Biography of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558

Paternal Family Tree: Habsburg

Maternal Family Tree: Leonor de Alvim

1516 Ferdinand II King Aragon Dies Joanna Queen Castile Succeeds

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1533 Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1554 Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

On 20 Oct 1496 [his father] Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 18) and [his mother] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 44) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 45). He the son of Maximilian Habsburg I Holy Roman Emperor (age 37) and Mary Valois Duchess Burgundy. They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 24 Feb 1500 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor was born to Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 21) and Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 21) at Ghent [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.88%.

On 26 Nov 1504 [his grandmother] Isabella Queen Castile (age 53) died. Her daughter [his mother] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 25) succeeded Queen Castile. [his father] Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 26) by marriage King Castile.

On 25 Sep 1506 [his father] Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 28) died.

In 1508 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 7) was appointed 264th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 50).

Letters and Papers 1509. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (age 52):

At his manor of Richmond, Surrey [Map] March 24 Henry VII., the King (age 52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.

Desires to be buried at Westminster [Map], where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Catharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel [Map] which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, £5,000, by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.

His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all £250 and shall distribute 2,£000 in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,£250 with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.

His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (age 59), Richard bp of Winchester (age 61), the bps of London and Rochester (age 39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (age 66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (age 49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (age 44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thomas Lovell, Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (age 59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (age 47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.

His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.

Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.

For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.

Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,£000 upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark [Map], and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.

To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (age 17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Henry VII. for the fulfilment of his will.

Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.

Bequest of a dote of 50,£000 for the marriage of Lady Mary (age 13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (age 9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Henry VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (age 17), his Council and our said executors.".

Letters. 11 Jan 1513. [his grandfather] Ferdinand King of Aragon (age 60) to Pedro De UREA, his Ambassador at the Imperial Court.

Shows that the treaty which the Cardinal of Gurk (age 45) has, with the consent of Urea and Vich, concluded at Rome, by excluding the Venetians, undoes all that has been done against France. Henceforth they must make no binding declaration without consulting Ferdinand. Had the English followed his plan they would now be masters of Guienne; and, like them, the Emperor has now hindered the accomplishment of his own wishes and made France stronger. Takes this as a command from God for Christian princes to unite in reforming the Church, and has therefore devised the measures explained in instructions sent by Beltrian. Gurk is to be shown the instructions, but not this letter. If the King of France (age 50) offers Madame Renée (age 2) as security, or offers to put fortresses in trust of third persons, Urea shall point out to the Emperor how little these offers are to be trusted. The marriage of Prince Charles (age 12) with the King of England's (age 21) sister (age 16) must not be broken off; or France will gain the King of England (age 21), to the detriment of Spain and the House of Burgundy. Another essential condition is that all acts of the schismatical Council be annulled. Is glad to hear of the meeting between the Emperor and the King of England, whose alliance is both the guarantee that France will keep peace if concluded and the most valuable support in case of war.

Ferdinand II King Aragon Dies Joanna Queen Castile Succeeds

On 23 Jan 1516 [his grandfather] Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 63) died. His daughter [his mother] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 37) succeeded Queen Aragon.

1519. Bernard Van Orley (age 32). Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 18).

On 12 Jan 1519 [his grandfather] Maximilian Habsburg I Holy Roman Emperor (age 59) died. His grandson Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 18) succeeded V Holy Roman Emperor.

On 08 Apr 1521 Charles 3rd Duke Savoy (age 34) and [his future sister-in-law] Beatrice Aviz Duchess Savoy (age 16) were married. She the daughter of richest monarch in Europe at the time Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal (age 51). They had nine children together but only one Emmanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy would reach adulthood. She the daughter of Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal (age 51) and Maria Trastámara Queen Consort Portugal. He the son of Philip "Landless" Savoy II Duke Savoy and Claudine Brosse. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1522 [his daughter] Joanna Habsburg Spain was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 21).

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

On 04 Mar 1522, Shrove Tuesday, at Cardinal Wolsey's York Place, a pageant known as Chateau Vert was performed. Believed to be the first public appearance of Anne Bolyen (age 21) since her return from the French Court, and the first time King Henry VIII (age 30) had seen her since her childhood. The pageant was part of the Shrovetide celebrations which began on 1st March 1522 and which also celebrated the negotiations between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry VIII (age 30) for a joint attack on France, which were to be sealed by the marriage of Charles V (age 22) and [his future daughter-in-law] Princess Mary (age 6), Henry's daughter.

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

In May 1522 Henry VIII (age 30) met with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 22) at Dover, Kent [Map]. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 44), William Compton (age 40), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney (age 38), William Scott (age 63) and John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 51) were present. Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 05 Jun 1522. This yeare th' Emperoure Charles (age 22)b came into England, and was receaved into the cittie of London the Thursdaye before Whit Sundayc at afternoone, the Kinge and he ridinge both together in one liverey; and there were diverse pagents made in divers places of the Cittie; and all the freers, priestes, and clerkes, standinge in copes, with crosses, sensures, and candlesticks, from the bridge foote to the crosse in Cheepe; and all the craftes, with the Majord and Aldermen, standinge in their liveries; and the King, with all the nobles of the realme, brought him to his pallace at Bridewell [Map],e where he continued three dayes, and after went to Greenewichf where was great justs, banquetts, with other goodlye pastymes. And, after, the King conveyed him to the sea side to passe into Spayneg which was his intent

Note b. This was the second visit of the Emperor Charles V (age 22) to England.

Note c. This woold be June 6, but Holinshed and Stow both say June 6, being Friday.

Note d. Sir John Milborne.

Note e. The Emperor was lodged at the Black Fryars, and all his nobles in the new builded house of Bridewell [Map].— Stow, p. 616.

Note f. This should probably be Windsor, as the Emperor's entertainment at Greenwich was previous to his reception in London.

Note g. He embarked at Southampton [Map] in his great fleet, and in ten days arrived in Spain.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 25 May 1522. On Sunday the twenty-fifth day of May, the Lord Marques of Dorset (age 44), the Bishop of Chichester (age 69), and the Lord de la Warr (age 65), with other noble men, at the water of Graveling, received the Emperor (age 22) in the name of the King of England, and so the Emperor embraced them, and he having in his company many noble men, came toward Calice, where at the Turnpike in the lordship of Marke, he was received of Sir Edward Guildford (age 48) Marshall of Calais, with fifty men of arms richly be seen, and also a hundred archers on horseback, then in passing forward toward Calais, the ordnance shot terribly, and into Calais he was received with procession, and then by the lord Barne deputy there, and the counsel of the town then was he received by the Mayor and Aldermen of the town, and then of the Mayor and Merchants of the Staple, and so conveyed to the Exchequer, and there lodged.

On 05 Jul 1522 [his illegitimate daughter] Margaret Habsburg Spain was born illegitimately to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 22) and Johanna Maria van der Gheynst.

Around 1523 [his illegitimate daughter] Tadea Habsburg Spain was born illegitimately to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 22) and Orsolina della Penna.

On 10 Mar 1526 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 26) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 22) were married. She the daughter of Manuel "Fortunate" I King Portugal and Maria Trastámara Queen Consort Portugal. He the son of Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile and Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 47). They were first cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 21 May 1527 [his son] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 27) and [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 23). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

On 21 Jun 1528 [his daughter] Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 28) and [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 24) at Madrid. Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Bradford, 256. 6026. Chapuys (age 39) to Charles V (age 29).

On the receipt of your letter on Thursday the 21st, dated Piacenza, I sent to Windsor to ask for an audience. As the administration has fallen principally into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56), and the communication is more agreeable to him than that of the marriage, I hastened to visit him. The Cardinal (age 56), who was dis-evangelised on the day of St. Luke the Evangelist (18 Oct.), has been deprived of his offices. I was received by the Duke with great distinction, and expressed to him the regard in which you had always held him for his goodwill. He seemed highly pleased, and said that he and his family had always been attached to the house of Burgundy; that no one more lamented the late disagreements than himself, but that all the evil and misunderstanding ought to be attributed to those who formerly directed the King's councils, acting by their own will and authority, with which the King himself was often dissatisfied.

In reply to his remark that he should like to serve your Majesty against the Turk, I praised his virtuous feelings, and told him that was the main object of my communication; but for the better security of peace, which the King had done so much to establish, one unhappy difference between himself and the Queen remained to be settled. I told him that, however strongly he might feel from family considerations, he could not but feel as a true knight, nor act otherwise than if it had been his own daughter, and as conscience directed; and that your Majesty was convinced that he had not been the promoter of this step. He replied that he would sooner have lost one of his hands than that such a question should have arisen; but it was entirely a matter of law and conscience, and he had never been appealed to; that it had been submitted to ecclesiastics and doctors, who had pronounced against the validity of the marriage; that if the dispensation you held was illegal, the King would consider himself the most abused prince in Christendom; and that if you had not declared yourself in it so openly, it might have sooner been brought to a satisfactory issue. I explained to him the constraint under which you acted; and that, as to the king of England not having declared himself a party in the matter, it was clear that he had done so from the proceedings of the English ambassadors at Rome. Finding he remained thoughtful, I changed the subject. Shortly after he turned to me with a laugh, and said, "How glad the Emperor will be to hear of this fall of the Cardinal (age 56), and his loss of office?" I answered, I thought you would, but not from any hatred you had to the Cardinal (age 56); and that he could have done neither good nor ill to you, and was not of such importance as that you would care to be avenged, or trouble yourself about his disgrace; but what you rejoiced at was, that the king of England would now learn who had been his evil counsellors, and leave the management of affairs to men who from birth and circumstances were more competent. I told him that I was the first who had broken through the chain of paying court to the Cardinal (age 56), and addressed myself to him. He thanked me for my good intentions, and said that the government was managed not by an individual but by the Council, where he usually assisted, and would promote Your Majesty's interests.

In order to please the Duke (age 56) I asked him what I should do, although I had already sent one of my secretaries to the King. He told me that the King had ordered that application should be made direct to himself, before any other person was acquainted with the communication. He followed me to the hall, using very courteous language.

On the 22nd my secretary returned from Windsor, stating that the King would be at Greenwich on Saturday, and I was to go the day after. On my reaching Greenwich [Map] I found a civil gentleman, named Poller (Bollen?), sent by the King to conduct me to the palace. There I found the bishop of London (age 55), who led me to the King's antechamber, where the Court was assembled, and was received by two dukes and the archbishop of Canterbury (age 79). I conversed with these lords, waiting for the King to go to mass; and we talked of the conference at Bologna. The King, on going to mass, came directly to me, and taking me by the sleeve said, with the utmost graciousness, "You have news from my brother the Emperor." On answering Yes, he asked the date, and then said your Majesty was very careful to give him information. I assured him that you were anxious to make him partaker of all affairs, and thus show your brotherly affection. I then presented your letters, and, as to the particulars of my credentials, he said that the ambassadors in your court were authorised to treat about them. Speaking of your going into Italy I bespoke his good offices.

On his return from mass, he came up to me again, and resumed the subject. When we talked of the necessity of resisting the Turk, and of the Pope's arrival at Bologna on the 5th, I said I thought it advisable that he should commission his ambassadors with the Pope to treat; and I combated his remark that he could do but little against the Turk, seeing he was wealthy, and as absolute in his dominions as the Pope. He urged that this affair was chiefly yours, and if you wished to accomplish it you must make peace with the princes of Italy. I assured him you had never ceased from efforts in this direction. The conversation then turned on the duke Francesco Sforza; and I urged, in opposition to his remark, that your proceedings were as favorable to the Duke as could be. He objected to the cession of Pavia and Alexandria, alleging the cruelties which had taken place at Sienna. I told him Pavia was out of dispute, as it was already given up. "Between ourselves," said he, "I think it is a great shame that whilst the Turk is in Austria, the patrimony of the Emperor, he should not rescue it, but make war upon Christians." On my urging the danger that might be expected from Sforza and the Venetians if your troops were withdrawn, he urged that neither could do anything. Shortly after, changing his tone, he said, with some emphasis, "My brother the king of France has made your Emperor a marvellous offer." This he repeated three times. I said, if it were so, he had now done a virtuous part, and kept his professions. After various other topics it grew late. Not a word was said of the Queen. After dinner he asked me if I had anything more to say.

All here are satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. As for the observance of it, the Queen, as I have already written, has expressed her doubt of its duration. It is supposed to have cost this King 800,000 ducats. He is not therefore likely to break it. People here are not very anxious to repeat the dose, as it is not to their taste. At present they seem on good terms with the French. The ambassador has been only once at court with his brother since my arrival. He has been commanded to deliver his message to the Council, and abstain from communication with the Cardinal; at which he was greatly vexed. Various ambassadors are here. The most in favour is the Milanese, on whom the King has spent money. Those who are now in most credit are the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45). There is not a single person about the King who is not saturated with French money; and though they profess great affection to you, their affection for money is much stronger. I have submitted the proposition to the King respecting the sea being kept free from pirates. He has ordered a good reception for Mons. Rosymbez.

The downfall of the Cardinal (age 56) is complete. He is dismissed from the Council, deprived of the Chancellorship, and constrained to make an inventory of his goods in his own hand, that nothing may be forgotten. It is said that he has acknowledged his faults, and presented all his effects to the King. Yesterday the King returned to Greenwich by water secretly, in order to see them, and found them much greater than he expected. He took with him "sa mye" (his darling-Ann Boleyn (age 28)), her mother (age 49), and a gentleman of his chamber (Norris?) The Cardinal, notwithstanding his troubles, has always shown a good face, especially towards the town, but since St. Luke's Day all has been changed to sighs and tears night and day. The King, either moved by pity, or for fear if he should die the whole extent of his effects would not be found, sent him a ring for his comfort. He has withdrawn with a small attendance to a place ten miles off. They have sent for his son from Paris. People say execrable things of him, all which will be known at this Parliament. But those who have raised the storm will not let it abate, not knowing, if he returned to power, what would become of them. The ambassador of France commiserates him most. It was feared the Cardinal (age 56) would get his goods out of the country, and therefore a strict watch was kept at the ports, and the watch insisted on opening the coffers of cardinal Campeggio (age 54), notwithstanding his passport, and, on his refusal, broke open the locks. He said they had done him great wrong to suppose that he could be corrupted by the Cardinal, since he had been proof against the innumerable presents offered him by the King.

The Chancellor's seal has remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56) till this morning, when it was transferred to Sir Thomas More (age 51). Every one is delighted at his promotion, because he is an upright and learned man, and a good servant of the Queen. He was Chancellor of Lancaster, an office now conferred on the Sieur Villeury (Fitzwilliam). Richard Pace, a faithful servant of your Majesty, whom the Cardinal had kept in prison for two years, as well in the Tower of London as in a monastery (Syon House), is set at liberty. Unless his mind should again become unsettled, it is thought he will rise in higher favour at Court than ever.

There is a young man here, sent by the duke of Saxony, who has much business with the King and the bishop of London (age 55).

Of the King's affair there is nothing new to communicate, except what the bishop of London (age 55) has told me, that Dr. Stokesley (age 54) had been sent to France to consult the doctors of Paris. The Queen begs your Majesty will send some respectable person there to do the same, for without some definitive sentence the King will remain obstinate in his opinions. She thinks that delay will be more dangerous than profitable, and therefore we have thought it desirable not to consent to the postponement demanded. To avoid creating suspicion in the mind of the King, she thinks I had better cease to visit her, but she will provide means for my speaking with her in private. London, 25 Oct. 1529.

P.S.-Two days after I had written the above, the Cardinal (age 56) was definitively condemned by the Council, declared a rebel, and guilty of high treason for having obtained a legatine bull, whereby he had conferred many benefices in the King's patronage. He has been deprived of his dignities, his goods confiscated, and himself sentenced to prison until the King shall decide. This sentence was not given in his presence, but to his two proctors. This he will not find easy of digestion, but worse remains behind (mais encoures ne serat il quicte pour le prix).

On 22 Nov 1529 [his son] Ferdinand Habsburg Spain was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 29) and [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 26). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

In 1530 [his daughter] Joanna Habsburg Spain (age 8) died.

Letters and Papers 1530. 07 Jun 1530. Add. MS. 28,580, f. 125. B. M. 6437. Mai to Charles V (age 30).

The Pope has told me more plainly what I wrote to your Majesty that he knew very well, namely, that owing to the death of a lady to whom the Duke of Norfolk (age 57) had married, or intended to marry, his son, they have treated to marry the same son to the princess of Wales; for which reason Boleyn (age 53) has lost much hope of the marriage of Mrs. Anne (age 29) with the King; and the King has spent much money in buying goods and lands for the support of the Lady (age 29). This is thought to be evidence that he begins to give up hope of his suit, because, if he meant to make her Queen, she would have no need of these things. Rome, 7 June 1530.

Letters and Papers 1530. 14 Jun 1530. Add. MS. 28,580, f. 145. B. M. 6452. Mai to Charles V (age 30). Arguments used to the Pope against delay. They say it is the Duke of Norfolk's (age 57) daughter-in-law who is dead, and that Boleyn desires to marry his (the Duke's) son to Mistress Anne (age 29),-which may be believed as being good for all parties; first, for her, as she cannot marry the King, that she should marry the greatest lord in the realm; and secondly, to the King, as he cannot marry her. This is the third version of the story; I hope the true one at last. Yesterday the auditor of the Chamber and Benet asked brother Felice de Prato to write for the King, and he refused, neither would he show them what he had written on our behalf. Rome, 14 June 1530.

Note. Unclear as to who the Duke of Norfolk's daughter-in-law is since his son Henry Howard (age 14) appears to have only married Frances Vere Countess of Surrey (age 13) who survived until 1577.

On 13 Jul 1530 [his son] Ferdinand Habsburg Spain died.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

Every day numbers of people come to my hotel and inquire from my servants and neighbours how long I intend remaining here in London, for until the hour of my departure many will go on thinking that Your Majesty consents to this marriage, without which condition no one thinks that this King (age 41) would have dared to proceed to such extremities. For this cause I think I ought to be immediately recalled, and most humbly beseech Your Majesty to send the order; not so much to avoid the dangers and troubles that may supervene, for I should consider myself happy to sacrifice my life for the Imperial service, but merely for the above-named considerations, &c.-London, 15th April 1533.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

The King (age 41) has this very day dispatched a courier to Rome. I fancy it is for the purpose of telling the Pope that whatever has been attempted in this Parliament against him and his authority has been done at the solicitation of his people, not at his own, and that should his new marriage be ratified and sanctioned he is ready to revoke everything. He has forbidden the courier to carry any other letters but his, that the truth may not be found out. Your Majesty, however, might tell His Holiness how matters stand, and urge him to sentence the case and make all other necessary provisions.

Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

The name and title which the King (age 41) wishes the [his aunt] Queen (age 47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to [his future daughter-in-law] princess Mary (age 17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the Lady (age 32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the [his aunt] Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the [his future daughter-in-law] Princess (age 17).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Tuesday the 7th inst., having been informed of the strange and outrageous conduct and proceedings of this king (age 41) against the [his aunt] Queen (age 47), whereof I have written to Your Majesty, I went to Court at the hour appointed for the King's audience, that I might there duly remonstrate against the Queen's treatment. I took with me Mr. Hesdin, who by the consent of the Queen [of Hungary] is now here to claim the arrears of his pension, in order that he might be present, and hear the remonstrances I had to address the King (age 41), hoping also that if I had to use threatening language the King (age 41) might not be so much offended if uttered in the presence of the said Hesdin. On my arrival at Greenwich [Map] the earl of Vulchier (age 56) (Wiltshire) came to meet me, and leading me to the apartments of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), who had just gone to see the Queen (age 47), said to me that the King (age 41) being very much engaged at that hour had deputed him to listen to what I had to say, and report thereupon. My answer was that my communication was of such a nature and so important that I could not possibly make it to anyone but to the King (age 41) in person. Until now he had never refused me audience, or put me off, and I could not think that he would now break through the custom without my having given him any occasion for it, especially as the King (age 41) knew that Your Majesty most willingly received the English ambassadors at all hours, whatever might be their errand or business. The Earl (age 56) repeated his excuses, and seemed at first disinclined to take my answer back to the King (age 41), until at last, perceiving my firm determination, he went in and came back saying the King (age 41) would see me immediately, though he still tried to ascertain what my business was, and advised me to put off my communication until after the festivals. It was settled at last that I should see the King (age 41) on Thursday in Holy Week, on which day having about me a copy of my last despatch [to Your Majesty], I took again the road to Court, accompanied as before by the said Master Hesdin, and was introduced to the Royal presence by the same earl of Wiltshire (age 56). The King (age 41) received us graciously enough. After the usual salutations and inquiries about Your Majesty's health, the King (age 41) asked me what news I had of your movements. I answered that the letters I had received last were rather old, but that I had reason to believe you had already embarked to return to Spain at the beginning of this present month. This statement the King (age 41) easily believed, and was rejoiced to hear (such is his wish to see you fairly out of Italy). I added that the weather for the last days could not have been more favourable, and therefore that it was to be hoped Your Majesty had reached Spain in safety. Having then asked me whether I had other news to communicate, I told him that your [his brother] brother, the king of the Romans (age 30), had made his peace with the Turk, and that the latter had sent an embassy, at which piece of intelligence the King (age 41) remained for some time in silent astonishment as if he did not know what to answer.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

After this, coming to the principal object of my visit, I told him plainly that, although for several days past I had heard of the attempt made both at the convocation of the prelates and in Parliament to impugn the [his aunt] Queen's (age 47) rights, and greatly injure her just cause, I had taken no notice of the facts, inasmuch as I could not be persuaded that so wise, virtuous, and Catholic a prince could possibly authorize or sanction such things, and also because I thought and believed that such practices (menees) could in no wise impair the Queen's (age 47) right or cause her harm. Yet that having lately been apprized from various quarters that such an attempt was really being made, I considered that I could not acquit myself of my duty towards God, towards Your Imperial Majesty, and towards himself if I did not remonstrate at once against such behaviour, and entreat him by his virtue, wisdom, and humanity patiently to listen to my observations as proceeding from my desire for his service, for that though he might disregard and despise man, he would at least respect God. To which the King (age 41) answered that so he had done, and that God and his conscience were perfectly agreed on that point.

Hearing the King (age 41) express himself in this manner and wishing to bring him back to the subject as gently as possible, I observed that my colleague and I could not but be very much flattered at the familiar way in which he had expressed his sentiments, as if we were his own servants, which sentiments, I added, proceeded no doubt from his heart not from his mouth. He assured me, however, that such was not the case, and that what he had just said had been said without dissimulation. Upon which I again said to him that I could not believe that Christianity, being so agitated and troubled by heresies, he could possibly set so bad an example and contravene the treaties of peace and amity which, as he himself, who had been the principal promoter and mediator in them ought to know best, had cost so much time and trouble to make. He ought to know that even supposing no inconvenience arose therefrom in his lifetime there would be most serious ones after his death with regard to the succession. There had never been such a case, I continued, nor did we read of it in history, as for a prince to divorce his legitimate wife after five and twenty years, and marry another woman. Not knowing what to answer to my observations, the King (age 41) gladly seized the opportunity which I gave him by this last statement to contradict me, and said: "Not so long, if you please; and if the world finds this new marriage of mine strange, I find it still more so that the Pope [Julius] should have granted a dispensation for the former." I then mentioned to him five popes who had dispensed in similar cases, and declared that I was unwilling to dispute that matter with him, but that there was no doctor in his kingdom, who after such a debate would not confess that pope Julius was authorized to dispense in the case. After this, coming to speak about the manner in which his solicitors had procured the votes of the university of Paris, on which he founds his principal argument, I offered to produce the letters I had received relating the whole affair, as well as the names of those who had held for the Queen (age 47), but he said there was no necessity at all for that. I, moreover, told him that neither in Spain, nor in Naples, nor in any other country could one single prelate or doctor be found to assert the contrary, and that even in his own kingdom every canonist and lawyer was of the same opinion, with the exception of the few who had been gained over to the other side, and I proposed, in confirmation of my statement, to exhibit other letters, which he likewise refused to see.

At last, wishing to turn the conversation, the King (age 41) said that he wished to ensure the succession to his kingdom by having children, which he had not at present, and upon my remarking to him that he had one daughter, the most virtuous and accomplished that could be thought of, just of suitable age to be married and get children, and that it seemed as if Nature had decided that the succession to the English throne should be through the female line, as he himself had obtained it, and therefore, that he could by marrying the Princess to some one secure the succession he was so anxious for, he replied that he knew better than that; and would marry again in order to have children himself. And upon my observing to him that he could not be sure of that he asked me three times running: "Am I not a man like others?" and he afterwards added: "I need not give proofs of the contrary, or let you into my secrets," no doubt implying thereby that his beloved Lady (age 32) is already in the family way.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

After this we came to speak about the [his aunt] Queen (age 47) and to argue whether she had or had not been known by Prince Arthur, and after responding victoriously to the suppositions and conjectures which he alleged in support of his opinion, I produced such arguments in proof of the contrary that he really knew not what to answer. Which arguments having been brought forward on more than one occasion I will not trouble Your Majesty with a reproduction of them, and will only say "que venant a reprendre le dit seigneur roy ce que plusieurs fois il auoit confesse, que la royne demeura pucelle du dit prince Arthus, et voyant quil ne le pouvoit nyer, il dit quil lauoit plusieurs fois dit mais que ce nauoit este que en ieu, et que lhome en iouant et banquetant dit souvent pluseures (sic) choses que ne sont veritables." Having said as much as if he had obtained a great success, or found some subtle point towards the gaining of his cause, he began to recover his self-possession and said confidently to me: "Now I think I have given you full satisfaction on all points; what else do you want?" Whatever the King (age 41) might say the satisfaction was not all-sufficing, but it served me admirably, much more than he himself could imagine, to dispute certain premises he had laid down. I told him that I flattered myself that I was the ambassador of the prince who desired most his welfare, profit, and honour, as well as the tranquillity of his kingdom. I had brought with me Master Hesdin, there present, who was, and acknowledged himself to be, his affectionate servant- as did also all Your Majesty's officers-that he might be present at the conference and hear what his answer was; but I would promise most solemnly that nothing that might be said at that audience should be reported to you unless he himself wished, for I consented to the said Hesdin giving me the lie if I ever attempted to write to Your Majesty anything he (the King) did dislike. This I said to the King (age 41) that I might inspire greater confidence and make him open his heart more fully (lui fere deslier le sac). The better to gain his confidence I told him how happy I had once considered myself at being chosen by Your Majesty to represent your person near so great and magnanimous a king, hoping that his Privy Council, taking due cognizance of the affairs pending between the two crowns, everything should go on smoothly. Now, on the contrary, affairs had taken such a disorderly turn, and were in such confusion that I considered myself unhappy in having to represent Your Majesty, inasmuch as I had continually assured you in my despatches that whatever countenance the King (age 41) put on, and whatever he did his heart and the affection he bore Your Majesty were not affected, and that he would never think of doing anything that might give occasion to suspect that he intended living otherwise than in peace and amity with Your Imperial Majesty. At these words, and without waiting to hear the rest, as if he wished to avoid alt further conversation on this delicate subject, the King (age 41) frowned, and moving his head to and fro, said rather abruptly: "Before I listen to such representations, I must know from whom they proceed, whether from the Emperor, your master, or from yourself; for if they be private remarks of your own I shall know how to answer them." And upon my answering that it was superfluous to ask whether I could have received commission to complain of facts and things which had only taken place a week ago, the intelligence of which would require a full month to be transmitted, and perhaps, too, four successive despatches of mine before it was believed-my general charge and instructions being to maintain by all best means the peace and friendship between Your Majesty and him, and especially to watch over the Queen's (age 47) affairs, since from them depended in a great measure that very friendship-the King (age 41) replied that you yourself had nothing to do with the laws, statutes, and constitutions of his kingdom, and that in spite of all opposition he would pass such laws and ordinances in his dominions as he thought proper, adding many other things in the same strain. My reply was that Your Majesty neither could nor would hinder any such legislative measures, but on the contrary would, if necessary, help him in them unless they personally affected the Queen (age 47), whom he wanted to compel to renounce her appeal [to Rome] and submit entirely to the judgment of the prelates of his kingdom who, either won by promises or threatened with that punishment which had already attained those who upheld the Queen's (age 47) right, could not fail to decide in his favour and against her. After this I repeated what I had told him on previous occasions in Your Majesty's name, that is to say: that the fact of the case being determined here, in England, as he wished, would in nowise remove hereafter the doubts about the succession for the reasons above explained, He, himself, considering how unreasonable and illegal it would be to have the case tried and decided in England, when the authority of the Holy Apostolic See was concerned, had from the beginning of the suit asked the Papal permission for the two cardinals (Campeggio (age 58) and York) to take cognizance of the case here. Even after that he had allowed the Queen (age 47) to appeal to Rome, and in the course of time not satisfied with that had himself, and through others, solicited the Queen (age 47) to consent to the case being tried out of Rome, not here in England, for he knew that to be a most unreasonable demand, but in a neutral place. For these reasons I said the Queen (age 47) cannot and ought not to be tied by laws and statutes to which no one hardly had consented, and which had been carried by compulsion. To this remark of mine the King (age 41) replied half in a passion (demy appassione): "All persuasions and remonstrances are absolutely in vain. Had I known that the audience you applied for had no other object than to speak to me of these things I certainly should have found some excuse to break through the established rule, and escape from such objurgations." But on my representing to him the object of my calling, and telling him that he was positively bound to listen not only to what an ambassador of Your Majesty, but the commonest mortal, had to say to him in a case of this sort, and the courteous and humane manner in which you had always treated his ambassadors, he was obliged to retract, and said that as regarded the commission granted to the two cardinals he could not deny that he himself had applied for it, but that was, he said, under a promise made by the Pope that the cause should never be revoked [from England]; but since His Holiness withdrew all the commissions he had previously given, he (the King) did likewise reject the offer to have the case tried and sentenced in a neutral place, for he wished it to be determined here and not elsewhere. As to his consent to the Queen's (age 47) appeal he had only given it conditionally, and provided the statutes and constitutions of the kingdom allowed of it, not otherwise, and said that lately a prohibitive one had been made in Parliament which the Queen (age 47) herself, as an English subject, was bound to obey. Hearing this I could not help observing that laws and constitutions had no retroactive power, and that they could only be enforced in the future. As to the Queen (age 47) being an English subject I owned that she being his legitimate wife was really and truly such, and that consequently all debate about constitutions and appeals was not only superfluous but out of the question; but that if the Queen (age 47), however, was, as he asserted, not his wife, she could not be called an English subject, for she only resided in this country in virtue of her marriage, not otherwise, and Common Law establishes that the claimant is to bring his action before the tribunal of the country whereof the defendant is a native. The Queen (age 47) might as well ask to have her case tried in Spain, but this she had never attempted, contenting herself that the court to which he himself had firstly applied as claimant should take cognizance of the affair, that being the only true and irrefragable tribunal in her case. And upon his replying that he had not sent for her, and that his brother, the prince of Wales, had first taken her to wife and consummated marriage, I remarked that if he himself had not sent for her he had after his brother's demise kept her by him, and prevented her from going away at the request of her father, the Catholic king of Spain, through his ambassador at this court, Hernand Duque de Estrada, as I could prove by his letters. These, however, the King (age 41) refused to peruse, and again repeated: "She must have patience and obey the laws of this kingdom." Then he added that Your Majesty in return for so many services and favours had done him the greatest possible injury by hindering his new marriage, and preventing his having male succession. That the Queen (age 47) was no more his wife than she was mine, and that he would act in this business just as he pleased, in spite of all opposition and grumbling, and that if Your Majesty capriciously attempted to cause him annoyance he would try to defend himself with the help of his friends.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

Lastly, upon my urging upon him that his marriage had been pre-arranged by the King, his father [Henry VII.], and by the Catholic king of Spain [Ferdinand], both of whom were the wisest of their age, and would have never consented to it had there been the least shade of scruple respecting Prince Arthur - which after all was the principal ground of complaint - he again insisted on his determination to act as he pleased in the matter without attending to considerations of any sort whatever, adding that you yourself had shewn him the way to disobey the Pope's injunctions by your appealing four years ago to a future Council. Upon which I told him that he himself could not do better than follow your example and appeal to that very Council, and since he alleged that he was ready to imitate you in this respect, I must warn him that no prince in the world had more respect than you had for His Holiness, or deeper fear of his excommunications, for upon one occasion you had been one whole Holy Week without attending Divine service.

These last words of mine had great effect upon the King (age 41), who no doubt thought that I meant to reproach him for not having obeyed the Papal excommunication and interdict once fulminated against him; he, therefore, was a little hurt and said to me in rather an angry tone of voice: "If you go on like that you will make me lose my temper." I begged him to tell me how I could have offended him, warmly protesting that I had no such intention; then he lowered his voice a little and spoke less harshly, though, notwithstanding all my entreaties, he would never say how or in what I had offended him, and I must say that the rest of our conference passed without any visible signs of ill-humour on his part.

Thus encouraged I asked him whether in the event of Spaniards and Flemings, as good Christians, refusing for fear of the Papal interdict to hold communication, or carry on trade with his subjects, they would be amenable to the penalties described in the statute, and what sort of crime could be imputed to them. He remained for a while thoughtful and startled, not knowing what to answer, which being observed by me I preferred asking leave to retire to remaining where I was and waiting for his answer. I, therefore, said to him: "If such be the state of things I will not trouble Your Highness any more and lose my time; I will withdraw." He then said "adieu" to me in a gracious manner, but retained Hesdin, to whom he addressed the following words; "You have heard what the Emperor's ambassador has just said respecting the Papal excommunication and the stopping of trade between my subjects and the Spaniards and Flemings; but I can tell you that the ecclesiastical censures do not on this occasion fall upon me, but upon the Emperor himself who has so long opposed me, and prevented my new marriage, thus making me live in sin and against the prescriptions of Mother Church. The excommunication, moreover, is of such a nature that the Pope himself could not raise it without my consent; but, pray, do not mention this to the ambassador." This will give Your Majesty an idea of the King's blindness in these matters. Hesdin only replied that the affair was of too much importance for him to mix himself up with it.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

We both returned [to London] without accepting the pressing invitation to dinner from the earl of Wulchier (age 56) (Wiltshire) who in the absence of the duke of Norfolk was to preside at the table.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Saturday, the eve of Easter, Lady Anne (age 32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the daughter (age 14) of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), betrothed to the Duke of Richmond (age 13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church [Map] with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former Queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of Queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (age 41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new Queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (age 41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (age 43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the [his aunt] Queen (age 47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (age 41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

A deputation of English merchants trading with Flanders went on Friday last to see the King (age 41) for the purpose of ascertaining whether they could in future ship goods for that country. They were told that the King (age 41) was not at war with Your Majesty, and that they might trade or not just as they pleased; those who had any scruple might remain at home; those who chose to go on with their trade might do so. Not-withstanding which answer there is hardly any English or foreign merchants having goods in Flanders who has not sent for them, or had them put under another name (les couvrir), for there is hardly one who does not consider himself lost and ruined, and would not wish himself far off with his goods and substance. Indeed this fear is not confined to the merchants, but pervades all classes of society, and I have been told that Cramuel (age 48) (Cromwell), who is perhaps the man who has most influence with the King (age 41) just now, has had all his treasure and valuables removed to the Tower of London. And I do really believe that neither the King (age 41) himself nor any of his courtiers is exempt from fear, both of the people and of Your Majesty; yet it would seem as if God Almighty has blinded them, and taken away their senses, for they are perfectly bewildered and know not what to be at, nor how to mend their affairs. Indeed this is so much the case, that should the least mishap overtake them they would be so disconcerted that neither the King (age 41) nor his counsellors would think of aught else than flight, knowing very well the people's will in these matters.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

About a week ago the sieur de Rochefort (age 30) (George Boleyn) returned from France with the sieur de Beauvoes (Beauvoir), who started yesterday for Scotland for the purpose of inducing king James to place his differences with this King (age 41) into his master's hand, and making him judge and arbiter of their differences. I have been told by a very worthy man that the duke of Albany's secretary returning from a visit to the said Beaulvoys (sic) had assured him that the said ambassador would be unable to accomplish his mission in Scotland, and that war would go on fiercer than ever. Indeed it would seem as if the Scots at this moment more prosperous than ever, for instead of being as before on the defensive, they are continually making raids on the borders. For this purpose did Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30) go to France as it is now ascertained. These people, as I am told, wish immensely for peace with Scotland, but God, as I said above, has taken away their senses, and they cannot see how to bring it about. The said Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30), as his own servants assert, has been presented in France with 2,000 crs., no doubt for the good tidings of his sister's (age 32) marriage, to whom the Most Christian King has now written a letter addressing her as Queen. I fancy, moreover, that the French consider this good news, firstly: because it is likely to be the means of breaking off the friendship between Your Majesty and this king, and also, because it might ultimately be the cause of freeing the French from their debt and payment of pensions, either through sheer necessity, or for fear these people may have of their ultimately joining you, should the Pope proceed to sentence the case and have the censures executed-a thing which, in my opinion, Your Majesty ought to urge in every possible way-the French would be released from all their bonds and pecuniary obligations to this king.

On 07 Nov 1534 [his brother-in-law] Fernando Aviz (age 27) died.

On 26 Jun 1535 [his daughter] Joanna of Austria Princess Portugal was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 35) and [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 31). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good [his aunt] Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the [his future daughter-in-law] Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

Calendars. 17 Feb 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

On that very day the good [his aunt] Queen of England's (deceased) burial took place, which was attended by four bishops and as many abbots, besides the ladies mentioned in my preceding despatches. No other person of rank or name was present except the comptroller of the Royal household. The place where she lies in the cathedral church of Peterborough [Map] is a good way from the high altar, and in a less honourable position than that of several bishops buried in the same church. Had she not been a dowager Princess, as they have held her both in life and death, but simply a Lady, they could not have chosen a less distinguished place of rest for her, as the people who understand this sort of thing tell me. Such have been the wonderful display and incredible magnificence which these people gave me to understand would be lavished in honour and memory of one whose great virtues and royal relationship certainly entitled her to uncommon honours.

Perhaps one of these days they will repair their fault, and erect a suitable. Monument or institute some pious foundation to her memory in some suitable spot or other.

Letters 1536. 02 May 1536. Vienna Archives. 782. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V (age 36).

Your Majesty (age 36) will remember what I wrote about the beginning of last month, of the conversation I had with Cromwell (age 51) about the divorce of this King from the Concubine (age 35). I have since heard the will of the Princess (age 20), by which, as I wrote, I meant to be guided, and which was that I should promote the matter, especially for the discharge of the conscience of the King (age 44) her father, and that she did not care in the least if he had lawful heirs who would deprive her of the succession, nor for all the injuries done either to herself or to the Queen her mother, which, for the honor of God, she pardoned everyone most heartily. I accordingly used several means to promote the matter, both with Cromwell (age 51) and with others, of which I have not hitherto written, awaiting some certain issue of the affair, which, in my opinion, has come to pass much better than anybody could have believed, to the great disgrace [of the Concubine], who by the judgment of God has been brought in full daylight from Greenwich to the Tower of London, conducted by the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), the two Chamberlains, of the realm and of the chamber, and only four women have been left to her. The report is that it is for adultery, in which she has long continued, with a player [Mark Smeaton (age 24)] on the spinnet of her chamber, who has been this morning lodged in the Tower [Map], and Mr. Norris (age 54), the most private and familiar "somelier de corps" of the King, for not having revealed the matter.

On 19 Oct 1537 [his son] John Habsburg Spain was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 37) and [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 33). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

On 08 Jan 1538 [his sister-in-law] Beatrice Aviz Duchess Savoy (age 33) died.

On 20 Mar 1538 [his son] John Habsburg Spain died.

On 21 Apr 1539 [his son] Unamed Habsburg Spain died.

On 21 Apr 1539 [his son] Unamed Habsburg Spain was born to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 39) and [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 35). Coefficient of inbreeding 10.98%.

On 01 May 1539 [his wife] Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain (age 35) died.

On 21 Apr 1540 [his former brother-in-law] Afonso Aviz (age 30) died.

On 20 Sep 1540 [his former brother-in-law] Duarte Aviz (age 24) died.

On 12 Nov 1543 [his son] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 16) and [his daughter-in-law] Maria Aviz (age 16) were married at Salamanca. She the daughter of John III King Portugal (age 41) and Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal (age 36). He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 43) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were double first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1547 [his illegitimate son] John Habsburg Spain was born illegitimately to Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 46) and Barbara Blomberg.

In 1548 Philip Hoby (age 43) was appointed Ambassador to the court of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 47).

1548. Titian (age 60). Equestrian Portrait of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 47).

On 13 Sep 1548 [his son-in-law] Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 21) and [his daughter] Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress (age 20) were married. She the daughter of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 48) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. He the son of Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor (age 45) and Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress. They were first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1552 [his son-in-law] John Manuel Aviz Prince Portugal (age 14) and [his daughter] Joanna of Austria Princess Portugal (age 16) were married. She the daughter of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 51) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. He the son of John III King Portugal (age 49) and Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal (age 44). They were double first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. The 24 of Julie [1554], aboute 3 of the clock in the afternoone, [his son] he came from his lodginge on foote, the Lord Steward, the Earle of Darbie (age 45), the Earle of Pembrooke (age 53), and divers other lordes and gentlemen, both Englishe and Spanishe, goeinge afore him to the Courte, where everie bodye might see him, and so was brought up into the hall where the [his future daughter-in-law] Queene (age 38) was standinge upon a skaffold richelye hanged, she meetinge him halfe waye, receivinge him, and kissinge him in the presence of all the peopleb. And then she tooke him by the hand, she goeinge on his right hand out of the hall in her great chamber of presence. And there in the presence of all the lordes and ladies they stoode a quarter of an hower under the clothe of estate talkiuge together; and then after a while he toke his leave of her Grace and came forthe into the open cowrte, where all the pentioners stood in araye and the garde all alonge on both sides the waye in theyr riche cotes to the Court gates; and from thence the lords brought him to the Cathedrall churche to evensonge, and after to his loginge agayne.

The same night, about 12 of the clock, the Emperor (age 54) sent a message to the Queen (age 38), declaringe to her that his sonne which should marrie with her was not then a Prince onelye but a Kinge; and that he was Kinge of Naples and Jerusalem before the marriage, and so did send his writings of the same under his great seale.

Note b. Mary took no pains to conceal her impatience, being enabled in her conscience to plead her anxiety for a legitimate Roman Catholic succession, as the only means of securing the faith in England.

Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

On 25 Jul 1554 [his son] Prince Philip of Spain (age 27) and [his daughter-in-law] Queen Mary (age 38) were married by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71) at Winchester Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland and Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England. He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 54) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John Gage (age 74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

On 12 Apr 1555 [his mother] Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile (age 76) died.

On 27 Nov 1555 [his former brother-in-law] Louis Aviz (age 49) died.

On 21 Sep 1558 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 58) died at the Monastery of Yuste. His son [his son] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 31) succeeded II King Spain.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1558. The xxiij day of Desember was the obseque at Westmynster[with the] sam herse that was for quen Mare (deceased), was for Charles the V., Emporowre of Rome, was durge, and the morow masse with .. mornars and (blank) was the cheyff morner.

Note. P. 184. Obsequies of the emperor. The emperor's ambassador was present as chief mourner. The ceremonial is in the College of Arms, I. 14, f. 3, and I. 15, f. 284.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Oct 1641. Here I beheld the Palace [Map] wherein John of Gaunt and Charles V were born; whose statue stands in the market-place, upon a high pillar, with his sword drawn, to which (as I was told) the magistrates and burghers were wont to repair upon a certain day every year with ropes about their necks, in token of submission and penance for an old rebellion of theirs; but now the hemp is changed into a blue ribbon. Here is planted the basilisco, or great gun, so much talked of. The Lys and the Scheldt meeting in this vast city, divide it into twenty-six islands, which are united by many bridges, somewhat resembling Venice. This night I supped with the Abbot of Andoyne, a pleasant and courteous priest.

Letters. Ferdinand King of Aragon to Ramon De CARDONA, his Viceroy of Naples and Captain-General in Italy.

Has received letters from Gurk, Urea and Vich announcing the alliance with exclusion of the Venetians. Nothing could be more favourable to France. Has revoked the unlimited powers of his ambassadors and ordered them henceforth to ask special orders for everything. While the present treaty has no other object than to prevent the Pope making a separate peace with France, the writer's plan was by an alliance of all the princes of Italy to expel the French; and, simultaneously, to concert an invasion of France by England on the side of Calais, himself on the side of Guienne and the Emperor on the side of Burgundy. The treaty with England was nearly concluded. England and Spain were to pay their own expenses; the Pope, Venetians and Milan to help the Emperor with the pay of 7,000 or 8,000 Germans. In six months the King of England might have conquered Guienne and Normandy, Prince Charles, Burgundy, Gueldres and his towns of Picardy; and after that Italy would have been safe from attacks by France. At the last moment the Emperor has spoilt all by his hatred of the Venetians. Thinks God is punishing them for their neglect of the Church and that wars will never cease until they unite for its thorough reformation.

Supposes the Emperor will soon make peace with Venice. Sketches the conditions for a peace with France and conquest of Venice. The Emperor must take care not to break off the marriage engagement of Prince Charles with the King of England's sister; but if the King should propose another marriage it might be accepted and the Prince married to a French princess. Other considerations. Reformation of the Church and conquest of Venice to be kept strictly secret.

Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504

Royal Ancestors of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 19 Grand Son of Maredudd ab Owain King Deheubarth King Powys King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 21 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 19 Grand Son of Maredudd ab Owain King Deheubarth King Powys King Gwynedd

Kings England: Great x 4 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 6 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558

Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain x 1

Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress x 1

Sebastian King Portugal x 1

Ancestors of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558

GrandFather: Maximilian Habsburg I Holy Roman Emperor 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eleanor Aviz Holy Roman Empress 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Father: Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Mary Valois Duchess Burgundy 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella Bourbon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John II King Aragon 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Ferdinand II King Aragon 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Mother: Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John II King Castile Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Isabella Queen Castile 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella Aviz Queen Consort Castile 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England