Biography of King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Marie Swabia Duchess Brabant

Descendants Family Tree: King Edward III of England 1312-1377

1301 Edward II Created Prince of Wales

1307 Death of Edward I

1308 Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

1314 Battle of Bannockburn

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge

1327 Abdication of Edward II

1327 Coronation of Edward III

1327 Weardale Campaign

1327 Battle of Stanhope Park

1327 Death of Edward II

1328 Death of Charles IV of France Sucession of Philip VI

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1328 Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

1328 Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

1330 Execution of Edmund of Woodstock

1330 Battle of Teba

1330 Edward III arrests Roger Mortimer

1330 Execution of Roger Mortimer

1333 Battle of Halidon Hill

1335 Battle of Culblean

1337 Creation of Earls

1338 French Raid on Walcheren

1338 French Raid on Southampton

1340 Battle of Sluys

1344 Creation of the Order of the Garter

1345 Funeral Henry 3rd Earl Lancaster

1346 Commencement of the Crécy Campaign

1346 Battle of Blanchetaque

1346 Battle of Crécy

1346 Siege of Calais

1349 Creation of Garter Knights

1350 Battle of Winchelsea

1356 Edward Balliol surrenders his claim to be King Scotland

1358 Death of Isabella of France Queen Consort

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1360 Creation of Garter Knights

1360 Black Monday Hailstorm

1360 Treaty of Brétigny

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1362 Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

1366 Creation of Garter Knights

1368 Creation of Garter Knights

1369 Creation of Garter Knights

1373 Creation of Garter Knights

1376 Creation of Garter Knights

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

1377 Death of Edward III

Edward II Created Prince of Wales

On 07 Feb 1301 [his father] King Edward II of England (age 16) was created Prince of Wales by his father [his grandfather] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 61); the first English heir to receive the title. He was created 1st Earl Chester the same day.

Death of Edward I

On 07 Jul 1307 [his grandfather] King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 68) died at Burgh by Sands [Map] whilst on his way north to Scotland. His son [his father] King Edward II of England (age 23) succeeded II King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Edward (age 68) had gathered around him Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 29), Guy Beauchamp 10th Earl Warwick (age 35), Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 32) and Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford (age 33) and charged them with looking after his son in particular ensuring Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 23) didn't return from exile.

Marriage of King Edward II and Isabella of France

On 25 Jan 1308 [his father] King Edward II of England (age 23) and [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 13) were married at Boulogne sur Mer [Map]. She the daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France (age 39) and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre. He the son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England. They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 13 Nov 1312 King Edward III of England was born to King Edward II of England (age 28) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 17) at Windsor Castle [Map]. He was christened on 17 Nov 1312 with Archbishop Walter Reynolds being one of his godfathers. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

Battle of Bannockburn

Froissart. FIRST, the better to enter into the matter of this honourable and pleasant history of the noble Edward king of England (age 1), who was crowned at London the year of our Lord God MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday, living the king his father and the queen his mother, it is certain that the opinion of Englishmen most commonly was as then, and oftentimes it was seen in England after the time of king Arthur, how that between two valiant kings of England there was most commonly one between them of less sufficiency both of wit and of prowess: and this was right well apparent by the same King Edward the third (age 1); for his [his grandfather] grandfather, called the good king Edward the first, was right valiant, sage, wise and hardy, adventurous and fortunate jn all feats of war, and had much ado against the Scots, and conquered them three or four times; for the Scots could never have victory nor endure against him: and after his decease his son of his first wife, who was father to the said good king Edward the third, was crowned king and called [his father] Edward the second (age 30), who resembled nothing to his father in wit nor in prowess, but governed and kept his realm right wildly, and ruled himself by sinister counsel of certain persons, whereby at length he had no profit nor land, as ye shall hear after; for anon after he was crowned, Robert Bruce king of Scotland, who had often before given much ado to the said good king Edward the first, conquered again all Scotland, and brent and wasted a great part of the realm of England, a four or five days' journey within the realm at two times, and discomfited the king and all the barons of England at a place in Scotland called Stirling [Map], by battle arranged the day of Saint John Baptist, in the seventh year of the reign of the same king Edward, in the year of our Lord MCCCXIV. The chase of this discomfiture endured two days and two nights, and the king of England (age 30) went with a small company to London and on mid-lent Sunday in the year of our Lord MCCCXVI. The Scots won again the city of Berwick [Map] by treason; but because this is no part of our matter, I will leave speaking thereof.

Battle of Boroughbridge

Froissart. 1322. THE foresaid [his father] king Edward the second (age 37), father to the noble king Edward the third (age 9), on whom our matter is founded, this said king governed right diversely his realm by the exhortation of sir Hugh Spencer (age 36), who had been nourished with him sith the beginning of his yongth; the which sir Hugh (age 36) had so enticed the king (age 37), that his father and he were the greatest masters in all the realm, and by envy thought to surmount all other barons of England; whereby after the great discomfiture that the Scots had made at Stirling [Map] great murmuring there arose in England between. The noble barons and the king's council, and namely against sir Hugh Spencer (age 36). They put on him that by his counsel they were discomfited, and that he was favourable to the king of Scots. And on this point the barons had divers times communication together, to be advised what they might do, whereof Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was uncle to the king, was chief. And anon when sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) had espied this, he purveyed for remedy, for he was so great with the king (age 37) and so near him, that he was more beloved with the king (age 37) than all the world after. So on a day he came to the king (age 37) and said, 'Sir, certain lords of your realm have made alliance together against you, and without ye take heed thereto betimes, they purpose to put you out of your realm': and so by his malicious means he caused that the king made all the said lords to be taken, and their heads to be stricken off without delay, and without knowledge or answer to any cause. First of all sir Thomas earl of Lancaster (age 44), who was a noble and a wise, holy knight, and hath done sith many fair miracles in Pomfret, where he was beheaded, for the which deed the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 36) achieved great hate in all the realm, and specially of the [his mother] queen (age 27) and of the [his uncle] earl of Kent (age 20), brother to the king (age 37). And when he perceived the displeasure of the queen (age 27), by his subtle wit he set great discord between the king and the queen (age 27), so that the king (age 37) would not see the queen nor come in her company, the which discord endured a long space. Then was it skewed to the queen (age 27) secretly and to the earl of Kent (age 20), that without they took good heed to themselves, they were likely to be destroyage to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, and so to Winchelsea [Map], and in the night went into a ship that was ready for her, and her young son Edward (age 9) with her, and the earl of Kent (age 20) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 34), and in another ship they had put all their purveyance, and had wind at will, and the next morning they arrived in the haven of Boulogne [Map].

Froissart. 1324. When [his mother] queen Isabel (age 29) was arrived at Boulogne [Map], and her son (age 11) with her and the [his uncle] earl of Kent (age 22), the captains and abbot of the town came against her and joyously received her and her company into the abbey, and there she abode two days: then she departed and rode so long by her journeys that she arrived at Paris [Map]. Then [his uncle] king Charles (age 29) her brother, who was informed of her coming, sent to meet her divers of the greatest lords of his realm, as the lord sir Robert de Artois (age 37), the lord of Coucy, the lord of Sully, the lord of Roye and divers other, who honourably did receive her and brought her into the city of Paris to the king her brother (age 29). And when the king (age 29) saw his sister (age 29), whom he had not seen long before, as she should have entered into his chamber he met her and took her in his arms and kissed her, and said, ' Ye be welcome, fair sister, with my fair nephew your son,' and took them by the hands and led them forth. The queen, who had no great joy at her heart but that she was so near to the king her brother, she would have kneeled down two or three times at the feet of the king, but the king would not suffer her, but held her still by the right hand, demanding right sweetly of her estate and business. And she answered him right sagely, and lamentably recounted to him all the felonies and injuries done to her by sir Hugh Spencer (age 38), and required him of his aid and comfort. When the noble King Charles of France (age 29) had heard his sister's lamentation, who weepingly had shewed him all her need and business, be said to her: ' Fair sister, appease yourself, for by the faith I owe to God and to Saint Denis I shall right well purvey for you some remedy.' The queen then kneeled down, whether the king would or not, and said: 'My right dear lord and fair brother, I pray God reward you.' The king then took her in his arms and led her into another chamber, the which was apparelled for her and for the young Edward her son, and so departed from her, and caused at his costs and charges all things to be delivered that was behoveful for her and for her son. After it was not long, but that for this occasion Charles king of France (age 29) assembled together many great lords and barons of the realm of France, to have their counsel and good advice how they should ordain for the need and besynes of his sister queen of England. Then it was counselled to the king that he should let the queen his sister to purchase for herself friends, whereas she would, in the realm of France or in any other place, and himself to feign and be not known thereof; for they said, to move war with the [his father] king of England (age 39), and to bring his own realm into hatred, it were nothing appertinent nor profitable to him nor to his realm. But they concluded that conveniently he might aid her with gold and silver, for that is the metal whereby love is attained both of gentlemen and of poor soldiers. And to this counsel and advice accorded the king, and caused this to be shewed to the queen privily by sir Robert d'Artois (age 37), who as then was one of the greatest lords of all France.

Froissart. 1326. When the [his mother] Queen (age 31) heard this tidings, she knew not what to say nor what advice to take; for as then the barons of the realm of France were withdrawn from her by the commandment of the king of France, and so she had no comfort nor succour, but all only of her dear cousin Sir Robert de Artois (age 39); for he secretly did counsel and comfort her as much as he might, for otherwise he durst not, for the king had defended him. But he knew well that the Queen (age 31) was chased out of England and also out of France for evil will and by envy, which grieved him greatly. Thus was Sir Robert de Artois (age 39) at the queen's commandment; but be durst not speak nor be known thereof, for he had heard the king and the [his uncle] Earl of Kent (age 24) and Sir Roger Mortimer (age 38), and to put them all in the hands of the king and of Sir Hugh Spencer (age 40). Wherefore he came on a night and declared all this to the queen (age 31), and advised her of the peril that she was in. Then the queen (age 31) was greatly abashed, and required biro all weeping of his good counsel. Then he said: 'Madam, I counsel you that ye depart and go into the Empire, whereas there be many great lords, who may right well aid you, and specially the [his future father-in-law] earl Guilliam of Hainault (age 40) and sir John of Hainault (age 38) his brother. These two are great lords and wise men, true, drad and redoubted of their enemies.' Then the queen (age 31) caused to be made ready all her purveyance, and paid for everything as secretly as she might, and so she and her son (age 13), the Earl of Kent (age 24) and all her company departed from Paris and rode toward Hainault, and so long she rode that she came to Cambresis; and when she knew she was in the Empire, she was better assured than she was before, and so passed through Cambresis and entered into Ostrevant in Hainault, and lodged at Bugnicourt, in a knight's house who was called sir d'Aubrecicourt, who received her right joyously in the best manner to his power, insomuch that afterward the queen of England (age 31) and her son (age 13) had with them into England for ever the knight and his wife and all his children, and advanced them in divers manners. The coming thus of the queen of England (age 31) and of her son and heir into the country of Hainault was anon well known in the house of the good earl of Hainault, who as then was at Valenciennes; and sir John of Hainault (age 38) was certified of the time when the queen arrived at the place of sir d'Aubrecicourt, the which sir John (age 38) was brother to the said earl Guilliam (age 40), and as he that was young and lusty, desiring all honour, mounted on his horse and departed with a small company from Valenciennes, and came the same night to Bugnicourt, and did to the queen all honour and reverence that he could devise. The queen, who was right sorrowful, began to declare (complaining to him right piteously) her dolours; whereof the said sir John (age 38) had great pity, so that the water dashed in his eyen, and said, ' Certainly, fair lady, behold me here your own knight, who shall you into your estates in England, by the grace of God and with the help of your friends in that parts: and I and such other as I can desire shall put our lives and goods in adventure for your sake, and shall get men of war sufficient, if God be pleased, without the danger of the king of France your brother.' Then the queen would have kneeled down for great joy that she had, and for the good-will he offered her, but this noble knight took her up quickly in his arms and said: 'By the grace of God the noble queen of England shall not kneel to me; but, madam, recomfort yourself and all your company, for I shall keep you faithful promise; and ye shall go see the earl my brother (age 40) and the [his future mother-in-law] countess his wife (age 32) and all their fair children, who shall receive you with great joy, for so I heard them report they would do.' Then the queen said: 'Sir, I find in you more love and comfort than in all the world, and for this that ye say and affirm me I thank you a thousand times; and if ye will do this ye have promised in all courtesy and honour, I and my son shall be to you for ever bound, and will put all the realm of England in your abandon; for it is right that it so should be.' And after these words, when they were thus accorded, sir John of Hainault (age 38) took leave of the queen (age 31) for that night, and went to Denaing and lay in the abbey; and in the morning after mass he leapt on his horse and came again to the queen (age 31), who received him with great joy. By that time she had dined and was ready to mount on her horse to, depart with him; and so the queen departed from the castle of Bugnicourt, and took leave of the knight and of the lady, and thanked them for their good cheer that they bad made her, and said that she trusted once to see the time that she or her son should well remember their courtesy. Thus departed the queen in the company of the said sir John to the countess his wife, and feasted her right nobly. And as then this earl (age 40) had four fair daughters, [his future sister-in-law] Margaret (age 14), [his future wife] Philippa (age 11), [his future sister-in-law] Jane (age 11) and [his future sister-in-law] Isabel (age 3), among whom the young Edward (age 13) yet most his love and company on Philippa (age 11), and also the young lady in all honour was more conversant with him than any of her sisters. Thus the queen Isabel (age 31) abode at Valenciennes by the space of eight days with the good earl (age 40) and with the countess Jane de Valois. In the meantime the queen apparelled for her needs and business, and the said sir John wrote letters right affectuously unto knights and such companions as he trusted best in all Hainault, in Brabant and in Bohemia, and prayed them for all amities that was between them, that they would go with him in this enterprise into England; and so there were great plenty, what of one country and other, that were content to go with him for his love. But this said sir John of Hainault (age 38) was greatly reproved and counselled the contrary both of the earl his brother (age 40) and of the chief of the council of the country, because it seemed to them that the enterprise was right high and perilous, seeing the great discords and great hates that as then was between the barons of England among themselves, and also considering that these Englishmen most commonly have ever great envy at strangers. Therefore they doubted that the said sir John of Hainault and his company should not return again' with honour. But howsoever they blamed or counselled him, the gentle knight would never change his purpose, but said he had but one death to die, the which was in the will of God; and also said that all knights ought to aid to their powers all ladies and damosels chased out of their own countries, being without counsel or comfort.

Froissart. 1326. THUS was sir John of Hainault (age 38) moved in his courage and made his assembly, and prayed the Hainowes to be ready at Hal, and the Brabances at Breda, and the Hollanders to be at Dordrecht at a day limited. Then the [his mother] queen of England (age 31) took leave of the [his future father-in-law] earl of Hainault (age 40) and of the [his future mother-in-law] countess (age 32), and thanked them greatly of their honour, feast and good cheer that they had made her, kissing them at her departing. Thus this lady (age 31) departed and her son (age 13) and all her company with Sir John of Hainault (age 38), who with great pain gat leave of his brother, saying to him: 'My lord and brother, I am young and think that God hath purveyed for me this enterprise for mine advancement. I believe and think verily that wrongfully and sinfully this lady hath been chased out of England, and also her son. It is alms and glory to God and to the world to comfort and help them that be comfortless, and specially so high and so noble a lady as this is, who is daughter to a king and descended of a royal king; we be of her blood and she of ours. I had rather renounce and forsake all that I have and go serve God over the sea and never to return into this country, rather than this good lady should have departed from us without comfort and help. Therefore, dear brother, suffer me to go with your good-will, wherein ye shall do nobly, and I shall humbly thank you thereof, and the better thereby I shall accomplish all the voyage.' And when the good earl of Hainault had well heard his brother (age 38), and perceived the great desire that he had to his enterprise, and saw well it might turn him and his heirs to great honour hereafter, said to him: 'My fair brother, God forbid that your good purpose should be broken or let: therefore in the name of God I give you leave'; and kissed him, straining him by the hand in sign of great love. Thus he departed and rode the same night to Mons in Hainault with the queen of England (age 31). What should I make long process? They did so much by their journeys that they came to Dordrecht in Holland, whereas their special assembly was made. And there they purveyed for ships great and small, such as they could get, and shipped their horses and harness and purveyance, and so commended themselves into the keeping of God and took their passage by sea. In Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Vertaing, the lord of Potelle, the lord Villers, the' lord of Hennin, the lord of Sars, the lord of Bousies, the lord of Aubrecicourt, the lord of Estrumel, and sir Wulfart of Ghistelles, and divers other knights and squires, all in great desire to serve their master. And when they were all departed from the haven of Dordrecht, it was a fair fleet as for the quantity, and well ordered, the season was fair and clear and right temperate, and at their departing with the first flood they came before the dikes of Holland; and the next day they drew up their sails and took their way in coasting Zealand; and their intents were to have, taken land at Dongport;1 but they could not, for a tempest took them in the sea, that put them so far out of their course that they wist not of two days where they were: of the which God did them great grace, for if they had taken land at the port whereas they had thought, they had been all lost, for they had fallen in the hands of their enemies, who knew well of their coming, and abode them there to have put them all to death. So it was that about the end of two days the tempest ceased, and the mariners perceived land in England and drew to that part right joyously, and there took land on the sands without any right haven or port at Harwich [Map], as the English chronicle saith, the 24th day of September, the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., and so abode on the sands three days with little purveyance of victual, and unshipped their horses and harness, nor they wist not in what part of England they were in, other in the power of their friends or in the power of their enemies. On the fourth day they took forth their way in the adventure of God and of Saint George, as such people as had suffered great disease of cold by night and hunger and great fear, whereof they were not as then clean rid. And so they rode forth by hills and dales on the one side and on the other, till at the last they found villages and a great abbey of black monks, the which is called SaintEdmund [Map], whereas they three days refreshed themselves.

Froissart. Oct 1326. AND then this tiding spread about the realm so much, that at the last it came to the knowledge of the lords by whom the [his mother] queen (age 31) was called again into England. And they apparelled them in all haste to come to Edward (age 13) her son, whom they would have to their sovereign lord. And the first that came and gave them most comfort was Henry earl of Lancaster (age 45) with the wry neck, called Tort Col, who was brother to Thomas earl of Lancaster, beheaded as ye have heard herebefore, who was a good knight and greatly recommended, as ye shall hear after in this history. This earl Henry (age 45) came to the queen (age 31) with great company of men of war, and after him came from one part and other earls, barons, knights and squires, with so much people that they thought them clean out of perils, and always increased their power as they went forward. Then they took counsel among them that they should ride straight to the town of Bristow [Map], whereas the [his father] king (age 42) was, and with him the Spencers. The which was a good town and a strong, and well closed, standing on a good port of the sea, and a strong castle, the sea beating round about it. And therein was the king (age 42) and Sir Hugh Spencer the elder (age 65), who was about ninety of age, and Sir Hugh Spencer (age 40) his son, who was chief governour of the king (age 42) and counselled him in all his evil deeds. Also there was the earl of Arundel (age 20), who had wedded the daughter (age 14) of sir Hugh Spencer (age 40), and di at Bristow, and besieged the town round about as near as they might: and the king (age 42) and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40) held them in the castle [Map], and the old sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and the earl of Arundel (age 41) held them in the town. And when the people of the town saw the great power that the queen (age 31) was of (for almost all England was of her accord), and perceived what peril and danger evidently they were in, they took counsel among themselves and determined that they would yield up the town to the queen (age 31), so that their lives and goods might be saved. And so they sent to treat with the queen and her council in this matter; but the queen nor her council would not agree thereto without she might do with sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and with the earl of Arundel (age 20) what it pleased her. When the people of the town saw they could have no peace otherwise, nor save the town nor their goods nor their lives, in that distress they accorded to the queen (age 31) and opened the gates, so that the queen (age 31) and sir John of Hainault (age 38), and all her barons, knights and squires, entered into the town and took their lodgings within, as many as might, and the residue without. Then sir Hugh Spencer (age 65) and the earl of Arundel (age 20) were taken and brought before the queen (age 31), to do her pleasure with them. Then there was brought to the queen her own children, [his brother] John her son (age 10) and her two daughters [Note. [his sister] Eleanor of Woodstock Plantagenet (age 8) and [his sister] Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland (age 5)], the which were found there in the keeping of the said sir Hugh Spencer (age 65), whereof the queen had great joy, for she had not seen them long 'before. Then the king (age 42) might have great sorrow and sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40), who were fast enclosed in the strong castle, and the most part of all the realm turned to the queen's part and to Edward (age 13) her eldest son.

Froissart. At the last it fortuned, sir Henry Beaumont (age 47), son to the viscount Beaumont in England, entered into a barge and certain company with him, and spied this vessel and rowed after him so long that the ship wherein the [his father] king (age 42) was could not flee fast before them, but finally they were overtaken, and so brought again to the town of Bristow [Map] and delivered to the [his mother] queen (age 31) and her son (age 13) as prisoners.

Froissart. WHEN the [his mother] queen (age 31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle [Map] as near as they might. The queen (age 31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) the elder and the earl of Arundel (age 41) to be brought forth before Edward her son (age 13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that she and her son (age 13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) said, 'Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment1, and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (age 29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty1, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth;3 wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow [Map] in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?].

Note 1. This should be, 'God give us a good judge and good judgment ' ; but Verard's edition, from which the translation was made, has 'vous' for 'nous.'

Note 2. This appears to mean, ' To the intent that he should find him guilty on the charge' ('fauty' for 'faulty'); but the original means, 'To the intent that he should declare upon his fealty (féaulté) what should be done with such persons,' etc.

Note 3. Or rather as follows: ' That the accused had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds which they had heard in that place rehearsed, and held them for true and manifest.'

Froissart. 24 Nov 1326. WHEN this feast was done, then sir Hugh Spencer (age 40), who was nothing beloved, was brought forth before the [his mother] queen (age 31) and all the lords and knights, and there before him in writing was rehearsed all his deeds, against the which he could give no manner of answer. And so he was then judged by plain sentence, first to be drawn on an hurdle with trumps and trumpets through all the city of Hereford [Map], and after to be brought into the market-place [Map], whereas all the people were assembled, and there to be tied on high upon a ladder that every man might see him; and in the same place there to be made a great fire, and there his privy members cut from him, because they reputed him as an heretic and so deemed, and so to be burnt in the fire before his face; and then his heart to be drawn out of his body and cast into the fire, because he was a false traitor of heart, and that by his traitor's counsel and exhortation the [his father] king (age 42) had shamed his realm and brought it to great mischief, for he had caused to be beheaded the greatest lords of his realm, by whom the realm ought to have been sustained and defended; and he had so induced the king (age 42) that he would not see the queen his wife nor Edward his eldest son (age 14), and caused him to chase them out of the realm for fear of their lives; and then his head to be stricken off and sent to London. And according to his judgment he was executed. Then the queen (age 31) and all her lords took their way toward London, and did so much by their journeys that they arrived at the city of London, and they of the city with great company met them and did to the queen and to her son great reverence, and to all their company, as they thought it best bestowed. And when they had been thus received and feasted the space of fifteen days, the knights strangers, and namely sir John of Hainault (age 38), had great desire to return again into their own countries, for they thought they had well done their devoir and achieved great honour, and so took their leave of the queen and of the lords of the realm: and the queen and the lords required them to tarry longer a little space, to see what should be done with the king (age 42), who was in prison; but the strangers had so great desire to return into their own countries that to pray them the contrary availed not. And when the queen and her council saw that, they yet desired sir John of Hainault (age 38) to tarry till it was past Christmas, and to retain with him such of his company as pleased him best. The gentle knight would not leave to perform his service, but courteously granted the queen to tarry as long as it pleased her, and caused to tarry such of his company as he could get that was but a few, for the remnant would in no wise tarry, whereof he was displeased. When the queen and her council saw that they would not abide for no prayers, then they made them great cheer and feasts. And the queen made to be given to them plenty of gold and silver for their costs and services, and did give great jewels to each of them according to their degrees, so as they all held themselves right well content. And over that they had silver for their horses, such as they would leave behind them, at their own estimation without any grudging. And thus sir John of Hainault (age 38) abode still with a small company among the Englishmen, who always did him as much honour as they could imagine, and to all his company. And in likewise so did the ladies and damosels of the country; for there were great plenty of countesses and great ladies [and] gentle pucelles, who were come thither to accompany the queen. For it seemed well to them that the knight sir John of Hainault (age 38) had well deserved the cheer and feast that they made him.

Abdication of Edward II

On 25 Jan 1327 [his father] King Edward II of England (age 42) abdicated II King England. His son King Edward III of England (age 14) succeeded III King England.

Coronation of Edward III

On 01 Feb 1327 King Edward III of England (age 14) was crowned III King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Archbishop Walter Reynolds.

Froissart. 01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (age 39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the [his mother] queen (age 32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the [his father] king (age 42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (age 42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that Edward (age 14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (age 42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster [Map] beside London the young king Edward the third (age 14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (age 39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (age 39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (age 30) and the [his future father-in-law] earl of Hainault (age 41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde [Map] at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (age 14) by the counsel of the queen (age 32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges [Map], and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place [Map], and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, Kent [Map], and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the queen (age 32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, Kent [Map], they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde [Map].

Froissart. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (age 39) was departed from king Edward (age 14), he and the [his mother] queen (age 32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the [his uncle] earl of Kent (age 25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (age 39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (age 32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (age 30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (age 52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (age 14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old [his father] king Edward the second (age 42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (age 14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said: therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling [Map], whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (age 14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York [Map], standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (age 39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York [Map], with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (age 39) heard the king's (age 14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant [Map], for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (age 39) was come to Wissant [Map], there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, Kent [Map], and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York [Map], whereas the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (age 39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (age 39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (age 14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (age 28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.

Froissart. Around Jun 1327. THE gentle king of England (age 14), the better to feast these strange lords and all their company, held a great court on Trinity Sunday in the Friars, whereas he and the queen his mother were lodged, keeping their house each of them apart. At his feast the king had well five hundred knignts, and fifteen were new made. And the queen had well in her court sixty ladies and damosels,. who were there ready to make feast and cheer to sir John of Hainault (age 39) and to his company. There might have been seen great nobless [in serving] plenty of all manner of strange victuals. There were ladies and damosels freshly apparelled, ready to have danced if they might have leave. But incontinent after dinner there began great fray between some of the grooms and pages of the strangers and of the archers of England, who were lodged among them in the said suburbs; and anon all the archers assembled them together with their bows, and drove the strangers home to their lodging. And the most part of the knights and masters of them were as then in the king's court; but as soon as they heard tidings of the fray, each of them drew to their own lodging in great haste, such as might enter. And such as could not get in were in great peril, for the archers, who were to the number of three thousand, shot fast their arrows, not sparing masters nor varlets. And it was thought and supposed that this fray was begun by some of the friends of the Spencers and of the earl of Arundel's, who were put to death before by the aid and counsel of sir John of Hainault (age 39), as ye have heard before, [who] as then peradventure thought to be somewhat revenged and' to set discord in the host. And so the Englishmen, that were hosts to these strangers, shut fast their doors and windows and would not suffer them to enter into their lodgings: howbeit some gat in on the back side and quickly armed them, but they durst not issue out into the street for fear of the arrows. Then the strangers brake out on the back side, and brake down pales aid hedges of gardens, and drew them into a certain plain place and abode their company, till at the last they were a hundred and above of men of arms and as many unharnessed, such as could not get to their lodgings. And when they were assembled together, they hasted them to go and succour their companions, who defended their lodgings in the great street. And as they went forth, they passed by the lodging of the lord d'Enghien, whereas there were great gates both before and behind, open ing into the great street. And the archers of England shot fiercely at the house, and there were many o such strokes that men durst not approach to them. They three beat down that day, with such few company as they had, more than sixty; for they were great and mighty knights. Finally the archers that were at the fray were discomfited and put to chase, and there was dead in the place well to the number of three hundred. And it was said they were all of the bishopric of Lincoln. I trow God did never give more grace and fortune to any people than he did as then to this gentle knight sir John of Hainault and to his company. For these English archers intended to none other thing but to murder and to rob them, for all that they were come to serve the king in his business. These strangers were never in so great peril all the season that they lay, nor they were never after in surety till they were again at Wissant in their own country. For they were fallen in so great hate with all the archers of the host, that some of the barons and knights of England shewed unto the lords of Hainault, giving them warning that the archers and other of the common people were allied together to the number of six thousand to the intent to bren or to kill them in their lodgings either by night or by day. And so they lived at a hard adventure; but each of them promised to help and aid other, and to sell dearly their lives or they were slain. So they made many fair ordinances among themselves by good and great advice, whereby they were fain oftentimes to lie in their harness by night, and in the day to keep their lodgings and to have all their harness ready and their horses saddled. Thus continually they were fain to make watch by their constables in the fields and highways about the court, and to send out scout-watches a mile off to see ever if any such people were coming to themward, as they were informed of, to the intent that if their scoutwatch heard any noise or moving of people drawing to the city-ward, then incontinent they should give them knowledge, whereby they might the sooner gather together, each of them under their own banner in a certain place, the which they had advised for the same intent. And in this tribulation they abode in the said suburbs by the space of four weeks, and in all that season they durst not go far from their harness nor from their lodgings, saving a certain of the chief lords among them, who went to the court to see the king and his council, who made them right good cheer. For if the said evil adventure had not been, they had sojourned there in great ease, for the city and the country about them was right plentiful. For all the time of six weeks that the king and the lords of England and more than sixty thousand men of war lay there, the victuals were never the dearer; for ever they had a pennyworth for a penny, as well as other had before they came there, and there was good wine of Gascoyne and of Alsace, and of the Rhine, and plenty thereof, with right good cheap as well of pullen as of other victuals; and there was daily brought before their lodgings hay, oats and litter, whereof they were well served for their horses and at a meetly price.

Weardale Campaign

Froissart. Aug 1327. WHEN the king of England (age 14) and his host had seen and heard of the fires that the Scots had made in England, incontinent was cried alarm, and every man commanded to dislodge and follow after the marshals' banners. Then every man drew to the field ready apparelled to fight. There was ordained three great battles afoot, and to every battle two wings of five hundred men of arms, knights and squires, and thirty thousand other, armed and well apparelled, the one half on little hackneys and the other were men of the country afoot, sent out of good towns at their wages; and twenty-four thousand archers afoot, beside all the other rascal and followers of the host. And as these battles were thus ordered, so they advanced forward, well ranged and in good order, and followed the Scots by the sithe of the smoke that they made with burning; and thus they followed all that day till it was near night. Then the host lodged them in a wood by a little river side, there to rest and to abide for their carriage and purveyances. And at that day the Scots had brent and wasted and pilled the country about within five miles of the English host; but the Englishmen could not overtake them. And the next day in the morning all the host armed them and displayed their banners on the field, every man ready apparelled in his own battle, and so advanced without disordering all the day through mountains and valleys; but for all that they could never approach near to the Scots, who vent wasting the country before them. There were such marishes and savage deserts, mountains and dales, that it was commanded on pain of death that none of the host should pass before the banners of the marshals. And when it drew toward the night, the people, horse and carriage, and namely the men afoot, were so sore travailed, that they could not endure to labour any further that day. And when the lords saw that their labour in following the Scots was in vain, and also they perceived well, though the Scots would abide them, yet they might take their field in such a place or on such a hill that they could not fight with them, without it were to their great damage and jeopardy, then was it commanded in the king's name by the marshals that the host should take their lodging for that night, and so to take counsel and advice what should be best to do the next day. So the host was lodged in a wood by a river side, and the king was lodged in a little poor abbey: his men of war, horse and carriage were marvellously fortravailed. And when every man had taken his place to lodge there all night, then the lords drew them apart to take counsel how they might fight with the Scots, considering the country that they were in: for as far as they could understand, the Scots went ever forwards, all about burning and wasting the country, and perceived well how they could not in any wise fight with them among these mountains without great peril or danger, and they saw well also they could not overtake them: but it was thought that the Scots must needs pass again the river Tyne homeward; therefore it was deter ruined by great advice and counsel that all the host should remove at midnight, and to make haste in the morning to the intent to stop the passage of the river from the Scots, whereby they should be advised' by force either to fight with them, or else to abide still in England to their great danger and loss. And to this conclusion all the host was accorded, and so supped and lodged as well as they might that night, and every man was warned to be ready at the first sounding of the trumpet, and at the second blast every man to arm him without delay, and at the third every man quickly to mount on their horses and to draw under their own standard and banner; and every man to take with him but one loaf of bread, and to truss it behind him on his horse. It was also determined that they should leave behind them all their loose harness and all manner of carriages and purveyances, for they thought surely to fight with the Scots the next day, whatsoever danger they were in, thinking to jeopard, either to win or to lose all. And thus it was ordained and so it was accomplished: for about midnight every man was ready apparelled; few had slept but little, and yet they had sore travailed the day before. As great haste as they made, or they were well ranged in battle the day began to appear. Then they advanced forward in all haste through mountains, valleys and rocks, and through many evil passages without any plain country. And on the highest of these hills and on the plain of these valleys there were marvellous great marshes and dangerous passages, that it was great marvel that much people had not been lost, for they rode ever still forward and never tarried one for another; for whosoever fell in any of these marshes with much pain could get any aid to help them out again, so that in divers places there were many lost, and specially horse and carriages; and oftentimes in the day there was cried alarum, for it was said ever that the foremost company of their host were fighting with their enemies, so that the hindermost weened it had been true; wherefore they hasted them over rocks and stones and mountains with helm and shield ready apparelled to fight, with spear and sword ready in hand, without tarrying for father, brother or companion. And when they had thus run forth oftentimes in the day the space of half a mile together toward the cry, weening it had been their enemies, they were deceived; for the cry ever arose by the raising of harts, hinds and other savage beasts that were seen by them in the forward, after the which beasts they made such shouting and crying, that they that came after weened they had been a-fighting with their enemies.

Battle of Stanhope Park

Froissart. 03 Aug 1327. Battle of Stanhope Park. And when they had well rested them and taken repast, then the trumpet sounded to horse, and every man mounted, and the banners and standards followed this new-made knight, every battle by itself in good order, through mountains and dales, ranged as well as they might, ever ready apparelled to fight; and they rode and made such haste that about noon they were so near the Scots that each of them might clearly see other. And as soon as the Scots saw them, they issued out of their lodges afoot, and ordained three great battles in the availing of the hill, and at the foot of this mountain there ran a great river full of great rocks and stones, so that none might pass over without great danger or jeopardy; and though the Englishmen had passed over the river, yet was there no place nor room between the hill and the river to set the battle in good order. The Scots had stablished their two first battles at the two corners of the mountain, joining to the rocks, so that none might well mount upon the hill to assail them, but the Scots were ever ready to beat with stones the assailants, if they passed the river. And when the lords of England saw the behaving and the manner of the Scots, they made all their people to alight afoot and to put off their spurs, and arranged three great battles, as they had done before, and there were made many new knights. And when their battles were set in good order, then some of the lords of England brought their young king a-horseback before all the battles of the host, to the intent to give thereby the more courage to all his people, the which king in full goodly manner prayed and required them right graciously that every man would pain them to do their best to save his honour and common weal of his realm. And it was commanded upon pain of death that were so near together that they might know each other's arms. Then the host stood still to take other counsel. And some of the host mounted on good horses and rode forth to skirmish with them and to behold the passage of the river and to see the countenance of their enemies more nearer. And there were heralds of arms sent to the Scots, giving them knowledge, if that they would come and pass the river to fight with them in the plain field, they would draw back from the river and give them sufficient place to arrange their battles either the same day or else the next, as they would choose themselves, or else to let them do likewise and they would come over to them. And when the Scots heard this, they took counsel among themselves, and anon they answered the heralds, how they would do neither the one nor the other, and said, 'Sirs, your king and his lords see well how we be here in this realm and have brent and wasted the country as we have passed through, and if they be displeased therewith, let them amend it when they will, for here we will abide as long as it shall please us.' And as soon as the king of England (age 14) heard that answer, it was incontinent cried that all the host should lodge there that night without reculing back.

On 04 Aug 1327, during the night, James "Black" Douglas (age 41) ambushed Edward III's (age 14) camp at Stanhope Park Weardale [Map]. Douglas (age 41) reached Edward III's (age 14) collapsed tent nearly capturing the English King.

Death of Edward II

On 21 Sep 1327 [his father] King Edward II of England (age 43) was murdered at Berkeley Castle [Map]. There is speculation as to the manner of his death, and as to whether he died at all. Some believe he may have lived the rest of his life in Europe.

Death of Charles IV of France Sucession of Philip VI

Froissart. 1328. [his uncle] King Charles of France (age 33), son to the [his grandfather] fair king Philip, was three times married, and yet died without issue male. The first of his wives was one of the most fairest ladies in all the world, and she was daughter to the earl of Artois. Howbeit she kept but evil the sacrament of matrimony, but brake her wedlock; wherefore she was kept a long space in prison in the castle Gaillard [Map], before that her husband was made king. And when the realm of France was fallen to him, he was crowned by the assent of the twelve douze-peers1 of France, and then because they would not that the realm of France should be long without an heir male, they advised by their counsel that the king should be remarried again; and so he was, to the daughter of the emperor Henry of Luxembourg, sister to the gentle king of Bohemia (age 31); whereby the first marriage of the king was fordone, between him and his wife that was in prison, by the licence and declaration of the pope that was then. And by his second wife, who was right humble, and a noble wise lady, the king had a son, who died in his young age, and the queen also at Issoudun [Map] in Berry. And they both died suspiciously, wherefore divers persons were put to blame after privily. And after this, the same king Charles was married again the third time to the daughter (age 18) of his uncle, the lord Louis earl of Evreux, and she was sister to the king of Navarre (age 21), and was named queen Joan. And so in time and space this lady was with child, and in the mean-time the king Charles her husband fell sick and lay down on his death-bed. And when he saw there was no way with him but death, he devised that if it fortuned the queen to be delivered of a son, then he would that the lord Philip of Valois should be his governour, and regent of all his realm, till his son come to such age as he might be crowned king; and if it fortuned the queen to have a daughter, then he would that all the twelve peers of France should take advice and counsel for the further ordering of the realm, and that they should give the realm and regaly to him that had most right thereto. And so within a while after the king Charles died, about Easter in the year of our Lord Mcccxxviii., and within a short space after the queen was delivered of a daughter.

Note 1. Froissart says simply 'les douze pers.'

Then all the peers of France assembled a council together at Paris, as shortly as they might conveniently, and there they gave the realm by common accord to sir Philip of Valois (age 34), and put clean out the [his mother] queen Isabel (age 33) of England and king Edward (age 15) her son. For she was sister-german to king Charles last dead, but the opinion of the nobles of France was, and said and maintained that the realm of France was of so great nobless, that it ought not by succession to fall into a woman's hand. And so thus they crowned king of France Philip Valois at Rheims [Map] on Trinity Sunday next after.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

Froissart. 24 Jan 1328. It was not long after but that the king (age 15) and the [his mother] queen (age 33) his mother, the [his uncle] earl of Kent (age 26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (age 47), sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (age 40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the [his father-in-law] earl's (age 42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (age 42), named [his wife] Philippa (age 13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (age 42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (age 15) your prince and the queen (age 33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (age 84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon [Map], to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and [his mother-in-law] Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (age 84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (age 84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant [Map], and arrived with all her company at Dover, Kent [Map]. And sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York [Map] with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of [his father] king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (age 13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (age 18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.

Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].

On 24 Jan 1328 King Edward III of England (age 15) and Philippa of Hainault (age 13) were married at York Minster [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She was crowned the same day. She the daughter of William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34). He the son of King Edward II of England and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33). They were second cousins. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

The marriage was the quid pro quo for her father William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland (age 42) having supported his mother Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) returning to England to usurp the throne of Edward's father King Edward II of England.

Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton

On 17 Mar 1328 Robert the Bruce (age 53) signed the Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton bringing to an end the First Scottish War of Independence. The English Parliament signed at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map] on 03 May 1328. The terms of the Treaty included:

Scotland to pay England £100,000 sterling,

The Kingdom of Scotland as fully independent,

Robert the Bruce (age 53), and his heirs and successors, as the rightful rulers of Scotland, and.

The border between Scotland and England as that recognised under the reign of Alexander III (1249-1286).

The Treaty lasted four years only being regarded by the English nobility as humiliating; the work of Edward's (age 15) mother [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 40) rather than King Edward (age 15). Two years after King Edward (age 15) commenced his personal reign he commenced the Second War of Scottish Independence in Aug 1332.

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. Treaty of Edinburgh Northampton. AND when that the Scots were departed by night from the mountain, whereas the king of England (age 15) had besieged them, as ye have heard herebefore, they went twentytwo mile through that savage country without resting, and passed the river of Tyne right near to Carlisle, Cumberland [Map]1; and the next day they went into their own land, and so departed every man to his own mansion. And within a space after there was a peace purchased between the kings of England and Scotland; and as the English chronicle saith,' it was done by the special counsel of the [his mother] old queen (age 33) and sir Roger Mortimer (age 40); for by their means there was a parliament holden at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], at the which the king (age 15) being within age granted to the Scots to release all the fealties and homages that they ought to have done to the crown of England, by his charter ensealed, and also there was delivered to the Scots an indenture, the which was called the Ragman, wherein was contained all the homages and fealties that the king of Scots and all the prelates, earls and barons of Scotland ought to have done to the crown of England, sealed with all their seals, with all other rights that sundry barons and knights ought to have had in the realm of Scotland.

Note 1. This may be a mistake since the River Tyne doesn't flows near Carlisle. The River Eden flows through Carlisle.

Froissart. 17 Mar 1328. Then the [his uncle] earl marshal (age 27) and the [his uncle] earl of Kent (age 26), the king's uncle, made a peace between the king (age 15) and the earl of Lancaster (age 47), on whose part was sir Henry lord Beaumont (age 49), sir Fulke Fitz-Warin (age 43), sir Thomas Rocelin, sir William Trussel (age 48), sir Thomas Wither and about a hundred knights, who were all expelled out of England by the counsel of queen Isabel and the earl Mortimer: for he was so covetous, that he thought to have the most part of all their lands into his own hands, as it is more plainly shewed in the English chronicle, the which I pass over and follow mine author.

Mortimer Double Marriage and Tournament

On 31 May 1328 the Mortimer family leveraged their new status at a lavish ceremony that celebrated the marriages of two of Roger Mortimer's (age 41) daughters at Hereford [Map].

Edward Plantagenet (age 8) and Beatrice Mortimer (age 6) were married. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) and Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 42). He the son of Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 27) and Alice Hales Countess Norfolk. They were half third cousin once removed. He a grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke (age 9) and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 11) were married. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41) and Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville (age 42). He the son of John Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings 14th Baron Bergavenny and Juliana Leybourne Countess Huntingdon (age 25). They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England.

King Edward III of England (age 15) and his mother [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) attended as well as Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 41).

In 1329 Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 42) was sent to King Philip IV of France (age 35) to explain the reasons for the delay in King Edward III (age 16) rendering of his homage.

Execution of Edmund of Woodstock

On 19 Mar 1330 the King's uncle [his uncle] Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent (age 28) was beheaded at Winchester Castle [Map]. Earl Kent forfeit. The executioner was a convicted latrine cleaner who was also facing the death penalty; no-one else would undertake the task of executing a member of the Royal family. Edmund had been convicted of plotting against the court believing his brother Edward II was still alive. It later emerged the plot had been created by Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 42) to entrap Edmund. King Edward III of England (age 17) was unable to show leniency risking complicity in the plot. He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 15 Jun 1330 [his son] Edward "Black Prince" was born to King Edward III of England (age 17) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 15) at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Battle of Teba

Froissart. 25 Aug 1330. Battle of Teba. And within a while after that this knight sir William Douglas (age 44) was come to the king of Spain (age 19), on a day the king issued out into the field to approach near to his enemies. And the king of Granade issued out in like wise on his part, so that each king might see other with all their banners displayed. Then they arranged their battles each against other. Then sir William Douglas (age 44) drew out on the one side with all his company, to the intent to shew his prowess the better. And when he saw these battles thus ranged on both parties, and saw that the battle of the king of Spain (age 19) began somewhat to advance toward their enemies, he thought then verily that they should soon assemble together to fight at hand strokes; and then he thought rather to be with the foremost than with the hindermost, and strake his horse with the spurs, and all his company also, and dashed into the battle of the king of Granade, crying, 'Douglas! Douglas!' weening to him the king of Spain (age 19) and his host had followed, but they did not; wherefore he was deceived, for the Spanish host stood still. And so this gentle knight (age 44) was enclosed, and all his company, with the Saracens, whereas he did marvels in arms, but finally he could not endure, so that he and all his company were slain. The which was great damage, that the Spaniards would not rescue them. Also in this season there were certain lords that treated for peace between England and Scotland. So that at the last there was a marriage made and solemnised between the young king of Scotland (age 4) and dame [his sister] Joan of the Tower (age 7), sister to king Edward of England (age 15), at Berwick [Map], as the English chronicle saith, on Mary Maudlin day [Note. the Feast of Mary Magdalen is 22 Jul?], the year 'of our Lord MCCCXXVIII., against the assent of many of the nobles of the realm. But [his mother] queen Isabel (age 35) the king's mother and the earl Mortimer (age 43) made that marriage; at the which, as mine author saith, there was great feast made on both parties.

Edward III arrests Roger Mortimer

On 19 Oct 1330 John Neville 1299-1335, William Eland, William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 20), William Clinton 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 26) and William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 29), friends of King Edward III of England (age 17) secretly entered Nottingham Castle [Map] through tunnels, met with King Edward III of England (age 17), and arrested Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) and his son Geoffrey Mortimer (age 21) in the presence of [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35).

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was hanged naked at Tyburn [Map] accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map]. [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35) subsequently requested his burial at Wigmore Abbey [Map] and, after firstly refusing, King Edward III of England (age 18) allowed his remains to be removed to Wigmore Abbey [Map]. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March (age 2) succeeded 2nd Earl March, 4th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore.

On 14 May 1332 King Edward III of England (age 19) spent Easter at the House of the Friars Preachers, Stamford [Map], and paid fifty marks to the friars for damages done by the royal household.

On 16 Jun 1332 [his daughter] Isabella Countess Bedford and Soissons was born to King Edward III of England (age 19) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 17) at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Battle of Halidon Hill

On 19 Jul 1333 King Edward III of England (age 20) defeated the Scots army at the Battle of Halidon Hill near Berwick on Tweed [Map]. [his brother] John of Eltham 1st Earl Cornwall (age 16) commanded.

English archers, just as at the Battle of Dupplin Moor one year previously, had a significant impact on the massed ranks of Scottish schiltrons. Edward's army included: [his uncle] Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl Norfolk (age 33), who commanded the right wing, Hugh Courtenay 9th Earl Devon (age 56), Robert Pierrepont, Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon (age 30), Henry Beaumont Earl Buchan (age 54) and John Sully (age 50). One of the few English casualties was John Neville (age 34) who was killed.

The Scottish army included King David II of Scotland (age 9). Alexander Bruce, Alan Stewart (age 61), James Stewart (age 57), John Stewart, William Douglas 1st Earl Atholl, Archibald Douglas (age 35) who were all killed.

Hugh 4th Earl Ross (age 36) was killed. His son William 5th Earl Ross succeeded 5th Earl Ross.

Malcolm Lennox 2nd Earl Lennox was killed. His son Domhnall Lennox Earl Lennox succeeded Earl Lennox.

Kenneth de Moravia Sutherland 4th Earl Sutherland was killed. His son William de Moravia Sutherland 5th Earl Sutherland succeeded 5th Earl Sutherland. Johanna Menteith Countess Sutherland by marriage Countess Sutherland.

On 19 Dec 1333 [his daughter] Joan Plantagenet was born to King Edward III of England (age 21) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 19) at Tower of London [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

In 1335 King Edward III of England (age 22) was at House of the Friars Preachers, Stamford [Map] and on several occasions gave the friars pittances.

Battle of Culblean

On 30 Nov 1335 David III Strathbogie 11th Earl Atholl (age 26) was killed during the Battle of Culblean. His son David IV Strathbogie 12th Earl Atholl (age 8) succeeded 12th Earl Atholl, 3rd Baron Strabolgi.

Whilst small the battle had a significant impact insofar as it brought an end to the campaign of King Edward III of England (age 23) also ending the aspirations to the Scottish throne of Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 52).

Before 06 Jul 1336 Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford (age 34) abducted Margaret Audley Countess Stafford (age 18). She being the heir of the very wealthy Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 45); considerably more wealthy than Ralph. King Edward III of England (age 23) was sympathetic despite the complaint of her father since Ralph had been one of King Edward III's (age 23) key supporters during the plot to arrest Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March. Margaret's (age 18) father was subsequently created Earl as a quid pro quo.

1337 Creation of Earls

In 1337 King Edward III of England (age 24) created a number of new Earldom's probably in preparation for his forthcoming war against France ...

William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 36) was created 1st Earl Salisbury. Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 33) by marriage Countess Salisbury.

William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 27) was created 1st Earl of Northampton. Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 24) by marriage Countess of Northampton.

Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 46) was created 1st Earl Gloucester probably as compensation for his daughter Margaret Audley Countess Stafford (age 19) having been abducted by Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford (age 35).

Robert Ufford 1st Earl Suffolk (age 38) was created 1st Earl Suffolk. Margaret Norwich Countess Suffolk (age 51) by marriage Countess Suffolk.

On 16 Feb 1337 [his son] William of Hatfield was born to King Edward III of England (age 24) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 22) at Hatfield [Map]. He died shortly afterwards around 03 Mar 1337. He was buried at York Minster [Map] where there is a monument to him in the north aisle. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Froissart. Nov 1337. The news of the discomfiture at Cadsant was soon spread abroad; - the Flemings said, that they were not sorry for it, as the earl had placed that garrison there without their consent or advice; nor was Jacob von Artaveld (age 47) displeased at the event. He instantly sent over ambassadors to king Edward recommending himself to his grace with his whole heart and faith. He signified to the king, that it was his opinion he should immediately cross the sea, and come to Antwerp [Map], by which means he would acquit himself towards the Flemings, who were very anxious to see him; and he imagined, if he were on that side of the water, his affair would go on more prosperously, and to his greater advantage. The king of England (age 24), upon this, made very great preparations; and when the winter was over, he embarked, accompanied by many earls, barons, and knights, and came to the city of Antwerp, which at that time was held for the duke of Brabant (age 37): multitudes came thither to see him, and witness the great state and pomp in which he lived. He sent to the duke of Brabant (age 37), his cousin, to his brother-in-law, the duke of Gueldres (age 42), to the marquis of Juliers, the lord John of Hainault, and to all those from whom he expected support and assistance, that he should be happy to have some conversation with them. They all therefore came to Antwerp between Whitsuntide and St. Johns day; and when the king had sufficiently entertained them, he was eager to know from them when they could enter upon what they had promised, and entreated them to make dispatch: for this was his reason of coming to Antwerp; ud as he had all his preparations ready, it would be a great loss to him if they were tardy. These lords of Germany had a long consultation together, and finally made this their answer:-

"Dear sir, when we came hither, it was more for the pleasure of seeing you, than for any thing else; we are not yet in a situation to give a positive answer to your demand; but we will return home, and come again to you whenever you please, and give you so full an answer, that the matter shall not remain with us."

They fixed upon that day three weeks after St. John's day. The king of England remonstrated with them upon the great expenses and loss he should be at by their delays, for he thought they would all have been ready with their answers by the time he had come thither; and added, that he would never return to England, until he knew what their intentions were. Upon this the lords departed, and the king remained quietly in the monastery of St. Bernard: some of his lords staid at Antwerp, to keep him company; the rest went about the country amusing themselves in a magnificent style, and were well received and feasted wherever they came. The duke of Brabant went to Louvain [Map], and made a long stay there; thence he sent (as he had done before) frequently to the king of France (age 43), to entreat that he would not pay attention to any reports that were injurious to him, for he should be very sorry to form any connexion or alliance contrary to his interests; but the king of England being his cousin-german, he could not forbid his passing through his country. The day came when the king expected the answers from the above-mentioned lords: they sent excuses, saying, they were not quite ready, neither themselves nor their men; that he must exert himself to make the duke of Brabant prepare to act with them, as he was much nearer to France, and seemed to them very indifferent in the matter; and that an soon as they should for a certainty he informed that the duke was ready, they would pat themselves in motion, and he as soon in action as he should he.

Upon this the king of England had a conference with the duke of Brabant, and showed him the answers he had received, and begged of him, hy his friendship and his kindred, that no delay might come from him, for he suspected that he was not warmly inclined to the cause, and added, that, if he were so cool and indifferent, he much feared he should lose the aid of these German lords. The duke replied, that he would summon his council. After long deliberations, he told the king, that he would he ready the moment the business required it - but that he must first see these lords; to whom he wrote, to desire they would meet him at whatever place was the most agreeable to them. The day for this conference was fixed for the middle of August, and it was unanimously agreed to be held at Halle, on account of the young earl of Hainault, who was to be there, as well as the lord John, his uncle.

When all these lords of the empire were assembled in the city of Halle, they had long deliberations together, and said to the king of England, "Dear sir, we do not see any cause for us to challenge the king of France, all things considered, unless you can procure the consent of the emperor, and that he will command us so to do on his account, which may easily be done; for there is an ordinance of a very old date, sealed, that no king of France should take and keep possession of any thing that belongs to tho empire. Now king Philip has gotten possession of the castles of Crevecoaur, in Cambresis, and of Arleux, in Artois, as well as the city of Cambray [Map], for which the emperor has good grounds to challenge him through us, if you will have the goodness to obtain it from him, in order to save our honour." The king of England replied, that he would very cheerfully conform himself to their advice.

It was then determined, that the marquis of Juliers should go to the emperor, and with him knights and counsellors from the king, and some from the duke of Gueldres: but the duke of Brabant would not send any; he lent, however, his castle of Louvain [Map] to the king for his residence. The marquis of Juliers and his company found the emperor at Nuremberg: they obtained by their solicitations the object of their mission; for the [his sister-in-law] lady Margaret of Hainault (age 25), whom the lord Lewis of Bavaria (age 55), then emperor, had married, took great pains and trouble to bring it about. The marquis was then created an earl, and the duke of Gueldres (age 42), who was but an earl, was raised to the dignity of a duke. The emperor gave a commission to four knights and two counsellors in the law, who were members of his council, investing them with powers to make king Edward his vicar over all parts of the empire; and these lords took out sufficient instruments, publicly sealed and confirmed by the emperor.

Froissart. Nov 1337. When the king of England (age 24) and the other lords to him allied were departed from the parliament of Hal, the king went to Louvain [Map] and made ready the castle for his abiding, and sent for the [his wife] queen (age 23) to come thither, if it pleased her; for he sent her word he would not come thence of an whole year, and sent home certain of his knights to keep his land from the Scots. And the other lords and knights that were there still with the king rode about the realm of Flanders and Hainault, making great dispense, giving great rewards and jewels to the lords, ladies and damosels of the country, to get their good-wills. They did so much that they were greatly praised, and specially of the common people, because of the port and state that they kept.

1338 French Raid on Walcheren

On 23 Sep 1338 a French fleet attacked an English fleet unloading cargo at Walcheren. Five large and powerful English cogs, including Edward III's (age 25) flagships the Cog Edward and the Christopher were captured. The captured crews were executed and the ships added to the French fleet.

1338 French Raid on Southampton

Froissart. 05 Oct 1338. Upon king Philip's (age 44) receiving the challenges from king Edward (age 25) and his allies, he collected men at arms and soldiers from all quarters; he sent the lord Gallois de la Bausme, a good knight from Savoy, to the city of Cambray [Map], and made him governor thereof, in conjunction with sir Thibault de Marneil and the lord of Roye: they might be, including Spaniards and French, full two hundred lances. The king seized the county of Ponthieu [Map], which the king of England had before held by right of his [his mother] mother (age 43); and he also sent and entreated some lords of the empire, such as the [his brother-in-law] count of Hainault his nephew (age 31), the duke of Lorrain (age 18), the Count of Bar (age 23), the bishop of Metz, the bishop of Liege, not to commit any hostile acts against him or his kingdom. The greater part of them answered as he could have wished; but the count of Hainault, in a very civil reply, said that although he should be at all times ready to assist him or his realm against any one, yet as the king of England made war in behalf of the empire, as vicar and lieutenant of it, he could not refuse him aid and assistance in his country, as he held lands under the empire. The king of France appeared satisfied with this answer, not however laying much stress on it, as he felt himself in sufficient strength to oppose his enemies.

As soon as sir Hugh Quiriel, sir Peter Bahucet, and Barbenoire, were informed that hostilities had commenced, they landed one Sunday morning in the harbour at Southampton, Hampshire [Map], whilst the inhabitants were at church: Normans, Picards, and Spaniards entered the town, pillaged it, killed many, deflowered maidens and forced wives; and having loaded their vessels with the booty, they fell down with the tide, and made sail for the coast of Normandy. They landed at Dieppe, and there divided the plunder.

On 29 Nov 1338 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence was born to King Edward III of England (age 26) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 24) at Antwerp [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Froissart. 1339. The king of England (age 26) departed from Mechlin [Map] and went to Brussels, and all his people passed on by the town. Then came to the king a twenty thousand Almains, and the king sent and demanded of the duke of Brabant what was his intention, to go to Cambray [Map] or else to leave it. The duke answered and said that as soon as he knew that he had besieged Cambray [Map], he would come thither with twelve hundred spears, of good men of war. Then the king went to Nivelle and there lay one night, and the next day to Mons in Hainault; and there he found the young earl of Hainault, who received him joyously. And ever sir Robert of Artois was about the king, as one of his privy council, and a sixteen or twenty other great lords and knights of England, the which were ever about the king for his honour and estate, and to counsel him in all his deeds. Also with him was the bishop of Lincoln (age 47), who was greatly renowned in this journey both in wisdom and in prowess. Thus the Englishmen passed forth and lodged abroad in the country, and found provision enough before them for their money; howbeit some paid truly and some not.

In 1340 [his daughter] Blanche of the Tower was born to King Edward III of England (age 27) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Tower of London [Map]. she died the same year and was buried at the east side of the door to the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

On 06 Mar 1340 [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster was born to King Edward III of England (age 27) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Prinsenhof Palace [Map] in Ghent aka Gaunt. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Battle of Sluys

On 24 Jun 1340 King Edward III of England (age 27) attacked the French fleet at anchor during the Battle of Sluys capturing more than 200 ships, killing around 18000 French. The English force included John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick (age 24), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 30), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham (age 27), William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 10), John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 22), Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford (age 38), Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 30), Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny (age 30), Hugh Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 32) and Richard Pembridge (age 20).

Thomas Monthermer 2nd Baron Monthermer (age 38) died from wounds. His daughter Margaret Monthermer Baroness Montagu 3rd Baroness Monthermer succeeded 3rd Baroness Monthermer.

On 05 Jun 1341 [his son] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York was born to King Edward III of England (age 28) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 26) at King's Langley, Hertfordshire [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Creation of the Order of the Garter

On 23 Apr 1344 King Edward III of England (age 31) created the Order of the Garter. The date nominal as there are different accounts; some sources say 1348.

1 [his son] Edward "Black Prince".

2 Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster.

3 Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick.

4 Jean Grailly.

5 Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford.

6 William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury.

7 Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March.

8 John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle.

9 Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh.

10 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick.

11 John Mohun 2nd Baron Mohun of Dunster.

12 Hugh Courtenay.

13 Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent.

14 John Grey 1st Baron Grey.

15 Richard Fitzsimon.

16 Miles Stapleton.

17 Thomas Wale.

18 Hugh Wrottesley.

19 Neil Loring.

20 John Chandos.

21 James Audley.

22 Otho Holland.

23 Henry Eam.

24 Sanchet Abrichecourt.

25 Walter Paveley 4th Baron Burghesh.

On 23 Apr 1344. The date somewhat unclear; it may have been before. King Edward III of England (age 31) formed the Order of the Garter. The date is somewhat unclear. The first reliable record occurs in autumn of 1348 when the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits being issued. The Order may have been formed before then with some traditions such as the mantle, and the garter and motto, possibly being introduced later. The Garter refers to an event at Wark Castle [Map] at which King Edward III of England (age 31) picked up the Countess of Salisbury's fallen garter and saying to the crowd "Honi soit qui mal y pense" ie Shame on him who thinks badly of it, or possibly, he brings shame on himself who thinks badly of it. The Countess of Salisbury could refer to his future daughter-in-law [his future daughter-in-law] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 15) or her former mother-in-law Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 40). The event has also been drescribed as taking place at @@Calias.Creation of the Order of the Garter

Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury: Around 1304 she was born to William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison and Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison at Ashford, Herefordshire. Around 1320 William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury and she were married. She by marriage Baroness Montagu. On 23 Nov 1349 Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury died at Bisham Abbey.

On 10 Oct 1344 [his daughter] Mary Plantagenet Duchess Brittany was born to King Edward III of England (age 31) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 30) at Bishop Waltham's Palace, Hampshire [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Funeral Henry 3rd Earl Lancaster

After 22 Sep 1345 Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster (age 64) was buried at Church of the Annunciation of our Lady of the Newark [Map], or possibly the Hospital Chapel, at a ceremony attended by King Edward III of England (age 32) and his wife [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 31). His son Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 35) subsequently moved had his remains moved to St Mary de Castro Leicester, Leicestershire [Map].

Commencement of the Crécy Campaign

On 12 Jul 1346 King Edward III of England (age 33) landed at La Hogue [Map] with army of around 10,000 men including John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 28).

On 20 Jul 1346 [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke was born to King Edward III of England (age 33) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 32) at Windsor Castle [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Battle of Blanchetaque

On 24 Aug 1346 the Battle of Blanchetaque was fought between the English and French. The English had become trapped in an area denuded of supplies and needed to cross the River Somme to access food. The French army had destroyed all the bridges across the River Somme. At the 1800m wide ford at Blanchetaque, ten miles inland from the sea, Edward III's (age 33) army crossed the river despite resistance from the French. Hugh Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 38) led a force of English longbowmen across the ford to engage the French crossbowmen. Following the archery battle a force of English mounted men-at-arms, probably led by William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 36), engaged with the French. Following the battle the whole English army crossed the river then marched to Crécy to prepare for the next battle.

Battle of Crécy

On 26 Aug 1346 the army of King Edward III of England (age 33) defeated the French army at the Battle of Crécy. The English army was commanded by King Edward III of England (age 33), his son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 16), Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 36) and John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick (age 30).

The English army was included: Bishop Thomas of Hatfield (age 36), Hugh Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 38), Bernard Brocas (age 16), Thomas Felton (age 16), James Audley (age 28), Robert Bourchier 1st Baron Bourchier, Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 59), Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh (age 18), Reginald Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 51), John Darcy 1st Baron Darcy of Knayth (age 66), Robert Ferrers 3rd Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 37), Richard Scrope 1st Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 19), William Scrope (age 21), Stephen Scrope (age 21), William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 16), John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 28), Gerard Lisle 1st Baron Lisle (age 42), Nicholas Longford (age 61), Edward Montagu 1st Baron Montagu, Walter Paveley 4th Baron Burghesh (age 27), Michael Poynings 1st Baron Poynings (age 28), Robert Ufford 1st Earl Suffolk (age 48), John de Vere 7th Earl of Oxford (age 34), Thomas West (age 34), John Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby (age 43), John Wingfield (age 26), Henry Percy 11th and 3rd Baron Percy (age 25), Hugh Courtenay 10th Earl Devon (age 43) (possibly), Walter "Elder" Devereux (age 37), John Devereux (age 44), Enion Sais Brecon, John Chandos (age 26), Richard Pembridge (age 26) and John Sully (age 63).

The French army suffered significant casualties. King Philip "Fortunate" VI of France (age 52) was wounded. William de Coucy (age 60) and his son Enguerrand 6th Lord de Coucy (age 33) and were killed.

Charles Valois Count Alençon (age 49) was killed. His son Charles Valois Archbishop Lyons (age 9) succeeded Count Alençon.

Louis Chatillon II Count Blois I Count Chatillon was killed. His son Louis Chatillon III Count Blois Count Soissons succeeded III Count Blois.

Louis Dampierre II Count Nevers I Count Flanders (age 42) was killed. His son Louis Dampierre III Count Nevers II Count Flanders (age 15) succeeded III Count Nevers, II Count Flanders.

King John I of Bohemia (age 50) was killed. His son Charles IV King Bohemia Holy Roman Emperor Luxemburg (age 30) succeeded IV King Bohemia.

Rudolph "Valiant" Metz I Duke Lorraine (age 26) was killed. His son John Metz I Duke Lorraine succeeded I Duke Lorraine.

Jean IV de Harcourt (age 39) was killed.

Siege of Calais

On 03 Sep 1346 King Edward III of England (age 33) commenced the Siege of Calais. It lasted eleven months with Calais eventually surrendering on 03 Aug 1347.

In 1347 [his son] Thomas of Windsor was born to King Edward III of England (age 34) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 32). In 1348 he died. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

In 1348 [his son] William of Windsor was born to King Edward III of England (age 35) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 33). In 1348 he died. He was buried at the east side of the door to the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

On 01 Jul 1348 [his daughter] Joan Plantagenet (age 14) died.

1349 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1349 King Edward III of England (age 36) created new Garter Knights:

26th William Fitzwarin (age 32). The date may be earlier.

27th. Robert Ufford (age 50).

28th William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 39).

Battle of Winchelsea

On 29 Aug 1350 the English fleet defeated a Castilian fleet at Winchelsea [Map] during the Battle of Winchelsea. Around twenty Castilian ships were captured; several were sunk. For the English King Edward III of England (age 37) and his son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 20), James Audley (age 32), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham (age 37), Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 40) and John Sully (age 67) fought.

In 1351 Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 41) was created 1st Duke Lancaster by King Edward III of England (age 38). Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 31) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

In 1352 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 13) and [his daughter-in-law] Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence (age 19) were married. He by marriage Earl Ulster. She was the sole heir of her father and brought the de Burgh inheritance of the lands of Ulster to the marriage. As a consequence of their earlier betrothal he had been called Earl Ulster since 1347. She the daughter of William Donn Burgh 3rd Earl Ulster and Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster (age 42). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 39) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 37). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

In 1353 King Edward III of England (age 40) granted the income from the rents and profits of the lands of the Forest of Dean to Flaxby Abbey [Map].

In 1353 Reginald Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 58) was appointed 29th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 40).

Around Sep 1353 King Edward III of England (age 40) visited St Mary Magdalene's Church, Leintwardine [Map] and laid a cloth of gold at the feet of the statue of the Virgin Mary.

In 1354 Henry Green was knighted by King Edward III of England (age 41).

On 02 Feb 1354 Robert Dampierre (age 31) and [his sister-in-law] Isabelle Hainault (age 31) were married. She the daughter of William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault. He the son of John Dampierre I Marquis Namur and Marie Artois. They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 07 Jan 1355 [his son] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester was born to King Edward III of England (age 42) and [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 40) at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

In 1356 Richard Vache was appointed 30th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 43).

Edward Balliol surrenders his claim to be King Scotland

On 20 Jan 1356 Edward Balliol I King Scotland (age 73) surrendered his claim to the Scottish throne to King Edward III of England (age 43) in the presence of William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 25) in exchange for an English pension.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 26th of October [his mother] she entertained the King (age 44) and [his son] Prince of Wales (age 27) in her own house in London; and we have recorded a gift of thirteen shillings and four pence to four minstrels who played in their presence.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 20th of March [1358], the King (age 45) comes to supper.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 29th, being still at Shene, Isabella [Map] is visited by Edward III (age 45)., the [his daughter] Lady Isabella (age 25) ( the King's eldest daughter ), and the Earl of March (age 29), who sup with her.

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. The following visits, during her [[his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 63)] stay in London, are recorded. On the 30th of April, the Countess of Warren to supper (age 62). On the 1st of May, the Countess of Pembroke (age 41) to dinner; and the King after dinner. On the 2nd of May, the Countesses of Warren (age 62) and Pembroke (age 41) to dinner; and the King (age 45), the [his son] Prince of Wales (age 27), the Earl of March (age 29), and others, after dinner. On the 3rd of May, the Countess of Pembroke (age 41) and the Maréchal D'Audenham to dinner; and the Earl of Arundel (age 52), "et plures magnates Franciæ1," after dinner. On the 4th, the Count of Tancarville to dinner. On the 5th, the Countesses of Warren and Pembroke and the Maréchal D'Audenham again to dinner; and the Chancellor of England and many French noblemen after dinner. On the 6th the Chief Justice and the Barons of the Exchequer to dinner. On the four following days, the Countesses of Warren, Kent, and Pembroke dine with the Queen; and on the last of the four Sir John de Wynewyk comes to supper. On the 11th, [his wife] Queen Philippa (age 43) appears to have dined with Isabella, but the entry is partially obliterated; the Earl Marshal and other noblemen came after dinner. On the 12th, the Countess of Pembroke dined, and the Cardinals ( of Périgord and St. Vitalis ), the Archbishop of Sens, and some French noblemen came after dinner. On Sunday the 13th, the Countess of Warren and others from London, as it is expressed, dined; and the King of France, the Chancellor of England, and others, visited the Queen after dinner.

Note 1. and several magnates of France.

Death of Isabella of France Queen Consort

Archaeologia Volume 35 1853 XXXIII. On the 21st [Aug 1358] the Countess of Warren (age 62) arrived at the Castle [Map], and remained during the following day, to attend at the death-bed of [his mother] Queen Isabella (age 63), who expired on the 22nd of August. Sir John de Wynewyk also supped at the castle on the day of the Queen's death.

Respecting Isabella's death, she is stated by chroniclers to have sunk, in the course of a single day, under the effect of a too powerful medicine, administered at her own desire. From several entries however in this account, it would appear that she had been in a state requiring medical treatment for some time previous to her decease.

As early as the 15th of February a payment had been made to a messenger going on three several occasions to London, for divers medicines for the Queen, and for the hire of a horse for Master Lawrence, the physician; and again for another journey by night to London. On the same day a second payment was made to the same messenger for two other journeys by night to London, and two to St. Alban's, to procure medicines for the Queen. On the 1st of August a payment was made to Nicholas Thomasyn apothecary, of London, for divers spices and ointment supplied for the Queen's use. On the 12th of August messengers were paid for several night journeys to London for medicines. On the 20th of August, two days only before the Queen's death, payment was made to a messenger who had been sent to London to fetch Master Simon de Bredon "ad videndum statum Reginæ1." Increased alarm for the Queen's health is now visible, for by a payment made on the 24th of August, two days after her death, it appears that a messenger had been sent to Canterbury "cum maxima festinatione2" with letters of the Queen, to bring Master Lawrence, the physician, to see the Queen's state. And another entry occurs of a payment made on the 12th of September to Master Lawrence, of forty shillings, for attendance on the Queen and the Queen of Scotland, at Hertford, for an entire month. Finally an allowance is made to the accountant, on the 6th of December, in terms which, as they are somewhat obscure, I prefer to quote in the original words, "Magistro Johanni Gateneys, de dono, in precio xv. florenorum de xl. denariis, sibi liberatorum in vita Reginæ, ad decoquend' cum medicinis pro corpore Reginæ3, l. s."

It is evident that the body of the Queen remained in the chapel of the Castle until the 23rd of November, as a payment is made to fourteen poor persons for watching the Queen's corpse there, day and night, from Saturday the 25th of August to that date, each of them receiving two pence daily, besides his food. The body was probably removed from Hertford Castle on the 24th of November, as we find, by the continuation of the Account of the expenses of the household, that on the 22nd and 23rd the Bishop of Lincoln, the Abbot of Waltham (? ), the Prior of Coventry, and "plures extranei4" were there for the performance of a solemn mass in the chapel; and the daily expenditure on those days, and on the 24th, rises from the average of six pounds to fifteen and twenty-five pounds. Moreover, from the 25th to the 28th of November the household is in London, after which it returns again to Hertford. The statement, therefore, of chroniclers that the Queen's funeral took place on the 27th is confirmed. She was interred in the choir of the church of the Grey Friars [Map], within Newgate, now Christ Church, the Archbishop of Canterbury officiating, and the King (age 45) himself being present at the ceremony. Just twenty-eight years before, on nearly the same day, the body of her paramour Mortimer was consigned to its grave in the same building

Note 1. "to see the state of the Queen".

Note 2. "with the greatest haste".

Note 3. "to see the state of the Queen's Master John Gateneys, of the gift, at the price of xv. 40 florins denarii, which had been delivered to him during the Queen's lifetime, to be decoctioned together with the medicines for the Queen's body".

Note 4. "many strangers".

On 22 Aug 1358 [his mother] Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 63) died at Hertford Castle [Map]; see Archaeologia Vol. 35 XXXIII. She was buried in Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

The funeral was performed by Archbishop Simon Islip. She was buried in the mantle she had worn at her wedding and at her request, [his father] Edward's heart, placed into a casket thirty years before, was interred with her.

Double Royal Wedding

In May 1359 King Edward III of England (age 46) and his son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 28) took part in a tournament in London. For the amusement of the citizens both Edwards and their friends dressed as the mayor and aldermen of London. The tournament possibly in celebration of the two Royal marriages of his children [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) on 19 May 1359.

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey, Berkshire [Map] whereby two children of King Edward III of England (age 46) were married:

[his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and [his daughter-in-law] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 39). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

[his son-in-law] John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) and [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) were married. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) was a ward of King Edward III of England (age 46) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later in 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). He the son of Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 42). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

1360 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1360 King Edward III of England (age 47) created new Garter Knights:

31st Thomas Ughtred 1st Baron Ughtred (age 68).

32nd Walter Manny 1st Baron Manny (age 50).

33rd Frank Hale.

34th Thomas Ufford (age 27).

Black Monday Hailstorm

On 13 Apr 1360 a freak weather event known as Black Monday Hailstorm occurred as the army of King Edward III of England (age 47) were camped outside Chartres [Map]. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick (age 47), William Bohun 1st Earl of Northampton (age 50), Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 50), [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 29) and Walter Mauny were present. Around one thousand English were killed, with up to six thousand horses. King Edward III of England (age 47) believed the event to be an Act of God and proceeded to negotiate with the French resulting in the Treaty of Brétigny.

On 28 Apr 1360 Guy Beauchamp died from injuries received during the Black Monday Hailstorm.

Treaty of Brétigny

On 08 May 1360 King Edward III of England (age 47) and King John "The Good" II of France (age 41), and their eldest sons [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 29) and the future King Charles V of France (age 21), ratified the Treaty of Brétigny at Calais [Map]. Louis Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou (age 20) and John Valois 1st Duke Berry (age 19) were given as hostages.

Philip "Bold" Valois II Duke Burgundy (age 18) was ransomed. The treaty confirmed lands held by King Edward III of England (age 47) including Aquitaine.

King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) was ransomed for three million écus being released after the payment of the first third.

Bishop William of Wykeham (age 40) was present.

The Treaty was signed on 24 Oct 1360 at Calais.

1361 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1361 King Edward III of England (age 48) created three of his sons as Garter Knights ...

35th [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 22).

36th [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 20).

37th [his son] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 19).

38th Edward Despencer 1st Baron Despencer, Baron Burghesh (age 25).

In 1361 [his sister-in-law] Isabelle Hainault (age 38) died.

In 1361 William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 30) was appointed 40th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 48).

In Jan 1361 Edward III (age 48) and John II of France (age 41) jointly petitioned Pope Innocent VI, to make Bishop William of Wykeham (age 41) a canon at Lincoln Cathedral [Map].

Around 03 Jul 1361 [his son-in-law] John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 22) and [his daughter] Mary Plantagenet Duchess Brittany (age 16) were married. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 48) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 47). They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry III of England.

In Sep 1361 [his daughter] Mary Plantagenet Duchess Brittany (age 16) died.

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 31) and [his daughter-in-law] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 33) were married at Windsor Castle [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children. She the daughter of Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent and Margaret Wake Countess Kent. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 48) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 47). They were half first cousin once removed. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 25 Dec 1361 [his daughter] Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 15) died probably of plague. She was buried at Abingdon Abbey [Map].

On 23 Apr 1362 John Sully (age 79) was appointed 39th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 49).

Edward III Creates two sons as Dukes

On 13 Nov 1362, his fiftieth birthday, King Edward III of England (age 50) created two sons as Dukes ...

[his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 23) was created 1st Duke Clarence. [his daughter-in-law] Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence (age 30) by marriage Duchess Clarence.

[his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 22) was created 1st Duke Lancaster. [his daughter-in-law] Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 17) by marriage Duchess Lancaster.

On 28 May 1363 John Harrington 2nd Baron Harington (age 35) died at Gleaston Castle [Map]. His son Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington (age 7) succeeded 3rd Baron Harington. Given his young age Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington (age 7) became a ward of King Edward III of England (age 50) who granted his wardship to his daughter [his daughter] Isabella Countess Bedford and Soissons (age 30) and her husband [his future son-in-law] Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 23).

On 23 Apr 1365 Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton (age 24) was appointed 41st Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 52).

On 27 Jul 1365 [his son-in-law] Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 25) and [his daughter] Isabella Countess Bedford and Soissons (age 33) were married at Windsor Castle [Map]. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 52) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 51).

1366 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1366 King Edward III of England (age 53) created new Garter Knights:

42nd [his son-in-law] Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 26).

43rd Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 24).

1368 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1368 King Edward III of England (age 55) created new Garter Knights:

44th Ralph Basset 3rd Baron Basset Drayton (age 33).

45th Richard Pembridge (age 48).

In Jun 1368 [his son] Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 29) and [his daughter-in-law] Violante Visconti (age 14) were married in the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, Milan. The wedding festivities were lavish and ostentatious. The banquet, held outside, included 30 courses of meat and fish presented fully gilded. Between the courses the guests were given gifts such as suits of armor, bolts of cloth, war horses, arms, and hunting dogs. Among the guests were Geoffrey Chaucer (age 25), Petrarch, Jean Froissart and John Hawkwood. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 55) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 53).

1369 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1369 King Edward III of England (age 56) created new Garter Knights

46th John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby (age 32).

47th Robert Dampierre (age 46).

48th [his former son-in-law] John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 21). Some sources say 1370 but that would be inconsistent with the numbering?

49th Thomas Grandison 4th Baron Grandison (age 30).

50th Guy de Bryan (age 50). Possibly on 31 Dec 1369?.

From 27 Jun 1369 to 1371 Bishop Thomas de Brantingham was appointed Lord Treasurer to King Edward III of England (age 56).

On 15 Aug 1369 [his wife] Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 55) died at Windsor Castle [Map]. Her husband King Edward III of England (age 56) and youngest son [his son] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 14) were present. She was given a state funeral six months later on 09 Jan 1370 at which she was interred at on the northeast side of the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map] at Westminster Abbey. Her alabaster effigy was executed by sculptor Jean de Liège.

On 21 Sep 1371 [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 31) and [his daughter-in-law] Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster (age 17) were married at Roquefort, Landes. She by marriage Duchess Lancaster. His younger brother [his son] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 30) married Constance's sister in July 1372. An example of Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. She the illegitmate daughter of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile and Maria Padilla. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 58) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

In 1372 Guichard d'Angle 1st Earl Huntingdon was appointed 51st Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 59).

On 11 Jul 1372 [his son] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 31) and [his daughter-in-law] Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 17) were married at Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map]. She by marriage Countess Cambridge. She being the younger sister of [his daughter-in-law] Constance (age 18) who had married Edmund's older brother [his son] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) a year before. An example of Marriage of Two Sets of Siblings. She the illegitmate daughter of Peter "Cruel" I King Castile and Maria Padilla. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 59) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England.

1373 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1373 King Edward III of England (age 60) created two new Garter Knights:

52nd Alan Buxhull (age 50).

53rd Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 34).

In 1374 [his son] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 18) and [his daughter-in-law] Eleanor Bohun Duchess Gloucester (age 8) were married. She the daughter of Humphrey Bohun 7th Earl Hereford 6th Earl Essex 2nd Earl of Northampton and Joan Fitzalan Countess Essex, Hereford and Northampton (age 27). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 61) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England. They were second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

1376 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1376 King Edward III of England (age 63) created a number of new Garter Knights ...

54th [his former son-in-law] John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 37).

55th Thomas Banastre (age 42).

56th William Ufford 2nd Earl Suffolk (age 37).

57th Hugh Stafford 2nd Earl Stafford (age 40).

58th Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent (age 26). He the son of [his daughter-in-law] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 47) whose second husband was Edward III's son [his son] Edward "Black Prince" (age 45).

59th Thomas Percy 1st Earl of Worcester (age 33) was appointed 59th. He the son of Mary Plantagenet Baroness Percy daughter of Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster who was the first cousin of Edward III's father [his father] King Edward II of England.

60th William Beauchamp 1st Baron Bergavenny (age 33).

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1377 King Edward III of England (age 64) created three new Garter Knights:

61st Richard of Gloucester (age 10) (the future Richard III).

62nd Henry Bolingbroke (age 10) (the future Henry IV).

63rd John Burley (age 52).

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. Our gracious king Edward (age 64) departing this life on the eve A.D. 1377. of the Nativity of Saint John Baptist1, in the fifty-second year of his reign, Richard (age 10), son of Edward, prince of Wales, the eldest son of king Edward—a boy of eleven years, and fair among men as another Absalom—came to the throne, and was crowned at Westminster on Saint Kenelm’s day2.

Note 1. This date is not correct. Edward III. died on the Sunday next before the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, the 21st of June, 1877, not on the eve of the feast, the 23rd of the month; and in the fifty-first, not the fifty-second, year of his reign.

Note 2. More correctly, the eve of St. Kenelm, the 16th July.

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 King Edward III of England (age 64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace [Map]. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map]. His grandson King Richard II of England (age 10) succeeded II King England.

Effigy of King Edward III. King Edward III of England

SURNAMED of Windsor, was the eldest son of Edward the Second by Isabella of France, and was born at the Castle of Windsor [Map] on the 13th of November, 1312. In a Parliament assembled at York in 1322, he was created Prince of Wales and Duke of Aquitaine. On the formal deposition of his father, he ascended the throne of England on the 25th of January, 1326, being then about fourteen years of age, and was on the 1st of February following girt with the sword of knighthood by his cousin Henry Earl of Lancaster, and crowned at Westminster by Walter Reynolds, Archbishop of Canterbury. The Parliament appointed twelve guardians for the King during his nonage, consisting of five Bishops, two Earls, and five Baronsa.

In May 1406 Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 20) and Anne Mortimer (age 15) were married. The marriage apparently took place in secret possibly because she was a descendant of King Edward III of England although she wasn't at the time Heir to the Throne of England although their issue would become so. She died five years later. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster and Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster. He the son of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York and Isabella of Castile Duchess York. They were first cousin twice removed. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Effigy of Sir Guy Bryan. DURING the reigns of Edward III and Richard II no one appears to have been more actively or variously engaged than Sir Guy Bryan. He first presents himself to notice, 23rd Edward III. 1349, at the Battle of Calais, in which he bore the king's standard, when tor his gallant carriage with that trust he had granted him two hundred marks per annum, tor life, and, some time after, farther rewards. In 1354, he was one of the Embassadors sent with Henry, duke of Lancaster, to Rome. The year following in an expedition with the king against the French, he was made a Banneret. In 1359 he was again active in the French wars, and, two years after, revisited Rome on important business. In 1369 and 1370 he was Admiral of the king's fleet against France. Forty-fifth of Edward III. 1371, he was employed in the Scotish wars, and about this time received, as a reward for his important services, the Order of the Garter.

Froissart. Now sheweth the history that this [his grandfather] Philip le Beau king of France had three sons and a fair daughter named [his mother] Isabel, married into England to [his father] king Edward the second; and these three sons, the eldest named [his uncle] Louis, who was king of Navarre in his father's days and was called king Louis Hutin, the second had to name [his uncle] Philip the Great or the Long, and the third was called [his uncle] Charles; and all three were kings of France after iheir father's decease by right succession each after other, without having any issue male of their bodies lawfully begotten. So that after the death of Charles, last king of the three, the twelve peers and all the barons of France would not give the realm to Isabel the sister, who was queen of England, because they said and maintained, and yet do, that the realm of France is so noble that it ought not to go to a woman, and so consequently to Isabel, nor to the king of England her eldest son for they determined the son of the woman to have no right nor succession by his mother, since they declared the mother to have no right: so that by these reasons the twelve peers and barons of France by their common accord did give the realm of France to the lord Philip of Valois, nephew sometime to Philip le Beau king of France, and so put out the queen of England and her son, who was as the next heir male, as son to the sister of Charles, last king of France. Thus went the realm of France out of the right lineage, as it seemed to many folk, whereby great wars hath moved and fallen, and great destructions of people and countries in the realm of France and other places, as ye may hereafter [see]. This is the very right foundation of this history, to recount the great enterprises and great feats of arms that have fortuned and fallen. Sith the time of the good Charlemagne king of France there never fell so great adventures.

Froissart. Thus rode forth all that day the young king of England by mountains and deserts without finding any highway, town or village. And when it was against night they came to the river of Tyne, to the same place whereas the Scots had passed over into England, wtening to them that they must needs repass again the same way. Then the king of England and his host passed over the same river with such guides as he had, with much pain and travail, for the passage was full of great stones. And when they were over, they lodged them that night by the river side, and by that time the sun was gone to rest, and there was but few among them that had either axe or hook, or any instrument to cut down any wood to make their lodgings withal; and there were many that had lost their own company and wist not where they were. Some of the footmen were far behind and wist not well what way to take; but such as knew best the country said plainly they had ridden the same day twenty-four English miles, for they rode as fast as they might without any rest, but at such passages as they could not choose. All this night they lay by this river side, still in their harness, holding their horses by their reins in their hands, for they wist not whereunto to tie them. Thus their horses did eat no meat of all that night nor day before: they had neither oats for forage for them, nor the people of the host had no sustenance of all that day nor night, but every man his loaf that he had carried behind him, the which was sore wet with the sweat of the horses; nor they drank none other drink but the water of the river, without it were some of the lords that had carried bottles with them; nor they had no fire nor light, for they had nothing to make light withal, without it were some of the lords that had torches brought with them.

In this great trouble and danger they passed all that night, their armour still on their backs, their horses ready saddled. And when the day began to appear, the which was greatly desired of all the whole host, they trusted then to find some redress for themselves and for their horses, or else to fight with their enemies, the which they greatly desired to the intent to be delivered out of tantes; but so all that night they were fain to fast, nor their horses had nothing but leaves of trees and herbs: they cut down boughs of trees with their swords to tie withal their horses and to make themselves lodges. And about noon some poor folks of the country were found, and they said how they were as then fourteen mile from Newcastle-upon-Tyne [Map], and eleven mile from Carlisle [Map], and that there was no town nearer to them wherein they might find anything to do them ease withal. And when this was shewed to the king and to the lords of his council, incontinent were sent thither horses and sumpters to fetch thence some purveyance; and there was a cry in the king's name made in the town of Newcastle, that whosoever would bring bread or wine or any other victual should be paid therefore incontinent at a good price, and that they should be conducted to the host in safe-guard; for it was published openly that the king nor his host would not depart from the place that they were in, till they had some tidings where their enemies were become. And the next day by noon such as had been sent for victual returned again to the host with such purveyances as they could get, and that was not over much, and with them came other folks of the country with little nags charged with bread evil baken in panniers, and small poor wine in barrels, and other victual to sell in the host, whereby great part of the host were well refreshed and eased.

Froissart. Thus both the hosts suffered much pain and travail the space that they lay so near together: and the first night that the English host was thus lodged on the second mountain the lord William Douglas took with him about two hundred men of arms and passed the river far off from the host, so that he was not perceived, and suddenly he brake into the English host about midnight crying, 'Douglas! Douglas! Ye shall all die, thieves of England!' and he slew, or he ceased, three hundred men, some in their beds and some scant ready; and he strake his horse with the spurs and came to the king's own tent, always crying, Douglas!' and strake asunder two or three cords of the king's tent and so departed, and in that retreat he lost some of his men. Then he returned again to the Scots, so that there was no more done but every night the English host made good and sure watch, for they doubted making of skryes; and ever the most part of-the host lay in their harness; and every day there were scrimmishes made, and men slain on both parties: and in conclusion, the last day of~twenty-four, there was a Scottish knight taken, who against his will shewed to the lords of England what state and condition the Scots were in: he was so sore examined that for fear of his life he shewed how the lords of Scotland were accorded among themselves that the same night every man should be ready armed, and to follow the banners of the lord William Douglas, and every man to keep him secret. But the knight could not shew them what they intended to do.

Froissart. And thus they continued day by day the space of eight days, abiding every day the returning again of the Scots, who knew no more where the English host lay than they knew where they were; so each of them were ignorant of other. Thus three days and three nights they were in manner without bread, wine, candle or light, fodder or forage, or any manner of purveyance, either for horse or man: and after the space of four days a loaf of bread was sold for sixpence the which was worth but a penny, and a gallon of wine for six groats that was worth but sixpence. And yet for all that, there was such rage of famine that each took victuals out of other's hands, whereby there rose divers battles and strifes between sundry companions; and yet beside all these mischiefs it never ceased to rain all the whole week, whereby their saddles, panels and countersingles were all rotten and broken, and most part of their horses hurt on their backs: nor they had not wherewith to shoe them that were unshod, nor they had nothing to cover themselves withal from the rain and cold but green bushes and their armour, nor they had nothing to make fire withal but green boughs, the which would not burn because of the rain. In this great mischief they were all the week without hearing of any word of the Scots, upon trust they should repass again into their own countries the same way or near thereabout; whereby great noise and murmur began to rise in the host, for some said and laid it to others' charge that by their counsel the king and all they were brought into that danger, and that they had done it to betray the king and all his host. Wherefore it was ordained by the king and by his council that the next morning they should remove the host and repass again the river about seven mile thence, whereas they might pass more at their ease. Then it was cried throughout the host that every man should be ready apparelled to remove the next day betimes.: also there was a cry made that whosoever could bring to the king certain knowledge where the Scots were, he that brought first tidings thereof should have for his labour a hundred pounds [of] land to him and to his heirs for ever, and to be made a knight of the king's hand.

When this cry was made in the host, divers English knights and squires to the number of fifteen or sixteen, for covetise of winning of this promise, they passed the river in great peril and rode forth through the mountains, and departed each one from other, taking their adventure. The next morning the host dislodged and rode fair and easily all the day, for they were but evil apparelled, and did so much that they day till it was noon, and then they found some villages brent by the Scots, and thereabout was some champaign country with corn and meadows, and so that night the host lodged there. Again the third day they rode forth, so that the most part of the host wist not which way, for they knew not the country nor they could hear no tidings of the Scots. And again the fourth day they rode forth in like manner, till it was about the hour of three, [Note. Translation error. Should 9am] and there came a squire fast riding toward the king and said: 'An it like your grace, I have brought you perfect tidings of the Scots your enemies. Surely they be within three mile of you, lodged on a great mountain, abiding there for you; and there they have been all this eight days, nor they knew no more tidings of you than ye did of them. Sir, this that I skew you is of truth, for I approached so near to them that I was taken prisoner and brought before the lords of their host; and there I skewed them tidings of you, and how that ye seek for them to the intent to have battle. And the lords did quit me my ransom and prison, when I had skewed them how your grace had promised a hundred pounds sterling of rent to him that brought first tidings of them to you; and they made me to promise that I should not rest till I had skewed you this tidings, for they said they had as great desire to fight with you as ye had with them: and there shall ye find them without fault' And as soon as the king had heard this tidings, he assembled all his host in a fair meadow to pasture their horses; and beside there was a little abbey [Map], the which was all brent, called in the days of king Arthur le Blanche Lande. There the king confessed him, and every man made him ready. The king caused many masses to be sung to housed all such as had devotion thereto; and incontinent he assigned a hundred pounds sterling of rent to the squire that had brought him tidings of the Scots, according to his promise, and made him knight [with] his own hands' before all the host.

Froissart. Sir Walter Manny, a week after these challenges had been sent, and when he imagined the king of France had received them, collected about forty lances, on whom he knew he could depend, and rode through Brabant night and day; so that he came into Hainault, and entered the wood of Blaton, before any of his followers knew where and why they were thus hastening: he then told some of his intimates, that he had made a promise in England, before the nobles and ladies, that he would be the first that would enter France, and take some castle or strong town, and perform some gallant deed of arms; and that his intention was to push forward as far as Mortaigne, to surprise the town, which was a part of the kingdom of France. Those to whom he thus opened himself cheerfully consented to follow him. They then regirthed their horses, tightened their armour, and rode in close order: having passed through the wood of Blaton, they came at one stretch, a little before sunrise, to Mortaigne, where luckily they found the wicket open. Sir Walter alighted with some of his companions, and having passed the wicket in silence, and placed there a guard, he then with his pennon marched down the street before the great tower, but the gate and the wicket were close shut. The watch of the castle heard their voice, and seeing them from his post, began to Mow his horn, and to cry out "Treason! treason!" This awakened the soldiers and inhabitants, bnt they did not make any sally from the fort. Sir Walter, upon this, retreated handsomely into the street, and ordered those houses to be set on fire that were near the castle: full fifty houses were burnt that morning, and the inhabitants much frightened, at they concluded they must all have been taken prisoners; but sir Walter and his company marched away, and came straight to Condé, where they passed by the pond and river Haynes, taking the' road to Valenciennes; leaving which on the right hand, they came to Avesnes, and took up their quarters in the abbey. They then pushed forward towards Douchain, and managed matters so well with the governor, that the gates of the castle were opened to them: they crossed a river which empties itself into the Scheld, and which rises near Arleux. Afterward they came to a very strong castle, called Thin l'Evêque, that belonged to the bishop of Cambray [Map], which was so suddenly surprised, the governor and his wife were taken in it. Sir Walter placed a strong garrison there, and made his brother, sir Giles Manny, governor, who gave much disturbance to the Cambresians, as this castle was but a short league from the city of Cambray [Map]. When sir Walter had performed these enterprises, he returned into Brabant towards the king, his lord, whom he found at Mechlin [Map], and related to him all that he had done.

Froissart. AND when they had sojourned three weeks after this said fray, then they had knowledge from the king by the marshals of the host, that the next week every man should provide for carts and charettes, tents and pavilions, to lie in the field, and for all other necessaries thereto belonging, to the intent to draw toward Scotland. And when every man was ready apparelled, the king and all his barons went out of the city, and the first night they lodged six mile forward. And sir John of Hainault and his company were lodged always as per the king as might be, to do him the more honour, and also to the intent that the archers should have no advantage of him nor of his company. And there the king abode two days and two nights, tarrying for all them that were behind, and to be well advised that they lacked nothing.

Froissart. THIS [his father] king Edward the second, father to the noble king Edward the third, had two brethren, the one called [the earl] [his uncle] marshal, who was right wild and diverse of conditions, the other called sir [his uncle] Edmund earl of Kent, right wise, amiable, gentle and well beloved with all people.

Froissart. This [his father] king Edward the second was married to [his mother] Isabel, the daughter of [his grandfather] Philip le Beau king of France, who was one of the fairest ladies of the world. The king had by her two sons and two daughters. The first son was the noble and hardy king Edward the third, of whom this history is begun. The second was named [his brother] John, and died young. The first of the daughters was called [his sister] Isabel, married to the young king David of Scotland, son to king Robert de Bruce, married in her tender youth by the accord of both realms of England and Scotland for to make perfect peace. The other [his sister] daughter was married to the earl Raynold, who after was called duke of Gueldres, and he had by her two sons, Raynold and Edward, who after reigned in great puissance.

Froissart. The king of England departed from Fervaques and went to Montreuil [Map], and there lodged a night, and the next day he went to the Flamengerie and made all his men to lodge near about him, whereof he had more than forty thousand: and there he was counselled to abide king Philip and to fight with him.

The French king departed from Saint-Quentin's, and daily men came to him from all parts, and so came to Buironfosse. There the king tarried, and said how he would not go thence till he had fought with the king of England and with his allies, seeing they were within two leagues together. And when the earl of Hainault, who was at Quesnoy ready purveyed of men of war, knew that the French king was at Buironfosse thinking there to give battle to the Englishmen, he rode forth till he came to the French host with five hundred spears, and presented himself to the king his uncle, who made him but small cheer, because he had been with his adversary before Cambray. Howbeit the earl excused himself so sagely, that the king and his council were well content. And it was ordained by the marshals, that is to say by the marshal Bertrand and by the marshal of Trie1, that the earl should be lodged next the English host.

Thus these two kings were lodged between Buironfosse and Flamengerie, in the plain fields without any advantage. I think there was never seen before so goodly an assembly of noblemen together as was there2. When the king of England, being in the Chapel of Thierache2, knew how that king Philip was within two leagues, then he called the lords of his host together and demanded of them what he should do, his honour saved, for he said that his intention was to give battle. Then the lords beheld each other, and they desired the duke of Brabant to shew first his intent. The duke said that he was of the accord that they should give battle, for otherwise, he said, they could not depart, saving their honours: wherefore he counselled that they should send heralds to the French king to demand a day of battle. Then an herald of the duke of Gueldres, who could well the language of French, was informed what he should say, and so he rode till he came into the French host. And then he drew him to king Philip and to his council and said, 'Sir, the king of England is in the field and desireth to have battle, power against power.' The which thing king Philip granted, and took the day, the Friday next after, and as then it was Wednesday. And so the herald returned, well rewarded with good furred gowns given him by the French king and other lords because of the tidings that he brought. So thus the journey was agreed, and knowledge was made thereof to all the lords of both the hosts, and so every man made him ready to the matter.

The Thursday in the morning there were two knights of the earl of Hainault's, the lord Fagnolle and the lord of Tupigny, they mounted on their horses and they two all only departed from the French host and rode to aview the English host. So they rode coasting the host, and it fortuned that the lord of Fagnolle's horse took the bridle in the teeth in such wise, that his master could not rule him; and so, whether he would or not, the horse brought him into the English host, and there he fell into the hands of the Almains, who perceived well that he was none of their company and set on him and took him and his horse. And so he was prisoner to a five or six gentlemen of Almaine, and anon they set him to his ransom. And when they understood that he was a Hainowe, they demanded of him if he knew sir John of Hainault, and he answered, 'Yes,' and desired them for the love of God to bring him to his presence, for he knew well that he would quit him his ransom. Thereof were the Almains joyous, and so brought him to the lord Beaumont, who incontinent did pledge him out from his master's hands; and the lord of Fagnolle returned again to the earl of Hainault, and he had his horse again delivered him at the request of the lord Beaumont. Thus passed that day, and none other thing done that ought to be remembered.

Note 1. The marshals of the French host were Robert Bertrand and Matthieu de Trie.

Note 2. In the fuller text it is observed that there were in the French army four kings, France, Bohemia, Navarre and Scotland.

Note 3. La Capelle-en-Thirache, a village in the department of Aisne.

King Edward III of England 1312-1377 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England 1133-1189

King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

King Henry III of England 1207-1272

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204

Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198-1245

Royal Ancestors of King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Kings Wessex: Great x 8 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Son of King Edward II of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 6 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 4 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal x 1

King Richard II of England x 1

King Henry IV of England x 1

Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile x 1

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 1

King Edward IV of England x 3

King Richard III of England x 3

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 2

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 1

Queen Jane Seymour x 1

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 1

Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Antoine King Navarre x 1

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 1

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 196

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 68

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 553

Catherine Middleton Princess of Wales x 3

Ancestors of King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Great x 4 Grandfather: Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Empress Matilda Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King John "Lackland" of England Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Henry III of England Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter Courtenay

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alice Courtenay Countess Angoulême

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Courtenay

GrandFather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso II King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alfonso Barcelona II Count Provence

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sancha Ivrea Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 2 Grandfather: Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence

Great x 4 Grandfather: Rainou of Sabran

Great x 3 Grandmother: Gersenda II Sabran Countess Provence

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Humbert Savoy III Count Savoy

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Savoy I Count Savoy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice Macon Countess Savoy

Great x 2 Grandmother: Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence

Great x 4 Grandfather: William I-Count Geneva

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Geneva Countess Savoy

Father: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Alfonso IX King Leon

Great x 1 Grandfather: Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Sancho III King Castile

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alfonso VIII King Castile

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Ramirez Queen Consort Castile

Great x 2 Grandmother: Berengaria Ivrea I Queen Castile Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alberic Dammartin

Great x 2 Grandfather: Simon Dammartin

Great x 4 Grandfather: Renaud II Count Clermont

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mathilde Clermont

Great x 4 Grandmother: Adelaide I Countess Vermandois

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Montgomery I Count Ponthieu

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Montgomery IV Count Ponthieu

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice St Pol Countess Ponthieu

Great x 2 Grandmother: Marie Montgomery Countess Ponthieu

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis VII King Franks

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alys Capet Countess Ponthieu

Great x 4 Grandmother: Constance of Castile

King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Philip II of France 2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Louis "Lion" VIII King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Louis IX of France Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso VIII King Castile

Great x 3 Grandmother: Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso Barcelona II Count Provence

Great x 3 Grandfather: Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence

Great x 4 Grandmother: Gersenda II Sabran Countess Provence

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Provence Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Savoy I Count Savoy

Great x 3 Grandmother: Beatrice Savoy Countess Provence

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Geneva Countess Savoy

GrandFather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso II King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandfather: Peter II King Aragon

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sancha Ivrea Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 2 Grandfather: James I King Aragon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marie Montpellier Queen Consort Aragon

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella Barcelona Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Béla III of Hungary

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Andrew II of Hungary

Great x 2 Grandmother: Violant Árpád Queen Consort Aragon

Mother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Blois I Count Champagne Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Theobald Blois III Count Champagne 2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Capet Countess Champagne

Great x 2 Grandfather: Theobald IV King Navarre 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Sancho "Wise" King Navarre

Great x 3 Grandmother: Blanche Ramirez

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sancha Ivrea

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry I King Navarre 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Guy Dampierre

Great x 3 Grandfather: Archambaud "Great" Dampierre

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mathilde Bouron

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Bourbon Queen Consort Navarre

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alix Forez

GrandMother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Philip II of France 2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Louis "Lion" VIII King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Robert Capet Count of Artois Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso VIII King Castile

Great x 3 Grandmother: Blanche Ivrea Queen Consort France Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Queen Consort Castile Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Reginar II Duke Brabant 3 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Metz 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Matilda Reginar Countess Saint Pol 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip Swabia

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marie Swabia Duchess Brabant