Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Tower Hill [Map]

Tower Hill is in City of London.

1381 Peasants' Revolt

1388 Merciless Parliament

1397 Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1483 Buckingham's Rebellion

1485 Execution of Roger Clifford

1495 Perkin Warbreck Plot

1497 Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1540 Execution of Thomas Cromwell

1544 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1547 Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1552 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1601 Essex Rebellion

1616 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1533 Buggery Act

1641 Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

1644 Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

1644 Trial and Execution of the Hothams

1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1664 Comet

1666 Great Fire of London

1680 Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

1683 Indemnity and Oblivion Act

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

1715 Battle of Preston

Peasants' Revolt

On 14 Jun 1381 the mob gained access to the Tower of London [Map] capturing Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 52), the future Henry IV King England (age 14), Joan Holland Duchess York (age 1) and Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65).

Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral [Map].

Lord Treasurer Robert Hales (age 56), who had only been appointed on the 1st February 1381, was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle, Kent [Map]. He fled to Louvain [Map] where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley 1st Duke York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Baron Beauchamp of Kidderminster forfeit.

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

Arrest and Execution of Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel

On 21 Sep 1397 Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 51) was tried at Westminster [Map].

He was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] immediately thereafter. Earl Surrey and Earl Arundel Sussex forfeit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1440. 1440. And that same yere there was a preste i-callyd Syr Rycharde Wyche and hys servand brent atte the Tourehylle [Map], for the whyche there was moche trobil a-monge the pepylle, in soo moche that alle the wardys in London were assygnyd to wake there day and nyght that the pepylle myght nought have hyr ylle purpose as at that tyme.

Chronicle of Gregory 1443. 1443 [possibly 1442]. And that same yere was a woman of Westemyster brentt at Toure-hylle [Map] for kyllynge of hyr hosbond.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 20 Feb 1462 Aubrey de Vere was executed at Tower Hill [Map].

On 23 Feb 1462 William Tyrrell (age 54), John Montgomery and Thomas Tuddenham (age 60) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

On 26 Feb 1462 John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford (age 53) was hanged at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 19) succeeded 13th Earl of Oxford.

Buckingham's Rebellion

On 04 Dec 1483 George Browne (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Execution of Roger Clifford

On 02 May 1485 Roger Clifford (age 48) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for supporting King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28).

On 12 Mar 1491 Robert Chamberlayne (age 53) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Perkin Warbreck Plot

On 16 Feb 1495 William Stanley (age 60) and Simon Montfort were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for their part in the Perkin Warbeck Plot.

Gilbert Debenham (age 63) was attainted and condemned to death for treason for having supported Stanley. He remained in prison until 1499 when his sister Elizabeth Brewes, in return for paying a large fine, obtained a pardon for her brother and a promise that the attainder would be reversed.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 22 Jun 1497. This yeare was Blackheath [Map] feild in June.e The Lord Awdley (age 34) chiefe capteyn with 30,000 Cornishe men. The capteynes put to death,f.

Note e. June 22nd.

Note f. Lord Audley (age 34) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]; Flammock, an attorney, and Michel Joseph, a blacksmith, were hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn [Map]; all the rest were pardoned by proclamation.

Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge

On 28 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley, 4th Baron Tuchet (age 34) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Blackfriars Church Holborn. His head was placed on a spike at London Bridge [Map]. Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire and Baron Tuchet forfeit.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 23 Nov 1499. Perkin Werbeck (age 25) putt to death at Tyburne [Map]; and the Earle of Warwyke (age 24),b sonne to the Duke of Clarence, who had bene kept in the Tower [Map] from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill [Map].c A great pestilence throughout all England.

Note b. Edward Earl of Warwick (age 24) was the last remaining male of the honse of Plantagenet. He bore the title of Earl of Warwick, though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed.

Note c. Warbeck (age 25) was executed at Tyburn [Map] on the 23rd Norember, together with O'Water, Mayor of C!ork, and the Earl of Warwick on the following day, or, according to some anthorities, on the 28th.

Note. "though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed." Edward's (age 24) claim was from through his mother Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence, daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick, whose claim had come from her mother Anne Beauchamp, so his father's attainder was irrelevant.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 28 Nov 1499 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 24) was executed at Tower Hill [Map].

Earl Warwick, Baron Montagu forfeit.

Documentation held in Spain apparently describes Catherine of Aragon's (age 13) parents Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 47) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 48) expressing concern that Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 24) was a potential claimant to throne, and being reluctant for their daughter to marry Arthur Prince of Wales (age 13) whilst there was a threat to his (age 13) accession causing King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 42) to use Perkin Warbreck's (deceased) attempted escape with Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 24) as a means to an end.

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 1510. This yeare, in August, Sir Richard Empson (age 60)d and Edmund Dudley (age 48) were beheaded at the Tower Hill [Map].e

Two heretiques burned in Smithfield on St. Luke's day.

Note d. In MS. incorrectly written Sir Thomas Empson, which mistake is also made by Arnold.

Note e. In MS. this and the preceding entry have been accidentally transposed.

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley (age 48) and Richard Empson (age 60) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for constructive treason for having carried out King Henry VII's rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 1513. This yeare, on the Assension Even,e Edmonde de la Pole (age 42)f was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

Note e. We should here read May Even as in Arnold and Stow; Ascension Even in 1513 fell on May 4th, whereas the Duke was executed on the 30th April, 1518.

Note f. Edmund de la Pole (age 42), son of John de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, was nephew of Edward IV and brother of the Earl of Lincoln who was slain at the battle of Stoke; his other brother, Richard de la Pole (age 33), called the White Rose, was afterwards slain before the city of Pavia, in 1525.

On 30 Apr 1513 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 42) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] after having been imprisoned for seven years. Duke Suffolk, Marquess Suffolk 1C and Earl Suffolk forfeit.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 17 May 1521. This yeare, on Fridaye before Whitsonday, beinge the 17 day of Maye, Edward Duke of Buckingham (age 43)a was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Note a. Edward Stafford (age 43), Duke of Buckingham, was restored in 1486 by Henry VII. to his honours and estates. He commanded the select guard of Henry VIII (age 29) in the battle of the Spurs, 1613, but his observation, that the "Field of the Cloth of Gold" entailed ruin on the English nobles, so irritated the King that he determined on his ruin. It is also asserted that the King was jealons of his descent from Thomas of Woodstock and Edward III.

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (age 29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church, Britford [Map]. Duke of Buckingham, Earl Stafford and Baron Stafford extinct.

His father Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham had been executed for his part in Buckingham's Rebellion, his great-grandfather Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham was killed at the 1460 Battle of Northampton, and his great-great grand-father was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, not forgetting his great-uncle Henry Stafford who was killed at the Battle of Barnet and his daughter Margaret Stafford (age 10) who was burned at the stake for her part in Bigod's Rebellion.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

On 22 Jun 1535 Bishop John Fisher (age 65) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

On 06 Jul 1535 Thomas More (age 57) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Hall's Chronicle 1535. 06 Jul 1535. Also, the sixth day of Julye was Sir Thomas More (age 57) beheaded for the like treason before rehearsed, which as you have heard was for the denying of the King’s Majesty’s supremacy. This man was also accomplished learned, and as you have heard before he was Lord Chancellor of England, and in that time a great persecutor of such as detested the supremacy of the bishop of Rome, which he himself so highly favoured that he stood to it till he was brought to the scaffold on the Tower Hill [Map] where on a block his head was stricken from his shoulders and had no more harm. I cannot tell whether I should call him a foolish wiseman, or a wise foolish man, for undoubtedly he beside his learning, had a great wit, but it was so mingled with taunting and mocking, that it seemed to them that best knew him, that he thought nothing to be well spoken except he had ministered some mock in the communication in so much as at is coming to the Tower, one of the officers demanded his upper garment for his fee, meaning his gown, and he answered, he should have it, and took him his cap, saying it was the uppermost garment that he had. Likewise, even going to his death at the Tower gate, a poor woman called unto him and besought him to declare that he had certain evidence of hers in the time that he was in office (which after he was apprehended, she could not come by) and that he would intreat she might have them again, or else she was undone. He answered, good woman have patience a little while, for the King is so good unto me that even within this half hour he will discharge me of all business, and help thee himself. Also, when he went up the stair on the scaffold, he desired one of the sheriff’s officers to give him his hand to help him up, and said, when I come down again, let me shift for myself as well as I can. Also, the bagman kneeled down to him asking him forgiveness of his death (as the manner is) to whom he said I forgive thee, but I promise thee that thou shall never have honesty of the striking of my head, my neck is so short. Also, even when he should lay down his head on the block, he having a great grey beard, striked out his beard and said to the hangman, I pray you let me lay my beard over the block least ye should cut it, thus with a mock he ended his life.

Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33), Henry Norreys (age 54), Francis Weston (age 25), William Brereton and Mark Smeaton (age 24) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill [Map]; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London [Map]; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower [Map], Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same [Map] in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London.

Bigod's Rebellion

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 02 Jun 1537 In June the lord Darcy (age 70) and the lord Hosey [Map] were arraigned at Westminster before the Marques of Exceter (age 41), then High Steward of England, and they were both found guilty and had their judgement as in cases of high treason.

After 02 Jun 1537. Shortly after were also arraigned Sir Robert Constable (age 59), Sir Thomas Percy (age 33), Sir Fraunces Bygod (age 29), Sir Stephin Hamelton, Sir Jhon Bulmer and his wife (deceased), which some reported was not his wife but his paramour, also William Lumley, Nicholas Tempest (age 57), and the Abbots of Jerney (age 35) and Rivers, and Robert Aske (age 37), and all found guilty of high treason, and all put to death at Tiborne [Map], saving Sir Robert Constable (age 59), which was hanged in chains on Beverley gate at Hull and Aske (age 37) was also hanged in chains in Yorke on a Tower, and Sir John Bulmer’s Paramour (deceased), was burned in Smithfclde [Map] in London. And in the latter end of June, was the Lord Darcy (age 70) beheaded at Tower Hill [Map], and shortly after was the Lord Hosey (age 70) beheaded at Lyncolne [Map].

On 30 Jun 1537 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst (age 70) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. In 1539 he was postumously attainted; Baron Darcy of Darcy aka Templehurst forfeit.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 20 Jun 1537. Also the 20th day of June the Lord Darcy (age 70) was beheaded at Tower-hill [Map], and buried within the Tower [Map].

Exeter Conspiracy

On 08 Dec 1538 Edward Neville (age 67) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 03 Mar 1539. Also the 3rd day of March was beheaded at Tower-hill [Map] Sir Nicholas Carew (age 43).

On 03 Mar 1539 Nicholas Carew of Beddington in Surrey (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

On 09 Dec 1539 Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 47) and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 43) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 43), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 36) and their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 12) were attainted; Marquess Exeter, Earl Devon, Earl Devon, Baron Okehampton, Baron Courtenay forfeit.

His son was subsequently created 1st Earl Devon in 1553. Marquess Exeter, Earl Devon and Earl Devon subject to attainder.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 09 Jul 1539. Also the 9th day of July was beheaded at Tower-hill [Map] Master Fortescue (age 63) and Master [Thomas] Dingley knights; and that same day was drawn to Tyburn two of their servants and there hanged and quartered for treason.

On 10 Jul 1539 Adrian Fortescue (age 63) was executed at Tower Hill [Map] for treason. He doesn't appear to have had a trial. Neither is it clear what his crime was supposed to have been. Probably dis-agreeing with Henry VIII over religion. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem has advocated devotion to Blessed Adrian as a martyr since the 17th century and Pope Leo XIII beatified him on 13 May 1895.

Execution of Thomas Cromwell

On 28 Jul 1540 Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury (age 37) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He, together with his chaplain, a Wiltshire clergyman named William Bird, Rector of Fittleton and Vicar of Bradford, who was suspected of sympathising with the pilgrims of grace of the north of England, was attainted by act of parliament. Hungerford was charged with employing Bird in his house as chaplain, knowing him to be a traitor; with ordering another chaplain, Hugh Wood, and one Dr. Maudlin to practise conjuring to determine the king's length of life, and his chances of victory over the northern rebels; and finally with committing offences forbidden by the 1533 Buggery Act.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Feb 1544. The xij day of February was mad at evere gate in Lundun a newe payre of galaus and set up, ij payre in Chepesyde, ij payr in Fletstrett [Map], one in Smythfyld [Map], one payre in Holborne, on at Ledyn-hall [Map], one at sant Magnus London [-bridge], on at Peper allay gatt, one at sant Gorgeus, on in Barunsay [Bermondsay] strett, on on Towr hylle [Map], one payre at Charyngcrosse [Map], on payre besyd Hyd parke corner.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Feb 1544. The xiiij day of Feybruary wher hangyd at evere gatt and plasse: in Chepe-syd vj; Algatt [Map] j, quartered; at Leydynhall [Map] iij; at Bysshope-gatt [Map] on, and quartered; Morgatt one; Crepullgatt [Map] one; Aldersgatt on, quartered; Nuwgat [Map] on, quartered; Ludgatt on; Belyngat iij hangyd; Sant Magnus iij hangyd; Towre hyll [Map] ij. hangyd; Holborne iij hangyd; Flettstret [Map] iij hangyd; at Peper alley gat iij; Barunsaystret iij; Sant Gorgus iij; Charyng crosse [Map] iiij, on Boyth the fottman, and Vekars of the gard, and ij moo; at Hydparke corner iij, on Polard a waterbeyrar; theys iij hanges in chynes; and but vij quartered, and ther bodys and heds set a-pon the gattes of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche [Map], iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall [Map], one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill [Map], ii at Tyburne [Map], and at 4 places in Sowthwerke [Map] 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston [Map] and other places.

Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Feb 1554. The xxiiij day of Marche [read xxiij of February] was heddyd the duke of Suffoke-Dassett (deceased) [Dassett ie Dorset] on the Towre hylle [Map], be-twyn ix and x of the cloke a-for none.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 11 Apr 1554. The xi of Aprill Sir Tho. Wyatt (age 33), cheefe capteyne of the late Wyatt putt to death, rebellion in Kent, was beheaded at Towrehill [Map], at ix of the clock in the foorenoone, and his bodie after quartered on the scaffolde. His head was sett on the gallowes at the parke pale beyond St. James,a where Pollard and two other were hanged in chaynes. And his 4 quarters were hanged on gibbetts in chaynes at 4 severall places without the Liberties of the Cittie.

Note a. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 89) adds: "and the hed with the qwarter was stolne awaye."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1554. The xj day of Aprell was heddyd ser Thomas [Wyatt of Kentt,] (age 33) the cheyffe captayn of the rebellyous of [Kent, be-] twyn ix and x of the cloke a-for none, on Towre hyll [Map], .... after and by xj of the cloke was he quartered on the skaffold, and hys bowelles and ys members burnt be-syd the skaffold; .... and so ther was a care and a baskett, and the iiij quarters and hed was putt in-to a baskett to nuwgat to be parboyled.

On 11 Apr 1554 Thomas Wyatt (age 33) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Dean Hugh Weston (age 49) acted as Confessor.

On 27 Apr 1554 Thomas Grey was executed at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at All Hallows by the Tower Church [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 27 Apr 1554. Frydaye the 27 of Aprill Lord Thomas Grey, brother to the Duke of Suffolke, was beheaded at the Tower hill [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1544. The xxviij day of Aprell was heddyd on Towre hyll [Map], betwyn ix and x of the cloke a-for none, my lord Thomas Gray, the duke of Suffoke-Dassett brodur, and bered at Allalow's Barkyng [Map], and the hed (unfinished)

Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey

On 19 Jan 1547 Henry Howard (age 31) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. He had foolishly added the arms of Edward the Confessor to his own arms. He was charged with treasonably quartering the royal arms. His father survived sentence since the King died the day before it was due to take place.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 20 Mar 1549 Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 41) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 29) became guardian to his daughter Mary Seymour.

Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

Annales of England by John Stow. 22 Jan 1552. The 22 of January Edward duke of Somerset (age 52) was beheaded on the tower hill [Map]. The same morning early the consables of every warde in London (according to a precept directed from the counsell to the Mayor) streightly charged every householde of the same citie not to depart any of them out of their houses before ten of the clocke of that Day, meaning thereby to restraine the great number of people, that otherwise were like to have bene at the said execution: notwithstanding by seven aclock the tower hill [Map] was covered with a great multitude, repairing from all parts of the citie, as well as out of the suburbs, and before 8 of the clocke the duke was brought to the scaffold inclosed with the kings gard, the sherifs officers, the warders of the Tower, & other with halbards: the Duke being ready to have been executed, suddenly the people were driven into a great feare, few or none knowing the cause: wherfore I thinke it good to write what I saw concerning that matter.

Thee people of a certaine hamlet, which were warned to be there by 7. of the clocke to give their attendance on the liuetenant, now came through the posterne, & perceiving the D. (age 52) to be alreadie on the scaffold, the foremost began to run, crying to their followes to fellow fall after, which suddennes of there men being weaponed with bils and halbards thus running, caused the people which first saw them, to thinke some power had come to have rescued the duke from execution, and therefore to crie away, away, whereupon the people ran some one way some another, many fell into the tower ditch, and they which tarried thought some pardon had been brought, some saide it thundered, some that a great rumbling was in the earth under them, some that the ground moved, but there was no such matter, more than the trampling of their feete, which made some noise.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 22 Jan 1552. Fryday, the 22 of January, 1551-[2], Edward Seimer (age 52), Duke of Somersett, was beheaded at the Tower Hill [Map], afore ix of the clocke in the forenone, which tooke his death very patiently, but there was such a feare and disturbance amonge the people sodainely before he suffred, that some tombled downe the ditch, and some ranne toward the houses thereby and fell, that it was marveile to see and hear; but howe the cause was, God knoweth.

On 22 Jan 1552 Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 52) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. Duke Somerset, Earl Hertford, Viscount Beauchamp forfeit. His great-grandson William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset was restored to the titles in 1660.

Diary of Edward VI. 22 Jan 1552. The duke of Somerset (age 52) had his head cat of apon Towre hill [Map] betwene eight and nine a cloke in the morning.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1552. The xxij of January, soon after eight of the clock in the morning, the duke of Somerset (age 52) was beheaded on Tower hill [Map]. There was as] grett compeny as have bene syne .. the kynges gard behynge there with ther ha[lbards, and a] M [Note. 1000]. mo with halbards of the prevelege of the Towre, [Ratcliffe,] Lymhowsse, Whytchapell, Sant Kateryn, and Strettford [Bow], as Hogston, Sordyche; and ther the ij shreyfs behyng th[ere present] seyng the execusyon of my lord, and ys hed to be [smitten] of, and after shortely ys body was putt in to a coffin, [and carried] in to the Towre, and ther bered in the chyrche, of [the north] syd of the qwyre of sant Peters [Map], the wyche I beseeche [God] have mercy on ys sowlle, amen! And ther was [a sudden] rumbelyng a lytyll a-for he ded, as yt had byn [guns] shuttyng [Note. shooting] and grett horsys commyng, that a M [Note. 1000]. fell [to the] grond for fere, for thay that wher at the on syd [thought] no nodur butt that one was kyllyng odur, that [they fell] down to the grond on apon anodur with ther halb[ards], they thought no nodur butt that thay shuld .... sum fell in to [the] dyche of the Towre and odur plasys, ... and a C. [Note. 100] in to the Towre-dyche, and sum ran a way for [fear.]

Note. The duke of Somerset's execution. A narrative of this, with the last speech delivered by the duke, somewhat different from that in Stowe, has been printed from the Cottonian charters, by Sir Henry Ellis, in his Second Series of Original Letters, vol. ii. p. 215.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 22 Jan 155222 Jan 1551. Item the xxij. day of the same monyth [Note. Most other sources say 22 Jan 1552] was be[heddyd] at the Towre hyll [Map] before viij. a clocke Edwarde deuke of Somersett (age 52) [erle of Hertjforde and unkyll unto the kynges (age 14) grace]. And also there was a commandment thorrow London that alle howsolders with their servantes shulde kepe their howses unto it was ....

On 26 Feb 1552 Miles Partridge and Ralph Fane were hanged. Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle (age 50) and Michael Stanhope (age 45) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 48).

Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle (age 50) was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Annales of England by John Stow. 26 Feb 1552. The 26 of February, Sir Ralph a Vane and Sir Miles Partridge were hanged on the tower hill [Map], Sir Michael Stanhope (age 45) with Sir Thomas Arundel (age 50) were beheaded there: all which foure persons tooke on their death that thep never offended against the kings maiestie, nor against any of his counfell.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1552. The sam day was bornyd at the Towre-hylle [Map] at after[noon] vij mon and viij maymed and lyke to dee, and alle was by takyng [ill] heyde and by beytyng of gunpowder in a morter, and by stryk[ing] of fyre, that a sparke of fyre fell in-tho the powder, and so alle f[ired] ...

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1552 and 05 Sep 1552. The iiij and v day of October was the good bysshope of Dorham (age 78) whent unto Towre-hylle [Map] [to the] late monestery of whyt monkes, the wyche place ys gyffyn unto ser Arthur Darcy (age 57) knyght, and a-ffor the chyff justes of England, Chamley, and master Gudderyke, and master Gosnolle and odur, master Coke and master Chydley.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Duke Northumberland, Earl Warwick and Viscount Lisle forfeit. John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), his son, was also attainted, with the Earldom of Warwick forfeit.

Thomas Palmer and John Gates (age 49) were hanged, drawn and quartered.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Feb 1554. The 12 of Februarie Guilforde Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at the Tower hill [Map]. And Ladie Jane (age 18) his wife was immediatlie after his death beheaded within the Tower upon the greene [Map].

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (age 18) was beheaded at Tower Green [Map] by order of Queen Mary I (age 37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 23 Feb 1554. Frydaye the 23 of February Lorde Gray, Duke of Suffolke (age 37), was beheaded at the Towerhill [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1554. The viij day of Marche cam owt of the Towre of London [Map] the archbysshope of Canturbere Crenmer (age 64), and bysshope of London was Rydley (age 54), and master Lathemer (age 67) condam, [i. e. quondam (bishop of Worcester).] and so to Brenfford and ther ser John Wylliam reseyvyd them, and so to Oxfford.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jul 1556. The vij day of July was hangyd on the galaus on Towre-hylle [Map] for tresun a-gaynst the quen, on master Hare Peckham, and the thodur master John Daneell, and after cutt downe and heded, and ther hedes cared unto Londune bryge and ther sett up, and ther bodys bered at Allalows-barkyng [Map].

Note. P. 109. Execution of Peckham and Daniel. "The 8. of July, Henry Peckham, son to sir Edmond Peckham, and John Daniel, were hanged and headed on Tower-hill, for being of counsell with them that should have robbed the queenes treasure of her exchequer, and their bodies buried in Barking church." Stowe's Chronicle.—Daniel's name remains cut on the wall of his prison, "John Daniel, 1556." See Bayley's History of the Tower of London, p. 207.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. Apr 1557. The (blank) day of Aprell suffered dethe in [several] plases in the Northe for entrying in-to Sk[arborough] castyll [Map], (for) the wyche at London master Thomas [Stafford] (age 24) was heddyd on Towre hylle [Map]; and at Tyborne [Map] John Procter aleas Wylliamsun, Wyllyam Stowe, John Bradford, and more in dyvers plases; [in York]shyre, John Wylborne, Clement Tyllyd, John Cawsewelle, and Robart Hunter, at York, [by the] dethe of hangyng, drahyns, and quarter[ing].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 May 1577. [The xxviij day of May Thomas Stafford was beheaded on Tower hill [Map], by nine of the clock, master Wode being his] gostly father; and after ther wher iij more [drawn from the To] wre, and thrugh London unto Tyburne [Map], and ther [they were] hangyd and quartered; and the morow after was master [Stafford] quartered, and hangyd on a care, and so to Nuwgatt to [boil.]

On 28 May 1557 Thomas Stafford (age 24) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (age 27) came by water] unto the Towre of London [Map] by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (age 35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (age 49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll [Map] unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [Map] [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (age 65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (age 35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Sep 1561. The xxj day of September was browth [to bed of] a sune my lade Katheryn Gray (age 21), the dowther of the duke [of Suffolk] that was heded on the Towre hylle [Map], and ys brodur lord Thomas Gray the sam tyme.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1562. The xxviij day of June grett wache at the Towre [Map] and at Towrehylle [Map] and sant Katharyn's, a C [100] hagabuttes and a C [100] in cossellettes, vj drumes and iiij flages, on sant Peter's evyn last past, and a castylle and sqwybys.

Essex Rebellion

Brief Lives: Charles Danvers 1568 1601. [711]Sir Charles Danvers (age 33) was beheaded on Tower-hill [Map] with Robert, earle of Essex (age 35), February the 6th, 1600[712]. I find in the register of the Tower chapell [Map] only the sepulture of Robert, earl of Essex (age 35), that yeare; wherfore I am induced to beleeve that his body was carryed to Dantesey[CX] in Wilts to lye with his ancestors. Vide Stowe's Chronicle, where is a full account of his and the earle's deportment at their death on the scaffold.

With all their faylings, Wilts cannot shew two such[713] brothers.

His familiar acquaintance were...[714], earl of Oxon (age 50); Sir Francis (age 40) and Sir Horace Vere (age 36); Sir Walter Ralegh (age 47), etc.-the heroes of those times.

Quaere my lady viscountesse Purbec and also the lord Norris for an account of the behaviour and advice of Sir Charles Danvers in the businesse of the earl of Essex, which advice had the earle followed he had saved his life.

[715]Of Sir Charles Danvers, from my lady viscountesse Purbec:-Sir Charles Danvers advised the earle of Essex, either to treat with the queen-hostages..., whom Sir Ferdinando Gorges (age 36) did let goe; or to make his way through the gate at Essex house, and then to hast away to Highgate, and so to Northumberland (the earl of Northumberland maried his mother's (age 51) sister), and from thence to the king of Scots, and there they might make their peace; if not, the queen was old and could not live long. But the earle followed not his advice, and so they both lost their heads on Tower-hill.

Note.

[711]. MS. Aubr. 8, fol. 25v.

[712]. i.e. 1600/1.

[713]. Dupl. with 'shew the like two brothers,' scil. as Sir Charles Danvers and his brother Henry, earl of Danby.

[714]. Edward Vere, seventeenth earl of Oxford (age 50).

[CX]In MS. Aubr. 3, fol. 46, Aubrey writes, in reference to burials at Dantesey, 'quaere, if Sir Charles Danvers that was beheaded?-He was buryed in the Tower chapell.' Aubrey's description of the burial-place of the Danvers family (MS. Aubr. 3, fol. 46), with the inscriptions, is printed in J. E. Jackson's Aubrey's Wiltshire Collections, pp. 223-225; the pedigree of Danvers is there given at p. 216.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 20 Nov 1616 Gervase Helwys (age 55) was hanged at Tower Hill [Map]. He gave a speech to the crowd ...

... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman, making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.

Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill [Map], rather than in the place of common Execution [Map], where every base Malefactor dyeth.

Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.

It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (age 64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (age 50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.

My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.

And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.

I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.

I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.

The summe of his Prayer.

O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.

Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.

After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.

Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any unrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.

1533 Buggery Act

On 14 May 1631 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven (age 38) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for the unnatural crime of sodomy in accordance with the 1533 Buggery Act, committed with his page Laurence (or Florence) FitzPatrick, who confessed to the crime and was executed; and assisting Giles Browning (alias Broadway), who was also executed, in the rape of his wife Anne, Countess of Castlehaven (age 51), in which Lord Castlehaven was found to have participated by restraining her. His son James Tuchet 3rd Earl Castlehaven (age 14) succeeded 3rd Earl Castlehaven, 3rd Baron Audley of Orier in England. He didn't succeed to his father's English titles Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire and Baron Tuchet as a result of his father's attainder.

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 12 May 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His execution was attended by an enormous crowd.

Wenceslaus Hollar (age 33). Engraving of the execution of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) marked as C with James Ussher (age 60) marked as A.

Wenceslaus Hollar: On 23 Jul 1607 he was born. Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and my Lord Bruncker did show me Hollar's new print of the City, with a pretty representation of that part which is burnt, very fine indeed; and tells me that he was yesterday sworn the King's servant, and that the King hath commanded him to go on with his great map of the City, which he was upon before the City was burned, like Gombout of Paris, which I am glad of. On 25 Mar 1677 he died.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 May 1641, I beheld on Tower-hill [Map] the fatal stroke which severed the wisest head in England from the shoulders of the Earl of Strafford (age 48), whose crime coming under the cognizance of no human law, or statute, a new one was made, not to be a precedent, but his destruction. With what reluctancy the King (age 40) signed the execution, he has sufficiently expressed; to which he imputes his own unjust suffering - to such exorbitancy were things arrived.

Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall [Map].

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet (age 9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

Trial and Execution of the Hothams

In Dec 1644 Parliament decided to execute the Hothams, father and son, John Hotham 1st Baronet (age 55) and John Hotham (age 34).

On 01 Jan 1645 John Hotham (age 35) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians at Tower Hill [Map]. His father was executed the next day.

On 02 Jan 1645 John Hotham 1st Baronet (age 55) was beheaded for treason by Parliamentarians; his son having been executed the previous day. His grandson John Hotham 2nd Baronet (age 12) succeeded 2nd Baronet Hotham of Scorborough in Yorkshire.

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 01 Jan 1645. The first of Janua Mr Jo: hothum (age 35) was beheaded on tower hill [Map].

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 02 Jan 1645. The 2 of Janu Sr Jo: hothum (age 55) (father to Mr hothum) was beheaded on tower hill [Map].

1645 Execution of Archbishop William Laud

Diary of Isabella Twysden 1645. 10 Jan 1645. The 10 of Janu: my lo: of canterbury (age 71) was beheaded on tower hill [Map] and was buried at barking church [Map].

On 10 Jan 1645 Archbishop William Laud (age 71) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at St John's College, Oxford University.

On 08 Jun 1658 Henry Slingsby 1st Baronet (age 56) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map] for being a Royalist. His son Thomas Slingsby 2nd Baronet (age 21) succeeded 2nd Baronet Slingsby Scriven.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1662. That being done we went home again. This morning, going to take water upon Tower-hill [Map], we met with three sleddes standing there to carry my Lord Monson (age 63) and Sir H. Mildmay (age 69) and another, to the gallows and back again, with ropes about their necks; which is to be repeated every year, this being the day of their sentencing the King (age 31).

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock in the morning and upon business at my office. Then we sat down to business, and about 11 o'clock, having a room got ready for us, we all went out to the Tower-hill [Map]; and there, over against the scaffold, made on purpose this day, saw Sir Henry Vane (age 49) brought1. A very great press of people. He made a long speech, many times interrupted by the Sheriff and others there; and they would have taken his paper out of his hand, but he would not let it go. But they caused all the books of those that writ after him to be given the Sheriff; and the trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard. Then he prayed, and so fitted himself, and received the blow; but the scaffold was so crowded that we could not see it done. But Boreman, who had been upon the scaffold, came to us and told us, that first he began to speak of the irregular proceeding against him; that he was, against Magna Charta, denied to have his exceptions against the indictment allowed; and that there he was stopped by the Sheriff. Then he drew out his, paper of notes, and begun to tell them first his life; that he was born a gentleman, that he was bred up and had the quality of a gentleman, and to make him in the opinion of the world more a gentleman, he had been, till he was seventeen years old, a good fellow, but then it pleased God to lay a foundation of grace in his heart, by which he was persuaded, against his worldly interest, to leave all preferment and go abroad, where he might serve God with more freedom. Then he was called home, and made a member of the Long Parliament; where he never did, to this day, any thing against his conscience, but all for the glory of God. Here he would have given them an account of the proceedings of the Long Parliament, but they so often interrupted him, that at last he was forced to give over: and so fell into prayer for England in generall, then for the churches in England, and then for the City of London: and so fitted himself for the block, and received the blow. He had a blister, or issue, upon his neck, which he desired them not hurt: he changed not his colour or speech to the last, but died justifying himself and the cause he had stood for; and spoke very confidently of his being presently at the right hand of Christ; and in all, things appeared the most resolved man that ever died in that manner, and showed more of heat than cowardize, but yet with all humility and gravity. One asked him why he did not pray for the King (age 32). He answered, "Nay", says he, "you shall see I can pray for the King (age 32): I pray God bless him!" the King (age 32) had given his body to his friends; and, therefore, he told them that he hoped they would be civil to his body when dead; and desired they would let him die like a gentleman and a Christian, and not crowded and pressed as he was.

Note 1. Sir Harry Vane (age 49) the younger was born 1612. Charles (age 32) signed on June 12th a warrant for the execution of Vane by hanging at Tyburn [Map] on the 14th, which sentence on the following day "upon humble suit made" to him, Charles was "graciously pleased to mitigate", as the warrant terms it, for the less ignominious punishment of beheading on Tower Hill [Map], and with permission that the head and body should be given to the relations to be by them decently and privately interred.- Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii, 123.

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for treason against King Charles II (age 32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (age 32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1662. Up before four o'clock, and after some business took Will forth, and he and I walked over the Tower Hill [Map], but the gate not being open we walked through St. Catharine's and Ratcliffe (I think it is) by the waterside above a mile before we could get a boat, and so over the water in a scull (which I have not done a great while), and walked finally to Deptford, where I saw in what forwardness the work is for Sir W. Batten's (age 61) house and mine, and it is almost ready. I also, with Mr. Davis, did view my cozen Joyce's tallow, and compared it with the Irish tallow we bought lately, and found ours much more white, but as soft as it; now what is the fault, or whether it be or no a fault, I know not.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1662. Up betimes among my workmen, and so to the office, where we sat all the morning, and at noon rose and had news that Sir W. Pen (age 41) would be in town from Ireland, which I much wonder at, he giving so little notice of it, and it troubled me exceedingly what to do for a lodging, and more what to do with my goods, that are all in his house; but at last I resolved to let them lie there till Monday, and so got Griffin to get a lodging as near as he could, which is without a door of our back door upon Tower Hill [Map], a chamber where John Pavis, one of our clerks, do lie in, but he do provide himself elsewhere, and I am to have his chamber.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1662. At my waking, I found the tops of the houses covered with snow, which is a rare sight, that I have not seen these three years. Up, and put my people to perfect the cleaning of my house, and so to the office, where we sat till noon; and then we all went to the next house upon Tower Hill [Map], to see the coming by of the Russia Embassador (age 17); for whose reception all the City trained-bands do attend in the streets, and the King's life-guards, and most of the wealthy citizens in their black velvet coats, and gold chains (which remain of their gallantry at the King's coming in), but they staid so long that we went down again home to dinner. And after I had dined, I heard they were coming, and so I walked to the Conduit in the Quarrefowr1, at the end of Gracious-street and Cornhill [Map]; and there (the spouts thereof running very near me upon all the people that were under it) I saw them pretty well go by. I could not see the Embassador (age 17) in his coach; but his attendants in their habits and fur caps very handsome, comely men, and most of them with hawkes upon their fists to present to the King (age 32) But Lord! to see the absurd nature of Englishmen, that cannot forbear laughing and jeering at every thing that looks strange.

Note 1. In two ordinances of the reign of Edward III, printed in Riley's "Memorials of London" (pp. 300, 389), this is called the "Carfukes", which nearly approaches the name of the "Carfax", at Oxford, where four ways also met. Pepys's form of the word is nearer quatre voies, the French equivalent of quadrivium.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who though he has been abroad again two or three days is falling ill again, and is let blood this morning, though I hope it is only a great cold that he has got. It was a great trouble to me (and I had great apprehensions of it) that my Lord desired me to go to Westminster Hall [Map], to the Parliament-house door, about business; and to Sir Wm. Wheeler (age 52), which I told him I would do, but durst not go for fear of being taken by these rogues; but was forced to go to White Hall and take boat, and so land below the Tower at the Iron-gate [Map]; and so the back way over Little Tower Hill [Map]; and with my cloak over my face, took one of the watermen along with me, and staid behind a wall in the New-buildings behind our garden, while he went to see whether any body stood within the Merchants' Gate, under which we pass to go into our garden, and there standing but a little dirty boy before the gate, did make me quake and sweat to think he might be a Trepan1. But there was nobody, and so I got safe into the garden, and coming to open my office door, something behind it fell in the opening, which made me start. So that God knows in what a sad condition I should be in if I were truly in the condition that many a poor man is for debt: and therefore ought to bless God that I have no such reall reason, and to endeavour to keep myself, by my good deportment and good husbandry, out of any such condition.

Note 1. TT. Trickster.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1663. Thence by barge with my Lord to Blackfriars, where we landed and I thence walked home, where vexed to find my boy (whom I boxed at his coming for it) and Will abroad, though he was but upon Tower Hill [Map] a very little while. My head akeing with the healths I was forced to drink to-day I sent for the barber, and he having done, I up to my wife's closett, and there played on my viallin a good while, and without supper anon to bed, sad for want of my wife, whom I love with all my heart, though of late she has given me some troubled thoughts.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1663. Thence home and to my musique. This night Mr. Turner's house being to be emptied out of my cellar, and therefore I think to sit up a little longer than ordinary. This afternoon, coming from the waterside with Mr. Coventry (age 35), I spied my boy upon Tower Hill [Map] playing with the rest of the boys; so I sent W. Griffin to take him, and he did bring him to me, and so I said nothing to him, but caused him to be stripped (for he was run away with his best suit), and so putting on his other, I sent him going, without saying one word hard to him, though I am troubled for the rogue, though he do not deserve it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1663. So home with her, and then I away (Creed being gone) to Captain Minors upon Tower Hill [Map], and there, abating only some impertinence of his, I did inform myself well in things relating to the East Indys; both of the country and the disappointment the King (age 33) met with the last voyage, by the knavery of the Portugall Viceroy, and the inconsiderablenesse of the place of Bombaim1, if we had had it. But, above all things, it seems strange to me that matters should not be understood before they went out; and also that such a thing as this, which was expected to be one of the best parts of the Queen's (age 24) portion, should not be better understood; it being, if we had it, but a poor place, and not really so as was described to our King in the draught of it, but a poor little island; whereas they made the King (age 33) and Chancellor (age 54), and other learned men about the King (age 33), believe that that, and other islands which are near it, were all one piece; and so the draught was drawn and presented to the King (age 33), and believed by the King (age 33) and expected to prove so when our men came thither; but it is quite otherwise.

Note 1. Bombay, India, which was transferred to the East India Company in 1669. The seat of the Western Presidency of India was removed from Surat to Bombay in 1685-87.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1664. Thence, it being time enough, to our owne church, and there staid wholly privately at the great doore to gaze upon a pretty lady, and from church dogged her home, whither she went to a house near Tower Hill [Map], and I think her to be one of the prettiest women I ever saw.

1664 Comet

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1664. Having sat up all night to past two o'clock this morning, our porter, being appointed, comes and tells us that the bellman tells him that the star is seen upon Tower Hill [Map]; so I, that had been all night setting in order all my old papers in my chamber, did leave off all, and my boy and I to Tower Hill [Map], it being a most fine, bright moonshine night, and a great frost; but no Comet to be seen. So after running once round the Hill, I and Tom, we home and then to bed. Rose about 9 o'clock and then to the office, where sitting all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1666. So we left the church and crowd, and I home (being set down on Tower Hill [Map]), and there did a little business and then in the evening went down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], it being very late, and there I staid out as much time as I could, and then took boat again homeward, but the officers being gone in, returned and walked to Mrs. Bagwell's house, and there (it being by this time pretty dark and past ten o'clock) went into her house and did what I would. But I was not a little fearfull of what she told me but now, which is, that her servant was dead of the plague, that her coming to me yesterday was the first day of her coming forth, and that she had new whitened the house all below stairs, but that above stairs they are not so fit for me to go up to, they being not so. So I parted thence, with a very good will, but very civil, and away to the waterside, and sent for a pint of sacke and so home, drank what I would and gave the waterman the rest; and so adieu.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. About four o'clock in the morning, my Lady Batten sent me a cart to carry away all my money, and plate, and best things, to Sir W. Rider's at Bednall-greene. Which I did riding myself in my night-gowne in the cart; and, Lord! to see how the streets and the highways are crowded with people running and riding, and getting of carts at any rate to fetch away things. I find Sir W. Rider tired with being called up all night, and receiving things from several friends. His house full of goods, and much of Sir W. Batten's (age 65) and Sir W. Pen's (age 45) I am eased at my heart to have my treasure so well secured. Then home, with much ado to find a way, nor any sleep all this night to me nor my poor wife. But then and all this day she and I, and all my people labouring to get away the rest of our things, and did get Mr. Tooker to get me a lighter to take them in, and we did carry them (myself some) over Tower Hill [Map], which was by this time full of people's goods, bringing their goods thither; and down to the lighter, which lay at next quay, above the Tower Docke. And here was my neighbour's wife, Mrs.----,with her pretty child, and some few of her things, which I did willingly give way to be saved with mine; but there was no passing with any thing through the postern, the crowd was so great. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) of this day by the office, and spoke to us, and did ride with his guard up and down the City, to keep all quiet (he being now Generall, and having the care of all). This day, Mercer being not at home, but against her mistress's order gone to her mother's, and my wife going thither to speak with W. Hewer (age 24), met her there, and was angry; and her mother saying that she was not a 'prentice girl, to ask leave every time she goes abroad, my wife with good reason was angry, and, when she came home, bid her be gone again. And so she went away, which troubled me, but yet less than it would, because of the condition we are in, fear of coming into in a little time of being less able to keepe one in her quality. At night lay down a little upon a quilt of W. Hewer's (age 24) in the office, all my owne things being packed up or gone; and after me my poor wife did the like, we having fed upon the remains of yesterday's dinner, having no fire nor dishes, nor any opportunity of dressing any thing.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. So home, and did give orders for my house to be made clean; and then down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there find all well: Dined, and Mrs. Markham come to see my wife. So I up again, and calling at Deptford, Kent [Map] for some things of W. Hewer's (age 24), he being with me, and then home and spent the evening with Sir R. Ford (age 52), Mr. Knightly, and Sir W. Pen (age 45) at Sir W. Batten's (age 65): This day our Merchants first met at Gresham College, which, by proclamation, is to be their Exchange [Map]. Strange to hear what is bid for houses all up and down here; a friend of Sir W. Rider's: having £150 for what he used to let for £40 per annum. Much dispute where the Custome-house shall be thereby the growth of the City again to be foreseen. My Lord Treasurer (age 59), they say, and others; would have it at the other end of the towne. I home late to Sir W. Pen's (age 45), who did give me a bed; but without curtains or hangings, all being down. So here I went the first time into a naked bed, only my drawers on; and did sleep pretty well: but still hath sleeping and waking had a fear of fire in my heart, that I took little rest. People do all the world over cry out of the simplicity of my Lord Mayor in generall; and more particularly in this business of the fire, laying it all upon' him. A proclamation1 is come out for markets to be kept at Leadenhall [Map] and Mileendgreene [Map], and several other places about the towne; and Tower-hill [Map], and all churches to be set open to receive poor people.

Note 1. On September 5th proclamation was made "ordering that for supply of the distressed people left destitute by the late dreadful and dismal fire.... great proportions of bread be brought daily, not only to the former markets, but to those lately ordained; that all churches, chapels, schools, and public buildings are to be open to receive the goods of those who know not how to dispose of them". On September 6th, proclamation ordered "that as the markets are burned down, markets be held in Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill [Map], Smithfield [Map], and Leadenhall Street [Map]" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 100, 104).

Calendars. 06 Sep 1666. Whitehall. Proclamation ordering that as the markets are burned down, markets be held at Bishopsgate Street, Tower Hill [Map], Smithfield [Map], and Leadenhall Street [Map], which shall be well protected, and ordering the magistrates in counties whence provisions are sent to London to forward supplies; also forbidding men to disquiet themselves with rumours of tumults, but attend to the business of quenching the fire, troops being provided to keep the peace; also ordering Gresham College, Bishopsgate Street, to be used instead of the Royal Exchange, which is burnt. [Printed. Proc. Coll., Charles IT, p. 229.]

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. After dinner and this discourse I took coach, and at the same time find my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) and Mr. John Crew (age 38) and the Doctor (age 33) going out to see the ruins of the City; so I took the Doctor into my Hackney coach (and he is a very fine sober gentleman), and so through the City. But, Lord! what pretty and sober observations he made of the City and its desolation; till anon we come to my house, and there I took them upon Tower Hill [Map] to shew them what houses were pulled down there since the fire; and then to my house, where I treated them with good wine of several sorts, and they took it mighty respectfully, and a fine company of gentlemen they are; but above all I was glad to see my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) drink no wine at all. Here I got them to appoint Wednesday come se'nnight to dine here at my house, and so we broke up and all took coach again, and I carried the Doctor (age 33) to Chancery Lane [Map], and thence I to White Hall, where I staid walking up and down till night, and then got almost into the play house, having much mind to go and see the play at Court this night; but fearing how I should get home, because of the bonefires and the lateness of the night to get a coach, I did not stay; but having this evening seen my Lady Jemimah, who is come to towne, and looks very well and fat, and heard how Mr. John Pickering (age 55) is to be married this week, and to a fortune with £5000, and seen a rich necklace of pearle and two pendants of dyamonds, which Sir G. Carteret (age 56) hath presented her with since her coming to towne, I home by coach, but met not one bonefire through the whole town in going round by the wall, which is strange, and speaks the melancholy disposition of the City at present, while never more was said of, and feared of, and done against the Papists than just at this time.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1666. Thence home, and upon Tower Hill [Map] saw about 3 or 400 seamen get together; and one, standing upon a pile of bricks, made his sign, with his handkercher, upon his stick, and called all the rest to him, and several shouts they gave. This made me afeard; so I got home as fast as I could. And hearing of no present hurt did go to Sir Robert Viner's (age 35) about my plate again, and coming home do hear of 1000 seamen said in the streets to be in armes. So in great fear home, expecting to find a tumult about my house, and was doubtful of my riches there. But I thank God I found all well.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten (age 66) by barge to Deptford, Kent [Map] by eight in the morning, where to the King's yard a little to look after business there, and then to a private storehouse to look upon some cordage of Sir W. Batten's (age 66), and there being a hole formerly made for a drain for tarr to run into, wherein the barrel stood still, full of stinking water, Sir W. Batten (age 66) did fall with one leg into it, which might have been very bad to him by breaking a leg or other hurt, but, thanks be to God, he only sprained his foot a little. So after his shifting his stockings at a strong water shop close by, we took barge again, and so to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where our business was chiefly to look upon the ballast wharfe there, which is offered us for the King's use to hire, but we do not think it worth the laying out much money upon, unless we could buy the fee-simple of it, which cannot be sold us, so we wholly flung it off: So to the Dockyard, and there staid a while talking about business of the yard, and thence to the Rope-yard [Map], and so to the White Hart and there dined, and Captain Cocke (age 50) with us, whom we found at the Rope-yard [Map], and very merry at dinner, and many pretty tales of Sir J. Minnes (age 68), which I have entered in my tale book. But by this time Sir W. Batten (age 66) was come to be in much pain in his foot, so as he was forced to be carried down in a chair to the barge again, and so away to Deptford, Kent [Map], and there I a little in the yard, and then to Bagwell's (age 30), where I find his wife washing, and also I did 'hazer tout que je voudrais con' [Note. have all that I wanted with] her, and then sent for her husband (age 30), and discoursed of his going to Harwich [Map] this week to his charge of the new ship building there, which I have got him, and so away, walked to Redriffe [Map], and there took boat and away home, and upon Tower Hill [Map], near the ticket office, meeting with my old acquaintance Mr. Chaplin (age 40), the cheesemonger, and there fell to talk of news, and he tells me that for certain the King of France (age 28) is denied passage with his army through Flanders, and that he hears that the Dutch do stand upon high terms with us, and will have a promise of not being obliged to strike the flag to us before they will treat with us, and other high things, which I am ashamed of and do hope will never be yielded to. That they do make all imaginable preparations, but that he believes they will be in mighty want of men; that the King of France (age 28) do court us mightily. He tells me too that our Lord-Treasurer is going to lay down, and that Lord Arlington (age 49) is to be Lord Treasurer, but I believe nothing of it, for he is not yet of estate visible enough to have the charge I suppose upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. So home and to the office, where did business, and so home to my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. Landing at the Tower [Map] to-night I met on Tower Hill [Map] with Captain Cocke (age 50) and spent half an hour walking in the dusk of the evening with him, talking of the sorrowful condition we are in, that we must be ruined if the Parliament do not come and chastize us, that we are resolved to make a peace whatever it cost, that the King (age 36) is disobliging the Parliament in this interval all that may be, yet his money is gone and he must have more, and they likely not to give it, without a great deal of do. God knows what the issue of it will be. But the considering that the Duke of York (age 33), instead of being at sea as Admirall, is now going from port to port, as he is at this day at Harwich [Map], and was the other day with the King (age 36) at Sheernesse [Map], and hath ordered at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] how fortifications shall be made to oppose the enemy, in case of invasion, [which] is to us a sad consideration, and as shameful to the nation, especially after so many proud vaunts as we have made against the Dutch, and all from the folly of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), who made nothing of beating them, and Sir John Lawson he always declared that we never did fail to beat them with lesser numbers than theirs, which did so prevail with the King (age 36) as to throw us into this war.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1667. After dinner my wife and Creed and I being entered a Hackney coach to go to the other end of the town, we espied The. Turner (age 15) coming in her coach to see us, which we were surprised at, and so 'light and took her and another young lady home, and there sat and talked with The. (age 15), she being lately come out of the North after two or three years absence. She is come to put out her sister and brothers to school at Putney [Map]. After a little talk, I over Tower Hill [Map] with them to a lady's they go to visit, and so away with my wife, whose being dressed this day in fair hair did make me so mad, that I spoke not one word to her in our going, though I was ready to burst with anger.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1667. So away home, and then, I, it being a broken day, and had power by my vows, did walk abroad, first through the Minorys, the first time I have been over the Hill [Map] to the postern-gate, and seen the place, since the houses were pulled down about that side of the Tower [Map], since the fire, to find where my young mercer with my pretty little woman to his wife lives, who lived in Lombard Street [Map], and I did espy them, but took no notice now of them, but may do hereafter.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1667. Mrs. Turner (age 44) says she do believe their coming here is only out of a belief of getting purchase by it, and that their servants (which was wittily said of her touching his clerks) do act only as privateers, no purchase, no pay. And in my conscience she is in the right. Then we fell to talk of Sir W. Pen (age 46), and his family and rise. She [Mrs. Turner (age 44)] says that he was a pityfull [fellow] when she first knew them; that his lady (age 43) was one of the sourest, dirty women, that ever she saw; that they took two chambers, one over another, for themselves and child, in Tower Hill [Map]; that for many years together they eat more meals at her house than at their own; did call brothers and sisters the husbands and wives; that her husband was godfather to one, and she godmother to another (this Margaret) of their children, by the same token that she was fain to write with her own hand a letter to Captain Twiddy, to stand for a godfather for her; that she brought my Lady, who then was a dirty slattern, with her stockings hanging about her heels, so that afterwards the people of the whole Hill did say that Mrs. Turner (age 44) had made Mrs. Pen (age 43) a gentlewoman, first to the knowledge of my Lady Vane (age 50), Sir Henry's lady, and him to the knowledge of most of the great people that then he sought to, and that in short his rise hath been his giving of large bribes, wherein, and she agrees with my opinion and knowledge before therein, he is very profuse. This made him General; this got him out of the Tower when he was in; and hath brought him into what he is now, since the King's coming in: that long ago, indeed, he would drink the King's health privately with Mr. Turner; but that when he saw it fit to turn Roundhead, and was offered by Mr. Turner to drink the King's health, he answered "No"; he was changed, and now, he that would make him drink the King's health, or any health but the Protector's and the State's, or to that purpose, he would be the first man should sheath his sword in his guts. That at the King's coming in, he did send for her husband, and told him what a great man Sir W. Coventry (age 39) was like to be, and that he having all the records in his hands of the Navy, if he would transcribe what was of most present use of the practice of the Navy, and give them him to give Sir W. Coventry (age 39) from him, it would undoubtedly do his business of getting him a principal officer's place; that her husband was at £5 charge to get these presently writ; that Sir W. Pen (age 46) did give them Sir W. Coventry (age 39) as from himself, which did set him up with W. Coventry (age 39), and made him what he is, and never owned any thing of Mr. Turner in them; by which he left him in the lurch, though he did promise the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) to do all that was possible, and made no question of Mr. Turner's being what he desired; and when afterwards, too, did propose to him the getting of the Purveyor's place for him, he did tell Mr. Turner it was necessary to present Sir W. Coventry (age 39) 100 pieces, which he did, and W. Coventry took 80 of them: so that he was W. Coventry's mere broker, as Sir W. Batten (age 66) and my Lady did once tell my Lady Duchess of Albemarle (age 48), in the case of Mr. Falconer, whom W. Pen (age 46) made to give W. Coventry £200 for his place of Clerk of the Rope Yard of Woolwich, Kent [Map], and to settle £80 a year upon his daughter Pegg (age 16), after the death of his wife, and a gold watch presently to his wife.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1667. So though I intend Gibson no further than to Huntingdon [Map] I direct him to send the packet forward. My business the most of the afternoon is listening to every body that comes to the office, what news? which is variously related, some better, some worse, but nothing certain. The King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) up and down all the day here and there: some time on Tower Hill [Map], where the City militia was; where the King (age 37) did make a speech to them, that they should venture themselves no further than he would himself. I also sent, my mind being in pain, Saunders after my wife and father, to overtake them at their night's lodgings, to see how matters go with them.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. This man tells me that the ships burnt last night did lie above Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], over against the Docke; and the boats come from the ships of war and burnt them all which is very sad. And masters of ships, that we are now taking up, do keep from their ships all their stores, or as much as they can, so that we can despatch them, having not time to appraise them nor secure their payment; only some little money we have, which we are fain to pay the men we have with, every night, or they will not work. And indeed the hearts as well as affections of the seamen are turned away; and in the open streets in Wapping, and up and down, the wives have cried publickly, "This comes of your not paying our husbands; and now your work is undone, or done by hands that understand it not". And Sir W. Batten (age 66) told me that he was himself affronted with a woman, in language of this kind, on Tower Hill [Map] publickly yesterday; and we are fain to bear it, and to keep one at the office door to let no idle people in, for fear of firing of the office and doing us mischief.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1667. After dinner comes Mr. Moore, and he and I alone a while, he telling me my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) credit is like to be undone, if the bill of £200 my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) wrote to me about be not paid to-morrow, and that, if I do not help him about it, they have no way but to let it be protested. So, finding that Creed hath supplied them with £150 in their straits, and that this is no bigger sum, I am very willing to serve my Lord, though not in this kind; but yet I will endeavour to get this done for them, and the rather because of some plate that was lodged the other day with me, by my Lady's order, which may be in part of security for my money, as I may order it, for, for ought I see, there is no other to be hoped for. This do trouble me; but yet it is good luck that the sum is no bigger. He gone, I with my cozen Roger (age 50) to Westminster Hall [Map]; and there we met the House rising: and they have voted my Lord Chief Justice Keeling's (age 60) proceedings illegal; but that, out of particular respect to him, and the mediation of a great many, they have resolved to proceed no further against him. After a turn or two with my cozen, I away with Sir W. Warren, who met me here by my desire, and to Exeter House [Map], and there to counsel, to Sir William Turner, about the business of my bargain with my Lady Batten; and he do give me good advice, and that I am safe, but that there is a great many pretty considerations in it that makes it necessary for me to be silent yet for a while till we see whether the ship be safe or no; for she is drove to the coast of Holland, where she now is in the Texell, so that it is not prudence for me yet to resolve whether I will stand by the bargain or no, and so home, and Sir W. Warren and I walked upon Tower Hill [Map] by moonlight a great while, consulting business of the office and our present condition, which is but bad, it being most likely that the Parliament will change all hands, and so let them, so I may keep but what I have.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Apr 1668. So home, and there took up Mrs. Turner (age 45) and carried her to Mile End [Map] and drank, and so back talking, and so home and to bed, I being mighty cold, this being a mighty cold day, and I had left off my waistcoat three or four days. This evening, coming home in the dusk, I saw and spoke to our Nell, Pain's daughter, and had I not been very cold I should have taken her to Tower Hill [Map] para together et toker her. Thus ends this month; my wife in the country, myself full of pleasure and expence; and some trouble for my friends, my Lord Sandwich (age 42), by the Parliament, and more for my eyes, which are daily worse and worse, that I dare not write or read almost any thing. The Parliament going in a few days to rise; myself so long without accounting now, for seven or eight months, I think, or more, that I know not what condition almost I am in, as to getting or spending for all that time, which troubles me, but I will soon do it. The Kingdom in an ill state through poverty; a fleete going out, and no money to maintain it, or set it out; seamen yet unpaid, and mutinous when pressed to go out again; our Office able to do little, nobody trusting us, nor we desiring any to trust us, and yet have not money for any thing, but only what particularly belongs to this fleete going out, and that but lamely too. The Parliament several months upon an Act for £300,000, but cannot or will not agree upon it, but do keep it back, in spite of the King's desires to hasten it, till they can obtain what they have a mind, in revenge upon some men for the late ill managements; and he is forced to submit to what they please, knowing that, without it, he shall have no money, and they as well, that, if they give the money, the King (age 37) will suffer them to do little more; and then the business of religion do disquiet every body, the Parliament being vehement against the Nonconformists, while the King (age 37) seems to be willing to countenance them. So we are all poor, and in pieces-God help us! while the peace is like to go on between Spain and France; and then the French may be apprehended able to attack us. So God help us!

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1668. Thence to White Hall, walked with Brisband, who dined there also, and thence I back to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Virgin Martyr", and heard the musick that I like so well, and intended to have seen Knepp, but I let her alone; and having there done, went to Mrs. Pierce's back again, where she was, and there I found her on a pallet in the dark... [Missing text: "where yo did poner mi mano under her jupe and tocar su cosa and waked her;"], that is Knepp. And so to talk; and by and by did eat some curds and cream, and thence away home, and it being night, I did walk in the dusk up and down, round through our garden, over Tower Hill [Map], and so through Crutched Friars [Map], three or four times, and once did meet Mercer and another pretty lady, but being surprized I could say little to them, although I had an opportunity of pleasing myself with them, but left them, and then I did see our Nell, Payne's daughter, and her je did desire venir after me, and so elle did see me to, Tower Hill [Map] to our back entry there that comes upon the degres entrant into nostra garden..., and so parted, and je home to put up things against to-morrow's carrier for my wife; and, among others, a very fine salmon-pie, sent me by Mr. Steventon, W. Hewer's (age 26) uncle, and so to bed.

Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

On 29 Dec 1680 William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford (age 66) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was attainted; Viscount Stafford forfeit. His wife Mary Stafford Countess Stafford (age 60), with whom he was jointly created Baron Stafford continued as Baroness.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Dec 1680. The Viscount Stafford (age 66) was beheaded on Towerhill [Map].

Indemnity and Oblivion Act

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1683. I was this day invited to a wedding of one Mrs. Castle, to whom I had some obligation, and it was to her fifth husband, a lieutenant-colonel of the city. She was the daughter of one Burton, a broom-man, by his wife, who sold kitchen stuff in Kent Street, whom God so blessed that the father became a very rich, and was a very honest man; he was Sheriff of Surrey, where I have sat on the bench with him. Another of his daughters was married to Sir John Bowles; and this daughter was a jolly friendly woman. There was at the wedding the Lord Mayor, the Sheriff, several Aldermen and persons of quality; above all, Sir George Jeffreys (age 38), newly made Lord Chief Justice of England, with Mr. Justice Withings, danced with the bride, and were exceedingly merry. These great men spent the rest of the afternoon, till eleven at night, in drinking healths, taking tobacco, and talking much beneath the gravity of judges, who had but a day or two before condemned Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), who was executed the 7th on Tower Hill [Map], on the single witness of that monster of a man, Lord Howard of Escrick, and some sheets of paper taken in Mr. Sidney's (age 60) study, pretended to be written by him, but not fully proved, nor the time when, but appearing to have been written before his Majesty's (age 53) Restoration, and then pardoned by the Act of Oblivion; so that though Mr. Sidney was known to be a person obstinately averse to government by a monarch (the subject of the paper was in answer to one by Sir E. Filmer), yet it was thought he had very hard measure. There is this yet observable, that he had been an inveterate enemy to the last king, and in actual rebellion against him; a man of great courage, great sense, great parts, which he showed both at his trial and death; for, when he came on the scaffold, instead of a speech, he told them only that he had made his peace with God, that he came not thither to talk, but to die; put a paper into the sheriff's hand, and another into a friend's; said one prayer as short as a grace, laid down his neck, and bid the executioner do his office.

Rye House Plot

On 07 Dec 1683 Algernon Sidney (age 60) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] during the Rye House Plot.

On 20 Jun 1684 Thomas Armstrong (age 51) was dragged by hurdle to Tower Hill [Map] where he was hanged, drawn and quartered for his involvement in the Rye House Plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Monmouth (age 36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (age 51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (age 48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower [Map], had an interview with his late Dutchesse (age 34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (age 24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (age 36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill [Map]) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (age 51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (age 48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (age 47) and Bath and Wells (age 48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.

Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

On 15 Jul 1685 James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 36) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Bishop Francis Turner (age 47) acted a Chaplain. Duke Monmouth and Duke Buccleuch forfeit.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston [Map]. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton (age 37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London [Map] on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.


On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

On 09 Feb 1716 William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (age 35) effected his escape from the Tower of London [Map] by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart (age 26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater (age 23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave (age 20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond (age 44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 54) in person without success.

On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map]. Earl Derwentwater, Baronet Radclyffe of Derwentwater in Cumberland forfeit.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

General Thomas Forster of Adderstone (age 31) was attainted. He was imprisoned at Newgate Prison, London [Map] but escaped to France.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper (age 50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

On 18 Aug 1746 William Boyd 4th Earl Kilmarnock (age 41) was executed at Tower Hill [Map]. He was was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

On 08 Dec 1746 Charles Radclyffe Earl Newburgh (age 53) was executed at Tower Hill [Map] for his having joined the 1715 insurrection.

Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Tower Hill, Angel Tavern [Map]

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1665. Then, on the other side, my finding that though the Bill in general is abated, yet the City within the walls is encreased, and likely to continue so, and is close to our house there. My meeting dead corpses of the plague, carried to be buried close to me at noon-day through the City in Fanchurch-street [Map]. To see a person sick of the sores, carried close by me by Gracechurch [Map] in a hackney-coach. My finding the Angell tavern [Map], at the lower end of Tower-hill shut up, and more than that, the alehouse at the Tower-stairs, and more than that, the person was then dying of the plague when I was last there, a little while ago, at night, to write a short letter there, and I overheard the mistresse of the house sadly saying to her husband somebody was very ill, but did not think it was of the plague.

Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Tower Hill, Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map]

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 05 Aug 1447. Also that same yere dyssesyde the Duke of Exceter (age 52), and he was enteryd at Syn Kateryns [Map].

On 05 Aug 1447 John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter (age 52) died at Stepney [Map]. He was buried at the Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map]. His son Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 17) succeeded 3rd Duke Exeter, 3rd Earl Huntingdon. Anne York Duchess Exeter (age 7) by marriage Duchess Exeter.

On 28 Nov 1457 Anne Montagu Duchess Exeter (age 57) died. She was buried at Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map].

On 17 Apr 1735 John Allen and Anne Waller (age 22) were married at the Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map].

On 20 Jul 1742 Arthur Devis (age 30) and Elizabeth Faulkener (age 23) were married at Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map]. They had twenty-two children of which only six survived infancy.

On 30 Jun 1785 Elizabeth Girlie (age 84) died. She was buried at Church of St Katharine's by the Tower [Map].

Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower Tower Hill [Map]

On 16 Mar 1410 John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset (age 37) died at Hospital of St Katharine's by the Tower Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at St Michael's Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral [Map]. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd Earl Somerset (age 9) succeeded 2nd Earl Somerset.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Apr 1563. The vii day of Aprell at sant Katheryns be-yond the Towre [Map] the wyff of the syne of the Rose a tavarne was set on the pelere for ettyng of rowe flesse [raw flesh] and rostyd boyth, and iiij women was sett in the stokes all nyght tyll ther hosbandes dyd feyche them hom.