Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Dover [Map]

Dover, Kent is in Kent.

1051 Banishment of the Godwins

1154 Death of King Stephen

1156 Henry II travels to Normandy

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1308 King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

1308 Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

1327 Coronation of Edward III

1328 Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

1360 Release of King John II of France

1431 French Coronation of Henry VI

1450 Murder of William de la Pole

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

1848 Charge of the Light Brigade

Banishment of the Godwins

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1051. This year came Archbishop Robert hither over sea with his pall from Rome, one day before St. Peter's eve: and he took his archiepiscopal seat at Christ-church on St. Peter's day, and soon after this went to the king. Then came Abbot Sparhawk to him with the king's writ and seal, to the intent that he should consecrate him Bishop o[oe] London; but the archbishop refused, saying that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to the archbishop again for the same purpose, and there demanded episcopal consecration; but the archbishop obstinately refused, repeating that the pope had forbidden him. Then went the abbot to London, and sat at the bishopric which the king had before given him, with his full leave, all the summer and the autumn. Then during the same year came Eustace (age 36), who had the sister of King Edward (age 48) to wife, from beyond sea, soon after the bishop, and went to the king; and having spoken with him whatever he chose, he then went homeward. When he came to Canterbury eastward, there took he a repast, and his men; whence he proceeded to Dover, Kent [Map]. When he was about a mile or more on this side Dover, Kent [Map], he put on his breast-plate; and so did all his companions: and they proceeded to Dover. When they came thither, they resolved to quarter themselves wherever they lived. Then came one of his men, and would lodge at the house of a master of a family against his will; but having wounded the master of the house, he was slain by the other. Then was Eustace (age 36) quickly upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs; and having gone to the master of the family, they slew him on his own hearth; then going up to the boroughward, they slew both within and without more than twenty men. The townsmen slew nineteen men on the other side, and wounded more, but they knew not how many. Eustace (age 36) escaped with a few men, and went again to the king (age 48), telling him partially how they had fared. The king (age 48) was very wroth with the townsmen, and sent off Earl Godwin (age 50), bidding him go into Kent with hostility to Dover, Kent [Map]. For Eustace (age 36) had told the king that the guilt of the townsmen was greater than his. But it was not so: and the earl (age 50) would not consent to the expedition, because he was loth to destroy his own people. Then sent the king after all his council, and bade them come to Gloucester nigh the after-mass of St. Mary. Meanwhile Godwin (age 50) took it much to heart, that in his earldom such a thing should happen. Whereupon be began to gather forces over all his earldom, and Earl Sweyne (age 30), his son, over his; and Harold (age 29), his other son, over his earldom: and they assembled all in Gloucestershire, at Langtree, Gloucestershire, a large and innumerable army, all ready for battle against the king; unless Eustace (age 36) and his men were delivered to them handcuffed, and also the Frenchmen that were in the castle. This was done seven nights before the latter mass of St. Mary, when King Edward (age 48) was sitting at Gloucester. Whereupon he sent after Earl Leofric, and north after Earl Siward (age 41), and summoned their retinues. At first they came to him with moderate aid; but when they found how it was in the south, then sent they north over all their earldom, and ordered a large force to the help of their lord. So did Ralph also over his earldom. Then came they all to Gloucester to the aid of the king (age 48), though it was late. So unanimous were they all in defence of the king (age 48), that they would seek Godwin's (age 50) army if the king (age 48) desired it. But some prevented that; because it was very unwise that they should come together; for in the two armies was there almost all that was noblest in England. They therefore prevented this, that they might not leave the land at the mercy of our foes, whilst engaged in a destructive conflict betwixt ourselves. Then it was advised that they should exchange hostages between them. And they issued proclamations throughout to London, whither all the people were summoned over all this north end in Siward's (age 41) earldom, and in Leofric's, and also elsewhere; and Earl Godwin (age 50) was to come thither with his sons to a conference; They came as far as Southwark, Surrey [Map], and very many with them from Wessex; but his army continually diminished more and more; for they bound over to the king (age 48) all the thanes that belonged to Earl Harold (age 29) his son, and outlawed Earl Sweyne (age 30) his other son. When therefore it could not serve his purpose to come to a conference against the king (age 48) and against the army that was with him, he went in the night away. In the morning the king (age 48) held a council, and proclaimed him an outlaw, with his whole army; himself (age 50) and his wife, and all his three sons - Sweyne (age 30) and Tosty (age 25) and Grith (age 19). And he went south to Thorney67, with his wife, and Sweyne (age 30) his son, and Tosty (age 25) and his wife (age 18), a cousin of Baldwin of Bruges (age 38) [Note. Judith Flanders Duchess Bavaria (age 18) was a sister of Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders (age 38)], and his son Grith (age 19). Earl Harold (age 29) with Leofwine (age 16) went to Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map] in the ship that Earl Sweyne (age 30) had before prepared and provisioned for himself; and the king (age 48) sent Bishop Aldred from London with his retinue, with orders to overtake him ere he came to ship. But they either could not or would not: and he then went out from the mouth of the Avon; but he encountered such adverse weather, that he got off with difficulty, and suffered great loss. He then went forth to Ireland, as soon as the weather permitted. In the meantime the Welshmen had wrought a castle in Herefordshire, in the territory of Earl Sweyne (age 30), and brought as much injury and disgrace on the king's (age 48) men thereabout as they could. Then came Earl Godwin (age 50), and Earl Sweyne (age 30), and Earl Harold (age 29), together at Beverstone [Map], and many men with them; to the intent that they might go to their natural lord, and to all the peers that were assembled with him; to have the king's (age 48) counsel and assistance, and that of all the peers, how they might avenge the insult offered to the king (age 48), and to all the nation. But the Welshmen were before with the king (age 48), and betrayed the earls, so that they were not permitted to come within the sight of his eyes; for they declared that they intended to come thither to betray the king (age 48). There was now assembled before the king (age 48)68 Earl Siward (age 41), and Earl Leofric, and much people with them from the north: and it was told Earl Godwin (age 50) and his sons, that the king (age 48) and the men who were with him would take counsel against them; but they prepared themselves firmly to resist, though they were loth to proceed against their natural lord. Then advised the peers on either side, that they should abstain from all hostility: and the king (age 48) gave God's peace and his full friendship to each party. Then advised the king (age 48) and his council, that there should be a second time a general assembly of all the nobles in London, at the autumnal equinox: and the king (age 48) ordered out an army both south and north of the Thames, the best that ever was. Then was Earl Sweyne (age 30) proclaimed an outlaw; and Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Harold (age 29) were summoned to the council as early as they could come. When they came thither and were cited to the council, then required they security and hostages, that they might come into the council and go out without treachery. The king (age 48) then demanded all the thanes that the earls had; and they put them all into his hands. Then sent the king (age 48) again to them, and commanded them to come with twelve men to the king's (age 48) council. Then desired the earl again security and hostages, that he might answer singly to each of the things that were laid to his charge. But the hostages were refused; and a truce of five nights was allowed him to depart from the land. Then went Earl Godwin (age 50) and Earl Sweyne (age 30) to Bosham [Map], and drew out their ships, and went beyond sea, seeking the protection of Baldwin (age 38); and there they abode all the winter. Earl Harold (age 29) went westward to Ireland, and was there all the winter on the king's (age 48) security.

It was from Thorney69 that Godwin (age 50) and those that were with him went to Bruges [Map], to Baldwin's (age 38) land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they could lodge therein for each man. Wonderful would it have been thought by every man that was then in England, if any person had said before this that it would end thus! For he was before raised to such a height, that he ruled the king (age 48) and all England; his sons were earls, and the king's (age 48) darlings; and his daughter (age 25) wedded and united to the king (age 48). Soon after this took place, the king (age 48) dismissed the lady (age 25) who had been consecrated his queen, and ordered to be taken from her all that she had in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in all things; and committed her to the care of his sister at Wherwell [Map]. Soon after came Earl William (age 23) from beyond sea with a large retinue of Frenchmen; and the king (age 48) entertained him and as many of his companions as were convenient to him, and let him depart again. Then was Abbot Sparhawk driven from his bishopric at London; and William (age 23) the king's priest was invested therewith. Then was Oddy appointed earl over Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over Wales; and Algar, the son of Earl Leofric, was promoted to the earldom which Harold (age 29) before possessed.

Note 67. The ancient name of Westminster; which came into disuse because there was another Thorney in Cambridgeshire.

Note 68. i.e. at Gloucester, according to the printed Chronicle; which omits all that took place in the meantime at London and Southwark.

Note 69. Now Westminster.

John of Worcester. 08 Sep 1051. Meanwhile, Godwin (age 50) and his sons [Note. Sweyn (age 30), Harold (age 29), Tostig (age 25), Gyrth (age 19), Leofwine (age 16) and Wulfnoth (age 11); it isn't clear whether all were present?], with their respective armies, entered Gloucestershire after the feast of the nativity of St. Mary [8th September], and encamping at a place called Langtreo, sent envoys to the king at Gloucester, demanding the surrender of count Eustace (age 36) and his followers, as well as of the Normans and men of Boulogne, who were in possession of the castle on the cliff at Dover, Kent [Map], on pain of hostilities. The king, alarmed for a time at this message, was in great distress, and in the utmost perplexity what to do. But when he found that the troops of the earls Leofric, Siward (age 41), and Ralph were on their march, he replied with firmness that he would by no means consent to give up Eustace (age 36) and the rest who were demanded. On hearing this, the envoys returned from their bootless errand. As they were departing, the army entered Gloucester, so exasperated, and unanimously ready to fight, that, if the king had given permission, they would have instantly engaged earl Godwin's (age 50) army. But earl Leofric considering that all the men of greatest note in England were assembled either on his side or the other, it appeared to him and some others a great folly to fight with their own countrymen, and he proposed that, hostages having been given by both parties, the king and Godwin (age 50) should meet at London on a day appointed, and settle their controversy in a legal way. This advice being approved, and after the exchange of messages, hostages having been given and received, the earl (age 50) returned into Wessex; and the king assembled a more powerful army from the whole of Mercia and Northumbria, and led it to London. Meanwhile, Godwin (age 50) and his sons came to Southwark with a vast multitude of the people of Wessex; but his army gradually dwindling away and deserting him, he did not venture to abide the judgment of the king's court, but fled, under cover of night. When, therefore, the morning came, the king, in his witan, with the unanimous consent of the whole army, made a decree that Godwin (age 50) and his five sons should be banished. Thereupon he and his wife Githa, and Tosti (age 25) and his wife Judith (age 18), the daughter of Baldwin, count of Flanders, and two of his. other sons, namely, Sweyn (age 30) and Gurth (age 19), went, without loss of time, to Thorney, where a ship had been got ready for them. They quickly laded her with as much gold, silver, and other valuable articles as she could hold, and, embarking in great haste, directed her course towards Flanders and Baldwin (age 39) the count. His sons Harold (age 29) and Leofwine (age 16), making their way to Brycgstowe [Map], went on board a ship which their brother Sweyn (age 30) had prepared for them, and crossed over to Ireland. The king (age 48) repudiated the queen Edgitha (age 25), on account of his wrath against her father Godwin (age 50), and sent her in disgrace, with only a single handmaid, to Wherwell [Map], where she was committed to the custody of the abbess.67

Note 67. She was a sister of the king.

John of Worcester. 1051. Ælfric, archbishop of York, died at Southwell, and was buried at Peterborough [Map]; Kinsige, the king's chaplain, succeeded him. King Edward (age 48) released the English from the heavy tax payable to the Danish troops, in the thirty-eighth year after his father Ethelred had first imposed it. After this, in the month of September, Eustace (age 36) the elder, count of Boulogne, who had married a sister of king Edward, named Goda, sailed to Dover, Kent [Map] with a small fleet.66 His soldiers, while they were bluntly and indiscreetly inquiring for lodgings, killed one of the townsmen. A neighbour of his witnessing this, slew one of the soldiers in revenge. At this the count and his followers were much enraged, and put many men and women to the sword, trampling their babes and children under their horses' hoofs. But seeing the townsmen flocking together to resist them, they made their escape, like cowards, with some difficulty, and leaving seven of their number slain, they fled to king Edward (age 48), who was then at Gloucester. Earl Godwin (age 50), being indignant that such things should be done within his jurisdiction, in great wrath raised an immense army from the whole of his earldom, that is, from Kent, Sussex, and Wessex; his eldest son, Sweyn, also assembled the men of his earldom, that is, of the counties of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berks; and his other son, Harold (age 29), assembled the men of his earldom, namely, Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridge. This did not escape the notice of king Edward (age 48), and he therefore sent messages to Leofric, earl of Mercia, and Siward (age 41), earl of Northumbria, begging them to hasten to him with all the men they could muster, as he was in great peril. They came at first with only a few followers but when they learnt the real state of affairs, they sent swift messengers throughout their earldoms and gathered a large army. Likewise earl Ralph, son of Goda, king Edward's sister, assembled as many as he could from his county.

Note 66. Cf. Saxon Chronicle under the years 1048 and 1052.

Henry II travels to Normandy

On 10 Jan 1156 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 22) crossed from Dover, Kent [Map] to Wissant [Map]. Richard "The Loyal" Lucy (age 67) was appointed Regent in Henry's absence. Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 34) was placed in the care of Archbishop Theobald of Bec (age 66) and Bishop John of Salisbury (age 38). Her party included her sister Petronilla Poitiers (age 31).

In 1187 Eustace Fiennes (age 75) died at Dover, Kent [Map].

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

Chronica Majora. 14 Jan 1236. Anno Domini 1236, which was the twentieth year of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Winchester at Christmas, where he observed that festival with rejoicings. He was at this time anxiously looking for the return of the special messengers, whom he had sent into Provence to Raymond (age 38), count of that province, with letters containing his own inmost thoughts about contracting a marriage with his daughter Eleanor (age 13). This said count was a man of illustrious race and brave in battle, but, by continual wars, he had wasted almost all the money he possessed. He had married the daughter (age 38) of Thomas, the late count of Savoy, and sister of the present count, Amadeus (age 39), a woman of remarkable beauty, by name Beatrice (age 38). This lady had issue by the aforesaid count, two daughters of great beauty, the elder of whom, named Margaret (age 15), was married to Louis (age 21), the French king, as we are told by a clerk named John de Gates; and the king of England had now, by the aforesaid messengers, demanded the younger one, a young lady of handsome appearance, in marriage. In order to obtain this favour, he had secretly sent Richard, prior of Hurle, in advance, who faithfully and with diligence brought the matter to a conclusion. On the prior's returning and telling the king the result, the latter sent him back to the count with some other messengers, namely, the bishops Hugh of Ely, and Robert of Hereford, and the brother of Robert de SANFORD, the master of the Knights Templars. These messengers were received by the count on their arrival in Provence with the greatest honour and respect, and from his hands received his daughter Eleanor, for the purpose of being united to the King of England; she was also attended by her uncle, William, bishop elect of Valentia; a man of distinction, and by the count of Champagne, a relation of the English king. The king of Navarre, on learning that they would travel through his territories, went joyfully to meet them, and accompanied them as a guide through his dominions during a journey of five days and more; he also, from his natural generosity, paid all their expenses, both for horses and attendants. Their retinue consisted of more than three hundred horsemen, not including the people who followed them in great numbers. On reaching the boundaries of France, they obtained not only a safe but honourable passage through that country, under conduct of the French king (age 21) and his queen (age 15), the sister of the lady about to be married to the English king, and also of Blanche (age 47), the French king's mother. They embarked at the port of Sandwich [Note. Should be Wissant], and with full sail made for Dover, Kent [Map], where they arrived, after a quick passage, before they were expected. Having thus safely landed, they set out for Canterbury, Kent [Map], and were met by the king, who rushed into the arms of the messengers, and, having seen the lady and received possession of her, he married her at Canterbury; the ceremony being performed on the fourteenth of January, by Edmund, archbishop (age 61) of that place, assisted by the bishops, who had come with the lady, in the presence of the other nobles and prelates of the kingdom. On the 19th of January the king went to Westminster, where an extra-ordinary solemnity took place on the following day, which was Sunday, at which the king wore his crown and Eleanor was crowned queen. Thus was Henry the Third married at Canterbury, and the nuptials were celebrated in London, at Westminster, on the feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian.

On 20 Aug 1270 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 31) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 29) sailed from Dover, Kent [Map] to Tunis via Sicily. On arrival at Sicily King Charles Capet of Sicily (age 43), brother of the recently deceased King Louis IX of France (age 56), had signed a treaty with the Emir so Edward returned to Sicily.

On 02 Aug 1274 King Edward "Longshanks" I of England (age 35) and Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England (age 33) arrived at Dover, Kent [Map] after an absence of four years. They travelled to London via Tonbridge Castle [Map], home of Gilbert "Red Earl" Clare 7th Earl Gloucester 6th Earl Hertford (age 30) and Reigate Castle, Surrey [Map], home of John Warenne 6th Earl of Surrey (age 43).

Calendars. 08 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23) To the Sheriff of Leicester. Order to cause a coroner for that county to be elected in place of John de Noveray, of Burton, lately elected in the late King's reign, who is insufficiently qualified.

Memorandum, that on Sunday before the Feast of St Vincent the Martyr [22 Jan], at Dover, Kent [Map] in the King's chamber in the Priory of St Martin, Dover [Map], in the evening (crepsusculo noctis), in the presence of William Inge, knight, William de Melton and Adam de Osgoodby, clerks, Bishop John Langton, the King's Chancellor, delivered under his seal to the said King his great seal; and the King received the said seal in his own hands, and delivered it to Sir William Melton (age 33) to be carried with him in the wardrobe beyond sea; and the King straightaway delivered by his own hand another seal of his shortly before made anew at London for the government of the realm in the King's absence in a red bag (bursa) sealed with the seal of William Inge to the chancellor. With which seal the chancellor caused writs to be sealed, after the King's passage, in the hospital of Domus Dei, under the testimony of Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24) then Keeper of the realm of England, on the Monday next following, on which day the King in the early morning (summo mane) passed the sea at Dover, Kent [Map].

Calendars. 22 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Dover, Kent [Map]. Robert Terry, of Whytefield, imprisoned at Northampton [Map] for the death of Galianus de Bek, has letters to the Sheriff of Nottingham to bail him until the first assize. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24).

Calendars. 22 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Dover, Kent [Map] To the Sheriff of Kent. Order to provide 75 thousands of wood and 200 quarters of charcoal for the expenses of the King's household on his return from parts beyond the sea, so that he have at Dover, Kent [Map] against the King's return 25 thousands of wood and 30 quarters of coal, and at Canterbury, Kent [Map] 30 thousands of wood and 100 quarters of coal, and at Rochester, Kent [Map] (Rofham) 20 thousands of wood and 70 quarters of coal; to be delivered by indenture to John de Sumery, scullion (scutell') of the king's household, or such as supply his place. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24).

King Edward II and Isabella of France arrive in England

Calendars. On 07 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 13) returned from their wedding in Boulogne sur Mer [Map] to Dover, Kent [Map].

07 Feb 1308. Be it remembered that on Wednesday after the Purification, Edward II (age 23), the king, returning from beyond seas, to wit, from Boulogne sur Mer [Map], where he took to wife Isabel (age 13), daughter of the king of France (age 39), touched at Dover, Kent [Map] in his barge about the ninth hour [1500], Hugh le Despenser (age 46) and the lord of Castellione of Gascony being in his company, and the Queen a little afterward touched there with certain ladies accompanying her, and because the great seal which had been taken with him beyond seas then remained in the keeping of the keeper of the wardrobe who could not arrive on that day, no writ was sealed from the hour of the king's coming until Friday following on which day the bishop of Chichester, chancellor, about the ninth hour [1500] delivered to the king in his chamber in Dover castle [Map] the seal used in England during the king's absence, and the king, receiving the same, delivered it to William de Melton (age 33), controller of the wardrobe, and forthwith delivered with his own hand to the chancellor the great seal under the seal of J. de Benstede, keeper of the wardrobe, and Master John Painter Fraunceis, in the presence of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster (age 30), Peter, Earl of Cornwall (age 24), and Hugh le Despenser (age 46), William Martyn and William Inge, knights, and Adam de Osgodby, clerk; and the chancellor on that day after lunch in his room (hospicio) in God's House, Dover, sealed writs with the great seal.

Calendars. 09 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Dover, Kent [Map]. To Alice, late wife of Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk and Marshall of England. Order to meet the king at Dover, Kent [Map] on his return from France with his consort about Sunday next after the Feast of the Purification of St Mary. Witnessed by Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24).

The like to:

Elizabeth, Countess of Hereford and Essex (age 25).

Henry de Lancastre (age 27).

Robert de Monte Alto.

Almaric de Sancto Amando[Ibid].

To R Archbishop of Canterbury (age 63). Order to attend the king's coronaion on Sunday next after the feast of St Valentine [14 Feb] at Westminster [Map], to execute what pertains to his office.

To the Sheriff of Surrey. Order to proclaim in market towns, etc., that no knight, esquire, or other shall, under pain of forfeiture, pressure to tourney or make jousts or bordices (torneare, justos seu burdseicas facere), or otherwise go armed at Croydon, Surrey [Map] or elsewhere before the king's coronation.

Coronation of Edward II and Isabella

Calendars. 08 Feb 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Dover, Kent [Map]. To William Leybourne. Order to attend the king's coronation with his wife on Sunday next after the feast of St Valentine.

The like to seventy others in various counties.

Coronation of Edward III

Froissart. 01 Feb 1327. AFTER that the most part of the company of Hainault were departed and sir John Hainault (age 39) lord of Beaumont tarried, the queen (age 32) gave leave to her people to depart, saving a certain noble knights, the which she kept still about her and her son to counsel them, and commanded all then that departed to be at London the next Christmas, for as then she was determined to keep open court, and all they promised her so to do. And when Christmas was come, she held a great court. And thither came dukes,' earls, barons, knights, and all the nobles of the realm, with prelates and burgesses of good towns; and at this assembly it was advised that the realm could not long endure without a head and a chief lord. Then they put in writing all the deeds of the king (age 42) who was in prison, and all that he had done by evil counsel, and all his usages and evil behavings, and how evil he had governed his realm, the which was read openly in plain audience, to the intent that the noble sages of the realm might take thereof good advice, and to fall at accord how the realm should be governed from thenceforth. And when all the cases and deeds that the king had done and consented to, and all his behaving and usages were read and well understanded, the barons and knights and all the counsels of the realm drew them apart to counsel; and the most part of them accorded, and namely the great lords and nobles with the burgesses of the good towns, according as they had heard say and knew themselves the most part of his deeds. Wherefore they concluded that such a man (age 42) was not worthy to be a king, nor to bear a crown royal, nor to have the name of a king. But they all accorded that Edward (age 14) his eldest son, who was there present and was rightful heir, should be crowned king instead of his father, so that he would take good counsel, sage and true, about him, so than it was before, and that the old king his father (age 42) should be well and honestly kept as long as he lived, according to his estate. And thus as it was agreed by all the nobles, so it was accomplished; and then was crowned with a crown royal at the palace of Westminster [Map] beside London the young king Edward the third (age 14), who in his, days after was right fortunate and happy in arms. This coronation was in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Christmasday [Note. Other sources day 01 Feb 1327], and as then the young king was about the age of sixteen; and they held the feast till the Conversion of Saint Paul following, and in the meantime greatly was feasted sir John of Hainault (age 39) and all the princes and nobles of his country, and was given to him and to his company many rich jewels. And so he and his company in great feast and solace both with lords and ladies tarried till the Twelfth day. And then sir John of Hainault (age 39) heard tidings how that the king of Bohemia (age 30) and the earl of Hainault (age 41) his brother and other great plenty of lords of France had ordained to be at Conde [Map] at a great feast and tourney that was there cried. Then would sir John of Hainault no longer abide for no prayer, so great desire he had to be at the said tourney, and to see the earl his brother and other lords of his country, and specially the right noble king in largess the gentle Charles king of Bohemia. When the young king Edward (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and the barons saw that he would no longer tarry, and that their request could not avail, they gave him leave sore against their wills, and the king (age 14) by the counsel of the queen (age 32) his mother did give him four hundred marks sterlings of rent heritable to hold of him in fee, to be paid every year in the town of Bruges [Map], and also did give to Philip of Chateaux, his chief esquire and his sovereign counsellor, a hundred mark of rent yearly, to be paid at the said place [Map], and also delivered him much money to pay therewith the costs of him and of his company, till he come into his own country, and caused him to be conducted with many noble knights to Dover, Kent [Map], and there delivered hint all his passage free. And to the ladies that were come into England with the queen (age 32), and namely to the countess of Garennes, who was sister to the earl of Bar, and to divers other ladies and damosels, there were given many fair and rich jewels at their departing. And when sir John of Hainault was departed from the young king Edward, and all his company, and were come to Dover, Kent [Map], they entered incontinent into their ships to pass the sea, to the intent to come betimes to the said tourney; and there went with him fifteen young lusty knights of England, to go to this tourney with him and to acquaint them with the strange lords and knights that should be there, and they had great honour of all the company that tourneyed at that time at Conde [Map].

Froissart. AFTER that sir John of Hainault (age 39) was departed from king Edward (age 14), he and the queen (age 32) his mother governed the realm by the counsel of the earl of Kent (age 25), uncle to the king, and by the counsel of sir Roger Mortimer (age 39), who had great lands in England to the sum of seven hundred pounds of rent yearly. And they both were banished and chased out of England with the queen (age 32), as ye have heard before. Also they used much after the counsel of sir Thomas Wake (age 30), and by the advice of other who were reputed for the most sagest of the realm. Howbeit there were some had envy thereat, the which never died in England, and also it reigneth and will reign in divers other countries. Thus passed forth the winter and the Lent season till Easter, and then the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) and all the realm was in good peace all this season. Then so it fortuned that king Robert of Scotland (age 52), who had been right hardy and had suffered much travail against Englishmen, and oftentimes he had been chased and discomfited in the time of king Edward the first, grandfather to this young king Edward the third (age 14), he was as then become very old and ancient, and sick (as it was said) of the great evil and malady. When he knew the adventures that was fallen in England, how that the old king Edward the second (age 42) was taken and deposed down from his regaly and his crown, and certain of his counsellors beheaded and put to destruction, as ye have heard herebefore, then he bethought him that he would defy the young king Edward the third (age 14), because he was young and that the barons of the realm were not all of one accord, as it was said: therefore he [thought] the better to speed in his purpose to conquer part of England. And so about Easter in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. he sent his defiance to the young king Edward the third and to all the realm, sending them word how that he would enter into the realm of England and bren before him as he had done beforetime at such season as the discomfiture was at the castle of Stirling [Map], whereas the Englishmen received great damage. When the king of England (age 14) and his council perceived that they were defied, they caused it to be known over all the realm, and commanded that all the nobles and all other should be ready apparelled every man after his estate, and that they should be by Ascension-day next after at the town of York [Map], standing northward. The king sent much people before to keep the frontiers against Scotland, and sent a great ambassade to sir John of Hainault (age 39), praying him right affectuously that he would help to succour and to keep company with him in his voyage against the Scots, and that he world be with him at the Ascensionday next after at York [Map], with such company as he might get of men of war in those parts. When sir John of Hainault lord of Beaumont (age 39) heard the king's (age 14) desire, he sent straight his letters and his messengers in every place whereas he thought to recover or attain to have any company of men of war, in Flanders, in Hainault, in Brabant, and in other places, desiring them that in their best apparel for the war they would meet him at Wissant [Map], for to go over the sea with him into England. And all such as he sent unto came to him with a glad cheer, and divers other that heard thereof, in trust to attain to as much honour as they had that were with him in England before at the other voyage. So that by that time the said lord Beaumont (age 39) was come to Wissant [Map], there was ready ships for him and his company, brought out of England. And so they took shipping and passed over the sea and arrived at Dover, Kent [Map], and so then ceased not to ride till: they came within three days of Pentecost to the town of York [Map], whereas the king (age 14) and the queen (age 32) his mother and all his lords were with great host tarrying the coming of sir John of Hainault (age 39), and had sent many before of their men of arms, archers and common people of the good towns and villages; and as people resorted, they were caused to be lodged two or three leagues off, all about in the country. And on a day thither came sir John of Hainault (age 39) and his company, who were right welcome and well received both of the king (age 14), of the queen his mother, and of all other barons, and to them was delivered the suburbs of the city to lodge in. And to sir John of Hainault was delivered an abbey of white monks for him and his household. There came with him out of Hainault the lord of Enghien, who was called sir Gaultier, and sir Henry lord d'Antoing, and the lord of Fagnolle, and sir Fastres du Roeulx, sir Robert de Bailleul, and sir Guilliam de Bailleul his brother, and the lord of Havreth, chatelain of Mons, sir Allard de Briffeuil, sir Michael de Ligne, sir John de Montigny the younger and his brother, sir Sanses de Boussoit, the lord of Gommegnies, sir Perceval de Semeries, the lord of Beaurieu and the lord of Floyon. Also of the country of Flanders there was sir Hector of Vilain, sir John de Rhodes, sir Wu there was sir John le Belt and sir Henry his brother, sir Godfrey de la Chapelle, sir Hugh d'Ohey, sir John de Libyne, sir Lambert d'Oupey, and sir Gilbert de Herck: and out of Cambresis and Artois there were come certain knights of their own good wills to advance their bodies: so that sir John of Hainault had well in his company five hundred men of arms, well apparelled and richly mounted. And after the feast of Pentecost came thither sir Guilliam de Juliers (age 28), who was after duke of Juliers after the decease of his father, and sir Thierry of Heinsberg, who was after earl of Loos, and with them a right fair rout, and all to keep company with the gentle knight sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont.

Marriage of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault

Froissart. 24 Jan 1328. It was not long after but that the king (age 15) and the queen (age 33) his mother, the earl of Kent (age 26) his uncle, the earl of Lancaster (age 47), sir Roger Mortimer (age 40) and all the barons of England, and by the advice of the king's council, they sent a bishop1 and two knights bannerets, with two notable clerks, to sir John of Hainault (age 40), praying him to be a mean that their lord the young king of England might have in marriage one of the earl's (age 42) daughters of Hainault, his brother (age 42), named Philippa (age 13); for the king and all the nobles of the realm had rather have her than any other lady, for the love of him. Sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont feasted and honoured greatly these ambassadors, and brought them to Valenciennes to the earl his brother, who honourably received them and made them such cheer, that it were over long here to rehearse. And when they had skewed the content of their message, the earl (age 42) said, 'Sirs, I thank greatly the king (age 15) your prince and the queen (age 33) his mother and all other lords of England, sith they have sent such sufficient personages as ye be to do me such honour as to treat for the marriage; to the which request I am well agreed, if our holy father the pope (age 84) will consent thereto'-. with the which answer these ambassadors were right well content. Then they sent two knights and two clerks incontinent to the pope, to Avignon [Map], to purchase a dispensation for this marriage to be had; for without the pope's licence they might not marry, for [by] the lineage of France they were so near of kin as at the third degree, for the two mothers [Note. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 33) and Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault (age 34)] were cousin-germans issued of two brethren2. And when these ambassadors were come to the pope (age 84), and their requests and considerations well heard, our holy father the pope (age 84) with all the whole college consented to this marriage, and so feasted them. And then they departed and came again to Valenciennes with their bulls. Then this marriage was concluded and affirmed on both parties. Then was there devised and purveyed for their apparel and for all things honourable that belonged to such a lady, who should be queen of England: and there this princess was married by a sufficient procuration brought from the king of England; and after all feasts and triumphs done, then this young queen entered into the sea at Wissant [Map], and arrived with all her company at Dover, Kent [Map]. And sir John of Hainault (age 40) lord Beaumont, her uncle, did conduct her to the city of London, where there was made great feast, and many nobles of England, ... queen was crowned. And there was also great jousts, tourneys, dancing, carolling and great feasts every day, the which endured the, space of three weeks. The English chronicle saith this marriage and coronation of the queen was done at York [Map] with much honour, the Sunday in the even of the Conversion of Saint Paul, in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVII. In the which chronicle is shewed many other things of the ruling of the realm, and of the death of king Edward of Caernarvon, and divers other debates that were within the realm, as in the same chronicle more plainly it appeareth: the which the author of this book speaketh no word of, because peradventure he knew it not; for it was hard for a stranger to know all things. But according to his writing this young queen Philippa (age 13) abode still in England with a small company of any persons of her own country, saving one who was named Watelet of Manny (age 18), who abode still with the queen and was, her carver, and after did so many great prowesses in divers places, that it were hard to make mention of them all.

Note 1. This should be: 'And the other barons of England who had continued to be of the council of the king sent a bishop,' etc. Or according to a better text, ' took advice to marry him. So they sent a bishop,' etc.

Note 2. The meaning is that the kinship came by the relationship of both to the house of France. The mother of Edward was daughter of Philip the Fair and the mother of Philippa was daughter of Charles I of Valois [who were brothers; Edward and Philippa were second cousins].

On 03 Aug 1355 Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 68) died at Dover, Kent [Map]. He was buried in the St Catherine Chantry at Lincoln Cathedral [Map] with his father and brother. His son Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh (age 27) succeeded 2nd Baron Burghesh. Cecily Weyland Baroness Burghesh by marriage Baroness Burghesh.

Cecily Weyland Baroness Burghesh: Around 1314 she was born to Richard de Weyland. Before 10 May 1335 Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh and she were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King John "Lackland" of England. In Aug 1354 she died.

Release of King John II of France

On 30 Jun 1360 King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) left the Tower of London [Map] and proceeded to Eltham Palace, Kent [Map] where Queen Philippa (age 46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, Kent [Map], he continued towards Dover, Kent [Map], stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury [Map] on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (age 30) at Dover Castle [Map], and reached English-held Calais [Map] on 08 Jul 1360.

French Coronation of Henry VI

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 13 Dec 1431. And the xiij day of the same monythe he was crownyde at Parysse; for there he was worthely and ryally ressayvyd as they cowthe devyse whythe alle the statys of the towne. And there he hylde his feste raylly to alle maner of nacyons that were in that contre, that yf it plesyde them thedyr for to come. And in Syn Johnys day in the Crystysmasse weke the King remevyd towarde Roone [Map], and on the xij evyn he come unto Calys. Ande the xxix day of Janyver he londyd at Dovyr [Map].

Murder of William de la Pole

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 01 May 1450. Ande at his passynge ovyr the see warde he was mette with by-twyne Dovyr and Calys by dyvers schyppys, of the whyche was here Admyralle Nycholas of the Towre; and yn that shyppe soo beyng in the see they smote of his hedde of the fore said Duke of Sowthefolke (age 53), and they caste bothe body and his hedde in to the see. And aftyr that it was takyn uppe and brought unto the towne of Dovyr [Map], and aftyr from thens brought unto Wynkylfylde [Map] in Sowthefolke, and there it is i-buryde; whos name was Syr Wylliam Pole (age 53).

On 21 Aug 1463 Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 35) arrived at Dover, Kent [Map] with King Edward IV of England (age 21).

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Aug 1555. The same day the Kyng('s) (age 28) grace toke ys jorney toward Dover, Kent [Map], and with a grett compeny, and ther tared for the wynd, and ther the shypes lying rede [ready] for ys grace gohyng over see.

Note. P. 93. Departure of king Philip. The king crossed to Calais on the 4th Sept. "and so foorth to Brusselles in Brabant to visite the emperour hys father." (Stowe's Summarie, 1566.) He went to assume the government of the Low Countries, and was received into Antwerp with great solemnity about the 18th January. (Ibid.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. Jul 1557. The moneth of July whent a grett army after that the kyng (age 30) was gone over; my lord of Pembroke (age 56), cheyff capten of the feld, and my lord Montyguw (age 28) whent, and my lord Clyntun (age 45), and dyvers lordes and knyghtes and gentyllmen by water and land, and goodly aparelle; they wher sent to Dover, Kent [Map]. London fond v c. men all in bluw cassokes, sum by shypes and sum to Dover by land, the goodlyst men that ever whent, and best be-sene in change (of) aparelle.

Note. P. 143. A great army. In Starkey's collections, MS. Harl. 353, f. 188b. will be found "The Booke of the officers and Captaynes of horsmen and footmen of a Regiment of a Thousand horsmen, Four Thowsand footmen, and two thowsand Pyoners, wth. their Wages and entertainments, at the goinge to St. Quintens in the tyme of Queene Marye, primo July an°. 1557." (It is imperfect.) The word "Regiment" in this case appears equivalent to Army. A list of the captains will also be found in Holinshed, p. 1767.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Jul 1557. The iij day of July the Kyng (age 30) and the Quen (age 41) toke ther gornay [journey] toward Dover, Kent [Map], and lay all nyghtt at Syttyngborne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Jul 1557. [The v day of July the King (age 30) took shipping at Dover, Kent [Map]] towarde Callys [Map], on hys jornay [toward Flanders].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1641. At our going off, the fort, against which our pinnace anchored, saluted my Lord Marshal (age 56) with twelve gi'eat guns, which we answered with three. Not having the wind favourable, we anchored that night before Calais [Map]. About midnight, we weighed; and, at four in the morning, though not far from Dover [Map], we could not make the pier till four that afternoon, the wind proving contrary and driving us westward; but at last we got on shore, October the 12th.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Nov 1643. Lying by the way from Wotton, Surrey [Map] at Sir Ralph Whitfield's, at Blechingley [Map] (whither both my brothers had conducted me), I arrived at London on the 7th, and two days after took boat at the Tower-wharf, which carried me as far as Sittingbourne, Kent [Map], though not without danger, I being only in a pair of oars, exposed to a hideous storm: but it pleased God that we got in before the peril was considerable. From thence, I went by post to Dover, Kent [Map], accompanied with one Mr. Thicknesse, a very dear friend of mine.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Oct 1647. I sealed and declared my will, and that morning went from Paris, taking my journey through Rouen, Dieppe, Ville-dieu, and St. Vallerie, where I stayed one day with Mr. Waller (age 41), with whom I had some affairs, and for which cause I took this circle to Calais, where I arrived on the 11th, and that night embarking in a packet boat, was by one o'clock got safe to Dover, Kent [Map]; for which I heartily put up my thanks to God who had conducted me safe to my own country, and been merciful to me through so many aberrations. Hence, taking post, I arrived at London the next day at evening, being the 2d of October, new style.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Jul 1649. It was about three in the afternoon, I took oars for Gravesend, Kent [Map]., accompanied by my cousin, Stephens, and sister, Glanville, who there supped with me and returned; whence I took post immediately to Dover, Kent [Map], where I arrived by nine in the morning; and, about eleven that night, went on board a barque guarded by a pinnace of eight guns; this being the first time the Packet-boat had obtained a convoy, having several times before been pillaged. We had a good passage, though chased for some hours by a pirate, but he dared not attack our frigate, and we then chased him till he got under the protection of the castle at Calais. It was a small privateer belonging to the Prince of Wales. I carried over with me my servant, Richard Hoare, an incomparable writer of several hands, whom I afterward preferred in the Prerogative Office, at the return of his Majesty. Lady Catherine Scott, daughter of the Earl of Norwich (age 64), followed us in a shallop, with Mr. Arthur Slingsby (age 26), who left England incognito. At the entrance of the town, the Lieutenant Governor, being on his horse with the guards, let us pass courteously. I visited Sir Richard Lloyd, an English gentleman, and walked in the church, where the ornament about the high altar of black marble is very fine, and there is a good picture of the Assumption. The citadel seems to be impregnable, and the whole country about it to be laid under water by sluices for many miles.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1652. I embarked early in the packet boat, but put my goods in a stouter vessel. It was calm, so that we got not to Dover [Map] till eight at night. I took horse for Canterbury, Kent [Map], and lay at Rochester [Map]; next day, to Gravesend [Map], took a pair of oars, and landed at Sayes Court [Map], where I stayed three days to refresh, and look after my packet and goods, sent by a stouter vessel. I went to visit my cousin, Richard Fanshawe (age 43), and divers other friends.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1660. This morning Captain Cuttance sent me 12 bottles of Margate ale. Three of them I drank presently with some friends in the Coach. My Lord went this morning about the flag-ships in a boat, to see what alterations there must be, as to the arms and flags. He did give me order also to write for silk flags and scarlett waistcloathes1. For a rich barge; for a noise of trumpets2, and a set of fidlers. Very great deal of company come today, among others Mr. Bellasses, Sir Thomas Lenthropp, Sir Henry Chichley, Colonel Philip Honiwood, and Captain Titus, the last of whom my Lord showed all our cabins, and I suppose he is to take notice what room there will be for the King's (age 29) entertainment. Here were also all the Jurates of the town of Dover, Kent [Map] come to give my Lord a visit, and after dinner all went away. I could not but observe that the Vice-Admiral (age 45) after dinner came into the great cabin below, where the Jurates and I and the commanders for want of room dined, and there told us we must drink a health to the King, and himself called for a bottle of wine, and begun his and the Duke of York's. In the afternoon I lost 5s. at ninepins. After supper musique, and to bed. Having also among us at the Coach table wrote a letter to the French ambassador, in French, about the release of a ship we had taken. After I was in bed Mr. Sheply and W. Howe came and sat in my cabin, where I gave them three bottles of Margate ale, and sat laughing and very merry, till almost one o'clock in the morning, and so good night.

Note 1. Waist-cloths are the painted canvas coverings of the hammocks which are stowed in the waist-nettings.

Note 2. A set or company of musicians, an expression constantly used by old writers without any disparaging meaning. It is sometimes applied to voices as well as to instruments.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1660. This morning I inquired for my boy, whether he was come well or no, and it was told me that he was well in bed. My Lord called me to his chamber, he being in bed, and gave me many orders to make for direction for the ships that are left in the Downs, giving them the greatest charge in the world to bring no passengers with them, when they come after us to Scheveling Bay, excepting Mr. Edward Montagu (age 12), Mr. Thomas Crew (age 36), and Sir H. Wright (age 23). Sir R. Stayner (age 35) hath been here early in the morning and told my Lord, that my Lord Winchelsea understands by letters, that the Commissioners are only to come to Dover, Kent [Map] to attend the coming over of the King. So my Lord did give order for weighing anchor, which we did, and sailed all day. In our way in the morning, coming in the midway between Dover and Calais, we could see both places very easily, and very pleasant it was to me that the further we went the more we lost sight of both lands. In the afternoon at cards with Mr. North (age 24) and the Doctor. There by us, in the Lark frigate, Sir R. Freeman and some others, going from the King to England, come to see my Lord and so onward on their voyage. In the afternoon upon the quarterdeck the Doctor told Mr. North (age 24) and me an admirable story called "The Fruitless Precaution", an exceeding pretty story and worthy my getting without book when I can get the book.[??] This evening came Mr. Sheply on board, whom we had left at Deal and Dover getting of provision and borrowing of money. In the evening late, after discoursing with the Doctor, &c., to bed.

On 25 May 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) arrived at Dover, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's (age 55) landing at Dover, Kent [Map], and also letters from the Queen (age 50), which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his Majesty (age 30), by reason of the infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to see his Majesty (age 30), and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the King (age 30) being as willing to give them that satisfaction, would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jan 1665. I went in a coach, it being excessive sharp frost and snow, toward Dover, Kent [Map] and other parts of Kent, to settle physicians, chirurgeons, agents, marshals, and other officers in all the sea ports, to take care of such as should be set on shore, wounded, sick, or prisoners, in pursuance of our commission reaching from the North Foreland, in Kent, to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], in Hampshire. The rest of the ports in England were allotted to the other Commissioners. That evening I came to Rochester, Kent [Map], where I delivered the Privy Council's letter to the Mayor to receive orders from me.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1665. To Dover, Kent [Map], where Colonel Stroode (age 37), Lieutenant of the Castle, having received the letter I brought him from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), made me lodge in it, and I was splendidly treated, assisting me from place to place. Here I settled my first Deputy. The Mayor and officers of the Customs were very civil to me.

Battle of Lowestoft

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Came news of his highness's (age 35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester, Kent [Map] this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, Kent [Map], where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, Kent [Map], and returned to Deal, Kent [Map]; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, Kent [Map], and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (age 35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (age 31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War"..

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. So home after church time to dinner, and after dinner my father, wife, sister, and Mercer by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], while I walked by land, and saw the Exchange [Map] as full of people, and hath been all this noon as of any other day, only for newes. I to St. Margaret's, Westminster [Map], and there saw at church my pretty Betty Michell, and thence to the Abbey [Map], and so to Mrs. Martin, and there did what 'je voudrais avec her [I wanted with her].... So by and by he come in, and after some discourse with him I away to White Hall, and there met with this bad newes farther, that the Prince (age 46) come to Dover, Kent [Map] but at ten o'clock last night, and there heard nothing of a fight; so that we are defeated of all our hopes of his helpe to the fleete. It is also reported by some Victuallers that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and Holmes their flags were shot down, and both fain to come to anchor to renew their rigging and sails.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1666. I to Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who told me there hath been great bad management in all this; that the King's orders that went on Friday for calling back the Prince (age 46), were sent but by the ordinary post on Wednesday; and come to the Prince (age 46) his hands but on Friday; and then, instead of sailing presently, he stays till four in the evening. And that which is worst of all, the Hampshire, laden with merchants' money, come from the Straights, set out with or but just before the fleete, and was in the Downes by five in the clock yesterday morning; and the Prince with his fleete come to Dover, Kent [Map] but at ten of the clock at night. This is hard to answer, if it be true. This puts great astonishment into the King (age 36), and Duke (age 32), and Court, every body being out of countenance.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1666. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall in the latter's coach, where, when we come, we find the Duke (age 32) at St. James's, whither he is lately gone to lodge. So walking through the Parke we saw hundreds of people listening at the Gravel-pits, [Kensington] and to and again in the Parke to hear the guns, and I saw a letter, dated last night, from Strowd (age 38), Governor of Dover Castle, which says that the Prince (age 46) come thither the night before with his fleete, but that for the guns which we writ that we heard, it is only a mistake for thunder1 and so far as to yesterday it is a miraculous thing that we all Friday, and Saturday and yesterday, did hear every where most plainly the guns go off, and yet at Deale [Map] and Dover, Kent [Map] to last night they did not hear one word of a fight, nor think they heard one gun. This, added to what I have set down before the other day about the Katharine, makes room for a great dispute in philosophy, how we should hear it and they not, the same wind that brought it to us being the same that should bring it to them: but so it is. Major Halsey, however (he was sent down on purpose to hear newes), did bring newes this morning that he did see the Prince (age 46) and his fleete at nine of the clock yesterday morning, four or five leagues to sea behind the Goodwin [Map], so that by the hearing of the guns this morning we conclude he is come to the fleete.

Note 1. Evelyn (age 45) was in his garden when he heard the guns, and be at once set off to Rochester, Kent [Map] and the coast, but he found that nothing had been heard at Deal (see his "Diary", June 1st, 1666).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1666. After dinner took him and my wife and Barker (for so is our new woman called, and is yet but a sorry girle), and set them down at Unthanke's, and so to White Hall, and there find some of my brethren with the Duke of York (age 33), but so few I put off the meeting. So staid and heard the Duke (age 33) discourse, which he did mighty scurrilously, of the French, and with reason, that they should give Beaufort (age 50) orders when he was to bring, and did bring, his fleete hither, that his rendezvous for his fleete, and for all sluggs to come to, should be between Calais [Map] and Dover, Kent [Map]; which did prove the taking of La Roche[lle], who, among other sluggs behind, did, by their instructions, make for that place, to rendezvous with the fleete; and Beaufort (age 50), seeing them as he was returning, took them for the English fleete, and wrote word to the King of France (age 28) that he had passed by the English fleete, and the English fleete durst not meddle with him. The Court is all full of vests, only my Lord St. Albans (age 61) not pinked but plain black; and they say the King (age 36) says the pinking upon white makes them look too much like magpyes, and therefore hath bespoke one of plain velvet.

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (age 41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (age 25) (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (age 39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (age 52) to meet him at the Tower [Map], where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover, Kent [Map] that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

On 30 Jun 1670 Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 26) (sister of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover, Kent [Map]. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1672. To Dover, Kent [Map]; but the fleet did not appear till the 16th, when the Duke of York (age 38) with his and the French squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who were newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing eastward by the straits between Dover and Calais in a glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, having visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted the Governor, I took horse for Margate, Kent [Map]. Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which is a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle of iron, in which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when the nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors), we could see our fleet as they lay at anchor. The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of sight to the N. E.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1675. We came to Canterbury, Kent [Map]: and, next morning, to Dover, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1690. This morning many or most of the commanders in the Fleet came on board and dined here, so that some of them and I dined together in the Round-house, where we were very merry. Hither came the Vice-Admiral to us, and sat and talked and seemed a very good-natured man. At night as I was all alone in my cabin, in a melancholy fit playing on my viallin, my Lord and Sir R. Stayner came into the coach and supped there, and called me out to supper with them. After that up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where he and I and Sir Richard sat till 11 o'clock talking, and so to bed. This day my Lord Goring returned from France, and landed at Dover, Kent [Map].

On 01 Dec 1690 Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke was born to Philip Yorke (age 39) at Dover, Kent [Map].

On 10 Aug 1784 Allan Ramsay (age 70) died at Dover, Kent [Map].

Charge of the Light Brigade

Adeline Horsey Recollections. Among those who came to our house at 8 Upper Grosvenor Street, the Earl of Cardigan (age 50) was my father's (age 58) particular friend, and in consequence we saw a great deal of him. Lord Cardigan (age 50) has sometimes been described as a favourite of fortune, for he possessed great wealth, great personal attractions, and he was much liked by the late Queen Victoria (age 28) and Prince Albert (age 28). Commanding the 11th Hussars, he was the first person to welcome the Prince (age 28) at Dover, Kent [Map] when he arrived to marry the Queen (age 28), and his regiment was afterwards known as Prince Albert's own Hussars.

His Lordship (age 50) was a typical soldier, and after the Crimean War there was perhaps no more popular hero in all England. So much has been written about him that it is unnecessary for me to retell matters that are well known. I have often been asked whether he confided to me anything particular about the Charge of the Light Brigade, but the truth is that he never seemed to attach any importance to the part he played. Such matters are the property of the historian, and as his widow I am naturally his greatest admirer.

1492 Siege of Boulogne

Hall's Chronicle 1492. Shortely after that King Henry had tarried a convenient space, he transfreted [crossed the sea] and arrived at Douer [Map], and so came to his manor of Greenwich [Map]. And this was the yere of our Lord a. M.CCCC.xciii. and the 7th yere of his troublesome reign. Also in this sojourning and be beseiging of Boulogne (which I’ve spoken of before) there was few or none killed, saving only John Savage knight, which going privately out of his pavilion with Sir John Riseley, rode about the walls to view and see their strength, was suddenly intercepted and taken of his enemies. And he being inflamed with ire, although he were captive, of his high courage disdained to be taken of such villains, defended his life to the utmost and was manfully (I will not say wilfully) slain and oppressed, albeit Sir John Riseley fled from them and escaped their danger.

Froissart. And then they took their way to the city of York, and so within three days they came thither; and there the king found the queen his mother, who received him with great joy, and so did all other ladies, damosels, burgesses and commons of the city. The king gave licence to all manner of people, every man to draw homeward to their own countries. And the king thanked greatly the earls, barons and knights of their good counsel and aid that they had done to him in his journey; and he retained still with him sir John of Hainault and all his company, who were greatly feasted by the queen and all other ladies. Then the knights and other strangers of his company made a bill of their horses and such other stuff as they had lost in that journey, and delivered it to the king's council, every man by itself; and in trust of the king's promise, sir John of Hainault lord Beaumont bound himself to all his company that they should be content for everything comprised in their own bills within a short space them, the which ships with their stuff arrived at Sluys in Flanders. And sir John of Hainault and his company took their leave of the king, of the old queen, of the earl of Kent, of the earl of Lancaster and of all the other barons, who greatly did honour them. And the king caused twelve knights and two hundred men of arms to company them, for doubt of the archers of England, of whom they were not well assured, for they must needs pass through the bishopric of Lincoln. Thus departed sir John of Hainault and his rout in the conduct of these knights. and rode so long in their journey that they came to Dover, Kent [Map], and there entered into the sea in ships and vessels that they found ready there apparelled for them. Then the English knights departed from thence, and returned to their own houses; And the Hainowes arrived at Wissant [Map], and there they sojourned two days in making ready their horses and harness. And in the meantime sir John of Hainault and some of his company rode a pilgrimage to our Lady of Boulogne; and after they returned into Hainault, and departed each from other to their own houses and countries. Sir John of Hainault rode to the earl his brother, who was at Valenciennes, who received him joyously, for greatly he loved him, to whom he recounted all his tidings, that ye have heard herebefore.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Dover, Ash

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Dover, Ash, St Nicholas Church

Effigy in Ash Church, Kent. St Nicholas Church, Ash.

ON the authority of Harris, this effigy may he assigned to Sir John Laverick. Weever, speaking of Ash, says, "in this church are many ancient monuments of worthy gentlemen, namely, Sir Goshalls and Sir Levericks, who lie crosse-legged as Knights of Jerusalema." There are many interesting points about the armour of this figure. The basinet and genouillieres are elegantly adorned with studs and leaves. The wrists of the gauntlets are composed of small laminae or splinters of plate.

Details. Plate I. 1. Ornament on the front of the basinet. 2. Buckle of the sword-belt. 3. Ornament on the bottom of the genouilliere. Plate II. Profile. 1. Lace of the camail, passing through scallops of plate, forming the lower part of the basinet. 2. Gauntlets. 3. Part of the solerette and jambe (near the ancle); portion of the spur, with straps. * Fun. Monuments, p.265.

Note a. Fun. Monuments, p.265.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Dover, Lion Inn

Letters 1536. 01 Jun 1536. Vit. B. xiv. 220. B. M. 1023. J[ean de Ponte] to Cromwell.

"Juste deprecantibus nichil denegari debet, 1536."—On the 1st June, dined with the vicar of Honniton and another priest, at the house of John Bould, the "Lion," at Dover. There were also present a man named Granger, and the wives of Mr. Nedersolle, Mr. Wrake, and John [Bould]. During dinner a servant of the master of the Maison Dieu, named Tra[sse], came in with news that the day before Madame Anne (deceased) was beheaded, the tapers at the sepulchre [Map] of queen Katharine lighted of themselves, and, after matins, at Deo Gratias, went out; that the King sent 30 men to the abbey where queen Katharine was buried to inquire about it, and the light continued from day to day; that orders would soon be issued to pray for queen Katharine as before, and afterwards a heap of heretics and new inventions would be hanged and burnt, "comme moy qui etoyt ung heretike plus grant de Angletayre, et ung false kenayve que je toys .... davant que fut gayres je seroys davant le conseyll du Roy, comme ung false kanave que j[etoys];" and that I should mark well what he said. I asked whether he had heard me preach or speak heresy. He said yes, and that I had eaten milk, butter, and eggs. I said I never ate eggs. Then he said I was a false French knave, and should be had before the Council. "De Ponte," 1 June.

P. S.—I shall be killed of them of the Maison Dieu, and dare not abide in the chapel. I would not leave without permission of my friends, but I had rather leave than be killed without deserving it. Hol., Fr., pp. 2. Add.

Note 1. Like me who was one of the greatest heretics of England, and a false knave that I toy [?] .... before there was gayres [?] I would be before the council of the King, like a false kanave that ...

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Dover, Priory of St Martin [Map]

On 25 Oct 1154 King Stephen I England (age 60) died at Priory of St Martin, Dover [Map]. His first cousin once removed King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 21) succeeded II King England.

Calendars. 08 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23) To the Sheriff of Leicester. Order to cause a coroner for that county to be elected in place of John de Noveray, of Burton, lately elected in the late King's reign, who is insufficiently qualified.

Memorandum, that on Sunday before the Feast of St Vincent the Martyr [22 Jan], at Dover, Kent [Map] in the King's chamber in the Priory of St Martin, Dover [Map], in the evening (crepsusculo noctis), in the presence of William Inge, knight, William de Melton and Adam de Osgoodby, clerks, Bishop John Langton, the King's Chancellor, delivered under his seal to the said King his great seal; and the King received the said seal in his own hands, and delivered it to Sir William Melton (age 33) to be carried with him in the wardrobe beyond sea; and the King straightaway delivered by his own hand another seal of his shortly before made anew at London for the government of the realm in the King's absence in a red bag (bursa) sealed with the seal of William Inge to the chancellor. With which seal the chancellor caused writs to be sealed, after the King's passage, in the hospital of Domus Dei, under the testimony of Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24) then Keeper of the realm of England, on the Monday next following, on which day the King in the early morning (summo mane) passed the sea at Dover, Kent [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Dover, Stourmouth

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 885. This year separated the before-mentioned army in two; one part east, another to Rochester [Map]. This city they surrounded, and wrought another fortress around themselves. The people, however, defended the city, until King Alfred (age 36) came out with his army. Then went the enemy to their ships, and forsook their work. There were they provided with horses; and soon after, in the same summer, they went over sea again. The same year sent King Alfred (age 36) a fleet from Kent into East-Anglia. As soon as they came to Stourmouth, there met them sixteen ships of the pirates. And they fought with them, took all the ships, and slew the men. As they returned homeward with their booty, they met a large fleet of the pirates, and fought with them the same day; but the Danes had the victory.