty of conscience; and imputes the losse of Hungary to the Turke from the Emperor's denying them this liberty of their religion. He says that many pious ministers of the word of God, some thousands of them, do now beg their bread: and told me how highly the present clergy carry themselves every where, so as that they are hated and laughed at by everybody; among other things, for their excommunications, which they send upon the least occasions almost that can be. And I am convinced in my judgement, not only from his discourse, but my thoughts in general, that the present clergy will never heartily go down with the generality of the commons of England; they have been so used to liberty and freedom, and they are so acquainted with the pride and debauchery of the present clergy. He did give me many stories of the affronts which the clergy receive in all places of England from the gentry and ordinary persons of the parish. He do tell me what the City thinks of General Monk (age 54), as of a most perfidious man that hath betrayed every body, and the King (age 33) also; who, as he thinks, and his party, and so I have heard other good friends of the King (age 33) say, it might have been better for the King (age 33) to have had his hands a little bound for the present, than be forced to bring such a crew of poor people about him, and be liable to satisfy the demands of every one of them. He told me that to his knowledge (being present at every meeting at the Treaty at the Isle of Wight), that the old King did confess himself overruled and convinced in his judgement against the Bishopps, and would have suffered and did agree to exclude the service out of the churches, nay his own chappell; and that he did always say, that this he did not by force, for that he would never abate one inch by any vyolence; but what he did was out of his reason and judgement.

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2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Second Civil War, Pride's Purge

In 1645 John Burgoyne 1st Baronet (age 52) was elected MP Warwickshire in the Long Parliament which seat he held until 1648 when excluded by Pride's Purge.

In 1646 Herbert Springet 1st Baronet (age 33) was elected MP New Shoreham which seat he held until 1648 when excluded by Pride's Purge.

On 06 Jan 1649 Thomas Pride, on behalf of Thomas Fairfax 3rd Lord Fairfax (age 36) and Henry Ireton (age 38), supported by two regiments, and Nathaniel Rich's (age 24) Regiment of Horse, with Thomas Grey (age 26), prevented MPs opposed to the trial of King Charles I (age 48) from entering Parliament including ...

James Herbert (age 26).

Robert Pye (age 29).

Ambrose Browne 1st Baronet.

Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles (age 49).

John Spelman (age 42).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Rump Parliament

On 04 Jan 1649 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48) was committed for trial by the Rump Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1660. My wife (age 19) … gave me hopes of her being with child, but on the last day of the year … [the hope was belied.] The condition of the State was thus; viz. the Rump, after being disturbed by my Lord Lambert (age 40), was lately returned to sit again. The officers of the Army all forced to yield. Lawson (age 45) lies still in the river, and Monk (age 51) is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert (age 40) is not yet come into the Parliament, nor is it expected that he will without being forced to it.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Feb 1660. A signal day. Monk (age 51), perceiving how infamous and wretched a pack of knaves would have still usurped the supreme power, and having intelligence that they intended to take away his commission, repenting of what he had done to the city, and where he and his forces were quartered, marches to Whitehall [Map], dissipates that nest of robbers, and convenes the old Parliament, the Rump Parliament (so called as retaining some few rotten members of the other) being dissolved; and for joy whereof were many thousands of rumps roasted publicly in the streets at the bonfires this night, with ringing of bells, and universal jubilee. This was the first good omen.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Trial of Charles I

In 1649 William Heveningham (age 45) refused to sign the death warrant of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48).

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1649. The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and murder our excellent King (age 48) on the 30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it from my brother George (age 31), and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.

On 23 Jan 1649 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48) was tried at Westminster Hall [Map] by Henry Mildmay (age 56). The fifty-nine signatories of his Death Warrant were:

1 Judge John Bradshaw

2 Thomas Grey

3 Oliver Cromwell

4 Edward Whalley

7 John Danvers

9 Henry Ireton

11 Hardress Waller

14 Major-General William Goffe

17 General Thomas Harrison

21 Admiral Richard Deane Regicide

27 Adrian Scrope Regicide

34 Richard Ingoldsby Judge Regicide

42 John Jones Regicide

45 Major General Charles Fleetwood

54 Gregory Clement Regicide

55 John Downes Regicide

57 Thomas Scot Regicide

58 John Carew Regicide


The commissioners who sat at the trial but did not sign the Death Warrant included:

William Monson 1st Viscount Monson (age 50)

James Harington 3rd Baronet (age 41)


The Captain of the Guard was Daniel Axtell (age 27). The guards included Francis Hacker Regicide, Matthew Tomlinson (age 31).

The Solicitor-General was John Cook Regicide (age 41).

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Execution of Charles I

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1649. The villany of the rebels proceeding now so far as to try, condemn, and murder our excellent King (age 48) on the 30th of this month, struck me with such horror, that I kept the day of his martyrdom a fast, and would not be present at that execrable wickedness; receiving the sad account of it from my brother George (age 31), and Mr. Owen, who came to visit me this afternoon, and recounted all the circumstances.

On 29 Jan 1649. In Echard's England (vol. ii, p. 639, edit. 1718) it is stated that early in the rebellion King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 48) confided to Elizabeth Cole Lady Wheler, his former laundres, a casket, which she restored to him the night before his execution.

On 30 Jan 1649 Charles I (age 48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House [Map]. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Execution of Three Lords

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1649. Now were Duke Hamilton (age 42), the Earl of Norwich (age 63), Lord Capell (age 40), etc., at their trial before the rebels' New Court of Injustice.

PAINTINGS/HOSKINS/Arthur_Capell.jpg

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Mar 1649. Now were the Lords murdered in the Palace Yard. [Note. The original entry was dated 05 Mar 1649 whereas most sources agree on the date of their execution being 09 Mar 1649?]

On 09 Mar 1649 at the Old Palace Yard three Royalist Lords were beheaded ...

Arthur Capell 1st Baron Capell Hadham (age 41) was beheaded. His son Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 17) succeeded 2nd Baron Capell Hadham.

Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland (age 58) was beheaded. His son Robert Rich 5th Earl Warwick 2nd Earl Holland (age 30) succeeded 2nd Earl Holland. Elizabeth Ingram Countess Holland (age 26) by marriage Countess Holland.

James Hamilton 1st Duke Hamilton (age 42) was beheaded. His brother William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton (age 32) succeeded 2nd Duke Hamilton, 3rd Earl Cambridge 4C 1619 by special remainder.

John Owen (age 49) had been sentenced to death but was subsequently pardoned.

2nd Millennium, 17th Century Events, 1640-1649 Civil War and Regicide, Siege of Drogheda

Between 03 Sep 1649 and 11 Sep 1649 Drogheda [Map], under the command of the Royalist Arthur Aston Soldier (age 59), was besieged by the Parliamentary army commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 50). When the Royalist forces surrendered they were killed once they had laid down their arms.

Arthur Aston Soldier (age 59) was killed.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1649. Came news of Drogheda being taken by the rebels, and all put to the sword, which made us very sad, forerunning the loss of all Ireland.