Biography of King Richard II of England 1367-1400

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Clemence Roches Countess Blois

1361 Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

1376 Death of the Black Prince

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

1377 Death of Edward III

1377 Coronation of Richard II

1381 Peasants' Revolt

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

1385 Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

1386 Wonderful Parliament

1387 Battle of Radcot Bridge

1388 Merciless Parliament

1389 Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

1389 Christmas Court

1394 Death and Funeral of Anne of Bohemia

1394 Richard II Travels to Ireland

1396 Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

1397 Thomas Haxey's Case Free Speech in Parliament

1397 Legitimation of the Beauforts

1397 John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

1397 Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

1397 Richard II Rewards his Supporters

1398 Richard II's Second Trip to Ireland

1398 Thomas Mowbray Duel

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1399 Richard II's Last Will

1399 Richard II's Third Trip to Ireland

1399 Abdication of Richard II

1399 Epiphany Rising

1400 Death of Richard II

Blackfriars Friary, Stamford [Map] was established prior to 1230 because on 13 January 1229-30, Henry III made a grant of fuel to the religious community.

MGJKl1aDIn 1392 King Richard II of England (age 24) lodged at Blackfriars Friary, Stamford [Map] and held a Council.

On 17 Mar 1337 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" (age 6) was created 1st Duke Cornwall.

Around Mar 1340 Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent (age 26) and [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 11) were married in secret. It isn't clear whether the marriage was canonical given the secrecy; there were no witnesses. She twelve years old. A subsequent investigation by papal commissioners confirmed it as valid. She the daughter of Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent and Margaret Wake Countess Kent (age 42). He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Around Nov 1340 [his step-father] William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury (age 12) and [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 12) were married. She was already married albeit secretly to Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent (age 26). The subsequent investigation found her marriage to Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent (age 26) to be valid. She the daughter of Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent and Margaret Wake Countess Kent (age 43). He the son of William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 39) and Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 36). She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 12 May 1343 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" (age 12) was created Prince of Wales.

On 26 Dec 1352 [his uncle] John Plantagenet 3rd Earl Kent (age 22) died. He was buried at Greyfriars Church, Winchester [Map]. Earl Kent extinct. His sister [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 24) succeeded 5th Baroness Wake of Liddell. Some source suggest she also succeeded as 4th Countess of Kent but this is inconsistent with 1. her husband being created Earl of Kent as a new creation, and 2. her son not succeeding to the original Earldom?

Marriage of Edward "The Black Prince" and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent"

On 10 Oct 1361 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" (age 31) and [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 33) were married at Windsor Castle [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children. She the daughter of Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent and Margaret Wake Countess Kent. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 48) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 47). They were half first cousin once removed. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 06 Jan 1367 King Richard II of England was born to Edward "Black Prince" (age 36) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 38) at Bordeaux [Map]. He became the Heir to the Throne of England. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.42%.

Death of the Black Prince

On 08 Jun 1376 [his father] Edward "Black Prince" (age 45) died of dysentery at Westminster Palace [Map]. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral [Map]. His son Richard  (age 9) succeeded King England. His niece Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster (age 20) succeeded Heir to the Throne of England.

From 1377 to 1381 Bishop Thomas de Brantingham was appointed Lord Treasurer to King Richard II of England (age 9).

In 1377 Simon Burley (age 37) was confirmed an annual grant of £100 by King Richard II of England (age 9).

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1377 [his grandfather] King Edward III of England (age 64) created three new Garter Knights:

61st Richard of Gloucester (age 10) (the future Richard III).

62nd Henry Bolingbroke (age 10) (the future Henry IV).

63rd John Burley (age 52).

Death of Edward III

On 21 Jun 1377 [his grandfather] King Edward III of England (age 64) died of a stroke at Sheen Palace [Map]. He was buried in the Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map]. His grandson King Richard II of England (age 10) succeeded II King England.

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. Our gracious [his grandfather] king Edward (age 64) departing this life on the eve A.D. 1377. of the Nativity of Saint John Baptist1, in the fifty-second year of his reign, Richard (age 10), son of Edward, prince of Wales, the eldest son of king Edward—a boy of eleven years, and fair among men as another Absalom—came to the throne, and was crowned at Westminster on Saint Kenelm’s day2.

Note 1. This date is not correct. Edward III. died on the Sunday next before the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, the 21st of June, 1877, not on the eve of the feast, the 23rd of the month; and in the fifty-first, not the fifty-second, year of his reign.

Note 2. More correctly, the eve of St. Kenelm, the 16th July.

Coronation of Richard II

On 16 Jul 1377 King Richard II of England (age 10) was crowned II King England at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 61).

Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 31) carried the Crown.

Guichard d'Angle 1st Earl Huntingdon was created 1st Earl Huntingdon for life.

John Mowbray 1st Earl Nottingham (age 11) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 4) and Robert Harrington 3rd Baron Harington (age 21) were knighted.

Roger Scales 4th Baron Scales (age 23) attended.

On 26 Aug 1377 Enguerrand de Coucy 1st Earl Bedford 1st Count Soissons (age 37) renounced his title Earl Bedford following the accession of King Richard II of England (age 10).

Around 1378 Lewis Clifford (age 14) was appointed 64th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 10).

In 1380 Bermond Arnaud was appointed 65th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 12).

After 24 Jun 1380 John Hastings 3rd Earl Pembroke (age 7) and Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 17) marriage annulled since she had become pregnant by [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 28) whom she subsequently married. It isn't clear whether John Holland was punished; he was half-brother to King Richard II of England (age 13) through their mother [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 51).

In 1381 [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 25) was appointed 66th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 13).

In 1381 Simon Burley (age 41) was appointed 69th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 13)..

In Jan 1381 Thomas Felton (age 51) was appointed 67th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 13).

On 23 Apr 1381 [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 29) was appointed 68th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 14).

Peasants' Revolt

On 11 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England (age 14) held council with his mother [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 52), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 43), [his step-father] William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury (age 52), Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 35), Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65) and Robert Hales (age 56) at the Tower of London [Map].

On 15 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England (age 14) met with Wat Tyler at Smithfield [Map]. During the course of the meeting Wat Tyler was wounded by William Walworth. Wat Tyler was then captured and beheaded at Smithfield [Map]. His head was placed on top a pole and carried through the city, then displayed on London Bridge.

On 15 Jul 1381 John Ball was hanged, drawn and quartered in St Albans, Hertfordshire [Map] in the presence of King Richard II of England (age 14).

In 1382 Richard Burley was appointed 71st Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 14)..

The Chronicle of Adam of Usk. 1382. According to the saying of Solomon: "Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child,"1 in the time of the youth of the same Richard many misfortunes, both caused thereby and happening therefrom, ceased not to harass the kingdom of England, as has been before said and as will hereinafter more fully appear, even to the great disorder of the state and to the last undoing of king Richard (age 14) himself and of those who too fondly clung to him. Amongst all other misfortunes, nay, amongst the most wicked of all wicked things, even errors and heresies in the catholic faith, England, and above all London and Bristol2, stood corrupted, being infected by the seeds which one master John Wycliffe sowed, polluting as it were the faith with the tares of his baleful teaching. And the followers of this master John, like Mahomet, by preaching things pleasing to the powerful and the rich, namely, that the withholding of tithes and even of offerings and the reaving of temporal goods from the clergy were praiseworthy, and, to the young, that self-indulgence was a virtue, most wickedly did sow the seed of murder, snares, strife, variance, and discords, which last unto this day, and which, I fear, will last even to the undoing of the kingdom. Whence, in many parts of the land, and above all in London and in Bristol, they, like the Jews at Mount Horeb on account of the molten calf (Exodus xxxij.), turning against each other, righteously had to grieve for three-and-twenty thousand of their fellows who suffered a miserable 3. The people of England, wrangling about the old faith and the new, are every day, as it were, on the very point of bringing down upon their own heads rebellion and ruin. And I fear that in the end it will happen as once it did, when many citizens of London true to the faith rose against the duke of Lancaster to slay him, because he favoured the said master John, so that, hurrying from his table into a boat hastily provided, he fled across Thames and hardly escaped with his life4. Such errors and heresies grew in the city of London to so great a height (seeing that from such cause spring strife and variance), that, when such as were accused thereof came to answer before their ordinaries, the people were wont to run together in thousands, some accusing, others defending, them, with clamour and strife, as if they were just rushing at each other’s throats5. So great, too, grew their malice, that, at the time of the second parliament of king Henry the fifth, hereinafter written, these Lollards, flocking to London from all parts of the land, thought to have utterly destroyed the clergy there at that time assembled6. But my lord of Canterbury (age 40), forewarned of their evil design, found fitting remedies, as will hereinafter be told.

Note 1. Eccles. x. 16.

Note 2. Adam of Usk, as a native of Monmouthshire, would naturally take an interest in what went on in the neighbouring city of Bristol. John Purvey, Wycliffe’s follower and part-translator of the Bible, preached there; and it is not improbable that Wycliffe himself also did so, as, in 1875, he was presented by Edward III. to the prebend of Aust, in the collegiate church of Westbury-on-Trym.—Seyer, Memoirs of Bristol, ij. 164.

Note 3. The round number of 23,000 may be intended to represent the total of sufferers down to the time when the chronicle was finished, that is, towards the close of the reign of Henry V.

Note 4. In February, 1377, when Wycliffe appeared in St. Paul’s to answer the charges brought against him. A quarrel arising between the duke of Lancaster (age 41), who was present as a supporter of Wycliffe, and William Courtenay (age 40), bishop of London, the duke made use of violent language, which roused the anger of the Londoners, who attacked the Savoy and would have done the duke mischief, had he not escaped by boat on the Thames.— Walsingham, Hist. i. 8325; Archeolog. xxij. 256; Chronicon Anglie, 13828-1388 (Rolls series), 119, 397. A.D. 1882. p. 4.

Note 5. Compare the passage in Walsingham: "Insuper nec illud esse silendum estimo, cum episcopi predicti cum isto schismatico in capella archiepiscopi apud Lambhith convenissent, non dico cives tantum Londonienses, sed viles ipsius civitatis, se impudenter ingerere presumpserunt in eandem capellam, et verba facere pro eodem, et istud negotium impedire."—Hist, Angl. i. 356, ij. 65.

Note 6. The MS. reads "Henrici quarti," but this is a clerical blunder, The gathering in St. Giles’s-fields, under sir John Oldcastle, is referred to. But Adam is not accurate: the actual date of the rising was in January, while Henry the fifth’s second parliament, which was held at Leicester, did not meet till April, 1414. See below, p. 300.

In 1382 Bryan Stapleton (age 60) was appointed 70th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 14).

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 King Richard II of England (age 15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 15) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Bishop Robert Braybrooke. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Charles IV King Bohemia Holy Roman Emperor Luxemburg and Elizabeth Pomerania Holy Roman Empress Luxemburg (age 35). He the son of Edward "Black Prince" and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 53). They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map].

Arranged by Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

On 28 Jan 1382 Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick was born to Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 43) and Margaret Ferrers Countess Warwick at Salwarpe, Worcestershire. King Richard II of England (age 15) and Archbishop Richard Scrope (age 32) were his godfathers.

In 1383 Bryan Stapleton (age 61) and [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 16) were divorced when in Calais [Map].

In 1383 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 14) was appointed 72nd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 15).

In 1385 Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 22) was appointed 73rd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 17).

Richard II Creates his Two Uncles as Dukes

On 06 Aug 1385 [his uncle] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 44) was created 1st Duke York by King Richard II of England (age 18). Isabella of Castile Duchess York (age 30) by marriage Duchess York.

In 1385 [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 29) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, and around the same time, 1st Duke Gloucester. Eleanor Bohun Duchess Gloucester (age 19) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale and Duchess Gloucester.

On 07 Aug 1385 [his mother] Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 56) died at Wallingford Castle [Map]. She was buried at Blackfriars Friary, Stamford [Map] beside her first husband Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent. Her son [his half-brother] Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent (age 35) succeeded 6th Baron Wake of Liddell.

In 1386 Richard Adderbury of Donnington Casatle (age 55) was given permission by King Richard II of England (age 18) to fortify Donnington Castle [Map].

Wonderful Parliament

Around Sep 1386 the Wonderful Parliament sought to reform the administration of King Richard II of England (age 19). Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 56) was impeached for his failures in France.

In 1387 Nocholas Sarnesfeld (age 39) was appointed 75th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 19).

In 1387 David Hamner (age 55) was knighted by King Richard II of England (age 19).

In 1387 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 41) was appointed 74th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 19).

In May 1387 Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 14) was appointed 76th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 20).

Battle of Radcot Bridge

On 19 Dec 1387 the forces of the Lords Appellant led by the future Henry IV King England (age 20) prevented the forces of King Richard II of England (age 20) commanded by Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 25) from crossing the bridge [Map] over the River Thames at Radcot in Oxfordshire. When [his uncle] Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 32) arrived with further Lord Appellant forces the King's men were encircled. The King's men attempted to force the crossing of the bridge at which time the only casualties occurred including Thomas Molyneux (age 49) who was killed by Thomas Mortimer (age 37). Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 25) narrowly escaped to France. Around 800 of his men drowned in the marshes whilst trying to escape.

Around 1388 Thomas Despencer 1st Earl Gloucester (age 14) was appointed 80th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 20).

In 1388 Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 23) was appointed 77th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 20).

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle, Kent [Map]. He fled to Louvain [Map] where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend [his uncle] Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Baron Beauchamp of Kidderminster forfeit.

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

Around 1389 Peter Courtenay (age 43) was appointed 79th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 21).

In 1389 Bishop Thomas de Brantingham was appointed Lord Treasurer to King Richard II of England (age 21).

In 1389 John Devereux 1st Baron Devereux (age 52) was appointed 78th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 21).

Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

In Sep 1389 the Scrope vs Grosvenor Case was brought to the Court of Chivalry. Up to that time two families, Scrope and Grosvenor, had been using the armorial Scrope Arms: Azure, a bend or.

Several hundred witnesses were called including [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49), Geoffrey Chaucer (age 46) and John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 64).

On 03 Sep 1386 Owain ap Gruffudd "Glyndŵr" Mathrafal Prince Powys (age 27) gave evidence at the Church of John the Baptist, Chester [Map].

The Court decided in favour of Scrope.

Neither party was happy with the decision so King Richard II (age 22) was called upon to give his personal verdict.

On 27 May 1390 he confirmed that Grosvenor could not bear the undifferenced arms.

As a consequence of the case the Grosvenor has for many years used the name Bendor for horses and nicknames.

Christmas Court

In Dec 1389 King Richard II of England (age 22) held his Christmas Court at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map].

In 1393 King Richard II of England (age 25) and [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 26) stayed at Titchfield Abbey, Hampshire [Map].

In 1394 William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 44) was appointed 85th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 26).

Around 1394 John Beaumont 4th Baron Beaumont (age 33) was appointed 84th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 26).

Death and Funeral of Anne of Bohemia

On 07 Jun 1394 [his wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 28) died of plague (probably) at Sheen Palace [Map]. King Richard II of England (age 27) was so distraught at her death he ordered the destruction of Sheen Palalce [Map].

On 03 Aug 1394 [his former wife] Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England was buried at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map] with Archbishop Thomas Fitzalan aka Arundel (age 41) presiding. King Richard II of England (age 27) attended. Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 48), brother of the presiding Archbishop, and his wife Philippa Mortimer Countess Pembroke, Arundel and Surrey (age 18), arrived late causing Richard, in a rage, to snatch a wand and strike FitzAlan in the face drawing blood.

Letters. 01 Aug 1394. Letter XXVI. Annabella Queen of Scotland (age 44) to King Richard II (age 27).

To the most high and mighty prince Richard, by the grace of God king of England, our very dear cousin, Annabella, by the selfsame grace queen of Scotland sends health and greeting.

We give you hearty and entire thanks for your loving letters presented to as by oar well-beloved Donglas, herald-at-arms, from which we have learned to our great pleasure and comfort your good health and estate. And, dearest cousin, as touching the marriage-treaty to be made between some nearly allied to you by blood and some children of the king my lord and of us, be pleased to know that it is agreeable to the king (age 57) my said lord and to us, as he has signified to you by these letters. And in especial, that, although the said treaty could not be held on the third day of July last past for certain and reasonable causes contained in your letters sent to the king my aforesaid lord, you consented that the treaty should in like manner take place another day, namely, the first day of October next coming, which is agreeable to the king my aforesaid lord and to us; and we thank you heartily aud with good will, and affectionately pray you that you will continue the said treaty, and have the said day kept, for it is the will of my said lord the king and of us that as far as in us lies the said day should be kept without fail. And, dearest cousin, we affectionately require and entreat you that your highness will not be displeased that we have not sooner written to you; for we were lying in childbed of a male infant named James, of whom we are now well and graciously delivered, thanks to God and our Lady. And also, because, at the coming of your letters, the king my said lord was far away in the isles of his kingdom, we did not receive these letters sent to us on this matter till the last day of July last past. Most high and puissant prince, may the Holy Ghost ever keep you! Given under our signet, at the abbey of Dumfermline [Map], the first day of August.

Richard II Travels to Ireland

In Oct 1394 King Richard II of England (age 27) travelled to Ireland with William Hankford (age 44).

Around 1395 William Fitzalan (age 26) was appointed 86th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 27).

After 22 Nov 1395 Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland was buried at Colne Priory [Map]. King Richard II of England (age 28) had the coffin opened to kiss his friend's hand and to gaze on his face one last time.

On 01 Mar 1396 [his former brother-in-law] John Duke of Görlitz (age 25) died.

Marriage of Richard II and Isabella of Valois

On 31 Oct 1396 King Richard II of England (age 29) and Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 6) were married. The marriage being one of the terms of a twenty-eight year peace treaty with France. He twenty-nine, she six. The marriage sowed the seeds subsequent rebellion since there was no prospect of an heir to secure the Crown. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 27) and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 26). He the son of Edward "Black Prince" and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales. They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 26) attended.

In 1397 Bishop Thomas Merke served King Richard II of England (age 29) as Ambassador to various German Princes.

In 1397 Richard Redman Master of the Horse (age 47) campaigned with King Richard II of England (age 29) at Ireland.

Thomas Haxey's Case Free Speech in Parliament

In Jan 1397 Thomas Haxey presented a bill to Parliament criticising the costs of King Richard II of England's household. King Richard II of England (age 29) took offence and had Haxby charged with treason and sentenced to be executed. On appeal by the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 44) Haxey was released into the Archbishop's care.

Calendars. 23. Be it remembered that on the Wednesday after Candlemas [7 February 1397], immediately after the judgment rendered against Thomas Haxey, clerk, who was adjudged to death in parliament as a traitor, there came before the king in parliament with great humility the archbishop of Canterbury and all the other prelates, and made full protestation that their whole and full intent was, and always would be, that the royal estate and regality of the king should be be forever saved and kept from blemish; and they humbly prayed of the king that it might please him of his grace to have pity and mercy for the said Thomas, and of his high and royal benignity to remit and release the execution of the said Thomas's death and grant and give him his life.

And the king thereupon, at the prayer of the said prelates, of his royal pity and of his special grace, remitted and released the execution of the said Thomas's death and granted him his life. Whereupon the said prelates, thanking the king for his great kindness and mercy he had shown, prayed humbly of the king that it might please him of his most abundant grace, to the reverence of God and for the honour of holy church, to grant them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas, the said prelates protesting thereon that they did not make that request nor prayer, nor demand such great grace of the keeping of his said body, for any right or due which pertained or might pertain to them in the cause, but only of the special grace and will of the king himself. Whereupon the king, only of his special grace and for the honour of holy church, and not as any due or right of the said prelates in this matter, granted and released to them the keeping of the body of the said Thomas: and thereupon he ordered Sir Thomas Percy, steward of the king's household, to deliver the body of the said Thomas Haxey to the said archbishop, to keep safely, of the king's grace, as was said above.

Legitimation of the Beauforts

Calendars. 28. Be it remembered that on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of the parliament [4 February 1397], the chancellor (age 53), by order of the king (age 30), declared that our holy father the pope, in reverence of the most excellent person of the king (age 30) and his honourable uncle the [his uncle] duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster (age 56), and of his blood, has enabled and legitimized my lord John Beaufort (age 24), his brothers [Note. Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 22) and Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 20)], and his sister (age 18). And therefore our lord the king, as sole ruler of his kingdom of England, for the honour of his blood, willed and enabled of his abundant royal power, and legitimized, of his own authority, the said John, his said brothers, and sister. And he also pronounced and published the ability and legitimation, according to the form of the charter of the king made thereon.

Calendars. 29. Which charter was read in full parliament, and delivered to the said [his uncle] duke, father of the said John, and his said brothers and sister; the tenor of which charter follows:

Richard, by the grace of God, king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to our most beloved kinsmen the noble John, knight, Henry, cleric, Thomas, donzel, and our beloved noblewoman Joan Beaufort, lady-in-waiting, our most beloved cousins born of our uncle that noble man John duke of Lancaster, our lieges, greeting and the goodwill of our royal majesty. While inwardly considering how endlessly and with how many honours of parental and sincere affection of our aforementioned uncle and of his mature counsel we are on all sides blessed, we have judged it appropriate and worthy that in consideration of his merits, and in contemplation of the grace of persons, we should endow you, who are resplendent with probity and virtuous life and conduct, and are born of royal stock and divinely marked with many virtues and gifts, with the protection of grace and favour by special prerogative. Thus it is that, yielding to the prayers of our said uncle, your father, we grant to you who, so it is claimed, have suffered such defect of birth, that, notwithstanding this defect, which, together with its various consequences, we wish to be fully included in these presents, you may nevertheless receive all honours, dignities, preferments, estates, degrees, and public and private offices, both perpetual and temporal, and feudal and noble rights, by whatsoever name they are called, such as duchies, lordships, earldoms, baronies, or whatsoever other fiefs they be, whether they be dependent upon or held of us mediately or intermediately, which may be preferred, promoted, elected, taken up and allowed, and received, retained, performed and exercised prudently, freely and lawfully, as if you were born in wedlock, notwithstanding any statutes or customs of our kingdom of England decreed or observed to the contrary; and we dispense you [from this defect] by the tenor of these presents, by the plenitude of our royal power and with the assent of our parliament; and we restore you and each of you to legitimacy.

John Beaufort created Earl Somerset

Calendars. 32. The king (age 30) to his archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, reeves, ministers, and other his bailiffs and faithful men, greeting. Know that we, considering the strenuous probity and prudent mind, distinguished conduct and nobility of birth of our beloved and faithful kinsman John Beaufort (age 24), knight, son of our beloved uncle [his uncle] John duke of Aquitaine and Lancaster (age 56), and willing therefore deservedly to exalt the same John Beaufort with the prerogative of honour, we do appoint and create John Beaufort earl of Somerset in our present parliament, and invest him with the style and name and honour of the aforesaid earl by girding him with the sword, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his aforesaid heirs, given such name and honour, may the better and more honourably support the burdens incumbent upon the same, of our special grace in our present parliament we have given and granted, and by this our charter confirmed, to the same earl and his aforesaid heirs twenty pounds to be received each year from the issues of the aforesaid county by the hand of the sheriff of that county for the time being, at the terms of Easter and Michaelmas [29 September] in equal portions, in perpetuity. Witnessed by these, the venerable father Thomas archbishop of Canterbury (age 44) primate of all England, John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, and [his uncle] Edmund of York (age 55), dukes; Robert of London, William of Winchester (age 77), John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor (age 53), bishops; Henry of Derby (age 29), Edward of Rutland (age 24), Thomas of Nottingham and marshal of England (age 28), earls; Reginald Grey (age 35), Ralph Neville (age 33), John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy (age 54), steward of our household, Guy Mone, keeper of our privy seal, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February in the twentieth year of our reign [10 Feb 1397].

Calendars. 30. Also, on the Saturday [10 February 1397], the chancellor (age 53) announced by the king's (age 30) command that reason willed that one should honour and enhance the estate of worthy and virtuous persons. Wherefore the king (age 30) - considering the nobility and virtue of his cousin Sir John Beaufort (age 24), son of his [his uncle] uncle of Guyenne and Lancaster (age 56), and the great honour he had done his person on various expeditions and labours in many kingdoms and lands overseas, to the great honour of the king and kingdom; and also to encourage him and others to do such honour; and also to strengthen the royal sceptre which could best be supported in honour by worthy and valiant persons - had, of his royal dignity and special grace, made and created the said John an earl, and given him the name and honour of the Earl of Somerset, to have to him and his male heirs lawfully engendered of his body, with twenty pounds a year to be taken from the issues and profits of the county of Somerset for his title and the name of earl.

Note. On 10 Feb 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was created 1st Earl Somerset.

Calendars. 31. Whereupon the said Sir John was brought before the king in parliament between two earls, namely [his half-brother] Huntingdon and the marshal, dressed in a cloth as a dress of honour, and his sword carried before him, the hilt uppermost. And then the king's charter of the said creation was read aloud before the king, lords, and commons in parliament. And afterwards the king himself girded the said earl with his sword and took his homage, and caused him to sit in his place in parliament, that is to say, between the earls marshal and Warwick. The tenor of which charter follows:

Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

On 12 Jul 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 51) was arrested for his opposition to King Richard II of England (age 30).

After Sep 1397 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was appointed 87th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 30).

Richard II Rewards his Supporters

On 29 Sep 1397 King Richard II (age 30) rewarded his relations with Dukedoms, possibly for their part in downfall of Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (deceased), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 59) and Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (deceased) ...

His older half-brother [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 45) was created 1st Duke Exeter. Elizabeth Lancaster Duchess Exeter (age 34) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

His nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 23) was created 1st Duke Surrey.

His second cousin once removed Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 29) was created 1st Duke Norfolk. Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk (age 31) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His first cousin Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 24) was created 1st Duke Albemarle aka Aumale. Beatrice Burgundy Countess Rutland and Cork (age 24) by marriage Duchess Albemarle aka Aumale.

His illegitimate first cousin John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 24) was created 1st Marquess Somerset, 1st Marquess Dorset. Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence (age 12) by marriage Marchioness Somerset, Marchioness Dorset.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Westmoreland. Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 18) by marriage Countess of Westmoreland.

Richard II's Second Trip to Ireland

In 1398 King Richard II of England (age 30) travelled to Ireland with Rhys ap Tudor Tudor and Gwilym ap Tudor Tudor.

In 1398 Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 24) was appointed 88th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 30).

In 1398 Albert Wittelsbach I Duke Bavaria (age 61) was appointed 90th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 30).

In 1398 John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury (age 48) was appointed 89th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 30).

In 1398 Simon Felbrigge was appointed 91st Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 30).

Thomas Mowbray Duel

Before 16 Sep 1398 the future Henry IV (age 31) reported to King Richard II (age 31) that Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) had made a treasonous remark regarding Richard's rule. Richard II proposed a duel of honour at Gosford Green Caludon Coventry [Map], neat Mowbray's home Caludon Castle.

On 17 Sep 1398 King Richard II (age 31), the nobility and thousands of spectators assembled at Gosford Green to witness the duel between the future Henry IV (age 31) and Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30). the future Henry IV (age 31) had had new armour constructed. Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 25) and Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 24) managed the proceedings. Just as the duel was to commence King Richard II (age 31) stopped it. After two hours of deliberation King Richard II (age 31) had his decision announced; both men were to be exiled. The future Henry IV (age 31) for ten years,Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) forever.

On 19 Oct 1398 Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 30) left England never to return.

See The Chronicles of Froissart Book 4 Chapter 94.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. Not long after this, the king of England (age 31) summoned a large council of the great nobles and prelates at Eltham [Map]. On their arrival, he placed his two uncles of [his uncle] Lancaster (age 58) and [his uncle] York (age 57) beside him, with the earls of Northumberland (age 56), Salisbury (age 48) and [his half-brother] Huntingdon (age 46). The earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30) were sent for, and put into separate chambers, for it had been ordered they were not to meet. The king (age 31) showed he wished to mediate between them, notwithstanding their words had been very displeasing to him, and ought not to be lightly pardoned. He required therefore that they should submit themselves to his decision; and to this end sent the constable of England, with four great barons, to oblige them to promise punctually to obey it. The constable and the lords waited on the two earls, and explained the king's intentions They both bound themselves, in their presence, to abide by whatever sentence the king should give. They having reported this, the king said,- "Well then, I order that the earl marshal (age 30), for having caused trouble in this kingdom, by uttering words which he could not prove otherwise than by common report, be banished the realm: he may seek any other land he pleases to dwell in, but he must give over all hope of returning hither, as I banish him for life. I also order, that the earl of Derby (age 31), our cousin, for having angered us, and because he has been, in some measure, the cause of the earl marshal's (age 30) crime and punishment, prepare to leave the kingdom within fifteen days, and be banished hence for the term of ten years, without daring to return unless recalled by us; but we shall reserve to ourself the power of abridging this term in part or altogether." The sentence was satisfactory to the lords present, who said: "The earl of Derby (age 31) may readily go two or three years and amuse himself in foreign parts, for he is young enough; and, although he has already travelled to Prussia, the Holy Sepulchre, Cairo and Saint Catherine's1, he will find other places to visit. He has two sisters, queens of Castillo (age 25) and of Portugal (age 38), and may cheerfully pass his time with them. The lords, knights and squires of those countries, will make him welcome, for at this moment all warfare is at an end. On his arrival in Castille, as he is very active, he may put them in motion, and lead them against the infidels of Granada, which will employ his time better than remaining idle in England. Or he may go to Hainault, where his cousin, and brother in arms, the count d'Ostrevant, will be happily to see him, and gladly entertain him, that he may assist him in his war against the Frieslanders. If he go to Hainault, lie can have frequent intelligence from his own country and children. He therefore cannot fail of doing well, whithersoever he goes; and the king (age 31) may speedily recall him, through means of the good friends he will leave behind, for he is the finest feather in his cap; and he must not therefore suffer him to be too long absent, if he wish to gain the love of his subjects. The earl marshal (age 30) has had hard treatment, for he is banished without hope of ever being recalled; but, to say the truth, he has deserved it, for all this mischief has been caused by him and his foolish talking: he must therefore pay for it." Thus conversed many English knights with each other, the day the king passed sentence on the earl of Derby (age 31) and the earl marshal (age 30).

Note 1. The monastery on Mount Sinai. - Ed.

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The two earls, in the mean time, were making every preparation for their combat. The [his uncle] duke of Lancaster (age 58) never went near the king, and as seldom saw his son (age 31), acting throughout with great good sense. He knew the earl of Derby (age 31) was very popular with all ranks in England, but more particularly with the Londoners, who waited on him, and addressed him, - "Earl of Derby (age 31), make your mind easy: whatever may be the event of this combat it will turn out to your honour, in spite of the king and all his minions. We know well how things are managed, and what will be the result of them: this accusation has been invented by envy, to cause your banishment out of the kingdom, where they are aware you are so greatly beloved by all ranks and sexes; and should you be forced to quit us in sorrow, you shall return in joy, for you are more worthy to rule than Richard of Bordeaux (age 31). Whoever may choose to search the matter to the bottom, to discover the real origin of you both, will soon see that you have a greater right to the crown of England than he who wears it, although we have paid him homage, and acknowledged him for king these twenty years; but that was obtained by the entreaties of your grandfather, king Edward of happy memory, who was suspicious of what we hint, and feared the consequences. There was once a serious dispute on this subject between king Edward and your grandfather by your mother's side, duke Henry of Lancaster, but the great lords interfered and made up matters between them. King Edward was valiant and successful in all his enterprises, and had gained the love of his subjects high and low. Your grandfather of Lancaster only required from the king what was just, and served him and his kingdom so loyally, that his conduct deserved the commendation of all. Every one who knew him called him their old father. These things are worthy of king Richard's consideration, and may make him repent, if anything can, at his leisure, that he has not more prudently governed." Such conversations did many of the nobles and citizens of London hold with the earl of Derby, who was pleased with their affection, and received them kindly. He did not, however, neglect any preparations for his combat, but sent to every one of his friends throughout England, to entreat their company at the appointed day and place.

Froissart. After 19 Oct 1398. When the day of his exile drew near, he went to Eltham where the king (age 31) resided. He found there his [his uncle] father (age 58), the [his uncle] duke of York (age 57) his uncle, and with them the earl of Northumberland (age 56), sir Henry Percy (age 34) his son, and a great many barons and knights of England, vexed that his ill fortune should force him out of England. The greater part of them accompanied him to the presence of the king (age 31), to learn his ultimate pleasure as to this banishment. The king (age 31) pretended that he was very happy to see these lords: he entertained them well, and there was a full court on the occasion. The earl of Salisbury (age 48), and the [his half-brother] earl of Huntingdon (age 46), who had married the duke of Lancaster's (age 58) daughter (age 35), were present, and kept near to the earl of Derby (age 31), whether through dissimulation or not I am ignorant. When the time for the earl of Derby's (age 31) taking leave arrived, the king (age 31) addressed his cousin with great apparent humility, and said, "that as God might help him, the words which had passed between him and the lord marshal had much vexed him; and that he had judged the matter between them to the best of his understanding, and to satisfy the people, who had murmured greatly at this quarrel. Wherefore, cousin," he added, "to relieve you somewhat of your pain, I now remit four years of the term of your banishment, and reduce it to six years instead often. Make your preparations, and provide accordingly." "My lord," replied the earl, "I humbly thank you; and, when it shall be your good pleasure, you will extend your mercy." The lords present were satisfied with the answer, and for this time were well pleased with the king's (age 31) behaviour, for he received them kindly. Some of them returned with the earl of Derby (age 31) to London. The earl's baggage had been sent forward to Dover, and he was advised by his father, on his arrival at Calais, to go straight to Paris, and wait on the [his father-in-law] king of France (age 29) and his cousins the princes of France, for by their means he would be the sooner enabled to shorten his exile than by any other. Had not the duke of Lancaster earnestly pressed this matter, like a father anxious to console his son, he would have taken the direct road to the count d'Ostrevant in Hainault.

Around 1399 John Bourchier 2nd Baron Bourchier (age 70) was appointed 83rd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 31).

In 1399 Robert Waterton Constable (age 39) was appointed Constable of Pontefract Castle. In Jan 1400 he was given custody of King Richard II of England (age 31) who died shortly thereafter.

Around 1399 William Jülich 3rd Duke Guelders 3rd Duke Jülich (age 34) was appointed 81st Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 31).

Around 1399 William Wittelsbach IV Count Holland VI Count Hainault V Count Zeeland (age 33) was appointed 82nd Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 31).

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 [his uncle] John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 58) died at Leicester Castle [Map]. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 48) was by his side. He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral [Map] with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. His son Henry IV King England (age 31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster, 7th Earl of Leicester.

King Richard II of England (age 32) witheld the future Henry IV's (age 31) inheritance from him giving Henry (age 31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Letters. 15 Mar 1399. Letter XXVII. Joanna of Navarre (age 29) afterwards Queen of Henry IV to King Richard II (age 32).

My most dear and redoubted lord,.

I desire every day to be certified of your good estate, which our Lord grant that it may ever be as good as your heart desires and as I should wish it for myself. If it would please you to let me know of it, you would give me great rejoicings in my heart, for every time that I hear good news of you I am most perfectly glad at heart. And if to know tidings from this side would give you pleasure, when this was written my lord (age 31), I, and our children were together in good health of our persons, thanks to our Lord, who by his grace ever grant you the same. I pray you, my dearest and most redoubted lord, that it would ever please you to have the affairs of my said lord well recommended, as well in reference to the deliverance of his lands as other things, which lands in your hands are the cause why he sends his people promptly towards you. So may it please you hereupon to provide him with your gracious remedy, in such manner that he may enjoy his said lands peaceably; even as he and I have our perfect surety and trust in you more than in any other. And let me know your good pleasure, and I will accomplish it willingly and with a good heart to my power.

My dearest and most redoubted lord, I pray the Holy Spirit that he will have you in his holy keeping.

Written at Vannes, the 15th day of March. The Duchess of Bretagne.

Richard II's Last Will

On 16 Apr 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) wrote his Last Will from which the following extracts are taken … Also we bequeath to our beloved nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25) ten thousand marks and to our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) two thousand marks and to our beloved brother [his half-brother] John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) three thousand marks and to our faithful and beloved William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) two thousand marks ... we ordain and set aside for the fulfilment of all and singular the premises the sum of ninety-one thousand marks, of which sixty-five thousand marks are in the keeping of Sir John Ikelyngton and twenty-four thousand marks in the hands and keeping of our dear nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25).

Of this our royal testament we nominate make and depute executors the venerable fathers in Christ Bishop Richard Mitford, Bishop Edmund Stafford (age 55), Robert Tideman of Winchcombe Bishop, Bishop Thomas Merke and Bishop Guy Mone Aka Mohun; our beloved brother Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26), our nephew Thomas Holland 1st Duke Surrey (age 25), our brother John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 47) and William Scrope 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 49) to each of whom we bequeath a gold cup of the value of twenty pounds and our beloved and faithful clerks Master Bishop Richard Boteville Keeper of our Privy Seal, Master Richard Maudeleyn, Master William Fereby and Master John Painter Ikelyngton clerks and John Lufwyk and William Serle laymen, to each of whom we will shall be paid their expenses and necessary costs while it shall happen that they or any of them are employed about the execution of our present last will, but according to the discretion of their said co-executors ...

Whom all and singular we have charged and charge that they shall do as much as in them is for the due execution and fulfilment of this our last will as they shall wish to answer before God. We create ordain depute and make overseers of this our will the reverend fathers in Christ Archbishop Roger Walden and Archbishop Richard Scrope (age 49), William bishop of Winchester and William abbot of the monastery of Westminster Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 26) our uncle and Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) our cousin.

Richard II's Third Trip to Ireland

In May 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) travelled to Ireland with Bishop Thomas Merke, Rhys ap Tudor Tudor and Gwilym ap Tudor Tudor.

Abdication of Richard II

On 24 Jul 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) landed in Wales having travelled from Ireland.

On 12 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) negotiated with Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 57) at Conwy Castle [Map].

On 19 Aug 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) surrendered to Henry Bolingbroke Earl of Derby (age 32) at Flint Castle [Map]. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 29) was present [Note. Wikipedia states Berkeley Castle?]

On 29 Sep 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) Abdicated II King England at the Tower of London [Map]. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 29), Thomas Grey (age 40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby (age 29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell (age 52) and Thomas Rempston were present.

On 30 Sep 1399 Henry IV King England (age 32) usurped IV King England. He had usurped his cousin Richard II (age 32) and Richard's heir the seven year old Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl of March (age 7) who was descended from Edward III's second son Lionel of Antwerp Duke of Clarence. This second usurption was to have far reaching consequences since it subsequently became the descent by which the House of York claimed precedence over the House of Lancaster being one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses.

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 35) was appointed Earl Marshal.

Around 1401. Jean Creton Chronicler. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England delivered to the citizens of London.

Around 1401. Jean Creton Chronicler. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England (standing in black and red) surrendering to Henry IV King England (age 33) (holding the white staff) at Flint Castle [Map].

Around 1401. Jean Creton Chronicler. The Capture and Death of King Richard. King Richard II of England, standing in black and red, negotiating Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland (age 59) at Conwy Castle [Map].

Epiphany Rising

In Dec 1399 the Epiphany Rising was an attempt to restore King Richard II of England (age 32) to the throne replacing Henry IV King England (age 32).

Death of Richard II

On 14 Feb 1400 (exact date not known) King Richard II (age 33) died at Pontefract Castle [Map] where he had been imprisoned three months before; possibly murdered, possibly starved to death. His death was a consequence of the Epiphany Rising; he was still considered a threat. His first cousin Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster de jure Heir to the Throne of England since she was the daughter of Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence. She at this time had four children with her husband Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, Earl Ulster. The new King Henry IV (age 32) ignored her claim.

On 17 Feb 1400 Richard's (deceased) corpse was displayed at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 06 Mar 1400 Richard's (deceased) remains were buried at King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire [Map].

Monumental Effigies. King Richard II and his [his former wife] Queen Anne of Bohemia. Remarkable decoration of White Harts, sunbursts, broom cods on his clothes, as well as the initials A and R. Similarly, her clothes are decorated with the Ostriches with a nail in the beak, a symbol of Bohemia, from which the ostrich feathers, and entwined knots. Note his beard as also seen in portraits.

In 1406 Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 11) and [his former wife] Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 16) were married at Compiègne, Oise. She by marriage Duchess Orléans. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France (age 37) and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France (age 36). He the son of Louis Valois Duke Touraine I Duke Orléans (age 33) and Valentina Visconti (age 35). They were first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

On 13 Sep 1409 Joan Valois was born to Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 14) and [his former wife] Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 19). Isabella Valois Queen Consort England (age 19) died in childbirth. Coefficient of inbreeding 9.28%.

In 1413 King Richard II of England was reburied at Chapel of St Edward the Confessor, Westminster Abbey [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1414. Ande that yere the kyng (age 27) made to be brought the bonys of Kyng Rychard to Westemyster, and they were beryd and put in his owne sepulture, that he let make hym selfe with [his former wife] Quene Anne his wyfe8. [th]is was the laste yere of raygne of the fadyr, and the fyrste yere of the raygne of the sone, Kyng Harry the v.

Note 8. The words betweenb bare repeated in the MS.

Vesta Monumenta. Plate 1.4: Engraving of a Portrait of Richard II in Westminster Abbey

Plate 1.4 of Vetusta Monumenta reproduces a portrait (c. 1395) of Richard II in Westminster Abbey, the earliest known portrait of an English monarch. The engraving preserves design elements lost when the painting was restored in 1866, but also gives a more idealized representation of the monarch's features than does the portrait itself. Engraving by George Vertue (age 34) after Giuseppe Grisoni (age 19). 537 x 265 mm. Published by the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1718. Current location: Westminster Abbey, London, UK.

Giuseppe Grisoni: On or before 24 Oct 1699 he was born. He was baptised on 24 Oct 1699. In 1715 Giuseppe Grisoni travelled to London with John Talman and tried to establish himself as a portrait painter. He did not achieve enough success to stay, however, and returned to Florence in 1728. In 1769 he died.

Effigy of Sir Guy Bryan. DURING the reigns of [his grandfather] Edward III and Richard II no one appears to have been more actively or variously engaged than Sir Guy Bryan. He first presents himself to notice, 23rd Edward III. 1349, at the Battle of Calais, in which he bore the king's standard, when tor his gallant carriage with that trust he had granted him two hundred marks per annum, tor life, and, some time after, farther rewards. In 1354, he was one of the Embassadors sent with Henry, duke of Lancaster, to Rome. The year following in an expedition with the king against the French, he was made a Banneret. In 1359 he was again active in the French wars, and, two years after, revisited Rome on important business. In 1369 and 1370 he was Admiral of the king's fleet against France. Forty-fifth of Edward III. 1371, he was employed in the Scotish wars, and about this time received, as a reward for his important services, the Order of the Garter.

John Valois and Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester were married. She the daughter of William Wittelsbach IV Count Holland VI Count Hainault V Count Zeeland and Margaret Valois Countess Holland. He the son of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France. They were second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Calendars. 9. Also, on the following Thursday, the commons came before the king and lords in parliament and explained to the king that although the archbishop of Canterbury and the earl of Rutland and the earl marshal had told them that the king had heard that there were some who intended to oppose the expedition of the said earls promised to his honourable compeer of France towards the parts of Lombardy, and had incited and procured the commons to request of the king our lord that the said expedition be prevented, and that he break the promise thereon made by him to his said compeer of France, the same commons excused themselves, for that neither they nor any one of them had ever had such purpose nor intent, nor had they spoken amongst themselves, nor had any others instructed them to make a request about nor to influence our lord the king contrary to the honourable promise aforesaid; but that they thanked him most wholeheartedly for the his honourable bearing, for the honour of himself and his kingdom, both in that matter and in others with his said compeer on his last expedition to France, as is well known to a great part of Christendom. And although the said lords in relating it explained to the said commons the gracious intent of our lord the king, that neither the commons nor the realm would be bound nor charged by virtue of that expedition; nevertheless the said commons prayed and protested that although the king of his own authority and will had granted such an expedition, that neither in this expedition nor in anything else which might arise in future, would they be a party, nor suffer loss, but be wholly excused. To which the king replied in his own words in full parliament, and said to the commons that they should not marvel at the said promise; and he kindly explained to them certain reasons which encouraged him to make the promise of the said expedition.

Calendars. 15. Also, as to the fourth article, touching the expenses of the king's household and the presence of bishops and ladies in his company, the king took great offence and affront in that the commons who were his lieges should wrongly take upon themselves or presume any ordinance or governance of the kingking's person, or his household, or other persons of standing whom it should please him to have in his company. And it seemed to the king that the commons committed a great offence therein against his regality and his royal majesty, and the liberty of himself and his honourable progenitors, which he was bound and willed to maintain and sustain by the aid of God. Wherefor the king ordered the said lords spiritual and temporal that on the following Saturday morning [3 February 1397] they should explain and declare in full to the said commons the king's will in the matter. And further, the king understanding that the said commons had been influenced and informed by a bill delivered to them to present and explain the said last article, so he ordered the [his uncle] duke of Guyenne and of Lancaster to charge Sir John Bushy, speaker for the commons, on his allegiance to recount and tell him the name of whomsoever submitted the said bill to the said commons.

Calendars. 33. Also, on the same Saturday [10 February 1397], a charter of the king made to the earl marshal touching his office of marshal of England, and the gold staff adorned with the emblem of the king's arms which he will carry in his office, was read and delivered to the said earl. The tenor of which charter follows:

The king to the same, greeting. Know that whereas recently by our letters patent of our special grace we granted to our beloved kinsman Thomas, Earl of Nottingham, the office of marshal of England, together with the name and honour of earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, with all the fees, profits, and appurtenances whatsoever pertaining in any way to the said office, in perpetuity; as is fully contained in the same letters. We, mindful of the gracious and laudable services often performed by the aforementioned earl, on either side of the sea, for the benefit and honour of us and our kingdom, at no small effort, cost, and charge to him; and wishing therefore to provide for the estate and honour of that earl, of our special grace have granted in our present parliament for us and our heirs to the same earl the said office, and the name, title, and honour of earl marshal of England, to have to him and his male heirs issuing from his body, together with all offices, commodities, profits and other appurtenances whatsoever, both in our courts and elsewhere, relating or pertaining in any way to the same office, in the same manner and as fully, freely, wholly, and peacefully as Thomas Brotherton, lately Earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, father of our beloved kinswoman Margaret Countess of Norfolk, [widow] of the aforesaid late earl, or Roger Bigod sometime Earl of Norfolk and marshal of England, or any other after the death of the same former earl, or the same present earl, had or held the said office of marshal of England in their time.

Willing further and granting for us and our heirs, that the office of marshal of our Bench before us, which John Wicks holds for the term of his life by our grant, and the office of marshal in our treasury which Richard Gascoigne holds for his life by grant of our beloved brother [his half-brother] Thomas Earl of Kent, lately marshal of England, by our confirmation; and also the office of herald of the marshal before the steward and marshal of our household, which Guy Allesley holds for his life by grant of the lord Edward [III], late king of England, our grandfather, and by our confirmation; which offices after the death of the aforesaid John, Richard and Guy should revert to us and our heirs, after the death of the same John, Richard, and Guy shall remain to the aforementioned earl marshal, to have to him and his male heirs in perpetuity. And that the same offices, and all other offices in any of our courts and elsewhere, which pertained, and used to pertain to the said office of marshal of England in times past, shall be fully restored, annexed, and reunited to the said office of marshal of England in perpetuity. And that the same earl and his male heirs may give, grant, or confer those offices on any suitable persons freely and without hindrance as soon as they shall have fallen vacant by death, demise, resignation, surrender, or in any other way, notwithstanding any of our letters patent made to the contrary.

Considering also the vigour and nobility of that earl, and that he may in future the more fittingly and honourably perform and exercise the aforesaid office, we have granted for us and our heirs to the same present earl that he and his said male heirs, marshals of England, by virtue of their aforesaid office should have, carry, and bear, as well in the presence as in the absence of us and our heirs, a certain gold staff, with both ends enamelled in black, and with the emblem of our arms decorating the top of the said staff, and with the emblem of the arms of that earl decorating the bottom of the said staff; notwithstanding that the same present earl in his time, or the aforementioned former earls, or any other who had the said office of marshal of England before this time, used to carry or bear a wooden staff. Witnessed by these, the venerable fathers Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England, Robert of London, William of Winchester, John of Ely, Edmund of Exeter, our chancellor, bishops; [his uncle] John of Aquitaine and Lancaster, [his uncle] Edmund of York, dukes, our beloved uncles; Henry of Derby, Edward of Rutland, Henry of Northumberland, earls; Reginald Grey of Ruthin, Ralph Neville, John Lovell, knights; Roger Walden, dean of York, our treasurer, Thomas Percy, steward of our household, and others. Given by our hand at Westminster on 10 February 1397.

Calendars. 14. Also, the fourth article was that the great and excessive charge of the king's household should be amended and reduced; namely, concerning the multitude of bishops who had lordships and were promoted by the king, and their followers; and also concerning the many ladies and their attendants who dwelt in the king's household and at his expense.

Upon which relation the king himself declared and imparted his will to the said lords: that by gift of God it was the king's right by descent and inheritance to inherit the kingdom of England, and he wished to have the regality and royal liberty of his crown. And he replied to the aforesaid articles by saying that some of the same were greatly against his regality and royal estate and liberty. And to the first article, touching the sheriffs and escheators, the king said that it pleased him well that those who were to be sheriffs and escheators should be persons of adequate means and of loyalty, as reason demanded: but it seemed that it would be more to his advantage, and for the good execution of the said offices, that sufficient persons should stay in the said offices for longer than one year, if they bore themselves well, than that they be removed at the end of the year. And this for various reasons expressed by the king: one of which was that a layman placed in office would not be able to learn how to perform his duties in so short a time; and that he should be removed once he had acquired experience of his office seemed to the king greatly damaging and of no benefit. Another reason was that whosoever should be made such an officer, although he would only be one year in office, would not dare in such a brief time to displease the lords of the land or his neighbours, nor duly serve the king, nor do right in his time. Also, concerning the march of Scotland, it well pleased the king that the lords should suggest a remedy, and if it should provide the means of supporting the charge, it well pleased the king, and he would be ready to do his duty as it reasonably pertained to him.

Calendars. 12. And later, the chancellor at the king's command said to the commons that on the following Friday [26 January 1397] the king's officers would come to the commons to explain to them in greater detail and discuss with them certain charges, the reasons for which they explained to them on the third day of the parliament [23 January 1397] last past.

Calendars. 25. The brethren of the mendicant orders submitted their petition to parliament, the tenor of which follows:

To the most excellent prince our lord the king, the prelates and lords and also the commons present in parliament, the brethren of the mendicant orders humbly pray: that whereas by a certain custom laudably observed amongst them since ancient times, no brother of the same orders shall receive the degree of master in the theology faculty unless he be sufficient in knowledge and conduct in the opinion of his superiors in this kingdom, and so is placed and assigned to receive such a degree in his provincial chapter according to the custom of his order. And nevertheless some brethren of the said orders who are wholly unworthy and untaught procure for themselves the aforesaid degree with money which they take with them overseas; and other unreasonable exemptions, and also inhibitions to their superiors in this kingdom; so that on the return of the same they cannot be punished for their delicts, and neither can their superiors prevent them in any way from obtaining such procurations, exemptions or inhibitions, to the great prejudice of the said orders, and to the shame and disparagement of the said degree, and expressly contrary to the force and effect of the custom of laudable memory. May your excellent and most revered discretion deign to provide such remedy against the insolence of those who wickedly and fraudulently acquire for themselves the degree mentioned above, that the said custom be inviolably observed amongst them hereafter on pain of a great penalty, so that henceforth no brother of the aforesaid orders shall cross the sea without the permission of the superior of his order in this kingdom; nor that such exemption nor assignation shall be allowed, nor the master's degree in any way received, unless it be previously presented in his provincial chapter in the manner mentioned above. And if those brethren, of whatsoever order they be, who are now outside the kingdom and have procured such exemptions or assignations, or the aforesaid degree in the theology faculty against the custom described above, will not, on their return, resign all such exemptions, assignations, and aforesaid scholastic degrees and submit themselves to the discipline and correction of their superiors in this kingdom, then each and every one of them shall incur that penalty which your discretion chooses and appoints for such excesses.

Whereupon, the said petition having been read openly in parliament and heard by the king and lords, the king, by the advice and assent of the lords spiritual and temporal, wills and has ordained in this parliament that none of the brethren of the mendicant orders should cross the sea without the permission of the head of his order in this kingdom; nor that he should be allowed any exemption, assignation, nor receive the degree of master of divinity in any way, unless he be first presented in his provincial chapter; on pain of being placed outside the king's protection. And if such brethren, of whatsoever order they be, who are now outside the kingdom, or within, and have procured such exemptions, assignations, or the degree of master of divinity contrary to the custom described above, will not on their return to England resign and renounce all such exemptions, assignations, and the aforesaid scholastic degree and submit themselves to the discipline and correction of their heads in this kingdom, they shall be placed outside the king's protection.

Calendars. 11. And further, on the other hand, the king, recalling that on the second day of parliament [23 January 1397], his [his uncle] uncle of Lancaster made him a request regarding certain grievances inflicted on him by Sir Thomas Talbot, whereof it was his wish that justice be done as an example to such lawlessness, and saying that had he been greater or lesser, of whatever condition he had been within his realm, who committed wrong, excess, or oppression against any of his lieges contrary to the law, of which he had knowledge of the truth, that he would deliver full justice and punishment thereon according to the law, whether he be of his blood of otherwise, showing no favour to anyone.

Calendars. 10. Firstly, the king, considering how in the past there had been very great trouble and unbearable destruction by war between the two realms of England and France, thought that the greatest good anyone could do for another to oblige him and be the more bound to him, was to aid and relieve him in his trouble and need. Wherefore, with the good intention of pacifying and ending the wars of the kingdom, and to save the troubles which arose through war for his kingdom and his people, and also so that such great benefit and promise might provide a powerful reason for the peace, quiet, and salvation of his kingdom and his lieges of England, and to move his said compeer of France to greater affection for himself and his kingdom and his people in time to come, he made the said promise. The second reason is because his said compeer is cousin to our lord the king, and now his compeer by virtue of this alliance is the more bound to please and relieve him in his need. The third reason is because his said compeer of France, and he himself, are considered two of the most worthy and valiant Christian princes; and for this reason if they happen to know of any king, prince, or other person, whosoever it may be, who by tyranny would conquer and destroy the Christian people in whatsoever parts, they are bound by right, to the reverence of God, to destroy such a tyrant and destroyer, and restore and recover those oppressed and deprived of their estate. And further our lord the king said that he wished to be at large and at liberty to command his people, to send them to aid his friends, and to dispose of his own goods at his will, where and whensoever he chose.

Calendars. 20. The king to the mayor and sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament it was ordained, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizen as alien, who shall wish to take any wool, hides, or woolfells out of our kingdom of England, should deliver and bring one ounce of gold in foreign coinage for each sack of wool, and a similar ounce for every last of hides, and a similar ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to our bullion in our Tower of London [Map], within half a year from the time of customing and cocketing the wool, hides and woolfells, in and under the name of him by whom they were thus customed and cocketed; and that the said merchants, if they did not pay one ounce of this kind of foreign coinage for each sack of wool and each half last of hides and every two hundred and forty woolfells to our aforesaid bullion in the above manner, should pay us for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence; in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that all and singular such merchants before exporting the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from any port of the kingdom of England should find surety to our customs officers in the same ports to pay and deliver the ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form. We order you publicly to proclaim all and singular the aforesaid things in the said city and suburbs of the same wheresoever shall seem best to you, and cause them to be firmly kept as best you can. Witnessed by the king at Westminster on 20 February 1397.

Similar writs were sent to all the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are.

Writs for taking surety.

The king to the collectors of customs and subsidies on wool, hides, and woolfells in the port of our city of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament, etc., as above, as far as to deliver and bring, and then thus - We order you that from every such merchant, before they take the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from the said port of London, you take sufficient surety, for which you will answer to us at your peril, that they will deliver such ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form, from time to time under your seal clearly and distinctly notifying the keeper and master of our mint in the aforesaid Tower of the surety thus taken, and of the names of the aforesaid merchants, and of the number of sacks of wool and hides and woolfells which are taken out of the said port. Witnessed as above.

Similar writs are sent to the king's collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are under the same date.

Calendars. 8. Also, on the following Wednesday [24 January 1397], the chancellor, treasurer, and clerk of the privy seal, the Bishop of Chester and others of the king's council explained and declared in the refectory of Westminster to the commons the particular intent of the king and the reason for summoning the parliament. On the same day, the commons came before the king and lords in parliament and prayed that all the lords spiritual and temporal who were absent be sent for to come to parliament. To which they were given answer by the chancellor, on the king's orders, that it would cause too long a delay in parliament. Nevertheless it pleased the king that during the course of parliament he would send again for the lords who were nearby.

Calendars. 18. The commons of the realm, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal, have granted to our very redoubtable and very powerful lord the king twelve pence in the pound on every kind of merchandise, and three shillings per tun of wine, coming into the kingdom and leaving the same, from the feast of St Andrew, in the twentieth year of the reign of our said lord the king [30 November 1396], for three years next following [29 November 1399]. And also the subsidy on wool, hides and woolfells from the said feast of St Andrew in the said twentieth year for five years then next following [29 November 1401], to be levied as it was levied by virtue of the last grant, so that no levy, nor coercion to make payment, nor surety of payment, shall be made of the aforesaid subsidies after the terms appointed above without the authority of parliament.

Calendars. 7. Also, the following Tuesday [23 January 1397], the commons presented Sir John Bushy as their common speaker, with whom the king was well pleased. And then the said Sir John prayed of the king that he might make a protestation that if he should say anything through ignorance or otherwise which had not been agreed by his companions, etc., that he might be corrected by his said companions; to which the king agreed, as he should by right and reason. And on the same day the [his uncle] duke of Lancaster asked the king to do justice to Sir Thomas Talbot, etc.. And then the chancellor explained to the commons that although he had explained in general the reason for summoning the parliament, on the morrow following, at eight o'clock [24 January 1397], the officers would explain it more particularly, that the commons might be better informed; and they were ordered to make haste in the business of parliament. And later the chancellor, at the king's command, charged all the lords spiritual and temporal to be at parliament each day at nine o'clock at the latest, and that no lord should absent himself in any way without the special permission of the king himself.

Calendars. 16. Item, on Saturday, the morrow of the said feast of Candlemas [3 February 1397], the lords spiritual and temporal were with the commons and showed them the king's will and command, and the said commons delivered the said bill to the lords, with the name of the person who submitted it to them, namely Sir Thomas Haxey. Which bill was later delivered to the clerk of the crown by the clerk of parliament by the king's command, and immediately afterwards the commons came before the king in parliament by his command. And there with all the humility and obedience that they could, they lamented, as was apparent from their mien, that the king had formed such an impression of them, praying most humbly of the king to hear and accept their excuse that it had never been their intent nor will to speak, show nor do anything which would give offence or displeasure to the king's royal majesty, nor against his royal estate or liberty; and especially in the matter concerning his own royal person and the governance of his household, or of the lords and ladies in his company, nor in any other matter which touched himself: knowing and understanding well that such things did not pertain to them, but only to the king himself and to his ordinance. For that their intent was, and is, because of the great affection they bear for the king as faithful lieges, that the lords should ask the king to consider his honourable estate and do thereon whatsoever pleased him, and even though the king perceived differently, that it was not their intent which weighed heavily upon them. And thereupon the said commons humbly submitted themselves to the grace and will of the king, imploring his royal majesty graciously to hold them excused: saying also that they were always ready to do their utmost to save his royal estate and liberty, and to do in body and goods, as loyal lieges were bound to do, that which might be to the honour and salvation of his royal majesty.

Calendars. 2. Furthermore, the chancellor explained and declared in general to the lords and commons the burden and peril of the enemies of Scotland, and of the land of Ireland, and of the duchy of Guyenne, and of the marches of Calais, so that provision might be made by their good advice for the better governance and salvation of the said parts, and against the enemies without, to the great honour and profit of the king and salvation of the kingdom, and with the least burden and expense for the people. And then he said that the king had ordained and assigned certain clerks to receive particular petitions on causes and matters pertaining to parliament, and certain lords to try and to answer the same petitions in the customary manner, the names of which clerks and lords follow:

Calendars. 26. William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, submitted a petition in parliament, the tenor of which follows:

To our lord the king his liege William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, prays: whereas the most noble King Edward [III], your grandfather, by his letters patent gave and granted to William Montague, Earl of Salisbury and father of the said supplicant, whose heir he is, and to the heirs issuing from his body, with the clause of warranty of the said very noble King Edward [III] and his heirs, the castle, town and honour of Denbigh, and the cantreds of Rhos, Rhufiniog, and Cymeirch and the commote of Dinmael with their appurtenances in Wales, as plainly appears from the said letters patent: which castle, town, and honour, cantreds and commote, with their appurtenances, Roger Mortimer, late Earl of March, by the name of the land of Denbigh, in Trinity term, in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of the said most noble King Edward [III] [18 June 1354-9 July 1354], before William Shareshull and his fellow justices assigned to hold the pleas before the said very noble King Edward [III], against the aforesaid supplicant, by erroneous judgment, recovered by a writ of scire facias, founded on a judgment given in the parliament held at Westminster on the Monday after the feast of St Mark the Evangelist in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of the said very noble King Edward [III], for the aforesaid Roger, on a petition showed by him to the said very noble King Edward [III] then, in the name of Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, son and heir of Edmund Mortimer, son and heir of Roger Mortimer; in which record and judgment on the said writ of scire facias there are patent errors.

May it please you of your gracious lordship to cause the full record to be brought before you, with all attachments to the same concerning the said writ of scire facias, in the present parliament, that they may be inspected and examined for error, and to forewarn Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, cousin and heir of the aforesaid Roger son of Edmund, and others who are to be forewarned in the matter, to be before you at the next parliament to hear the said errors; and if they know of anything to say wherefor the aforesaid judgment on the said writ of scire facias should not be reversed, and the aforesaid supplicant restored to his said possession with the issues and profits in the meantime since the said loss, and also to do right and justice to the parties in the aforesaid manner. Whereupon, the said petition having been read before the king and lords of parliament, the king ordered Sir Walter Clopton, his chief justice, to bring before the king and lords in parliament the record of which the said petition made mention above. Which record, on the king's command, was later brought to parliament before the king and lords, and there it was read in part, and certain errors therein were pointed out and alleged by the said Earl of Salisbury. Whereupon the king, by the assent and advice of the lords of parliament, the justices of the king there present, granted and ordered that the said earl have a writ of scire facias on the matter of the said petition, returnable at the next parliament, as the same petition mentions.

Calendars. 1 Be it remembered that on Monday the feast of St Vincent, in the twentieth year of the reign of our lord the king Richard the second since the conquest [22 January 1397], the king being in parliament, the bishop of Exeter, chancellor of England, by the king's command explained and announced the reason for the summoning of this parliament; claiming by the great authority of holy scripture that it pertains to every Christian king to do four things in his parliament, to the pleasure of God and for the good governance of his kingdom. First, that holy church be governed and defended in peace and tranquillity, with its rights and liberties. Second, that all the subjects and people of his kingdom be governed in justice and peace without oppression, and that malefactors be punished and chastised as they deserve. Third, that the good laws of his kingdom be maintained and governed, and if any laws or customs be not good or profitable, then to amend them, or ordain and establish other laws and ordinances necessary for the peace and quiet of the people of his kingdom. Also, fourth, that the people in his kingdom be defended from enemies without. All of which four points thus explained, the king willed and granted that they would be done and upheld as best they might be, with God's aid and by the good counsel of the estates of his kingdom. And he willed that holy church principally, and the lords spiritual and temporal, cities and boroughs, should have and enjoy their liberties and franchises as they reasonably had them in the time of his noble progenitors the kings of England and in his own time.

Calendars. 21. Be it remembered, touching the statute previously made on provisors of the court of Rome, that the commons of the kingdom of England now in parliament, for the great trust that they have in the person of our lord the king, and in his very excellent sense and discretion, and in the great affection and charity he has above all others for his crown and the rights thereof and the salvation of his royal estate, for their part agree in good will, in full parliament, that our said lord the king, by the assent and advice of such wise and worthy persons as it shall please him to summon for counsel in the matter, may make such allowance, ordinance, and moderation touching the said statute as shall seem most reasonable and profitable to him, to the pleasure of God and the salvation of holy church, at his high discretion, saving the rights of his crown and his royal estate, so that at the next parliament the same allowance, ordinance, and moderation may be heard and examined, and thereupon affirmed or corrected and amended or changed, according to that which shall seem best to the king by the advice of his council in the same parliament, for the honour of God and in salvation of holy church, and for the profit of his kingdom and his people.

Froissart. On Corpus Christi day king Richard heard mass, in the tower of London [Map], with all his lords, and afterwards entered his barge, attended by the earls of Salisbury, Warwick and Suffolk, with other knights. He rowed down the Thames towards Rotherhithe [Map], a manor belonging to the crown, where were upwards of ten thousand men, who had come from Blackheath to see the king and to speak to him: when they perceived his barge approach, they set up such shouts and cries as if all the devils in hell had been in their company. They had their knight, sir John Newtoun, with them ; for, in case the king had not come and they found he had made a jest of them, they would, as they had threatened, have cut him to pieces.

Calendars. 24. The Bishop of Llandaff submitted a petition in parliament, the tenor of which follows:

John Bishop of Llandaff shows, as well for our lord the king as for himself, in the present parliament that whereas the keeping of the temporalities of all the Archbishoprics and Bishoprics within the kingdom of England and land of Wales, in whichsoever lordships or franchises they may be, pertain during the vacancy of the same Archbishoprics and Bishoprics to our said lord the king and to none other, as by right of his crown and dignity. And whereas the Bishopric of Llandaff, through the death of Andrew lately bishop there, by whose death the keeping of all the temporalities of the said Bishopric ought by right to pertain to our said lord the king during the same vacancy - Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, after the death of the said bishop, entered the manor of Bishopston, part of the temporalities of the said Bishopric in the lordship and land of Gower in Wales, and continues his possession still, and has taken the profits thereof, claiming to have the keeping of the said manor in times of vacancy by reason of the said lordship and land of Gower, wrongfully and in contempt of our said lord the king and in derogation of his crown. Wherefor the said bishop prays, as well for our lord the king as for himself, that the said manor with its appurtenances be seized into the hands of our lord the king and delivered to the said bishop.

Which petition having been read aloud in parliament and heard by the king and lords, the said matter was announced to the said earl of Warwick being then present in parliament, which earl having deliberated upon it could not deny the entry or occupation of the said manor and the taking of the issues and profits of the same, and had no excuse to make, but that he and his ancestors had acted in the same manner. And because he could not justify his deed, he submitted himself to the king's grace. Wherefor it was adjudged by the king and lords in parliament that the said manor of Bishopston with all its appurtenances should be taken into the king's hands, and the king answered for the issues of the said manor taken by the said earl; and writs made thereon as appropriate; and that the said earl makes fine to the king for the contempt.

Calendars. 19. Be it remembered that it was ordained in this parliament, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizens as aliens, who should wish to take out of England wool, hides or woolfells, should pay one ounce of gold in foreign coin for every sack of wool, and one such ounce for every half last of hides, and one such ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to the king's bullion in the Tower of London [Map], within half a year from the time of the custom and cocketing of the same wool, hides and woolfells, and in and under the name of him from whom they shall thus be customed and cocketed. And that the said merchants, if they do not pay one such ounce of foreign coin for every sack of wool and for every half last of hides, and for every two hundred and forty woolfells to the said bullion, in the aforesaid form, should pay the king for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence, in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that each and every such merchant, before they take the said wool, hides, and woolfells out of any ports of the kingdom of England, should find sufficient surety to the king's customs officers in the same ports to pay the said ounces of gold to the said bullion in the aforesaid form.

Whereupon writs of proclamation were directed to the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are. Also, writs to the collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are, to take surety from the said merchants, and to notify thereof the keeper and master of the mint in the said Tower of London, as appears from the tenor of the said writs transcribed below:

Writs made thereon.

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section III. The volume of Monumental Effigies, drawn and engraved by Mr. Charles Alfred Stothard, F.S.A. the late draughtsman to the Society, is so generally known and so highly appreciated wherever known, that it is only necessary, in order to introduce the subject of the following remarks, to remind the reader that it was left imperfect, in consequence of the author's sudden death, from a lamentable accident which occurred in the pursuit of his congenial profession. It was a part of Mr. Stothard's plan to have included in his work a complete series of the effigies of the Kings and Queens of this country; and for that purpose he visited France, and brought from Fontevraud [Map] his drawings of the statues of Henry the Second and his Queen, of Richard the First, and of Isabella Queen of John; and from the Abbey of L'Espan, near le Mans, the effigy of Berengaria, Queen of Richard I., as well as the figure of Geoffrey, Comte of Anjou, from an enamelled Plate in the church of St. Julien at le Mans [Map]. There were others, however, and those by no means inferior to any in beauty or interest, which had been left, perhaps from the very reason of their being within immediate reach, until some convenient opportunity, which was frustrated by the premature close of the artist's career. I allude particularly to thosea of [his grandmother] Queen Philippa, King Richard the Second, and his Queen Anne of Bohemia, all in Westminster Abbey.

Note a. Mr. Stothard also intended to have included in his work all the knightly effigies in the Temple church. Those he omitted will be given by the Messrs. Hollis.

John Montfort V Duke Brittany and Joan Valois Duchess Brittany were married. She by marriage Duchess Brittany 1341 War of Sucession. She the daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France. He the son of John Montfort V Duke Brittany and Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England. They were second cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

Louis Valois and Margaret Valois were married. She the daughter of John "Fearless" Valois Duke Burgundy and Margaret Wittelsbach Duchess Burgundy. He the son of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France and Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France. They were second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Calendars. 17. Whereupon the chancellor, by the king's command, said to the commons that the king of his royal kindness and gracious lordship considered the aforesaid commons wholly excused, and promised them good lordship, as had always been his will, charging them that on the following Monday they should proceed with the business of parliament as best they could. And further, the king himself said to the commons that they were bound to him in many ways, and now especially, inasmuch as he, for their ease and tranquillity, would abstain from making or demanding a charge from them in tenths or fifteenths, nor did he think to charge them in future for any such charge concerning his own body or person.

King Richard II of England 1367-1400 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

King Henry III of England 1207-1272

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Raymond Berenguer Provence IV Count Provence 1198-1245

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of King Richard II of England 1367-1400

Kings Wessex: Great x 9 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 6 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 12 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 7 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 7 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 6 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 2 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Ancestors of King Richard II of England 1367-1400

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: Edward "Black Prince" Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

GrandMother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

King Richard II of England Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

GrandFather: Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret of France Queen Consort England 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Mother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Fiennes Baroness Wake Liddell 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England