Biography of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669

Paternal Family Tree: Capet

Maternal Family Tree: Blanca de la Cerda y Lara 1317-1347

1623 Charles I's Trip to Spain

1625 Proxy Marriage of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France

1625 Charles I and Henrietta Maria's First Meeting

1626 English Coronation of Charles I

1641 Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1663 Great Plague of London

1664 Comet

On 18 Aug 1572 [her father] Henry IV King France (age 18) and [her step-mother] Margaret Valois Queen Consort France (age 19) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of King Henry II of France and Catherine Medici Queen Consort France (age 53). He the son of Antoine King Navarre and Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre. They were second cousins.

On 12 May 1575 Henry III King France (age 23) Abdicated III King France: Capet Valois Angoulême. His second cousin [her father] Henry IV King France (age 21) succeeded IV King France: Capet Valois Bourbon.

On 17 Dec 1600 [her father] Henry IV King France (age 47) and [her mother] Marie de Medici Queen Consort France (age 25) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of Antoine King Navarre and Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre. They were fourth cousins.

On 25 Nov 1609 Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England was born to Henry IV King France (age 55) and Marie de Medici Queen Consort France (age 34).

On 14 May 1610 [her father] Henry IV King France (age 56) was murdered in Paris [Map]. His son [her brother] Louis XIII King France (age 8) succeeded XIII King France: Capet Valois Bourbon.

Charles I's Trip to Spain

Autobiography Simon D'Ewes. 17 Feb 1623. There happened on Monday, the 17th day of the month, so strange an accident as after ages will scarce believe it. For Charles Prince of Wales (age 22) began his journey from London into Spain on Monday, the 17th day of February, with the beloved Marquis of Buckingham (age 30), Sir Francis Cottington (age 44), and Mr. Endimion Porter (age 36), only in his campaign; who only, besides the King himself, were the alone men aquainted with the Prince's resolution. Their going was so secretly carried as none, I believe, knew of it in England till they were landed in France, through which kingdom they passed by posthorse into Spain.1 The journey was thought so dangerous, being above 1100 English miles by land, besides the crossing of the seas between Dover and Calais, as all men were generally ensaddened at the ad- venture, often wishing it had been better advised upon; although they knew the Spaniards durst do the Prince no harm, so long as his royal sister and her illustrious oflspring survived. Soon after followed the Lord Hays (age 43), Earl of Carlisle, and passed into France to excuse to that King the Prince's sudden and secret passing through his kingdom without giving him a visit. All men now took it for granted, that the Prince's marriage with the Infanta Maria, the King of Spain's sister, was concluded on, and that he went over only to consummate it; no man imagining that he would take up such a resolution upon uncertainties, especially occasioning so vast and unnecessary expense at a time when the King's wants pressed him much. But God, whose decree binds princes as well as peasants, had otherwise disposed, so as our royal suitor, arriving at Madrid in Spain on Friday the 7th (or 17th) of March, about three weeks later his departure from London, and taking ship for his return to England on the 18th (or 28th) of September, then next ensuing, stayed in Spain about seven months; in all which time he seldom saw or spoke with the Spanish Princess, nor could ever receive a fair or sincere denial from her brother, although her marriage had been absolutely disposed of by her father's last will and testament; he bequeathing her to Ferdinand, son and heir of Ferdinand the Second, Emperor of Germany, who afterwards did accordingly espouse her.

Note 1. "And now behold a, strange adventure and enterprise! The Prince and the Marquis of Buckingham, accompanied with Cottington and Endimion Porter, post in disgiuse to Spain to accelerate the marriage. The 17th of February they went privately from Court, and the next day came to Dover, where they embarked for Boulogne, and from thence rode post to Paris, where they made some atop. The Prince, shadowed under a bushy peruque, beheld the splendour of that court, and had a full view of the Princess Henrietta Maria (age 13), who was afterwards his royal consort. For, besides the great privacy of the journey, they had so laid the English ports, that none should follow or give the least advertisement, until they had got the start of intelligencers, and passed the bounds of France. Howbeit they escaped narrowly, and a swift intelligence sent to the King of Spain from Don Carlos Coloma was even at their heels before they arrived at Madrid. The Prince and Buckingham being in the territories of Spain, to make but little noise, rode post before their company. The 7th of March they arrived at Madrid, the royal residence, and were conveyed with much secrecy into the Earl of Bristol's (age 43) house-Rushworth, i. p. 76. A fuller account of this extraordinary adventure will be found elsewhere.

Around 1625 John Hoskins (age 35). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15).

Proxy Marriage of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France

On 01 May 1625 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15) were married by proxy at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral [Map]. Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15) by marriage Queen Consort England.

Charles I and Henrietta Maria's First Meeting

On 13 Jun 1625 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15) met for the first time at St Augustine's Abbey [Map].

English Coronation of Charles I

On 02 Feb 1626 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 25) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map]. His wife Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 16) was not crowned since she being Catholic refused to attend an Anglican service. She watched Charles at a discreet distance.

Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 52) carried the Orb.

Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 3) bore the Second Sword of State.

Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 41) carried the Spurs.

Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland (age 48) bore the Rod with the Dove.

William Cavendish 3rd Earl Devonshire (age 8), James Stanley 7th Earl of Derby (age 19), James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 6), Roger Palmer (age 49) and Mildmay Fane 2nd Earl of Westmoreland (age 24), John Maynard (age 34) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

John Rayney 1st Baronet (age 25) was knighted.

On 13 May 1629 [her son] Charles James Stewart was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 28) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 19).

On 13 May 1629 [her son] Charles James Stewart died.

Around 1630 Cecilia Crofts (age 20) was appointed Maid of Honour to Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 20).

On 29 May 1630 [her son] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 20) at St James's Palace [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

In Jan 1631 Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis (age 19) and Elizabeth Ashburnham (age 18) were married. After the wedding King Charles I (age 30), Henrietta Maria (age 21) and Susan Feilding, Countess of Denbigh (age 48) wrote to congratulate his mother Jane, Baroness Cornwallis Bacon (age 50), and ask her to forgive him for his disobedience and return him to her favour. Denbigh said Ashburnham was her cousin "though her family be unfortunate".

On 04 Nov 1631 [her daughter] Mary Stewart Princess Orange was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 30) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 21).

On 14 Oct 1633 [her son] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 23) at St James's Palace [Map]. He was created 1st Duke York at birth by his father.

On 28 Dec 1635 [her daughter] Elizabeth Stewart was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 35) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 26).

The Manuscripts of His Grace the Duke of Rutland 1640. 04 Jan 1640. Savoy.

F. Lord Willoughby to his uncle, the Earl of Rutland (age 60), at Belvoir Castle [Map].

When we ate your venison my wife and I drank your health and my Lady's and did not forget little Mr. George, whom, I am glad to hear, grows towards a man. "There hath beene a marriage at the court betweene one of my Lord of Corcke (age 73) sonnse (age 21) and my Lady Elizabeth Feelding, about which there is a greate stur, for it seemes he did not prove eoe rite as a man should be to goo about such a business. For the report goese that his manly part had lost something in his former serviocesse, and beside that he was soe full of severall disceases ... as that it was tould the Queene (age 30), whoe sent for my Lady Elizabeth, and tould her that she must desier her not to lett her husband lye with her that night, whoe put of, modilestly making little answere, but she seemed so lothe to understand the Queene (age 30), as that she tould her she must command her not to come in a pair of sheets with him, and tould her the reasons; soe as that he is gone out of the way some say into France, others thinks he is in London under cower. It was discovered by his sister (age 30) Mr. Goring's (age 31) wife, to whom he had imparted his grevancess, and she had plotted it soe, to make an excuse for him, that he should falie downe stares that day, and she would come and take him up, and soe he should complane how he had breused himselfe and strained his back with the fale, that he should be soe ill he was not fitt to goe to bed to his wife that night. But could not keepe her counsel but must tell her husband Jorge Goring (age 31), and he presently ran and tould the Queene (age 30), and soe it was discovered and then it was presently in every buddy's mouth.".

My Lord Keeper is so ill that the physicians think he cannot recover. My Lord Chief Justice Bramstone is talked of to be Lord Keeper, and Bishop Wren (age 54). It is known to be between those two. My Lord Finch (age 12) will be Chief Justice of the King's Bench and the Attorney General to be Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. Signet.

After Apr 1640 Peter Ball was appointed Attorney General to Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 30).

On 08 Jul 1640 [her son] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 30).

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 13 Apr 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) was attainted by 204 votes to 59 ostensibly for his authoritarian rule as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Despite his promise not to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) signed the death warrant on the 10 May 1641 in the light of increasing pressure from Parliament and the commons.

Wenceslaus Hollar (age 33). Engraving of the Trial of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) with the following marked:

A. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40).

C. Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31).

D. [her son] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 10).

E. Thomas Howard 21st Earl of Arundel 4th Earl of Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk (age 55), Lord High Steward.

F. Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester (age 78), Lord Keeper of the Great Seal.

G. John Paulet 5th Marquess Winchester (age 43).

H. Robert Bertie 1st Earl Lindsey (age 58), Lord Chamberlain.

I. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 56), Lord Chamberlain of the Household.

V. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48).

Z. Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk (age 56).

Wenceslaus Hollar: On 23 Jul 1607 he was born. Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and my Lord Bruncker did show me Hollar's new print of the City, with a pretty representation of that part which is burnt, very fine indeed; and tells me that he was yesterday sworn the King's servant, and that the King hath commanded him to go on with his great map of the City, which he was upon before the City was burned, like Gombout of Paris, which I am glad of. On 25 Mar 1677 he died.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (age 48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall [Map], which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the King (age 40), Queen (age 31), Prince (age 10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (age 55), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.

On 02 May 1641 [her son-in-law] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 14) and [her daughter] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 9) were married. She the daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31).

Evelyn's Diary. 31 May 1641. To Nimeguen [Map]: and on the 2nd of August we arrived at the League, where was then the whole army encamped about Genep, a very strong castle situated on the river Waal; but, being taken four or five days before, we had only a sight of the demolitions. The next Sunday was the thanksgiving sermons performed in Colonel Goring's (age 32) regiment (eldest son of the since Earl of Norwich) by Mr. Goffe (age 36), his chaplain (now turned Roman, and father-confessor to the Queen-Mother (age 31)). The evening was spent in firing cannon and other expressions of military triumphs.

In Aug 1641 John Mennes Comptroller (age 42) took Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31) to safety in the Netherlands. He was knighted by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) for doing so.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Sep 1641. I took waggon for Dort, to be present at the reception of the [her mother] Queen-mother, Marie de Medicis (age 66), Dowager of France, widow of Henry the Great, and mother to the [her brother] French King, Louis XIII (age 39), and the Queen of England (age 31), whence she newly arrived, tossed to and fro by the various fortune of her life. From this city, she designed for Cologne, conducted by the Earl of Arundel (age 14) and the Herr Van Bredrod. At this interview, I saw the Princess of Orange (age 39), and the lady her daughter (age 13), afterwards married to the House of Brandenburgh. There was little remarkable in this reception befitting the greatness of her person; but an universal discontent, which accompanied that unlucky woman wherever she went.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck (age 42). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 32) and her son [her son] Charles James Stewart.

Charles James Stewart: On 13 May 1629 Charles James Stewart died. On 13 May 1629 he was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck (age 42). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 32) and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck (age 42). Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 32).

On 03 Jul 1642 [her mother] Marie de Medici Queen Consort France (age 67) died.

In 1644 Henry Wood 1st Baronet (age 46) accompanied the Queen (age 34), Henrietta Maria, to France, as Treasurer to her Household, an office he retained till his death.

On 16 Jun 1644 [her daughter] Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 34) at Bedford House Exeter, Devon. John Hinton (age 40) was in attendance.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1644. The Queen of England (age 34) came to Tours, having newly arrived in France, and going for Paris [Map]. She was very nobly received by the people and clergy, who went to meet her with the trained bands. After the harangue, the Archbishop entertained her at his Palace, where I paid my duty to her. The 20th she set forward to Paris.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Sep 1647. Being called into England, to settle my affairs after an absence of four years, I took leave of the Prince (age 17) and Queen (age 37), leaving my wife (age 12), yet very young, under the care of an excellent lady and prudent mother (age 37).

Memoirs of Jean Francois Paul de Gondi Cardinal de Retz Book 1. The 24th of February, 1649, the Parliament's deputies waited on the Queen (age 10) with an account of the audience granted to the envoy of the Archduke. The Queen (age 10) told them that they should not have given audience to the envoy, but that, seeing they had done it, it was absolutely necessary to think of a good peace, that she was entirely well disposed; and the Duc d'Orléans and the Prince de Conde promised the deputies to throw open all the passages as soon as the Parliament should name commissioners for the treaty.

Flamarin being sent at the same time into the city from the Duc d'Orléans to condole with the Queen of England (age 39) on the death of her husband (deceased) (King Charles I.), went, at La Riviere's solicitation, to M. de La Rochefoucault, whom he found in his bed on account of his wounds and quite wearied with the civil war, and persuaded him to come over to the Court interest. He told Flamarin that he had been drawn into this war much against his inclinations, and that, had he returned from Poitou two months before the siege of Paris, he would have prevented Madame de Longueville engaging in so vile a cause, but that I had taken the opportunity of his absence to engage both her and the Prince de Conti, that he found the engagements too far advanced to be possibly dissolved, that the diabolical Coadjutor would not bear of any terms of peace, and also stopped the ears of the Prince de Conti and Madame de Longueville, and that he himself could not act as he would because of his bad state of health. I was informed of Flamarin's negotiations for the Court interest, and, as the term of his passport had expired, ordered the 'prevot des marchands' to command him to depart from the city.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1649. Went with my wife (age 14) and dear Cousin to St. Germains, and kissed the Queen-Mother's (age 39) hand; dined with my Lord Keeper and Lord Hatton (age 44). Divers of the great men of France came to see the King (age 19). The next day, came the Prince of Condé (age 27). Returning to Paris, we went to see the President Maison's palace, built castle-wise, of a milk-white fine freestone; the house not vast, but well contrived, especially the staircase, and the ornaments of Putti, about it. It is environed in a dry moat, the offices under ground, the gardens very excellent with extraordinary long walks, set with elms, and a noble prospect toward the forest, and on the Seine toward Paris. Take it altogether, the meadows, walks, river, forest, corn-ground, and vineyards, I hardly saw anything in Italy to exceed it. The iron gates are very magnificent. He has pulled down a whole village to make room for his pleasure about it.

On 08 Sep 1650 [her daughter] Elizabeth Stewart (age 14) died.

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (age 12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the King's (age 29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42), while I and the rest went to see the Queen (age 50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the [her daughter] Princess Dowager's (age 28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:-"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".

Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, Charles II (age 29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.

Note 2. Mary, Princess Royal (age 28), eldest daughter of Charles I, and widow of [her former son-in-law] William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's (age 55) landing at Dover, Kent [Map], and also letters from the Queen (age 50), which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his Majesty (age 30), by reason of the infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to see his Majesty (age 30), and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the King (age 30) being as willing to give them that satisfaction, would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.

On 03 Sep 1660 [her son] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) and [her daughter-in-law] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) were married in secret. She by marriage Duchess York. She gave birth to their son Charles Stewart seven weeks later. She the daughter of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 51) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 43). He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 50).

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Oct 1660. Arrived the Queen-Mother (age 50) in England, whence she had been banished for almost twenty years; together with her illustrious daughter, the [her daughter] Princess Henrietta (age 16), divers princes and noblemen, accompanying them.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1660. Col. Slingsby (age 49) and I at the office getting a catch ready for the Prince de Ligne to carry his things away to-day, who is now going home again. About noon comes my cozen H. Alcock, for whom I brought a letter for my Lord to sign to my Lord Broghill for some preferment in Ireland, whither he is now a-going. After him comes Mr. Creed, who brought me some books from Holland with him, well bound and good books, which I thought he did intend to give me, but I found that I must pay him. He dined with me at my house, and from thence to Whitehall together, where I was to give my Lord an account of the stations and victualls of the fleet in order to the choosing of a fleet fit for him to take to sea, to bring over the Queen (age 50), but my Lord not coming in before 9 at night I staid no longer for him, but went back again home and so to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the Queen-Mother (age 50), to break the marriage of the [her son] Duke (age 26) with the [her daughter-in-law] daughter (age 23) of Chancellor Hyde (age 51). The Queen (age 50) would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's (age 51) to befriend the Queen (age 50), who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs go through his hands.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1660. I kissed the Queen-Mother's (age 50) hand.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1660. This morning my brother Tom (age 26) came to me, with whom I made even for my last clothes to this day, and having eaten a dish of anchovies with him in the morning, my wife and I did intend to go forth to see a play at the Cockpit [Map] this afternoon, but Mr. Moore coming to me, my wife staid at home, and he and I went out together, with whom I called at the upholsters and several other places that I had business with, and so home with him to the Cockpit [Map], where, understanding that "Wit without money" was acted, I would not stay, but went home by water, by the way reading of the other two stories that are in the book that I read last night, which I do not like so well as it. Being come home, Will. told me that my Lord had a mind to speak with me to-night; so I returned by water, and, coming there, it was only to enquire how the ships were provided with victuals that are to go with him to fetch over the Queen (age 50), which I gave him a good account of. He seemed to be in a melancholy humour, which, I was told by W. Howe, was for that he had lately lost a great deal of money at cards, which he fears he do too much addict himself to now-a-days. So home by water and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Oct 1660. Office day; after that to dinner at home upon some ribs of roast beef from the Cook's (which of late we have been forced to do because of our house being always under the painters' and other people's hands, that we could not dress it ourselves). After dinner to my Lord's, where I found all preparing for my Lord's going to sea to fetch the Queen (age 50) tomorrow. At night my Lord came home, with whom I staid long, and talked of many things. Among others I got leave to have his picture, that was done by Lilly (age 42)1, copied, and talking of religion, I found him to be a perfect Sceptic, and said that all things would not be well while there was so much preaching, and that it would be better if nothing but Homilies were to be read in Churches. This afternoon (he told me) there hath been a meeting before the King and my Lord Chancellor (age 51), of some Episcopalian and Presbyterian Divines; but what had passed he could not tell me. After I had done talk with him, I went to bed with Mr. Sheply in his chamber, but could hardly get any sleep all night, the bed being ill made and he a bad bedfellow.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1660. Being this day in the bedchamber of the [her daughter] Princess Henrietta (age 16), where were many great beauties and noblemen, I saluted divers of my old friends and acquaintances abroad; his Majesty (age 30) carrying my wife (age 25) to salute the Queen (age 50) and Princess (age 16), and then led her into his closet, and with his own hands showed her divers curiosities.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Oct 1660. His Majesty (age 30) went to meet the Queen-Mother (age 50).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1660 Lord's Day. There came some pills and plaister this morning from Dr. Williams for my wife. I to Westminster Abbey, where with much difficulty, going round by the cloysters, I got in; this day being a great day for the consecrating of five Bishopps, which was done after sermon; but I could not get into Henry the Seventh's chappell. So I went to my Lord's, where I dined with my Lady, and my young Lord, and Mr. Sidney, who was sent for from Twickenham to see my Lord Mayor's show to-morrow. Mr. Child did also dine with us. After dinner to White Hall chappell; my Lady and my Lady Jemimah and I up to the King's (age 30) closet (who is now gone to meet the Queen (age 50)). So meeting with one Mr. Hill, that did know my Lady, he did take us into the King's (age 30) closet, and there we did stay all service-time, which I did think a great honour. We went home to my Lord's lodgings afterwards, and there I parted with my Lady and went home, where I did find my wife pretty well after her physic. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1660. Within all the morning and dined at home, my mind being so troubled that I could not mind nor do anything till I spoke with the Comptroller to whom the lodgings belong. In the afternoon, to ease my mind, I went to the Cockpit [Map] all alone, and there saw a very fine play called "The Tamer Tamed;" very well acted. That being done, I went to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I had left my boy, and so with him and Mr. Moore (who would go a little way with me home, as he will always do) to the Hercules Pillars to drink, where we did read over the King's (age 30) declaration in matters of religion, which is come out to-day, which is very well penned, I think to the satisfaction of most people. So home, where I am told Mr. Davis's people have broken open the bolt of my chamber door that goes upon the leads, which I went up to see and did find it so, which did still trouble me more and more. And so I sent for Griffith, and got him to search their house to see what the meaning of it might be, but can learn nothing to-night. But I am a little pleased that I have found this out. I hear nothing yet of my Lord, whether he be gone for the Queen (age 50) from the Downs or no; but I believe he is, and that he is now upon coming back again.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1660. Office day. Much troubled all this morning in my mind about the business of my walk on the leads. I spoke of it to the Comptroller and the rest of the principal officers, who are all unwilling to meddle in anything that may anger my Lady Davis. And so I am fain to give over for the time that she do continue therein. Dined at home, and after dinner to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Billing (age 37) the quaker at Mrs. Michell's shop, who is still of the former opinion he was of against the clergymen of all sorts, and a cunning fellow I find him to be. Home, and there I had news that Sir W. Pen (age 39) is resolved to ride to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) country house to-morrow, and would have me go with him, so I sat up late, getting together my things to ride in, and was fain to cut an old pair of boots to make leathers for those I was to wear. This month I conclude with my mind very heavy for the loss of the leads, as also for the greatness of my late expenses, insomuch that I do not think that I have above £150 clear money in the world, but I have, I believe, got a great deal of good household stuff: I hear to-day that the Queen (age 50) is landed at Dover, and will be here on Friday next, November 2nd. my wife has been so ill of late of her old pain that I have not known her this fortnight almost, which is a pain to me.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1660. Office. Then dined at home, and by chance Mr. Holliard (age 51)1 called at dinner time and dined with me, with whom I had great discourse concerning the cure of the King's (age 30) evil, which he do deny altogether any effect at all. In the afternoon I went forth and saw some silver bosses put upon my new Bible, which cost me 6s. 6d. The making, and 7s. 6d. The silver, which, with 9s. 6d. The book, comes in all to £1 3s. 6d. From thence with Mr. Cooke that made them, and Mr. Stephens the silversmith to the tavern, and did give them a pint of wine. So to White Hall, where when I came I saw the boats going very thick to Lambeth, and all the stairs to be full of people. I was told the Queen (age 50) was a-coming2; so I got a sculler for sixpence to carry me thither and back again, but I could not get to see Paternoster Row [Map]; so come back, and to my Lord's, where he was come; and I supt with him, he being very merry, telling merry stories of the country mayors, how they entertained the King all the way as he come along; and how the country gentlewomen did hold up their heads to be kissed by the King, not taking his hand to kiss as they should do. I took leave of my Lord and Lady, and so took coach at White Hall and carried Mr. Childe as far as the Strand, and myself got as far as Ludgate by all the bonfires, but with a great deal of trouble; and there the coachman desired that I would release him, for he durst not go further for the fires. So he would have had a shilling or 6d. for bringing of me so far; but I had but 3d. about me and did give him it. In Paul's church-yard I called at Kirton's, and there they had got a mass book for me, which I bought and cost me twelve shillings; and, when I came home, sat up late and read in it with great pleasure to my wife, to hear that she was long ago so well acquainted with. So to bed. I observed this night very few bonfires in the City, not above three in all London, for the Queen's (age 50) coming; whereby I guess that (as I believed before) her coming do please but very few.

Note 1. Thomas Holliard (age 51) or Hollier was appointed in 1638 surgeon for scald heads at St. Thomas's Hospital, and on January 25th, 1643-4, he was chosen surgeon in place of Edward Molins. In 1670 his son of the same names was allowed to take his place during his illness. Ward, in his Diary, p. 235, mentions that the porter at St. Thomas's Hospital told him, in 1661, of Mr. Holyard's having cut thirty for the stone in one year, who all lived.

Note 2. "Nov. 2. The Queen-mother and the Princess Henrietta came into London, the Queen (age 50) having left this land nineteen years ago. Her coming was very private, Lambeth-way, where the King, Queen, and the Duke of York (age 27), and the rest, took water, crossed the Thames, and all safely arrived at Whitehall.-"Rugge's Diurnal.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1660. Saturday. At home all the morning. In the afternoon to White Hall, where my Lord and Lady were gone to kiss the Queene's (age 50) hand. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Tom Doling, and we two took Mrs. Lane to the alehouse, where I made her angry with commending of Tom Newton and her new sweetheart to be both too good for her, so that we parted with much anger, which made Tom and me good sport. So home to write letters by the post, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1660. From thence, after a pot of ale with Mr. Shepley at a house hard by, I went by link home, calling a little by the way at my father's (age 59) and my uncle Fenner's, where all pretty well, and so home, where I found the house in a washing pickle, and my wife in a very joyful condition when I told her that she is to see the Queen (age 50) next Thursday, which puts me in mind to say that this morning I found my Lord in bed late, he having been with the King, Queen, and Princess, at the Cockpit [Map]1 all night, where. General Monk (age 51) treated them; and after supper a play, where the King did put a great affront upon Singleton's' musique, he bidding them stop and bade the French musique play, which, my Lord says, do much outdo all ours. But while my Lord was rising, I went to Mr. Fox's (age 33), and there did leave the gilt tankard for Mrs. Fox, and then to the counting-house to him, who hath invited me and my wife to dine with him on Thursday next, and so to see the Queen (age 50) and Princesses.

Note 1. The Cockpit [Map] at Whitehall. The plays at the Cockpit [Map] in Drury Lane were acted in the afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1660. This morning came the carpenters to make me a door at the other side of my house, going into the entry, which I was much pleased with. At noon my wife and I walked to the Old Exchange, and there she bought her a white whisk1 and put it on, and I a pair of gloves, and so we took coach for Whitehall to Mr. Fox's (age 33), where we found Mrs. Fox within, and an alderman of London paying £1000 or £1500 in gold upon the table for the King, which was the most gold that ever I saw together in my life. Mr. Fox (age 33) came in presently and did receive us with a great deal of respect; and then did take my wife and I to the Queen's (age 50) presence-chamber; where he got my wife placed behind the Queen's (age 50) chair, and I got into the crowd, and by and by the Queen (age 50) and the two Princesses came to dinner. The Queen (age 50) a very little plain old woman, and nothing more in her presence in any respect nor garb than any ordinary woman. The Princess of Orange I had often seen before. The Princess Henrietta is very pretty, but much below my expectation; and her dressing of herself with her hair frized short up to her ears, did make her seem so much the less to me. But my wife standing near her with two or three black patches on, and well dressed, did seem to me much handsomer than she. Dinner being done, we went to Mr. Fox's (age 33) again, where many gentlemen dined with us, and most princely dinner, all provided for me and my friends, but I bringing none but myself and wife, he did call the company to help to eat up so much good victuals. At the end of dinner, my Lord Sandwich's (age 35) health was drunk in the gilt tankard that I did give to Mrs. Fox the other day. After dinner I had notice given me by Will my man that my Lord did inquire for me, so I went to find him, and met him and the Duke of York (age 27) in a coach going towards Charing Cross. I endeavoured to follow them but could not, so I returned to Mr. Fox (age 33), and after much kindness and good discourse we parted from thence. I took coach for my wife and me homewards, and I light at the Maypole in the Strand, and sent my wife home. I to the new playhouse and saw part of the "Traitor", a very good Tragedy; Mr. Moon did act the Traitor very well. So to my Lord's, and sat there with my Lady a great while talking. Among other things, she took occasion to inquire (by Madame Dury's late discourse with her) how I did treat my wife's father and mother. At which I did give her a good account, and she seemed to be very well opinioned of my wife. From thence to White Hall at about 9 at night, and there, with Laud the page that went with me, we could not get out of Henry the Eighth's gallery into the further part of the boarded gallery, where my Lord was walking with my Lord Ormond; and we had a key of Sir S. Morland's, but all would not do; till at last, by knocking, Mr. Harrison the door-keeper did open us the door, and, after some talk with my Lord about getting a catch to carry my Lord St. Albans a goods to France, I parted and went home on foot, it being very late and dirty, and so weary to bed.

Note 1. A gorget or neckerchief worn by women at this time. "A woman's neck whisk is used both plain and laced, and is called of most a gorget or falling whisk, because it falleth about the shoulders". -Randle Hohnt (quoted by Planche).

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1660. Lord's Day. In the forenoon I alone to our church, and after dinner I went and ranged about to many churches, among the rest to the Temple [Map], where I heard Dr. Wilkins' a little (late Maister of Trinity in Cambridge). That being done to my father's (age 59) to see my mother who is troubled much with the stone, and that being done I went home, where I had a letter brought me from my Lord to get a ship ready to carry the Queen's (age 51) things over to France, she being to go within five or six days. So to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1660. Soon as dinner was done my wife took her leave, and went with Mr. Blackburne and his wife to London to a christening of a Brother's child of his on Tower Hill, and I to a play, "The Scorn-full Lady", and that being done, I went homewards, and met Mr. Moore, who had been at my house, and took him to my father's (age 59), and we three to Standing's to drink. Here Mr. Moore told me how the House had this day voted the King to have all the Excise for ever. This day I do also hear that the Queen's (age 51) going to France is stopt, which do like, me well, because then the King will be in town the next month, which is my month again at the Privy Seal.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Dec 1660. I waited on my brother (age 43) and sister Evelyn to Court. Now were presented to his Majesty (age 30) those two rare pieces of drollery, or rather a Dutch Kitchen, painted by Dowe, so finely as hardly to be distinguished from enamel. I was also shown divers rich jewels and crystal vases; the rare head of Jo. Bellino, Titian's master; Christ in the Garden, by Hannibal Caracci; two incomparable heads, by Holbein; the Queen-Mother (age 51) in a miniature, almost as big as the life; an exquisite piece of carving; two unicorn's horns, etc. This in the closet.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1660. I presented my son, John (age 5), to the Queen-Mother (age 51), who kissed him, talked with and made extraordinary much of him.

On 24 Dec 1660 [her daughter] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 29) died of smallpox.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1660. In the morning to Alderman Backwell's (age 42) for the candlesticks for Mr. Coventry (age 32), but they being not done I went away, and so by coach to Mr. Crew's (age 62), and there took some money of Mr. Moore's for my Lord, and so to my Lord's, where I found Sir Thomas Bond (whom I never saw before) with a message from the Queen (age 51) about vessells for the carrying over of her goods, and so with him to Mr. Coventry (age 32), and thence to the office (being soundly washed going through the bridge) to Sir Wm. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) (the last of whom took physic to-day), and so I went up to his chamber, and there having made an end of the business I returned to White Hall by water, and dined with my Lady Sandwich (age 35), who at table did tell me how much fault was laid upon Dr. Frazer and the rest of the Doctors, for the death of the Princess!

Pepy's Diary. Jan 1661. At the end of the last and the beginning of this year, I do live in one of the houses belonging to the Navy Office, as one of the principal officers, and have done now about half a year. After much trouble with workmen I am now almost settled; my family being, myself, my wife, Jane, Will. Hewer, and Wayneman1, my girle's brother. Myself in constant good health, and in a most handsome and thriving condition. Blessed be Almighty God for it. I am now taking of my sister to come and live with me. As to things of State.-The King settled, and loved of all. The Duke of York (age 27) matched to my Lord Chancellor's (age 51) daughter, which do not please many. The Queen (age 51) upon her return to France with the [her daughter] Princess Henrietta (age 16). The Princess of Orange lately dead, and we into new mourning for her. We have been lately frighted with a great plot, and many taken up on it, and the fright not quite over. The Parliament, which had done all this great good to the King, beginning to grow factious, the King did dissolve it December 29th last, and another likely to be chosen speedily. I take myself now to be worth £300 clear in money, and all my goods and all manner of debts paid, which are none at all.

Note 1. Will Wayneman appears by this to have been forgiven for his theft (see ante). He was dismissed on July 8th, 1663.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1661. After dinner I took my wife to Whitehall, I sent her to Mrs. Pierces (where we should have dined today), and I to the Privy Seal, where Mr. Moore took out all his money, and he and I went to Mr. Pierces; in our way seeing the Duke of York (age 27) bring his Lady this day to wait upon the Queen, the first time that ever she did since that great business; and the Queen (age 51) is said to receive her now with much respect and love; and there he cast up the fees, and I told the money, by the same token one £100 bag, after I had told it, fell all about the room, and I fear I have lost some of it. That done I left my friends and went to my Lord's, but he being not come in I lodged the money with Mr. Shepley, and bade good night to Mr. Moore, and so returned to Mr. Pierces, and there supped with them, and Mr. Pierce, the purser, and his wife and mine, where we had a calf's head carboned1, but it was raw, we could not eat it, and a good hen. But she is such a slut that I do not love her victualls. After supper I sent them home by coach, and I went to my Lord's and there played till 12 at night at cards at Best with J. Goods and N. Osgood, and then to bed with Mr. Shepley.

Note 1. Meat cut crosswise and broiled was said to be carboned. Falstaff says in "King Henry IV"., Part L, act v., sc. 3, "Well, if Percy be alive, I'll pierce him. If he do come in my way, so; if he do not, if I come in his willingly, let him make a carbonado of me".

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jan 1661. The Queen-Mother (age 51), with the [her daughter] Princess Henrietta (age 16), began her journey to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], in order to her return into France.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1661. From thence by link to my cozen Stradwick's, where my father and we and Dr. Pepys, Scott, and his wife, and one Mr. Ward and his; and after a good supper, we had an excellent cake, where the mark for the Queen (age 51) was cut, and so there was two queens, my wife and Mrs. Ward; and the King being lost, they chose the Doctor to be King, so we made him send for some wine, and then home, and in our way home we were in many places strictly examined, more than in the worst of times, there being great fears of these Fanatiques rising again: for the present I do not hear that any of them are taken. Home, it being a clear moonshine and after 12 o'clock at night. Being come home we found that my people had been very merry, and my wife tells me afterwards that she had heard that they had got young Davis and some other neighbours with them to be merry, but no harm.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1661. Office day. This day comes news, by letters from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], that the [her daughter] Princess Henrietta (age 16) is fallen sick of the meazles on board the London, after the Queen (age 51) and she was under sail. And so was forced to come back again into Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] harbour; and in their way, by negligence of the pilot, run upon the Horse Sand. The Queen (age 51) and she continue aboard, and do not intend to come on shore till she sees what will become of the young Princess. This news do make people think something indeed, that three of the Royal Family should fall sick of the same disease, one after another.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1661. Lord's Day. Before I rose, letters come to me from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], telling me that the [her daughter] Princess (age 16) is now well, and my Lord Sandwich (age 35) set sail with the Queen (age 51) and her yesterday from thence for France.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1661. And after a walk to my Lord's; where, while I and my Lady were in her chamber in talk, in comes my Lord from sea, to our great wonder. He had dined at Havre de Grace on Monday last, and came to the Downs the next day, and lay at Canterbury that night; and so to Dartford, and thence this morning to White Hall. All my friends his servants well. Among others, Mr. Creed and Captain Ferrers tell me the stories of my Duke of Buckingham's (age 33) and my Lord's falling out at Havre de Grace, at cards; they two and my Lord St. Alban's (age 55) playing. The Duke did, to my Lord's dishonour, often say that he did in his conscience know the contrary to what he then said, about the difference at cards; and so did take up the money that he should have lost to my Lord. Which my Lord resenting, said nothing then, but that he doubted not but there were ways enough to get his money of him. So they parted that night; and my Lord sent for Sir R. Stayner (age 36) and sent him the next morning to the Duke, to know whether he did remember what he said last night, and whether he would own it with his sword and a second; which he said he would, and so both sides agreed. But my Lord St. Alban's, and the Queen (age 51) and Ambassador Montagu, did waylay them at their lodgings till the difference was made up, to my Lord's honour; who hath got great reputation thereby.

On 31 Mar 1661 [her son-in-law] Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans (age 20) and [her daughter] Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 16) were married. She by marriage Duchess Orléans. She the daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 51). He the son of Louis XIII King France and Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France (age 59). They were first cousins.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1661. Early to walk with Mr. Creed up and down the town, and it was in his and some others' thoughts to have got me made free of the town, but the Mayor, it seems, unwilling, and so they could not do it. Then to the payhouse, and there paid off the ship, and so to a short dinner, and then took coach, leaving Mrs. Hater there to stay with her husband's friends, and we to Petersfield, Hampshire, having nothing more of trouble in all my journey, but the exceeding unmannerly and most epicure-like palate of Mr. Creed. Here my wife and I lay in the room the Queen (age 51) lately lay at her going into France.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jan 1662. I received of Sir Peter Ball, the Queen's (age 52) attorney, a draft of an Act against the nuisance of the smoke of London, to be reformed by removing several trades which are the cause of it, and endanger the health of the King (age 31) and his people. It was to have been offered to the Parliament, as his Majesty (age 31) commanded.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Feb 1662. I went with my Lord of Bristol (age 49) to see his house at Wimbledon, Surrey, newly bought of the Queen-Mother (age 52), to help contrive the garden after the modern. It is a delicious place for prospect and the thickets, but the soil cold and weeping clay. Returned that evening with Sir Henry Bennett (age 44).

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1662. Mr. Townsend called us up by four o'clock; and by five the three ladies, my wife and I, and Mr. Townsend, his son and daughter, were got to the barge and set out. We walked from Mortlake, Richmond to Richmond, Surrey [Map], and so to boat again. And from Teddington to Hampton Court [Map] Mr. Townsend and I walked again. And then met the ladies, and were showed the whole house by Mr. Marriott; which is indeed nobly furnished, particularly the Queen's (age 23) bed, given her by the States of Holland; a looking-glass sent by the Queen-Mother (age 52) from France, hanging in the Queen's (age 23) chamber, and many brave pictures.

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jun 1662. Hampton Court [Map] is as noble and uniform a pile, and as capacious as any Gothic architecture can have made it. There is an incomparable furniture in it, especially hangings designed by Raphael, very rich with gold; also many rare pictures, especially the Cæsarean Triumphs of Andrea Mantegna, formerly the Duke of Mantua's; of the tapestries, I believe the world can show nothing nobler of the kind than the stories of Abraham and Tobit. The gallery of horns is very particular for the vast beams of stags, elks, antelopes, etc. The Queen's bed was an embroidery of silver on crimson velvet, and cost £8,000, being a present made by the States of Holland when his Majesty (age 32) returned, and had formerly been given by them to our King's sister, the Princess of Orange, and, being bought of her again, was now presented to the King (age 32). The great looking-glass and toilet, of beaten and massive gold, was given by the Queen-Mother (age 52). The Queen (age 23) brought over with her from Portugal such Indian cabinets as had never before been seen here. The great hall is a most magnificent room. The chapel roof excellently fretted and gilt. I was also curious to visit the wardrobe and tents, and other furniture of state. The park, formerly a flat and naked piece of ground, now planted with sweet rows of lime trees; and the canal for water now near perfected; also the air-park. In the garden is a rich and noble fountain, with Sirens, statues, etc., cast in copper, by Fanelli; but no plenty of water. The cradle-work of horn beam in the garden is, for the perplexed twining of the trees, very observable. There is a parterre which they call Paradise, in which is a pretty banqueting-house set over a cave, or cellar. All these gardens might be exceedingly improved, as being too narrow for such a palace.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jul 1662. So by water home, and after half an hour sitting talking with my wife, who was afeard I did intend to go with my Lord to fetch the Queen mother (age 52) over, in which I did clear her doubts, I went to bed by daylight, in order to my rising early to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1662. To my office, and by and by to our sitting; where much business. Mr. Coventry (age 34) took his leave, being to go with the Duke over for the Queen-Mother (age 52). I dined at home, and so to my Lord's, where I presented him with a true state of all his accounts to last Monday, being the 14th of July, which did please him, and to my great joy I continue in his great esteem and opinion. I this day took a general acquittance from my Lord to the same day. So that now I have but very few persons to deal withall for money in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1662. Among my workmen early: then to the office, and there I had letters from the Downs from Mr. Coventry (age 34); who tells me of the foul weather they had last Sunday, that drove them back from near Boulogne, whither they were going for the Queen (age 52), back again to the Downs, with the loss of their cables, sayles, and masts; but are all safe, only my Lord Sandwich (age 36), who went before with the yachts; they know not what is become of him, which do trouble me much; but I hope he got ashore before the storm begun; which God grant!

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1662. Lord's Day. At church alone in the pew in the morning. In the afternoon by water I carried my wife to Westminster, where she went to take leave of her father1, and I to walk in the Park, which is now every day more and more pleasant, by the new works upon it. Here meeting with Laud Crispe, I took him to the farther end, and sat under a tree in a corner, and there sung some songs, he singing well, but no skill, and so would sing false sometimes.

Note 1. Mrs. Pepys's father was Alexander Marchant, Sieur de St. Michel, a scion of a good family in Anjou. Having turned Huguenot at the age of twenty-one, his father disinherited him, and he was left penniless. He came over in the retinue of Henrietta Maria (age 52), on her marriage with Charles I, as one of her Majesty's gentlemen carvers, but the Queen (age 52) dismissed him on finding out he was a Protestant and did not go to mass. He described himself as being captain and major of English troops in Italy and Flanders.-Wheatley's Pepys and the World he lived in, pp. 6, 250. He was full of schemes; see September 22nd, 1663, for account of his patent for curing smoky chimneys.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jul 1662. So I took leave of her and walked to the waterside, and there took boat for the Tower; hearing that the Queen-Mother (age 52) is come this morning already as high as Woolwich, Kent [Map]: and that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) was with her; at which my heart was glad, and I sent the waterman, though yet not very certain of it, to my wife to carry news thereof to my Lady.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1662. His Majesty (age 32) going to sea to meet the Queen-Mother (age 52), now coming again for England, met with such ill weather as greatly endangered him. I went to Greenwich, to wait on the Queen (age 23), now landed.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Aug 1662. This afternoon, the Queen-Mother (age 52), with the Earl of St. Alban's (age 57) and many great ladies and persons, was pleased to honor my poor villa with her presence, and to accept of a collation. She was exceedingly pleased, and staid till very late in the evening.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Aug 1662. There were strong guards in the city this day, apprehending some tumults, many of the Presbyterian ministers not conforming. I dined with the Vice-Chamberlain, and then went to see the Queen-Mother (age 52), who was pleased to give me many thanks for the entertainment she received at my house, when she recounted to me many observable stories of the sagacity of some dogs she formerly had.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Aug 1662. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society went in a body to Whitehall [Map], to acknowledge his Majesty's (age 32) royal grace in granting our Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; when the President made an eloquent speech, to which his Majesty (age 32) gave a gracious reply and we all kissed his hand. Next day we went in like manner with our address to my Lord Chancellor (age 53), who had much promoted our patent: he received us with extraordinary favor. In the evening I went to the Queen-Mother's (age 52) Court, and had much discourse with her.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1662. After I had talked an hour or two with her I went and gave Mr. Hunt a short visit, he being at home alone, and thence walked homewards, and meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into Somersett House [Map]; and there carried me into the Queen-Mother's (age 52) presence-chamber, where she was with our own Queen (age 23) sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madam Castlemaine (age 21), and, which pleased me most, Mr. Crofts (age 13), the King's (age 32) bastard, a most pretty spark of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and is always with her; and, I hear, the Queens (age 23) both of them are mighty kind to him1.

Note 1. James (age 13), the son of Charles II (age 32) by Lucy Walter, daughter of William Walter, of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke. He was born April 9th, 1649, and landed in England with the Queen-Mother (age 52), July 28th, 1662, when he bore the name of Crofts, after Lord Crofts (age 51), his governor. He was created Duke of Monmouth, February 14th, 1663, and married Lady Anne Scott (age 11), daughter and heiress of Francis, second Earl of Buccleuch, on April 20th following. In 1673 he took the name of Scott, and was created Duke of Buccleuch.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1662. By and by in comes the King (age 32), and anon the Duke and his Duchess; so that, they being all together, was such a sight as I never could almost have happened to see with so much ease and leisure. They staid till it was dark, and then went away; the King (age 32) and his Queen (age 23), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) and young Crofts, in one coach and the rest in other, coaches. Here were great store of great ladies, but very few handsome. The King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) were very merry; and he would have made the Queen-Mother (age 52) believe that his Queen (age 23) was with child, and said that she said so. And the young Queen (age 23) answered, "You lye;" which was the first English word that I ever heard her say which made the King (age 32) good sport; and he would have taught her to say in English, "Confess and be hanged".

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1662. Thence to the Park, where by appointment I met my brother Tom (age 28) and Mr. Cooke, and there spoke about Tom's business, and to good satisfaction. The Queen (age 23) coming by in her coach, going to her chappell at St. James's' (the first time it hath been ready for her), I crowded after her, and I got up to the room where her closet is; and there stood and saw the fine altar, ornaments, and the fryers in their habits, and the priests come in with their fine copes and many other very fine things. I heard their musique too; which may be good, but it did not appear so to me, neither as to their manner of singing, nor was it good concord to my ears, whatever the matter was. The Queene (age 52) very devout: but what pleased me best was to see my dear Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), who, tho' a Protestant, did wait upon the Queen (age 23) to chappell.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1662. Up and to the office, where we sat till noon, and then to dinner, and Mr. Moore came and dined with me, and after dinner to look over my Brampton papers, which was a most necessary work, though it is not so much to my content as I could wish. I fear that it must be as it can, and not as I would. He being gone I to my workmen again, and at night by coach towards Whitehall took up Mr. Moore and set him at my Lord's, and myself, hearing that there was a play at the Cockpit [Map] (and my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who came to town last night, at it), I do go thither, and by very great fortune did follow four or five gentlemen who were carried to a little private door in a wall, and so crept through a narrow place and come into one of the boxes next the King's, but so as I could not see the King (age 32) or Queene (age 52), but many of the fine ladies, who yet are really not so handsome generally as I used to take them to be, but that they are finely dressed. Here we saw "The Cardinall", a tragedy I had never seen before, nor is there any great matter in it. The company that came in with me into the box, were all Frenchmen that could speak no English, but Lord! what sport they made to ask a pretty lady that they got among them that understood both French and English to make her tell them what the actors said.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Oct 1662. To the Queen-Mother's (age 52) Court, where her Majesty (age 32) related to us divers passages of her escapes during the Rebellion and wars in England.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Oct 1662. To Court in the evening where the Queen-Mother (age 52), the Queen-Consort (age 23), and his Majesty (age 32) being advertised of some disturbance, forbore to go to the Lord Mayor's show and feast appointed next day, the new Queen (age 23) not having yet seen that triumph.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1662. Thence to the office, where I sat all the morning, then dined; Mr. Moore with me, at home, my wife busy putting her furniture in order. Then he and I out, and he home and I to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45) to advise about treating with my uncle Thomas, and thence called at the Wardrobe on Mr. Moore again, and so home, and after doing much business at my office I went home and caused a new fashion knocker to be put on my door, and did other things to the putting my house in order, and getting my outward door painted, and the arch. This day I bought the book of country dances against my wife's woman Gosnell comes, who dances finely; and there meeting Mr. Playford (age 39) he did give me his Latin songs of Mr. Deering's, which he lately printed. This day Mr. Moore told me that for certain the Queen-Mother (age 52) is married to my Lord St. Albans (age 57), and he is like to be made Lord Treasurer (age 55). Newes that Sir J. Lawson (age 47) hath made up a peace now with Tunis and Tripoli, as well as Argiers, by which he will come home very highly honoured.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1662. I dined with the Master of the Mint (age 41), where was old Sir Ralph Freeman (age 73); passing my evening at the Queen-Mother's (age 53) Court; at night, saw acted "The Committee", a ridiculous play of Sir R. Howard (age 36), where the mimic, Lacy, acted the Irish footman to admiration.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1662. Thence to White Hall, where I carried my wife to see the Queen (age 53) in her presence-chamber; and the maydes of honour and the young Duke of Monmouth (age 13) playing at cards. Some of them, and but a few, were very pretty; though all well dressed in velvet gowns.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. My Chancellor (age 53) is threatened by people to be questioned, the next sitting of the Parliament, by some spirits that do not love to see him so great: but certainly he is a good servant to the King (age 32). The Queen-Mother (age 53) is said to keep too great a Court now; and her being married to my Lord St. Albans (age 57) is commonly talked of; and that they had a daughter between them in France, how true, God knows.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1663. Coming home I brought Mr. Pickering as far as the Temple [Map], who tells me the story is very true of a child being dropped at the ball at Court; and that the King (age 32) had it in his closett a week after, and did dissect it; and making great sport of it, said that in his opinion it must have been a month and three hours old; and that, whatever others think, he hath the greatest loss (it being a boy, as he says), that hath lost a subject by the business. He tells me, too, that the other story, of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) and Stuart's (age 15) marriage, is certain, and that it was in order to the King's coming to Stuart, as is believed generally. He tells me that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) is a Catholique, and how all the Court almost is changed to the worse since his coming in, they being afeard of him. And that the Queen-Mother's (age 53) Court is now the greatest of all; and that our own Queen (age 24) hath little or no company come to her, which I know also to be very true, and am sorry to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. So to bed. At Westminster Hall [Map], this day, I buy a book lately printed and licensed by Dr. Stradling (age 43), the Bishop of London's chaplin, being a book discovering the practices and designs of the papists, and the fears of some of our own fathers of the Protestant church heretofore of the return to Popery as it were prefacing it. The book is a very good book; but forasmuch as it touches one of the Queenmother's (age 53) fathers confessors, the Bishop, which troubles many good men and members of Parliament, hath called it in, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1663. Up very early and to my office, there preparing letters to my father of great import in the settling of our affairs, and putting him upon a way [of] good husbandry, I promising to make out of my own purse him up to £50 per annum, till either by my uncle Thomas's death or the fall of the Wardrobe place he be otherwise provided. That done I by water to the Strand, and there viewed the Queen-Mother's (age 53) works at Somersett House [Map], and thence to the new playhouse, but could not get in to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1663. Thence home and being 10 o'clock was forced to land beyond the Custom House, and so walked home and to my office, and having dispatched my great letters by the post to my father, of which I keep copies to show by me and for my future understanding, I went home to supper and bed, being late. The most observables in the making of money which I observed to-day, is the steps of their doing it.

Note 1. Before they do anything they assay the bullion, which is done, if it be gold, by taking an equal weight of that and of silver, of each a small weight, which they reckon to be six ounces or half a pound troy; this they wrap up in within lead. If it be silver, they put such a quantity of that alone and wrap it up in lead, and then putting them into little earthen cupps made of stuff like tobacco pipes, and put them into a burning hot furnace, where, after a while, the whole body is melted, and at last the lead in both is sunk into the body of the cupp, which carries away all the copper or dross with it, and left the pure gold and silver embodyed together, of that which hath both been put into the cupp together, and the silver alone in these where it was put alone in the leaden case. And to part the silver and the gold in the first experiment, they put the mixed body into a glass of aqua-fortis, which separates them by spitting out the silver into such small parts that you cannot tell what it becomes, but turns into the very water and leaves the gold at the bottom clear of itself, with the silver wholly spit out, and yet the gold in the form that it was doubled together in when it was a mixed body of gold and silver, which is a great mystery; and after all this is done to get the silver together out of the water is as strange. But the nature of the assay is thus: the piece of gold that goes into the furnace twelve ounces, if it comes out again eleven ounces, and the piece of silver which goes in twelve and comes out again eleven and two pennyweight, are just of the alloy of the standard of England. If it comes out, either of them, either the gold above eleven, as very fine will sometimes within very little of what it went in, or the silver above eleven and two pennyweight, as that also will sometimes come out eleven and ten penny weight or more, they are so much above the goodness of the standard, and so they know what proportion of worse gold and silver to put to such a quantity of the bullion to bring it to the exact standard. And on the contrary, [if] it comes out lighter, then such a weight is beneath the standard, and so requires such a proportion of fine metal to be put to the bullion to bring it to the standard, and this is the difference of good and bad, better and worse than the standard, and also the difference of standards, that of Seville being the best and that of Mexico worst, and I think they said none but Seville is better than ours.

Note 2. They melt it into long plates, which, if the mould do take ayre, then the plate is not of an equal heaviness in every part of it, as it often falls out.

Note 3. They draw these plates between rollers to bring them to an even thickness all along and every plate of the same thickness, and it is very strange how the drawing it twice easily between the rollers will make it as hot as fire, yet cannot touch it.

Note 4. They bring it to another pair of rollers, which they call adjusting it, which bring it to a greater exactness in its thickness than the first could be.

Note 5. They cut them into round pieces, which they do with the greatest ease, speed, and exactness in the world.

Note 6. They weigh these, and where they find any to be too heavy they file them, which they call sizeing them; or light, they lay them by, which is very seldom, but they are of a most exact weight, but however, in the melting, all parts by some accident not being close alike, now and then a difference will be, and, this filing being done, there shall not be any imaginable difference almost between the weight of forty of these against another forty chosen by chance out of all their heaps.

Note 7. These round pieces having been cut out of the plates, which in passing the rollers are bent, they are sometimes a little crooked or swelling out or sinking in, and therefore they have a way of clapping 100 or 2 together into an engine, which with a screw presses them so hard that they come out as flat as is possible.

Note 8. They blanch them.

Note 9. They mark the letters on the edges, which is kept as the great secret by Blondeau, who was not in the way, and so I did not speak with him to-day1.

Note 1. Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, C.B., F.R.S., chemist to the Royal Mint, refers to Pepys's Diary and to Blondeau's machine in his Cantor Lectures on "Alloys used for Coinage", printed in the "journal of the Society of Arts" (vol. xxxii.). He writes, "The hammer was still retained for coining in the Mint in the Tower of London, but the question of the adoption of the screw-press by the Moneyers appears to have been revived in 1649, when the Council of State had it represented to them that the coins of the Government might be more perfectly and beautifully done, and made equal to any coins in Europe. It was proposed to send to France for Peter Blondeau, who had invented and improved a machine and method for making all coins 'with the most beautiful polish and equality on the edge, or with any proper inscription or graining.' He came on the 3rd of September, and although a Committee of the Mint reported in favour of his method of coining, the Company of Moneyers, who appear to have boasted of the success of their predecessors in opposing the introduction of the mill and screw-press in Queen (age 24) Elizabeth's reign, prevented the introduction of the machinery, and consequently he did not produce pattern pieces until 1653.... It is certain that Blondeau did not invent, but only improved the method of coining by the screw-press, and I believe his improvements related chiefly to a method for 'rounding the pieces before they are sized, and in making the edges of the moneys with letters and graining,' which he undertook to reveal to the King (age 32). Special stress is laid on the engines wherewith the rims were marked, 'which might be kept secret among few men.' I cannot find that there is any record in the Paris mint of Blondeau's employment there, and the only reference to his invention in the Mint records of this country refers to the 'collars,' or perforated discs of metal surrounding the 'blank' while it was struck into a coin. There is, however, in the British Museum a MS. believed to be in Blondeau's hand, in which he claims his process, 'as a new invention, to make a handsome coyne, than can be found in all the world besides, viz., that shall not only be stamped on both flat sides, but shall even be marked with letters on the thickness of the brim.' The letters were raised. The press Blondeau used was, I believe, the ordinary screw-press, and I suppose that the presses drawn in Akerman's well-known plate of the coining-room of the Mint in the Tower, published in 1803 'Microcosm of London,' vol. ii., p. 202, if not actually the same machines, were similar to those erected in 1661-62 by Sir William Parkhurst and Sir Anthony St. Leger, wardens of the Mint, at a cost of £1400, Professor Roberts-Austen shows that Benvenuto Cellini used a similar press to that attributed to Blondeau, and he gives an illustration of this in his lecture (p. 810). In a letter to the editor the Professor writes: "Pepys's account of the operations of coining, and especially of assaying gold and silver, is very interesting and singularly accurate considering that he could not have had technical knowledge of the subject"..

Note 10. They mill them, that is, put on the marks on both sides at once with great exactness and speed, and then the money is perfect. The mill is after this manner: one of the dyes, which has one side of the piece cut, is fastened to a thing fixed below, and the other dye (and they tell me a payre of dyes will last the marking of £10,000 before it be worn out, they and all other their tools being made of hardened steel, and the Dutchman who makes them is an admirable artist, and has so much by the pound for every pound that is coyned to find a constant supply of dyes) to an engine above, which is moveable by a screw, which is pulled by men; and then a piece being clapped by one sitting below between the two dyes, when they meet the impression is set, and then the man with his finger strikes off the piece and claps another in, and then the other men they pull again and that is marked, and then another and another with great speed. They say that this way is more charge to the King (age 32) than the old way, but it is neater, freer from clipping or counterfeiting, the putting of the words upon the edges being not to be done (though counterfeited) without an engine of the charge and noise that no counterfeit will be at or venture upon, and it employs as many men as the old and speedier. They now coyne between £16 and £24,000 in a week. At dinner they did discourse very finely to us of the probability that there is a vast deal of money hid in the land, from this:-that in King Charles's time there was near ten millions of money coyned, besides what was then in being of King James's and Queene (age 53) Elizabeth's, of which there is a good deal at this day in being. Next, that there was but £750,000 coyned of the Harp and Crosse money2, and of this there was £500,000 brought in upon its being called in. And from very good arguments they find that there cannot be less of it in Ireland and Scotland than £100,000; so that there is but £150,000 missing; and of that, suppose that there should be not above 650,000 still remaining, either melted down, hid, or lost, or hoarded up in England, there will then be but £100,000 left to be thought to have been transported. Now, if £750,000 in twelve years' time lost but a £100,000 in danger of being transported, then within thirty-five years' time will have lost but £3,888,880 and odd pounds; and as there is £650,000 remaining after twelve years' time in England, so after thirty-five years' time, which was within this two years, there ought in proportion to have been resting £6,111,120 or thereabouts, beside King James's and Queen (age 24) Elizabeth's money. Now that most of this must be hid is evident, as they reckon, because of the dearth of money immediately upon the calling-in of the State's money, which was £500,000 that came in; and yet there was not any money to be had in this City, which they say to their own observation and knowledge was so. And therefore, though I can say nothing in it myself, I do not dispute it.

Note 2. The Commonwealth coins (stamped with the cross and harp, and the inscription, "The Commonwealth of England") were called in by proclamation, September, 1660, and when brought to the Mint an equal amount of lawful money was allowed for them, weight for weight, deducting only for the coinage (Ruding's "Annals of the Coinage", 18 19, vol. iii., p. 293). The harp was taken out of the naval flags in May, 1660.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jun 1663. Both at and after dinner we had great discourses of the nature and power of spirits, and whether they can animate dead bodies; in all which, as of the general appearance of spirits, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) is very scepticall. He says the greatest warrants that ever he had to believe any, is the present appearing of the Devil1 in Wiltshire, much of late talked of, who beats a drum up and down. There are books of it, and, they say, very true; but my Lord observes, that though he do answer to any tune that you will play to him upon another drum, yet one tune he tried to play and could not; which makes him suspect the whole; and I think it is a good argument. Sometimes they talked of handsome women, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) saying that there was no beauty like what he sees in the country-markets, and specially at Bury, in which I will agree with him that there is a prettiest women I ever saw. My Lord replied thus: "Sir John, what do you think of your neighbour's wife?" looking upon me. "Do you not think that he hath a great beauty to his wife? Upon my word he hath". Which I was not a little proud of.

Note 1. In 1664, there being a generall report all over the Kingdom of Mr. Monpesson his house being haunted, which hee himself affirming to the King (age 33) and Queene (age 53) to be true, the King (age 33) sent the Lord Falmouth, and the Queene (age 53) sent mee, to examine the truth of; but wee could neither see nor heare anything that was extraordinary; and about a year after, his Majesty told me that hee had discovered the cheat, and that Mr. Monpesson, upon his Majesty sending for him, confessed it to him. And yet Mr. Monpesson, in a printed letter, had afterwards the confidence to deny that hee had ever made any such confession" ("Letters of the Second Earl of Chesterfield", p. 24, 1829, 8vo.). Joseph Glanville published a relation of the famous disturbance at the house of Mr. Monpesson, at Tedworth, Wilts, occasioned by the beating of an invisible drum every night for a year. This story, which was believed at the time, furnished the plot for Addison's play of "The Drummer", or the "Haunted House". In the "Mercurius Publicus", April 16-23, 1663, there is a curious examination on this subject, by which it appears that one William Drury, of Uscut, Wilts, was the invisible drummer. B.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. Thence with Creed to hire a coach to carry us to Hide Park, to-day there being a general muster of the King's Guards, horse and foot: but they demand so high, that I, spying Mr. Cutler the merchant, did take notice of him, and he going into his coach, and telling me that he was going to shew a couple of Swedish strangers the muster, I asked and went along with him; where a goodly sight to see so many fine horses and officers, and the King (age 33), Duke (age 29), and others come by a-horseback, and the two Queens (age 24) in the Queen-Mother's (age 53) coach, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) not being there.And after long being there, I 'light, and walked to the place where the King (age 33), Duke, &c., did stand to see the horse and foot march by and discharge their guns, to show a French Marquisse (for whom this muster was caused) the goodness of our firemen; which indeed was very good, though not without a slip now and then; and one broadside close to our coach we had going out of the Park, even to the nearness as to be ready to burn our hairs. Yet methought all these gay men are not the soldiers that must do the King's business, it being such as these that lost the old King all he had, and were beat by the most ordinary fellows that could be.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1663. Thence by water to Whitehall, and so walked to St. James's, but missed Mr. Coventry (age 35). I met the Queen-Mother (age 53) walking in the Pell Mell [Map], led by my Lord St. Alban's (age 58). And finding many coaches at the Gate, I found upon enquiry that the [her daughter-in-law] Duchess (age 26) is brought to bed of a boy; and hearing that the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) are rode abroad with the Ladies of Honour to the Park, and seeing a great crowd of gallants staying here to see their return, I also staid walking up and down, and among others spying a man like Mr. Pembleton (though I have little reason to think it should be he, speaking and discoursing long with my Lord D'Aubigne (age 43)), yet how my blood did rise in my face, and I fell into a sweat from my old jealousy and hate, which I pray God remove from me.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1663. The Queene (age 53) continues lightheaded, but in hopes to recover. The plague is much in Amsterdam, and we in fears of it here, which God defend1. The Turke goes on mightily in the Emperor's dominions, and the Princes cannot agree among themselves how to go against him. Myself in pretty good health now, after being ill this month for a week together, but cannot yet come to.... well, being so costive, but for this month almost I have not had a good natural stool, but to this hour am forced to take physic every night, which brings me neither but one stool, and that in the morning as soon as I am up, all the rest of the day very costive. My father has been very ill in the country, but I hope better again now. I am lately come to a conclusion with Tom Trice to pay him £100, which is a great deale of money, but I hope it will save a great deale more. But thus everything lessens, which I have and am like to have, and therefore I must look about me to get something more than just my salary, or else I may resolve to live well and die a beggar.

Note 1. Defend is used in the sense of forbid. It is a Gallicism from the French "defendre"..

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1663. This morning Captain Cocke (age 46) did give me a good account of the Guinny trade. The Queene (age 53) is in a great way to recovery.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the King (age 33); and told me, that for certain the King (age 33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the King (age 33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) did use to do; to whom the King (age 33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the Queene (age 53) had died, he would have married her.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1663. Then, he being gone, to the office and there late setting down yesterday's remarkable discourses, and so home and to supper, late, and to bed. The Queene (age 53), I hear, is now very well again, and that she hath bespoke herself a new gowne.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1663. So home to supper to my wife, myself finding myself by cold got last night beginning to have some pain, which grieves me much in my mind to see to what a weakness I am come. This day being our Queene's (age 53) birthday, the guns of the Tower [Map] went all off; and in the evening the Lord Mayor (age 47) sent from church to church to order the constables to cause bonfires to be made in every streete, which methinks is a poor thing to be forced to be commanded. After a good supper with my wife, and hearing of the mayds read in the Bible, we to prayers, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1663. I took coach and back again to Whitehall, but there could not find him. But here I met Dr. Clerke, and did tell him my story of my health; how my pain comes to me now-a-days. He did write something for me which I shall take when there is occasion. I then fell to other discourse of Dr. Knapp, who tells me he is the King's physician, and is become a solicitor for places for people, and I am mightily troubled with him. He tells me he is the most impudent fellow in the world, that gives himself out to be the King's physician, but it is not so, but is cast out of the Court. From thence I may learn what impudence there is in the world, and how a man may be deceived in persons: Anon the King (age 33) and Duke (age 30) and [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse (age 26) came to dinner in the Vane-roome, where I never saw them before; but it seems since the tables are done, he dines there all together. The Queene (age 54) is pretty well, and goes out of her chamber to her little chappell in the house.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1663. This day I hear for certain that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) is turned Papist, which the Queene (age 54) for all do not much like, thinking that she do it not for conscience sake. I heard to-day of a great fray lately between Sir H. Finch's (age 41) coachman, who struck with his whip a coachman of the King's to the losse of one of his eyes; at which the people of the Exchange [Map] seeming to laugh and make sport with some words of contempt to him, my Lord Chamberlin (age 61) did come from the King (age 33) to shut up the 'Change [Map], and by the help of a justice, did it; but upon petition to the King (age 33) it was opened again.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. At the office I am well, though envied to the devil by Sir William Batten (age 62), who hates me to death, but cannot hurt me. The rest either love me, or at least do not show otherwise, though I know Sir W. Pen (age 42) to be a false knave touching me, though he seems fair. My father and mother well in the country; and at this time the young ladies of Hinchingbroke [Map] with them, their house having the small-pox in it. The Queene (age 54) after a long and sore sicknesse is become well again; and the King (age 33) minds his mistresse a little too much, if it pleased God! but I hope all things will go well, and in the Navy particularly, wherein I shall do my duty whatever comes of it.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1664. After doing business here, I to my Lord's again, and there spoke with him, and he seems now almost friends again as he used to be. Here meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he told me among other Court newes, how the Queene (age 54) is very well again, and the King (age 33) lay with her on Saturday night last; and that she speaks now very pretty English, and makes her sense out now and then with pretty phrazes: as among others this is mightily cried up; that, meaning to say that she did not like such a horse so well as the rest, he being too prancing and full of tricks, she said he did make too much vanity.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. Home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and I by water, which we have not done together many a day, that is not since last summer, but the weather is now very warm, and left her at Axe Yard [Map], and I to White Hall, and meeting Mr. Pierce walked with him an hour in the Matted Gallery; among other things he tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23) is not at all set by by the King (age 33), but that he do doat upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16) only; and that to the leaving of all business in the world, and to the open slighting of the Queene (age 54); that he values not who sees him or stands by him while he dallies with her openly; and then privately in her chamber below, where the very sentrys observe his going in and out; and that so commonly, that the Duke (age 30) or any of the nobles, when they would ask where the King (age 33) is, they will ordinarily say, "Is the King (age 33) above, or below?" meaning with Mrs. Stewart (age 16): that the King (age 33) do not openly disown my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23), but that she comes to Court; but that my Lord FitzHarding (age 34) and the Hambletons1, and sometimes my Lord Sandwich (age 38), they say, have their snaps at her. But he says my Lord Sandwich (age 38) will lead her from her lodgings in the darkest and obscurest manner, and leave her at the entrance into the Queene's (age 54) lodgings, that he might be the least observed; that the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) the King (age 33) do still doat on beyond measure, insomuch that the King (age 33) only, the Duke of York (age 30), and Prince Rupert (age 44), and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), do now wear deep mourning, that is, long cloaks, for the [her sister] Duchesse of Savoy; so that he mourns as a Prince of the Blood, while the Duke of York (age 30) do no more, and all the nobles of the land not so much; which gives great offence, and he says the Duke of York (age 30) do consider. But that the Duke of York (age 30) do give himself up to business, and is like to prove a noble Prince; and so indeed I do from my heart think he will. He says that it is believed, as well as hoped, that care is taken to lay up a hidden treasure of money by the King (age 33) against a bad day, pray God it be so! but I should be more glad that the King (age 33) himself would look after business, which it seems he do not in the least.

Note 1. The three brothers, George Hamilton, James Hamilton (age 34), and the Count Antoine Hamilton (age 18), author of the "Memoires de Grammont"..

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1664. Thence I to White Hall and there walked up and down talking with Mr. Pierce, who tells me of the King's giving of my Lord Fitz-Harding (age 34) two leases which belong indeed to the Queene (age 54), worth £20,000 to him; and how people do talk of it, and other things of that nature which I am sorry to hear. He and I walked round the Park with great pleasure, and back again, and finding no time to speak with my Lord of Albemarle (age 55), I walked to the 'Change [Map] and there met my wife at our pretty Doll's, and so took her home, and Creed also whom I met there, and sent her hose, while Creed and I staid on the 'Change [Map], and by and by home and dined, where I found an excellent mastiffe, his name Towser, sent me by a chyrurgeon.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. That my Lord Digby (age 51) did send to Lisbon a couple of priests, to search out what they could against the Chancellor (age 55) concerning the match, as to the point of his knowing before-hand that the Queene (age 54) was not capable of bearing children; and that something was given her to make her so. But as private as they were, when they came thither they were clapped up prisoners.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. That the King (age 33) hath done himself all imaginable wrong in the business of my Lord Antrim (age 54), in Ireland; who, though he was the head of rebels, yet he by his letter owns to have acted by his father's and mother's, and his commissions; but it seems the truth is, he hath obliged himself, upon the clearing of his estate, to settle it upon a daughter of the Queene-Mother's (age 25) (by my Lord Germin (age 58), I suppose,) in marriage, be it to whom the Queene (age 54) pleases; which is a sad story.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the King (age 33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (age 47), Buckingham (age 36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (age 34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old Duke of Buckingham could never get of the King (age 33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (age 46). He loves not the Queen (age 25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the King (age 33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the King (age 33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the King (age 33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the King (age 33)) be guarded, as the Queen-Mother's (age 54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.

Note 1. The tables at which the King (age 33) dined in public.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Feb 1664. Up and by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 42) to Charing Cross, and there I 'light, and to Sir Phillip Warwick (age 54) to visit him and discourse with him about navy business, which I did at large and he most largely with me, not only about the navy but about the general Revenue of England, above two hours, I think, many staying all the while without, but he seemed to take pains to let me either understand the affairs of the Revenue or else to be a witness of his pains and care in stating it. He showed me indeed many excellent collections of the State of the Revenue in former Kings and the late times, and the present. He showed me how the very Assessments between 1643 and 1659, which were taxes (besides Excise, Customes, Sequestrations, Decimations, King and Queene's (age 54) and Church Lands, or any thing else but just the Assessments), come to above fifteen millions. He showed me a discourse of his concerning the Revenues of this and foreign States. How that of Spayne was great, but divided with his kingdoms, and so came to little. How that of France did, and do much exceed ours before for quantity; and that it is at the will of the Prince to tax what he will upon his people; which is not here. That the Hollanders have the best manner of tax, which is only upon the expence of provisions, by an excise; and do conclude that no other tax is proper for England but a pound-rate, or excise upon the expence of provisions. He showed me every particular sort of payment away of money, since the King's coming in, to this day; and told me, from one to one, how little he hath received of profit from most of them; and I believe him truly. That the £1,200,000 which the Parliament with so much ado did first vote to give the King (age 33), and since hath been reexamined by several committees of the present Parliament, is yet above £300,000 short of making up really to the King (age 33) the £1,200,000, as by particulars he showed me1.

Note 1. A committee was appointed in September, 1660, to consider the subject of the King's revenue, and they "reported to the Commons that the average revenue of Charles I, from 1637 to 1641 inclusive, had been £895,819, and the average expenditure about £1,110,000. At that time prices were lower and the country less burthened with navy and garrisons, among which latter Dunkirk alone now cost more than £100,000 a year. It appeared, therefore, that the least sum to which the King (age 33) could be expected to 'conform his expense' was £1,200,000". Burnet writes, "It was believed that if two millions had been asked he could have carried it. But he (Clarendon) had no mind to put the King (age 33) out of the necessity of having recourse to his Parliament".-Lister's Life of Clarendon, vol. ii., pp. 22, 23.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. At Woolwich, Kent [Map] discoursed with him and Mr. Pett (age 53) about iron worke and other businesses, and then walked home, and at Greenwich, Kent [Map] did observe the foundation laying of a very great house for the King (age 33), which will cost a great deale of money1.

Note 1. Building by John Webb; now a part of Greenwich, Kent [Map] Hospital. Evelyn wrote in his Diary, October 19th, 1661: "I went to London to visite my Lord of Bristol (age 51), having been with Sir John Denham (age 49) (his Mates surveyor) to consult with him about the placing of his palace at Greenwich, Kent [Map], which I would have had built between the river and the Queene's (age 54) house, so as a large cutt should have let in ye Thames like a bay; but Sir John was for setting it in piles at the very brink of the water, which I did not assent to and so came away, knowing Sir John to be a better poet than architect, tho' he had Mr. Webb (Inigo Jones's man) to assist him".

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1664. This day the Houses of Parliament met; and the King (age 33) met them, with the Queene (age 54) with him. And he made a speech to them1 among other things, discoursing largely of the plots abroad against him and the peace of the Kingdom; and, among other things, that the dissatisfied party had great hopes upon the effect of the Act for a Triennial Parliament granted by his father, which he desired them to peruse, and, I think, repeal. So the Houses did retire to their own House, and did order the Act to be read to-morrow before them; and I suppose it will be repealed, though I believe much against the will of a good many that sit there.

Note 1. March 16th, 1663-64. This day both Houses met, and on the gist the King (age 33) opened the session with a speech from the throne, in which occurs this Passage: "I pray, Mr. Speaker, and you, gentlemen of the House of Commons, give that Triennial Bill once a reading in your house, and then, in God's name, do what you think fit for me and yourselves and the whole kingdom. I need not tell you how much I love parliaments. Never king was so much beholden to parliaments as I have been, nor do I think the crown can ever be happy without frequent parliaments" (Cobbett's "Parliamentary History", vol. iv., cc. 290, 291).

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1664. Back to White Hall, and in the Gallery met the Duke of Yorke (age 30) (I also saw the Queene (age 54) going to the Parke, and her Mayds of Honour: she herself looks ill, and methinks Mrs. Stewart (age 16) is grown fatter, and not so fair as she was); and he called me to him, and discoursed a good while with me; and after he was gone, twice or thrice staid and called me again to him, the whole length of the house: and at last talked of the Dutch; and I perceive do much wish that the Parliament will find reason to fall out with them.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1664. Up and to my office, whither by and by comes Mr. Cholmely (age 31), and staying till the rest of the company come he told me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 29) is turned out of the Court, not [to] return again. His fault, I perceive, was his pride, and most of all his affecting to seem great with the Queene (age 54) and it seems indeed had more of her eare than any body else, and would be with her talking alone two or three hours together; insomuch that the Lords about the King (age 33), when he would be jesting with them about their wives, would tell the King (age 33) that he must have a care of his wife too, for she hath now the gallant: and they say the King (age 33) himself did once ask Montagu (age 29) how his mistress (meaning the Queene (age 54)) did. He grew so proud, and despised every body, besides suffering nobody, he or she, to get or do any thing about the Queene (age 54), that they all laboured to do him a good turn. They also say that he did give some affront to the Duke of Monmouth (age 15), which the King (age 33) himself did speak to him of. But strange it is that this man should, from the greatest negligence in the world, come to be the miracle of attendance, so as to take all offices from everybody, either men or women, about the Queene (age 54). Insomuch that he was observed as a miracle, but that which is the worst, that which in a wise manner performed [would] turn to his greatest advantage, was by being so observed employed to his greatest wrong, the world concluding that there must be something more than ordinary to cause him to do this. So he is gone, nobody pitying but laughing at him; and he pretends only that he is gone to his father, that is sick in the country.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1664. Thence after sermon among the ladies on the Queene's (age 54) side; where I saw Mrs. Stewart (age 16), very fine and pretty, but far beneath my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23).

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1664. So abroad with my wife by coach to St. James's, to one Lady Poultny's, where I found my Lord, I doubt, at some vain pleasure or other. I did give him a short account of what I had done with Mr. Coventry (age 36), and so left him, and to my wife again in the coach, and with her to the Parke, but the Queene (age 54) being gone by the Parke to Kensington, we staid not but straight home and to supper (the first time I have done so this summer), and so to my office doing business, and then to my monthly accounts, where to my great comfort I find myself better than I was still the last month, and now come to £930.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and then home to dinner and to my office, where till 10 at night very busy, and so home to supper and to bed. My cozen, Thomas Pepys, was with me yesterday and I took occasion to speak to him about the bond I stand bound for my Lord Sandwich (age 38) to him in £1000. I did very plainly, obliging him to secrecy, tell him how the matter stands, yet with all duty to my Lord my resolution to be bound for whatever he desires me for him, yet that I would be glad he had any other security. I perceive by Mr. Moore today that he hath been with my Lord, and my Lord how he takes it I know not, but he is looking after other security and I am mighty glad of it. W. Howe was with me this afternoon, to desire some things to be got ready for my Lord against his going down to his ship, which will be soon; for it seems the King (age 34) and both the Queenes (age 54) intend to visit him. The Lord knows how my Lord will get out of this charge; for Mr. Moore tells me to-day that he is £10,000 in debt and this will, with many other things that daily will grow upon him (while he minds his pleasure as he do), set him further backward. But it was pretty this afternoon to hear W. Howe mince the matter, and say that he do believe that my Lord is in debt £2000 or £3000, and then corrected himself and said, No, not so, but I am afraid he is in debt £1000. I pray God gets me well rid of his Lordship as to his debt, and I care not.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1664. After dinner to White Hall; and there met with Mr. Pierce, and he showed me the Queene's (age 54) bed-chamber, and her closett, where she had nothing but some pretty pious pictures, and books of devotion; and her holy water at her head as she sleeps, with her clock by her bed-side, wherein a lamp burns that tells her the time of the night at any time.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1664. Thence with him to the Parke, and there met the Queene (age 54) coming from Chappell, with her Mayds of Honour, all in silver-lace gowns again: which is new to me, and that which I did not think would have been brought up again.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1664. Then to the making up my month's accounts, and find myself still a gainer and rose to £951, for which God be blessed. I end the month with my mind full of business and some sorrow that I have not exactly performed all my vowes, though my not doing is not my fault, and shall be made good out of my first leisure. Great doubts yet whether the Dutch wary go on or no. The Fleet ready in the Hope, of twelve sayle. The King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) go on board, they say, on Saturday next. Young children of my Lord Sandwich (age 38) gone with their mayds from my mother's, which troubles me, it being, I hear from Mr. Shepley, with great discontent, saying, that though they buy good meate, yet can never have it before it stinks, which I am ashamed of.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1664. After dinner I walked homeward, still doing business by the way, and at home find my wife this day of her owne accord to have lain out 25s. upon a pair of pendantes for her eares, which did vex me and brought both me and her to very high and very foule words from her to me, such as trouble me to think she should have in her mouth, and reflecting upon our old differences, which I hate to have remembered. I vowed to breake them, or that she should go and get what she could for them again. I went with that resolution out of doors; the poor wretch afterwards in a little while did send out to change them for her money again. I followed Besse her messenger at the 'Change [Map], and there did consult and sent her back; I would not have them changed, being satisfied that she yielded. So went home, and friends again as to that business; but the words I could not get out of my mind, and so went to bed at night discontented, and she came to bed to me, but all would not make me friends, but sleep and rise in the morning angry. This day the King (age 34) and the Queene (age 54) went to visit my Lord Sandwich (age 38) and the fleete, going forth in the Hope1.

Note 1. "Their Majesties were treated at Tilbury Hope by the Earl of Sandwich, returning the same day, abundantly satisfied both with the dutiful respects of that honourable person and with the excellent condition of all matters committed to his charge" ("The Newes", July 7th, 1664). B.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1664. To London, to see the event of the lottery which his Majesty (age 34) had permitted Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41) to set up for one day in the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map], at Whitehall; I gaining only a trifle, as well as did the King (age 34), Queen-Consort (age 25), and Queen-Mother (age 54), for near thirty lots; which was thought to be contrived very unhandsomely by the master of it, who was, in truth, a mere shark.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. Up, and a while to my office, and then home with Deane (age 30) till dinner, discoursing upon the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber in Clarendon Parke, and how to make a report therein without offending him; which at last I drew up, and hope it will please him. But I would to God neither I nor he ever had had any thing to have done with it! Dined together with a good pig, and then out by coach to White Hall, to the Committee for Fishing; but nothing done, it being a great day to-day there upon drawing at the Lottery of Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41). I got in and stood by the two Queenes [Note. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 25) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 54) ] and the [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse of Yorke (age 27), and just behind my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), whom I do heartily adore; and good sport it was to see how most that did give their ten pounds did go away with a pair of globes only for their lot, and one gentlewoman, one Mrs. Fish, with the only blanke. And one I staid to see drew a suit of hangings valued at £430, and they say are well worth the money, or near it. One other suit there is better than that; but very many lots of three and fourscore pounds. I observed the King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) did get but as poor lots as any else. But the wisest man I met with was Mr. Cholmley (age 31), who insured as many as would, from drawing of the one blank for 12d.; in which case there was the whole number of persons to one, which I think was three or four hundred. And so he insured about 200 for 200 shillings, so that he could not have lost if one of them had drawn it, for there was enough to pay the £10; but it happened another drew it, and so he got all the money he took.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1664. Thence to the Dockyarde, and there saw the new ship in very great forwardness, and so by water to Deptford, Kent [Map] a little, and so home and shifting myself, to the 'Change [Map], and there did business, and thence down by water to White Hall, by the way, at the Three Cranes, putting into an alehouse and eat a bit of bread and cheese. There I could not get into the Parke, and so was fain to stay in the gallery over the gate to look to the passage into the Parke, into which the King (age 34) hath forbid of late anybody's coming, to watch his coming that had appointed me to come, which he did by and by with his lady and went to Guardener's Lane, and there instead of meeting with one that was handsome and could play well, as they told me, she is the ugliest beast and plays so basely as I never heard anybody, so that I should loathe her being in my house. However, she took us by and by and showed us indeed some pictures at one Hiseman's (age 31), a picture drawer, a Dutchman, which is said to exceed Lilly (age 45), and indeed there is both of the Queenes (age 54) and Mayds of Honour (particularly Mrs. Stewart's (age 17) in a buff doublet like a soldier) as good pictures, I think, as ever I saw. The Queene (age 54) is drawn in one like a shepherdess, in the other like St. Katharin, most like and most admirably. I was mightily pleased with this sight indeed, and so back again to their lodgings, where I left them, but before I went this mare that carried me, whose name I know not but that they call him Sir John, a pitiful fellow, whose face I have long known but upon what score I know not, but he could have the confidence to ask me to lay down money for him to renew the lease of his house, which I did give eare to there because I was there receiving a civility from him, but shall not part with my money.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1664. Dined at the Lord Chancellor's (age 55), where was the Duke of Ormond (age 53), Earl of Cork, and Bishop of Winchester (age 66). After dinner, my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and his lady (age 47) carried me in their coach to see their palace (for he now lived at Worcester-House in the Strand), building at the upper end of St. James's street, and to project the garden. In the evening, I presented him with my book on Architecture, as before I had done to his Majesty (age 34) and the Queen-Mother (age 54). His lordship caused me to stay with him in his bedchamber, discoursing of several matters very late, even till he was going into his bed.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1664. Thence I with Mr. Gray in his coach to White Hall, but the King (age 34) and Duke being abroad, we returned to Somersett House [Map]. In discourse I find him a very worthy and studious gentleman in the business of trade, and among-other things he observed well to me, how it is not the greatest wits, but the steady man, that is a good merchant: he instanced in Ford and Cocke, the last of whom he values above all men as his oracle, as Mr. Coventry (age 36) do Mr. Jolliffe. He says that it is concluded among merchants, that where a trade hath once been and do decay, it never recovers again, and therefore that the manufacture of cloath of England will never come to esteem again; that, among other faults, Sir Richard Ford (age 50) cannot keepe a secret, and that it is so much the part of a merchant to be guilty of that fault that the Duke of Yoke is resolved to commit no more secrets to the merchants of the Royall Company; that Sir Ellis Layton is, for a speech of forty words, the wittiest man that ever he knew in his life, but longer he is nothing, his judgment being nothing at all, but his wit most absolute. At Somersett House [Map] he carried me in, and there I saw the Queene's (age 54) new rooms, which are most stately and nobly furnished; and there I saw her, and the Duke of Yorke (age 31) and [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse (age 27) were there. The Duke (age 31) espied me, and came to me, and talked with me a very great while about our contract this day with Sir W. Warren, and among other things did with some contempt ask whether we did except Polliards, which Sir W. Batten (age 63) did yesterday (in spite, as the Duke I believe by my Lord Barkely (age 62) do well enough know) among other things in writing propose.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1664. By and by the Queene (age 54) comes and her Mayds of Honour; one whereof, Mrs. Boynton, and the Duchesse of Buckingham (age 26), had been very siclee coming by water in the barge (the water being very rough); but what silly sport they made with them in very common terms, methought, was very poor, and below what people think these great people say and do.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1664. Her Majesty, the Queen-Mother (age 54), came across the gallery in Whitehall [Map] to give me thanks for my book of "Architecture", which I had presented to her, with a compliment that I did by no means deserve.

1664 Comet

Pepy's Diary. 17 Dec 1664. So home and to my office, where late, and then home to bed. Mighty talke there is of this Comet that is seen a'nights; and the King (age 34) and Queene (age 55) did sit up last night to see it, and did, it seems. And to-night I thought to have done so too; but it is cloudy, and so no stars appear. But I will endeavour it. Mr. Gray did tell me to-night, for certain, that the Dutch, as high as they seem, do begin to buckle; and that one man in this Kingdom did tell the King (age 34) that he is offered £40,000 to make a peace, and others have been offered money also. It seems the taking of their Bourdeaux fleete thus, arose from a printed Gazette of the Dutch's boasting of fighting, and having beaten the English: in confidence whereof (it coming to Bourdeaux), all the fleete comes out, and so falls into our hands.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. I dined with Sir Robert Paston (age 34), since Earl of Yarmouth, and saw the [her illegitimate half-brother] Duke of Verneuille (age 63), base brother to the Queen-Mother (age 55), a handsome old man, a great hunter.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1665. So home, calling at Somersett House [Map], where all are packing up too: the Queene-Mother (age 55) setting out for France this day to drink Bourbon waters this year, she being in a consumption; and intends not to come till winter come twelvemonths2. So by coach home, where at the office all the morning, and at noon Mrs. Hunt dined with us. Very merry, and she a very good woman. To the office, where busy a while putting some things in my office in order, and then to letters till night. About 10 a'clock home, the days being sensibly shorter before I have once kept a summer's day by shutting up office by daylight; but my life hath been still as it was in winter almost. But I will for a month try what I can do by daylight. So home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. According to the Bills of Mortality, the total number of deaths in London for the week ending June 27th was 684, of which number 267 were deaths from the plague. The number of deaths rose week by week until September 19th, when the total was 8,297, and the deaths from the plague 7,165. On September 26th the total had fallen to 6,460, and deaths from the plague to 5,533 The number fell gradually, week by week, till October 31st, when the total was 1,388, and deaths from the plague 1,031. On November 7th there was a rise to 1,787 and 1,414 respectively. On November 14th the numbers had gone down to 1,359 and 1,050 respectively. On December 12th the total had fallen to 442, and deaths from the plague to 243. On December 19th there was a rise to 525 and 281 respectively. The total of burials in 1665 was 97,506, of which number the plague claimed 68,596 victims.

Note 2. The Queen-Mother (age 55) never came to England again. She retired to her chateau at Colombes, near Paris, where she died in August, 1669, after a long illness; the immediate cause of her death being an opiate ordered by her physicians. She was buried, September 12th, in the church of St. Denis. Her funeral sermon was preached by Bossuet. Sir John Reresby speaks of Queen Henrietta Maria (age 26) in high terms. He says that in the winter, 1659-60, although the Court of France was very splendid, there was a greater resort to the Palais Royal, "the good humour and wit of our Queen Mother (age 55), and the beauty of the [her daughter] Princess Henrietta (age 21) her daughter, giving greater invitation than the more particular humour of the French Queen (age 26), being a Spaniard". In another place he says: "Her majesty had a great affection for England, notwithstanding the severe usage she and hers had received from it. Her discourse was much with the great men and ladies of France in praise of the people and of the country; of their courage, generosity, good nature; and would excuse all their miscarriages in relation to unfortunate effects of the late war, as if it were a convulsion of some desperate and infatuated persons, rather than from the genius and temper of the Kingdom" ("Memoirs of Sir John Reresby", ed. Cartwright, pp. 43, 45).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. So dispatched all my business, having assurance of continuance of all hearty love from Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and so we staid and saw the King (age 35) and Queene (age 55) set out toward Salisbury, and after them the Duke (age 31) and [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse (age 28), whose hands I did kiss. And it was the first time I did ever, or did see any body else, kiss her hand, and it was a most fine white and fat hand. But it was pretty to see the young pretty ladies dressed like men, in velvet coats, caps with ribbands, and with laced bands, just like men. Only the Duchesse (age 28) herself it did not become.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1665. And my Lord Mayor commands people to be within at nine at night all, as they say, that the sick may have liberty to go abroad for ayre. There is one also dead out of one of our ships at Deptford, Kent [Map], which troubles us mightily; the Providence fire-ship, which was just fitted to go to sea. But they tell me to-day no more sick on board. And this day W. Bodham tells me that one is dead at Woolwich, Kent [Map], not far from the Rope-yard [Map]. I am told, too, that a wife of one of the groomes at Court is dead at Salsbury; so that the King (age 35) and Queene (age 55) are speedily to be all gone to Milton. God preserve us!

Pepy's Diary. 13 Sep 1665. After dinner we officers of the Navy stepped aside to read some letters and consider some business, and so in again. I was only pleased at a very fine picture of the Queene-Mother (age 55), when she was young, by Van-Dike; a very good picture, and a lovely sweet face.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. Then to the office, and out with Sir W. Warren for discourse by coach to White Hall, thinking to have spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), but did not, and to see the Queene (age 56), but she comes but to Hampton Court [Map] to-night. Back to my office and there late, and so home to supper and bed. I walked a good while to-night with Mr. Hater in the garden, talking about a husband for my sister, and reckoning up all our clerks about us, none of which he thinks fit for her and her portion. At last I thought of young Gawden, and will thinke of it again.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1666. After dinner they gone, and it being a brave day, I walked to White Hall, where the Queene (age 56) and ladies are all come: I saw some few of them, but not the Queene (age 56), nor any of the great beauties. I endeavoured to have seen my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), who come to town yesterday, but I could not.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. Thence walked with Fenn down to White Hall, and there saw the Queene (age 56) at cards with many ladies, but none of our beauties were there. But glad I was to see the Queene (age 56) so well, who looks prettily; and methinks hath more life than before, since it is confessed of all that she miscarryed lately; Dr. Clerke telling me yesterday at White Hall that he had the membranes and other vessels in his hands which she voided, and were perfect as ever woman's was that bore a child.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1666. This being done, to the King's house, and to observe the neatness and contrivance of the house and gates: it is the most romantique castle that is in the world. But, Lord! the prospect that is in the balcone in the Queene's (age 56) lodgings, and the terrace and walk, are strange things to consider, being the best in the world, sure. Infinitely satisfied I and my wife with all this, she being in all points mightily pleased too, which added to my pleasure; and so giving a great deal of money to this and that man and woman, we to our taverne, and there dined, the Doctor with us; and so took coach and away to Eton [Map], the Doctor (age 60) with me.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Apr 1666. Thence meeting Dr. Allen, the physician, he and I and another walked in the Parke, a most pleasant warm day, and to the Queene's chappell; where I do not so dislike the musique. Here I saw on a post an invitation to all good Catholiques to pray for the soul of such a one departed this life. The Queene (age 56), I hear, do not yet hear of the death of her mother, she being in a course of physique, that they dare not tell it her.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. He tells me further, how the Duke of Yorke (age 32) is wholly given up to his new mistresse, my Lady Denham (age 26), going at noon-day with all his gentlemen with him to visit her in Scotland Yard; she declaring she will not be his mistresse, as Mrs. Price (age 29), to go up and down the Privy-stairs, but will be owned publicly; and so she is. Mr. Bruncker (age 39), it seems, was the pimp to bring it about, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25), who designs thereby to fortify herself by the Duke; there being a falling-out the other day between the King (age 36) and her: on this occasion, the Queene (age 56), in ordinary talke before the ladies in her drawing-room, did say to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) that she feared the King (age 36) did take cold, by staying so late abroad at her house. She answered before them all, that he did not stay so late abroad with her, for he went betimes thence (though he do not before one, two, or three in the morning), but must stay somewhere else. The King (age 36) then coming in and overhearing, did whisper in the eare aside, and told her she was a bold impertinent woman, and bid her to be gone out of the Court, and not come again till he sent for, her; which she did presently, and went to a lodging in the Pell Mell [Map], and kept there two or three days, and then sent to the King (age 36) to know whether she might send for her things away out of her house. The King (age 36) sent to her, she must first come and view them: and so she come, and the King (age 36) went to her, and all friends again. He tells me she did, in her anger, say she would be even with the King (age 36), and print his letters to her. So putting all together, we are and are like to be in a sad condition. We are endeavouring to raise money by borrowing it of the City; but I do not think the City will lend a farthing.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1666. Thence walked through the House, where most people mighty hush and, methinks, melancholy. I see not a smiling face through the whole Court; and, in my conscience, they are doubtfull of the conduct again of the Generalls, and I pray God they may not make their fears reasonable. Sir Richard Fanshaw (deceased) is lately dead at Madrid. Guyland is lately overthrowne wholly in Barbary by the King (age 36) of Tafiletta. The fleete cannot yet get clear of the River, but expect the first wind to be out, and then to be sure they fight. The Queene (age 56) and Maids of Honour are at Tunbridge [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1666. So home, calling at my little mercer's in Lombard Street [Map], who hath the pretty wench, like the old Queene (age 56), and there cheapened some stuffs to hang my roome, that I intend to turn into a closett.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. By and by the House rose, and then we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and walked in the Exchequer Court, discoursing of businesses. Among others, I observing to him how friendly Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had carried himself to him in these late inquiries, when, if he had borne him any spleen, he could have had what occasion he pleased offered him, he did confess he found the same thing, and would thanke him for it. I did give him some other advices, and so away with him to his lodgings at White Hall to dinner, where my Baroness Carteret (age 64) is, and mighty kind, both of them, to me. Their son and my Lady Jemimah will be here very speedily. She tells me the ladies are to go into a new fashion shortly, and that is, to wear short coats, above their ancles; which she and I do not like, but conclude this long trayne to be mighty graceful. But she cries out of the vices of the Court, and how they are going to set up plays already; and how, the next day after the late great fast, the [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse of York (age 29) did give the King (age 36) and Queene (age 56) a play. Nay, she told me that they have heretofore had plays at Court the very nights before the fast for the death of the late King: She do much cry out upon these things, and that which she believes will undo the whole nation; and I fear so too.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1666. Thence, with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), home to dinner, with him, my Lady and Mr. Ashburnham (age 62), the Cofferer. Here they talk that the Queene (age 56) hath a great mind to alter her fashion, and to have the feet seen, which she loves mightily; and they do believe that it [will] come into it in a little time. Here I met with the King's declaration about his proceedings with the King of Denmarke (age 57), and particularly the business of Bergen; but it is so well writ, that, if it be true, the King of Denmarke (age 57) is one of the most absolute wickednesse in the world for a person of his quality.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1666. After dinner I out with my wife to Mrs. Pierce's, where she hath not been a great while, from some little unkindness of my wife's to her when she was last here, but she received us with mighty respect and discretion, and was making herself mighty fine to go to a great ball to-night at Court, being the Queene's (age 56) birthday; so the ladies for this one day do wear laces, but to put them off again to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1666. By and by the King (age 36) and Queene (age 56), Duke (age 33) and [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse (age 29), and all the great ladies of the Court; which, indeed, was a fine sight. But the play being "Love in a Tub", a silly play, and though done by the Duke's people, yet having neither Betterton (age 31) nor his wife (age 29), and the whole thing done ill, and being ill also, I had no manner of pleasure in the play. Besides, the House, though very fine, yet bad for the voice, for hearing. The sight of the ladies, indeed, was exceeding noble; and above all, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25). The play done by ten o'clock. I carried them all home, and then home myself, and well satisfied with the sight, but not the play, we with great content to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1666. Presently after the King (age 36) was come in, he took the Queene (age 56), and about fourteen more couple there was, and began the Bransles. As many of the men as I can remember presently, were, the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 46), Duke of Monmouth (age 17), Duke of Buckingham (age 38), Lord Douglas (age 20), Mr. [George] Hamilton (age 59), Colonell Russell (age 46), Mr. Griffith, Lord Ossory (age 32), Lord Rochester (age 19); and of the ladies, the Queene (age 56), [her daughter-in-law] Duchess of York (age 29), Mrs. Stewart (age 19), Duchess of Monmouth (age 15), Lady Essex Howard, Mrs. Temples (age 17), Swedes Embassadress, Lady Arlington (age 32); Lord George Barkeley's daughter (age 16) [Note. Assumed Elizabeth], and many others I remember not; but all most excellently dressed in rich petticoats and gowns, and dyamonds, and pearls.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1666. This being St. Catherine's day, the Queene (age 57) was at masse by seven o'clock this morning; and Mr. Ashburnham (age 62) do say that he never saw any one have so much zeale in his life as she hath: and, the question being asked by my Baroness Carteret (age 64), much beyond the bigotry that ever the old Queen-Mother (age 57) had.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1666. So to the 'Change [Map], and went to the Upper 'Change [Map], which is almost as good as the old one; only shops are but on one side. Then home to the office, and did business till my eyes began to be bad, and so home to supper. My people busy making mince pies, and so to bed. No newes yet of our Gottenburgh fleete; which makes [us] have some fears, it being of mighty concernment to have our supply of masts safe. I met with Mr. Cade to-night, my stationer; and he tells me that he hears for certain that the Queene-Mother (age 57) is about and hath near finished a peace with France, which, as a Presbyterian, he do not like, but seems to fear it will be a means to introduce Popery.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. This evening, going to the Queen's (age 28) side to see the ladies, I did find the Queene (age 57), the [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse of York (age 29), and another or two, at cards, with the room full of great ladies and men; which I was amazed at to see on a Sunday, having not believed it; but, contrarily, flatly denied the same a little while since to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 49)? I did this day, going by water, read the answer to "The Apology for Papists", which did like me mightily, it being a thing as well writ as I think most things that ever I read in my life, and glad I am that I read it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1667. So away, and by coach going home saw Sir G. Carteret (age 57) going towards White Hall. So 'light and by water met him, and with him to the King's little chapel; and afterwards to see the King (age 36) heal the King's Evil, wherein no pleasure, I having seen it before; and then to see him and the Queene (age 57) and Duke of York (age 33) and his [her daughter-in-law] wife (age 30), at dinner in the Queene's (age 57) lodgings; and so with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to his lodgings to dinner; where very good company; and after dinner he and I to talk alone how things are managed, and to what ruin we must come if we have not a peace. He did tell me one occasion, how Sir Thomas Allen (age 34), which I took for a man of known courage and service on the King's side, was tried for his life in Prince Rupert's (age 47) fleete, in the late times, for cowardice, and condemned to be hanged, and fled to Jersey; where Sir G. Carteret (age 57) received him, not knowing the reason of his coming thither: and that thereupon Prince Rupert (age 47) wrote to the Queen-Mother (age 57) his dislike of Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) receiving a person that stood condemned; and so Sir G. Carteret (age 57) was forced to bid him betake himself to some other place. This was strange to me.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Apr 1667. After dinner I to the office, where busy till evening, and then with Balty (age 27) to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) office, and there with Mr. Fenn despatched the business of Balty's (age 27) £1500 he received for the contingencies of the fleete, whereof he received about £253 in pieces of eight at a goldsmith's there hard by, which did puzzle me and him to tell; for I could not tell the difference by sight, only by bigness, and that is not always discernible, between a whole and half-piece and quarterpiece. Having received this money I home with Balty (age 27) and it, and then abroad by coach with my wife and set her down at her father's, and I to White Hall, thinking there to have seen the Duchess of Newcastle's (age 44) coming this night to Court, to make a visit to the Queene (age 57), the King (age 36) having been with her yesterday, to make her a visit since her coming to town. The whole story of this lady is a romance, and all she do is romantick. Her footmen in velvet coats, and herself in an antique dress, as they say; and was the other day at her own play, "The Humourous Lovers"; the most ridiculous thing that ever was wrote, but yet she and her Lord mightily pleased with it; and she, at the end, made her respects to the players from her box, and did give them thanks. There is as much expectation of her coming to Court, that so people may come to see her, as if it were the Queen of Sheba; but I lost my labour, for she did not come this night.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1667. Lay long in bed, and by and by called up by Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that my Lord Middleton (age 59) is for certain chosen Governor of Tangier; a man of moderate understanding, not covetous, but a soldier of fortune, and poor. Here comes Mr. Sanchy with an impertinent business to me of a ticket, which I put off. But by and by comes Dr. Childe (age 61) by appointment, and sat with me all the morning making me bases and inward parts to several songs that I desired of him, to my great content. Then dined, and then abroad by coach, and I set him down at Hatton Garden, and I to the King's house by chance, where a new play: so full as I never saw it; I forced to stand all the while close to the very door till I took cold, and many people went away for want of room. The King (age 36), and Queene (age 57), and Duke of York (age 33) and [her daughter-in-law] Duchess (age 30) there, and all the Court, and Sir W. Coventry (age 39). The play called "The Change of Crownes"; a play of Ned Howard's (age 42), the best that ever I saw at that house, being a great play and serious; only Lacy (age 52) did act the country-gentleman come up to Court, who do abuse the Court with all the imaginable wit and plainness about selling of places, and doing every thing for money. The play took very much.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Apr 1667. Visited again the Duke of Newcastle (age 74), with whom I had been acquainted long before in France, where the Duchess (age 44) had obligation to my wife's (age 32) mother for her marriage there; she was sister to Lord Lucas (age 60), and maid of honor then to the Queen-Mother (age 57); married in our chapel at Paris. My wife (age 32) being with me, the Duke (age 74) and Duchess (age 44) both would needs bring her to the very Court.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. He told me the whole story of Mrs. Stewart's (age 19) going away from Court, he knowing her well; and believes her, up to her leaving the Court, to be as virtuous as any woman in the world: and told me, from a Lord that she told it to but yesterday, with her own mouth, and a sober man, that when the Duke of Richmond (age 28) did make love to her, she did ask the King (age 36), and he did the like also; and that the King (age 36) did not deny it, and [she] told this Lord that she was come to that pass as to resolve to have married any gentleman of £1500 a-year that would have had her in honour; for it was come to that pass, that she could not longer continue at Court without prostituting herself to the King (age 36)1, whom she had so long kept off, though he had liberty more than any other had, or he ought to have, as to dalliance2. She told this Lord that she had reflected upon the occasion she had given the world to think her a bad woman, and that she had no way but to marry and leave the Court, rather in this way of discontent than otherwise, that the world might see that she sought not any thing but her honour; and that she will never come to live at Court more than when she comes to town to come to kiss the Queene (age 57) her Mistress's hand: and hopes, though she hath little reason to hope, she can please her Lord so as to reclaim him, that they may yet live comfortably in the country on his estate. She told this Lord that all the jewells she ever had given her at Court, or any other presents, more than the King's allowance of £700 per annum out of the Privypurse for her clothes, were, at her first coming the King (age 36) did give her a necklace of pearl of about £1100 and afterwards, about seven months since, when the King (age 36) had hopes to have obtained some courtesy of her, the King (age 36) did give her some jewells, I have forgot what, and I think a pair of pendants. The Duke of York (age 33), being once her Valentine, did give her a jewell of about £800; and my Lord Mandeville (age 33), her Valentine this year, a ring of about £300; and the King of France (age 28) would have had her mother, who, he says, is one of the most cunning women in the world, to have let her stay in France, saying that he loved her not as a mistress, but as one that he could marry as well as any lady in France; and that, if she might stay, for the honour of his Court he would take care she should not repent. But her mother, by command of the Queen-Mother (age 57), thought rather to bring her into England; and the King of France (age 28) did give her a jewell: so that Mr. Evelyn (age 46) believes she may be worth in jewells about £6000, and that that is all that she hath in the world: and a worthy woman; and in this hath done as great an act of honour as ever was done by woman.

Note 1. Even at a much later time Mrs. GoDolphin well resolved "not to talk foolishly to men, more especially the King (age 36)",-"be sure never to talk to the King (age 36)" ("Life", by Evelyn). These expressions speak volumes as to Charles's character. B.

Note 2. Evelyn evidently believed the Duchess of Richmond to be innocent; and his testimony, coupled with her own declaration, ought to weigh down all the scandal which Pepys reports from other sources. B.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1667. I have this morning good news from Gibson; three letters from three several stages, that he was safe last night as far as Royston [Map], at between nine and ten at night. The dismay that is upon us all, in the business of the Kingdom and Navy at this day, is not to be expressed otherwise than by the condition the citizens were in when the City was on fire, nobody knowing which way to turn themselves, while every thing concurred to greaten the fire; as here the easterly gale and spring-tides for coming up both rivers, and enabling them to break the chaine. D. Gauden did tell me yesterday, that the day before at the Council they were ready to fall together by the ears at the Council-table, arraigning one another of being guilty of the counsel that brought us into this misery, by laying up all the great ships. Mr. Hater tells me at noon that some rude people have been, as he hears, at my Chancellor's (age 58), where they have cut down the trees before his house and broke his windows; and a gibbet either set up before or painted upon his gate, and these three words writ: "Three sights to be seen; Dunkirke, Tangier, and a barren Queene (age 57)"1.

Note 1. "Pride, Lust, Ambition, and the People's Hate, the Kingdom's broker, ruin of the State, Dunkirk's sad loss, divider of the fleet, Tangier's compounder for a barren sheet This shrub of gentry, married to the crown, His daughter to the heir, is tumbled down". Poems on State Affairs, vol. i., p. 253. B.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1667. Home, and to dinner, and by and by comes Mr. Pierce, who is interested in the Panther, for some advice, and then comes Creed, and he and I spent the whole afternoon till eight at night walking and talking of sundry things public and private in the garden, but most of all of the unhappy state of this nation at this time by the negligence of the King (age 37) and his Council. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is, it seems, set at liberty, without any further charge against him or other clearing of him, but let to go out; which is one of the strangest instances of the fool's play with which all publick things are done in this age, that is to be apprehended. And it is said that when he was charged with making himself popular-as indeed he is, for many of the discontented Parliament, Sir Robert Howard (age 41) and Sir Thomas Meres, and others, did attend at the Council-chamber when he was examined-he should answer, that whoever was committed to prison by my Chancellor (age 58) or my Lord Arlington (age 49), could not want being popular. But it is worth considering the ill state a Minister of State is in, under such a Prince as ours is; for, undoubtedly, neither of those two great men would have been so fierce against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Council-table the other day, had they [not] been assured of the King's good liking, and supporting them therein: whereas, perhaps at the desire of my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who, I suppose, hath at last overcome the King (age 37), the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is well received again, and now these men delivered up to the interest he can make for his revenge. He told me over the story of Mrs. Stewart (age 20), much after the manner which I was told it long since, and have entered it in this book, told me by Mr. Evelyn (age 46); only he says it is verily believed that the King (age 37) did never intend to marry her to any but himself, and that the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) were jealous of it; and that Mrs. Stewart (age 20) might be got with child by the King (age 37), or somebody else, and the King (age 37) own a marriage before his contract, for it is but a contract, as he tells me, to this day, with the Queene (age 57), and so wipe their noses of the Crown; and that, therefore, the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) did do all they could to forward the match with my Lord Duke of Richmond (age 28), that she might be married out of the way; but, above all, it is a worthy part that this good lady hath acted.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1667. He tells me that the King (age 37) and Court were never in the world so bad as they are now for gaming, swearing, whoring, and drinking, and the most abominable vices that ever were in the world; so that all must come to nought. He told me that Sir G. Carteret (age 57) was at this end of the town; so I went to visit him in Broad Street; and there he and I together: and he is mightily pleased with my Lady Jem's having a son; and a mighty glad man he is. He [Sir George Carteret (age 57)] tells me, as to news, that the peace is now confirmed, and all that over. He says it was a very unhappy motion in the House the other day about the land-army; for, whether the King (age 37) hath a mind of his own to do the thing desired or no, his doing it will be looked upon as a thing done only in fear of the Parliament. He says that the Duke of York (age 33) is suspected to be the great man that is for raising of this army, and bringing things to be commanded by an army; but he believes that he is wronged, and says that he do know that he is wronged therein. He do say that the Court is in a way to ruin all for their pleasures; and says that he himself hath once taken the liberty to tell the King (age 37) the necessity of having, at least, a show of religion in the Government, and sobriety; and that it was that, that did set up and keep up Oliver, though he was the greatest rogue in the world, and that it is so fixed in the nature of the common Englishman that it will not out of him. He tells me that while all should be labouring to settle the Kingdom, they are at Court all in factions, some for and others against my Chancellor (age 58), and another for and against another man, and the King (age 37) adheres to no man, but this day delivers himself up to this, and the next to that, to the ruin of himself and business; that he is at the command of any woman like a slave, though he be the best man to the Queene (age 57) in the world, with so much respect, and never lies a night from her: but yet cannot command himself in the presence of a woman he likes. Having had this discourse, I parted, and home to dinner, and thence to the office all the afternoon to my great content very busy. It raining this day all day to our great joy, it having not rained, I think, this month before, so as the ground was everywhere so burned and dry as could be; and no travelling in the road or streets in London, for dust. At night late home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1667. Thence, it being too soon, I to Westminster Hall [Map], it being now about 7 at night, and there met Mr. Gregory, my old acquaintance, an understanding gentleman; and he and I walked an hour together, talking of the bad prospect of the times; and the sum of what I learn from him is this: That the King (age 37) is the most concerned in the world against the Chancellor (age 58), and all people that do not appear against him, and therefore is angry with the Bishops, having said that he had one Bishop on his side (Crofts ), and but one: that Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) are now his only Cabinet Council1 and that, before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, Buckingham (age 39) was admitted to the King (age 37) of his Cabinet, and there stayed with him several hours, and the Duke of York (age 34) shut out. That it is plain that there is dislike between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34), and that it is to be feared that the House will go so far against the Chancellor (age 58), that they must do something to undo the Duke of York (age 34), or will not think themselves safe. That this Lord Vaughan (age 28), that is so great against the Chancellor (age 58), is one of the lewdest fellows of the age, worse than Sir Charles Sidly (age 28); and that he was heard to swear, God damn him, he would do my Lord Clarendon's (age 58) business. That he do find that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) hath more friends in both Houses than he believes he would have, by reason that they do see what are the hands that pull him down; which they do not like. That Harry Coventry (age 48) was scolded at by the King (age 37) severely the other day; and that his answer was that, if he must not speak what he thought in this business in Parliament, he must not come thither. And he says that by this very business Harry Coventry (age 48) hath got more fame and common esteem than any gentleman in England hath at this day, and is an excellent and able person. That the King (age 37), who not long ago did say of Bristoll (age 55), that he was a man able in three years to get himself a fortune in any kingdom in the world, and lose all again in three months, do now hug him, and commend his parts every where, above all the world. How fickle is this man [the King (age 37)], and how unhappy we like to be! That he fears some furious courses will be taken against the Duke of York (age 34); and that he hath heard that it was designed, if they cannot carry matters against the Chancellor (age 58), to impeach the Duke of York (age 34) himself, which God forbid! That Sir Edward Nicholas (age 74), whom he served while Secretary, is one of the best men in the world, but hated by the Queen-Mother (age 57), for a service he did the old King against her mind and her favourites; and that she and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) did make the King (age 37) to lay him aside: but this man says that he is one of the most perfect heavenly and charitable men in the whole world.

Note 1. The term Cabinet Council, as stated by Clarendon, originated thus, in 1640: "The bulk and burden of the state affairs lay principally upon the shoulders of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Strafford, and the Lord Cottington; some others being joined to them, as the Earl of Northumberland for ornament, the Bishop of London for his place, the two Secretaries, Sir H. Vane and Sir Francis Windebank, for service and communication of intelligence: only the Marquis of Hamilton, indeed, by his skill and interest, bore as great a part as he had a mind to do, and had the skill to meddle no further than he had a mind. These persons made up the committee of state, which was reproachfully after called the junto, and enviously then in the Court the Cabinet Council" ("History of the Rebellion", vol. i., p. 211, edit. 1849).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1667. At the office all the morning. At noon to dinner, and presently with my wife abroad, whom and her girle I leave at Unthanke's, and so to White Hall in expectation of waiting on the Duke of York (age 34) to-day, but was prevented therein, only at Mr. Wren's chamber there I hear that the House of Lords did send down the paper which my Chancellor (age 58) left behind him, directed to the Lords, to be seditious and scandalous; and the Commons have voted that it be burned by the hands of the hangman, and that the King (age 37) be desired to agree to it. I do hear, also, that they have desired the King (age 37) to use means to stop his escape out of the nation. Here I also heard Mr. Jermin (age 31), who was there in the chamber upon occasion of Sir Thomas Harvy's (age 42) telling him of his brother's (age 34) having a child, and thereby taking away his hopes (that is, Mr. Jermin's) of £2000 a year. He swore, God damn him, he did not desire to have any more wealth than he had in the world, which indeed is a great estate, having all his uncle's, my Lord St. Alban's (age 62), and my Lord hath all the Queen-Mother's (age 58). But when Sir Thos. Harvy told him that "hereafter you will wish it more";-"By God", answers he, "I won't promise what I shall do hereafter". Thence into the House, and there spied a pretty woman with spots on her face, well clad, who was enquiring for the guard chamber; I followed her, and there she went up, and turned into the turning towards the chapel, and I after her, and upon the stairs there met her coming up again, and there kissed her twice, and her business was to enquire for Sir Edward Bishop, one of the serjeants at armes. I believe she was a woman of pleasure, but was shy enough to me, and so I saw her go out afterwards, and I took a Hackney coach, and away. I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked, and thence towards White Hall by coach, and spying Mrs. Burroughs in a shop did stop and 'light and speak to her; and so to White Hall, where I 'light and went and met her coming towards White Hall, but was upon business, and I could not get her to go any whither and so parted, and I home with my wife and girle (my wife not being very well, of a great looseness day and night for these two days).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1667. At noon to dinner, where W. How with us, and after dinner, he being gone, I to my chamber again till almost night, and then took boat, the tide serving, and so to White Hall, where I saw the [her daughter-in-law] Duchesse of York (age 30), in a fine dress of second mourning for her mother, being black, edged with ermine, go to make her first visit to the Queene (age 58) since the Duke of York (age 34) was sick; and by and by, she being returned, the Queene (age 58) come and visited her. But it was pretty to observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I, walking an hour and more together in the Matted Gallery, he observed, and so did I, how the Duchesse, as soon as she spied him, turned her head a one side. Here he and I walked thus long, which we have not done a great while before. Our discourse was upon everything: the unhappiness of having our matters examined by people that understand them not; that it was better for us in the Navy to have men that do understand the whole, and that are not passionate; that we that have taken the most pains are called upon to answer for all crimes, while those that, like Sir W. Batten and Sir J. Minnes (age 68), did sit and do nothing, do lie still without any trouble; that, if it were to serve the King (age 37) and kingdom again in a war, neither of us could do more, though upon this experience we might do better than we did; that the commanders, the gentlemen that could never be brought to order, but undid all, are now the men that find fault and abuse others; that it had been much better for the King (age 37) to have given Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten £1000 a-year to have sat still, than to have had them in his business this war: that the serving a Prince that minds not his business is most unhappy for them that serve him well, and an unhappiness so great that he declares he will never have more to do with a war, under him. That he hath papers which do flatly contradict the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) Narrative; and that he hath been with the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and shewed him them, to prevent his falling into another like fault: that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) seems to be able to answer them; but he thinks that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and the Prince are contented to let their Narratives sleep, they being not only contradictory in some things (as he observed about the business of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) being to follow the Prince upon dividing the fleete, in case the enemy come out), but neither of them to be maintained in others. That the business the other night of my Lord Anglesey (age 53) at the Council was happily got over for my Lord, by his dexterous silencing it, and the rest, not urging it further; forasmuch as, had the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) come in time enough, and had got it by the end, he, would have toused him in it; Sir W. Coventry (age 39) telling me that my Lord Anglesey (age 53) did, with such impudence, maintain the quarrel against the Commons and some of the Lords, in the business of my Lord Clarendon (age 58), that he believes there are enough would be glad but of this occasion to be revenged of him. He tells me that he hears some of the Thomsons (age 60) are like to be of the Commission for the Accounts, and Wildman (age 46), which he much wonders at, as having been a false fellow to every body, and in prison most of the time since the King's coming in. But he do tell me that the House is in such a condition that nobody can tell what to make of them, and, he thinks, they were never in before; that every body leads, and nobody follows; and that he do now think that, since a great many are defeated in their expectation of being of the Commission, now they would put it into such hands as it shall get no credit from: for, if they do look to the bottom and see the King's case, they think they are then bound to give the King (age 37) money; whereas, they would be excused from that, and therefore endeavour to make this business of the Accounts to signify little. I spoke with him about my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, in which he is very friendly, and do say that the unhappy business of the prizes is it that hath brought all this trouble upon him, and the only thing that made any thing else mentioned, and it is true. So having discoursed with him, I spent some time with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about the business of our adjusting the new method of the Excise between the Guards household and Tangier, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury being now resolved to bring all their management into a course of payment by orders, and not by tallies, and I am glad of it, and so by water home late, and very dark, and when come home there I got my wife to read, and then come Captain Cocke (age 50) to me; and there he tells me, to my great satisfaction, that Sir Robert Brookes (age 30) did dine with him today; and that he told him, speaking of me, that he would make me the darling of the House of Commons, so much he is satisfied concerning me. And this Cocke (age 50) did tell me that I might give him thanks for it; and I do think it may do me good, for he do happen to be held a considerable person, of a young man, both for sobriety and ability. Then to discourse of business of his own about some hemp of his that is come home to receive it into the King's stores, and then parted, and by and by my wife and I to supper, she not being well, her flux being great upon her, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (age 37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Ashly (age 46), Hollis (age 68), Secretary Morrice (age 65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69), and my Lord Bridgewater (age 44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (age 34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (age 34) himself did tell him so: that the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (age 58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester, Kent [Map] [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (age 18), and it may be, against the Queene (age 58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (age 34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (age 37), Sir W. Coventry (age 39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and Arlington (age 49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden [Map], but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (age 42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1668. At noon rose and to dinner. My wife abroad with Mercer and Deb. buying of things, but I with my clerks home to dinner, and thence presently down with Lord Brouncker (age 48), W. Pen, T. Harvy (age 42), T. Middleton, and Mr. Tippets, who first took his place this day at the table, as a Commissioner, in the room of Commissioner Pett (age 57). Down by water to Deptford, Kent [Map], where the King (age 37), Queene (age 58), and Court are to see launched the new ship built by Mr. Shish (age 63), called "The Charles 2". God send her better luck than the former! Here some of our brethren, who went in a boat a little before my boat, did by appointment take opportunity of asking the King's leave that we might make full use of the want of money, in our excuse to the Parliament for the business of tickets, and other things they will lay to our charge, all which arose from nothing else: and this the King (age 37) did readily agree to, and did give us leave to make our full use of it. The ship being well launched, I back again by boat, setting Sir T. Middleton and Mr. Tippets on shore at Ratcliffe, I home and there to my chamber with Mr. Gibson, and late up till midnight preparing more things against our defence on Thursday next to my content, though vexed that all this trouble should be on me.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1668. Thence walked down to the Three Cranes and there took boat to White Hall, where by direction I waited on the Duke of York (age 34) about office business, and so by water to Westminster, where walking in the Hall most of the morning, and up to my Lady Jem. in Lincoln's Inn Fields to get her to appoint the day certain when she will come and dine with me, and she hath appointed Saturday next. So back to Westminster; and there still walked, till by and by comes Sir W. Coventry (age 40), and with him Mr. Chichly (age 53) and Mr. Andrew Newport (age 48), I to dinner with them to Mr. Chichly's (age 53), in Queene (age 58) Street, in Covent Garden [Map]. A very fine house, and a man that lives in mighty great fashion, with all things in a most extraordinary manner noble and rich about him, and eats in the French fashion all; and mighty nobly served with his servants, and very civilly; that I was mighty pleased with it: and good discourse. He is a great defender of the Church of England, and against the Act for Comprehension, which is the work of this day, about which the House is like to sit till night.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning we sat. Here I first hear that the Queene (age 58) hath miscarryed of a perfect child, being gone about ten weeks, which do shew that she can conceive, though it be unfortunate that she cannot bring forth. Here we are told also that last night the Duchesse of Monmouth (age 17), dancing at her lodgings, hath sprained her thigh. Here we are told also that the House of Commons sat till five o'clock this morning, upon the business of the difference between the Lords and them, resolving to do something therein before they rise, to assert their privileges. So I at noon by water to Westminster, and there find the King (age 37) hath waited in the D. Gawden's chamber these two hours, and the Houses are not ready for him. The Commons having sent this morning, after their long debate therein the last night, to the Lords, that they do think the only expedient left to preserve unity between the two Houses is, that they do put a stop to any proceedings upon their late judgement against the East India Company, till their next meeting; to which the Lords returned answer that they would return answer to them by a messenger of their own, which they not presently doing, they were all inflamed, and thought it was only a trick, to keep them in suspense till the King (age 37) come to adjourne them; and, so, rather than lose the opportunity of doing themselves right, they presently with great fury come to this vote: "That whoever should assist in the execution of the judgement of the Lords against the Company, should be held betrayers of the liberties of the people of England, and of the privileges of that House". This the Lords had notice of, and were mad at it; and so continued debating without any design to yield to the Commons, till the King (age 37) come in, and sent for the Commons, where the Speaker made a short but silly speech, about their giving Him £300,000; and then the several Bills, their titles were read, and the King's assent signified in the proper terms, according to the nature of the Bills, of which about three or four were public Bills, and seven or eight private ones, the additional Bills for the building of the City and the Bill against Conventicles being none of them. The King (age 37) did make a short, silly speech, which he read, giving them thanks for the money, which now, he said, he did believe would be sufficient, because there was peace between his neighbours, which was a kind of a slur, methought, to the Commons; and that he was sorry for what he heard of difference between the two Houses, but that he hoped their recesse would put them into a way of accommodation; and so adjourned them to the 9th of August, and then recollected himself, and told them the 11th; so imperfect a speaker he is. So the Commons went to their House, and forthwith adjourned; and the Lords resumed their House, the King (age 37) being gone, and sat an hour or two after, but what they did, I cannot tell; but every body expected they would commit Sir Andrew Rickard (age 64), Sir Samuel Barnardiston, Mr. Boone, and Mr. Wynne, who were all there, and called in, upon their knees, to the bar of the House; and Sir John Robinson (age 53) I left there, endeavouring to prevent their being committed to the Tower, lest he should thereby be forced to deny their order, because of this vote of the Commons, whereof he is one, which is an odde case1.

Note 1. This "odd case" was that of Thomas Skinner and the East India Company. According to Ralph, the Commons had ordered Skinner, the plaintiff, into the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, and the Lords did the same by Sir Samuel Barnadiston, deputy-governor of the company, as likewise Sir Andrew Rickard (age 64), Mr. Rowland Gwynn, and Mr. Christopher Boone. B.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1668. Up, and called on Mr. Pierce, who tells me that after all this ado Ward is come to town, and hath appeared to the Commissioners of Accounts and given such answers as he thinks will do every body right, and let the world see that their great expectations and jealousies have been vain in this matter of the prizes. The Commissioners were mighty inquisitive whether he was not instructed by letters or otherwise from hence from my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) friends what to say and do, and particularly from me, which he did wholly deny, as it was true, I not knowing the man that I know of. He tells me also that, for certain, Mr. Vaughan (age 64) is made Lord Chief justice, which I am glad of. He tells me, too; that since my Lord of Ormond's (age 57) coming over, the King (age 37) begins to be mightily reclaimed, and sups every night with great pleasure with the Queene (age 58): and yet, it seems, he is mighty hot upon the Duchess of Richmond (age 20); insomuch that, upon Sunday was se'nnight, at night, after he had ordered his Guards and coach to be ready to carry him to the Park, he did, on a sudden, take a pair of oars or sculler, and all alone, or but one with him, go to Somersett House [Map], and there, the garden-door not being open, himself clamber over the walls to make a visit to her, which is a horrid shame. He gone, I to the office, where we sat all the morning, Sir W. Pen (age 47) sick of the gout comes not out.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1668. At noon I sent for Mr. Mills and his wife and daughter to dine, and they dined with me, and W. Hewer (age 26), and very good company, I being in good humour. They gone to church, comes Mr. Tempest, and he and I sang a psalm or two, and so parted, and I by water to the New Exchange, and there to Mrs. Pierce's, where Knepp, and she, and W. Howe, and Mr. Pierce, and little Betty, over to Fox Hall, and there walked and supped with great pleasure. Here was Mrs. Manuel also, and mighty good company, and good mirth in making W. Howe spend his six or seven shillings, and so they called him altogether "Cully". So back, and at Somerset-stairs do understand that a boy is newly drowned, washing himself there, and they cannot find his body. So seeing them home, I home by water, W. Howe going with me, and after some talk he lay at my house, and all to bed. Here I hear that Mrs. Davis (age 20) is quite gone from the Duke of York's (age 34) house, and Gosnell comes in her room, which I am glad of. At the play at Court the other night, Mrs. Davis (age 20) was there; and when she was to come to dance her jigg, the Queene (age 58) would not stay to see it, which people do think it was out of displeasure at her being the King's whore, that she could not bear it. My Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is, it seems, now mightily out of request, the King (age 38) coming little to her, and thus she mighty melancholy and discontented.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1668. So to my tailor's, and the New Exchange, and so by coach home, and there, having this day bought "The Queene (age 58) of Arragon" play, I did get my wife and W. Batelier to read it over this night by 11 o'clock, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1669. At noon comes Mrs. Turner (age 46) and Dyke, and Mrs. Dickenson, and then comes The. (age 17) and Betty Turner (age 16), the latter of which is a very pretty girl; and then Creed and his wife, whom I sent for, by my coach. These were my guests, and Mrs. Turner's (age 46) friend, whom I saw the other day, Mr. Wicken, and very merry we were at dinner, and so all the afternoon, talking, and looking up and down my house; and in the evening I did bring out my cake-a noble cake, and there cut it into pieces, with wine and good drink: and after a new fashion, to prevent spoiling the cake, did put so many titles into a hat, and so drew cuts; and I was the Queene (age 59); and The. Turner (age 17), King-Creed, Sir Martin Marr-all; and Betty, Mrs. Millicent: and so we were mighty merry till it was night; and then, being moonshine and fine frost, they went home, I lending some of them my coach to help to carry them, and so my wife and I spent the rest of the evening in talk and reading, and so with great pleasure to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1669. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there with the Office attended the Duke of York (age 35), and staid in White Hall till about noon, and so with W. Hewer (age 27) to the Cocke (age 52), and there he and I dined alone with great content, he reading to me, for my memory's sake, my late collections of the history of the Navy, that I might represent the same by and by to the Duke of York (age 35); and so, after dinner, he and I to White Hall, and there to the Duke of York's (age 35) lodgings, whither he, by and by, by his appointment come: and alone with him an hour in his closet, telling him mine and W. Coventry's (age 41) advice touching the present posture of the Navy, as the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and the rest do now labour to make changes therein; and that it were best for him to suffer the King (age 38) to be satisfied with the bringing in of a man or two which they desire. I did also give the Duke of York (age 35) a short account of the history of the Navy, as to our Office, wherewith he was very well satisfied: but I do find that he is pretty stiff against their bringing in of men against his mind, as the Treasures were, and particularly against Child's' coming in, because he is a merchant. After much discourse with him, we parted; and [he to] the Council, while I staid waiting for his telling me when I should be ready to give him a written account of the administration of the Navy. This caused me to wait the whole afternoon, till night. In the mean time, stepping to the [her daughter-in-law] Duchess of York's (age 32) side to speak with Lady Peterborough (age 47); I did see the young Duchess (age 6)1, a little child in hanging sleeves; dance most finely, so as almost to ravish me, her ears were so good: taught by a Frenchman that did heretofore teach the King (age 38), and all the King's children, and the Queen-Mother (age 59) herself, who do still dance well.

Note 1. The Princess Mary (age 6), afterwards Queen of England.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, where Alderman Backewell's (age 51) wife, by my invitation with my head, come up with her mother, and sat with us, and after sermon I did walk with them home, and there left them, and home to dinner, and after dinner with Sir J. Minnes (age 70) and T. Middleton to White Hall, by appointment; and at my Lord Arlington's (age 51) the Office did attend the King (age 38) and Cabal, to discourse the further quantity of victuals fit to be declared for, which was 2,000 men for six months; and so without more ado or stay, there, hearing no news but that Sir Thomas Allen (age 36) is to be expected every hour at home with his fleete, or news of his being gone back to Algier, and so home, where got my wife to read to me; and so after supper to bed. The Queen-Mother (age 59) hath been of late mighty ill, and some fears of her death.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and [her daughter-in-law] Duchess (age 32), the Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

On 10 Sep 1669 Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 59) died.

Charge of the Light Brigade

Adeline Horsey Recollections. I believe my husband replaced a great deal of the original furniture at Deene [Map] with more modern examples, but many valuable old pieces still remain. The pictures are very beautiful, including a priceless Vandyke representing Queen Henrietta Maria, in the happy days of her early married life, as a regal, gracious figure arrayed in shimmering satin. There is a lovely portrait of Louise de Keroualle and her son, the Duke of Richmond, who married a Brudenell, and there are many examples of Lely, Sir Joshua Reynolds and other eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artists. One painting by Sant represents the Prince Consort and the Royal children listening to the account of the Charge of the Light Brigade by Lord Cardigan, and there are also some interesting pictures of hunting-field incidents, depicting Cardigan and his friends on their favourite mounts.

Olivia Boteler was appointed Lady in Waiting to Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England.

Memoirs of Jean Francois Paul de Gondi Cardinal de Retz Book 1. The Prince de Conde was enraged at the declaration published by the Prince de Conti and M. de Longueville, which cast the Court, then at Saint Germain, into such a despair that the Cardinal was upon the point of retiring. I was abused there without mercy, as appeared by a letter sent to Madame de Longueville from the Princess, her mother, in which I read this sentence: "They rail here plentifully against the Coadjutor, whom yet I cannot forbear thanking for what he has done for the poor Queen of England." This circumstance is very curious. You must know that a few days before the [her son] King left Paris I visited the Queen of England, whom I found in the apartment of her [her daughter] daughter, since Madame d'Orléans. "You see, monsieur," said the Queen, "I come here to keep Henriette company; the poor child has lain in bed all day for want of a fire." The truth is, the Cardinal having stopped the Queen's pension six months, tradesmen were unwilling to give her credit, and there was not a chip of wood in the house. You may be sure I took care that a Princess of Great Britain should not be confined to her bed next day, for want of a fagot; and a few days after I exaggerated the scandal of this desertion, and the Parliament sent the Queen a present of 40,000 livres. Posterity will hardly believe that the Queen of England, granddaughter of [her father] Henri the Great, wanted a fagot to light a fire in the month of January, in the Louvre, and at the Court of France. Note. daughter of Henry IV King France if he is referring to Henrietta Queen Consort of England.

There are many passages in history less monstrous than this which make us shudder, and this mean action of the Court made so little impression upon the minds of the generality of the people at that time that I have reflected a thousand times since that we are far more moved at the hearing of old stories than of those of the present time; we are not shocked at what we see with our own eyes, and I question whether our surprise would be as great as we imagine at the story of Caligula's promoting his horse to the dignity of a consul were he and his horse now living.

Grammont. "How!" said the queen dowager, "confined by the Inquisition for his services!" "Not altogether for his services," said the Chevalier; "but, without any regard to his services, he was treated in the manner I have mentioned, for a little affair of gallantry, which I shall relate to the king presently.

Grammont. The queen's court was always very numerous; that of the duchess was less so, but more select. This princess had a majestic air, a pretty good shape, not much beauty, a great deal of wit, and so just a discernment of merit, that, whoever of either sex were possessed of it, were sure to be distinguished by her: an air of grandeur in all her actions made her be considered as if born to support the rank which placed her so near the throne. The queen dowager returned after the marriage of the [her daughter] Princess Royal, and it was in her court that the two others met.

Susan Villiers Countess Denbigh was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England.

Grammont. The beau Sydney, less dangerous than he appeared to be, had not sufficient vivacity to support the impression which his figure made; but little Jermyn was on all sides successful in his intrigues.

The old Earl of St. Albans, his uncle, had for a long time adopted him, though the youngest of all his nephews. It is well known what a table the good man kept at Paris, while the King his master was starving at Brussels, and the Queen Dowager, his mistress, lived not over well in France.

Jermyn, supported by his uncle's wealth, found it no difficult matter to make a considerable figure upon his arrival at the court of the [her daughter] Princess of Orange: the poor courtiers of the king her brother could not vie with him in point of equipage and magnificence; and these two articles often produce as much success in love as real merit: there is no necessity for any other example than the present; for though Jermyn was brave, and certainly a gentleman, yet he had neither brilliant actions, nor distinguished rank, to set him off; and as for his figure, there was nothing advantageous in it. He was little; his head was large and his legs small; his features were not disagreeable, but he was affected in his carriage and behaviour. All his wit consisted in expressions learnt by rote, which he occasionally employed either in raillery or in love. This was the whole foundation of the merit of a man so formidable in amours.

Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504

Royal Ancestors of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669

Kings Wessex: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Daughter of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 21 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 7 Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Daughter of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Daughter of Henry IV King France

Royal Descendants of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland x 1

King James II of England Scotland and Ireland x 1

King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland x 1

Marie Louise Bourbon Queen Consort Spain x 1

Anne Marie Bourbon Queen Consort Sardinia x 1

Ancestors of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis Bourbon 1st Count Vendôme 1st Count Castres 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Bourbon VIII Count Vendôme 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Jeanne Laval Countess Vendôme and Castres 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme and Soissons 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabelle Beauvau Countess Vendôme

Great x 1 Grandfather: Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis Luxemburg I Count Saint Pol 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Peter Luxemburg II Count Saint Pol and Soissons 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Marie Luxemburg Countess Vendôme and Soissons 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis Savoy I Count Savoy 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Savoy Countess Saint Pol 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Cyprus Countess Savoy

GrandFather: Antoine King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Valois I Duke Alençon 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Valois II Duke Alençon 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Montfort Duchess Alençon 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Rene Valois Duke Alençon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John IV Count Armagnac 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marie Armagnac Duchess Alençon 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella Évreux Countess Armagnac 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Françoise Valois Countess Vendôme 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Antoine Count of Vaudémont 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Frederick Lorraine Count Vaudémont 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Countess of Harcourt

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Lorraine Duchess Alençon 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: René Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Yolande Valois Anjou 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella Metz Duchess Anjou I Duchess Lorraine 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Father: Henry IV King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Jean Albret 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alain "Great" Albret 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Catherine Rohan

Great x 2 Grandfather: Jean III King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Viscount of Limoges 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Francois Chatillon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Henry II of Navarre 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Gaston IV Count Foix

Great x 3 Grandfather: Gaston V Count Foix 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Trastámara Queen Consort Navarre 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles "Victorious" VII King France 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Magdalena Valois Countess Foix 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

GrandMother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis Valois Duke Touraine I Duke Orléans 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Valois Orléans 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Valentina Visconti 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Charles Valois Orléans Count Angoulême 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marguerite Rohan

Great x 1 Grandmother: Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Louis Savoy I Count Savoy 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Philip "Landless" Savoy II Duke Savoy 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Cyprus Countess Savoy

Great x 2 Grandmother: Louise of Savoy Countess Angoulême 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Bourbon I Duke Bourbon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Bourbon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Agnes Valois Duchess Bourbon 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Mother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Maximilian Habsburg I Holy Roman Emperor 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Aviz Holy Roman Empress 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary Valois Duchess Burgundy 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella Bourbon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John II King Aragon 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ferdinand II King Aragon 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John II King Castile Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella Queen Castile 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella Aviz Queen Consort Castile 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Joanna of Austria Grand Duchess Tuscany 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Władysław II Jagiełło

Great x 3 Grandfather: Casimir IV King Poland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sophia of Halshany

Great x 2 Grandfather: Vladislaus II King Hungary 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Albert Habsburg V Duke Austria 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elisabeth Habsburg Queen Consort Poland 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Luxemburg Duchess Austria 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Foix 1st Earl Kendal 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Gaston de Foix 2nd Earl Kendal 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Kerdeston Countess Foix 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Anna Foix Queen Consort of Hungary and Bohemia 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Gaston IV Count Foix

Great x 3 Grandmother: Catherine of Foix Countess Kendal 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Trastámara Queen Consort Navarre 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England