On this Day in History ... 03 September

03 Sep is in September.

1189 Coronation of Richard I

1346 Siege of Calais

1389 Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1557 Battle of St Quentin

1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

1649 Siege of Drogheda

1650 Battle of Dunbar

1651 Battle of Worcester

1654 First Protectorate Parliament

1658 Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Fire of London

Coronation of Richard I

On 03 Sep 1189 King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 31) was crowned I King England by Archbishop Baldwin Avigo (age 64) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale carried the Crown. The Coronation of Richard I was marred by violence against London's Jewish population. Prior to his Coronation Richard had issued a proclamation forbidding Jews to attend. When some did a riot broke out, which spread.

On 03 Sep 1231 William Dampierre II Count Flanders (age 35) died. His son William Dampierre III Count Flanders (age 7) succeeded III Count Flanders.

Siege of Calais

On 03 Sep 1346 King Edward III of England (age 33) commenced the Siege of Calais. It lasted eleven months with Calais eventually surrendering on 03 Aug 1347.

In or after 03 Sep 1346 John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 21) took part in the Siege of Calais.

Scrope vs Grosvenor Case

In Sep 1389 the Scrope vs Grosvenor Case was brought to the Court of Chivalry. Up to that time two families, Scrope and Grosvenor, had been using the armorial Scrope Arms: Azure, a bend or.

Several hundred witnesses were called including John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49), Geoffrey Chaucer (age 46) and John Savile of Shelley and Golcar (age 64).

On 03 Sep 1386 Owain ap Gruffudd "Glyndŵr" Mathrafal Prince Powys (age 27) gave evidence at the Church of John the Baptist, Chester [Map].

The Court decided in favour of Scrope.

Neither party was happy with the decision so King Richard II (age 22) was called upon to give his personal verdict.

On 27 May 1390 he confirmed that Grosvenor could not bear the undifferenced arms.

As a consequence of the case the Grosvenor has for many years used the name Bendor for horses and nicknames.

On 03 Sep 1419 Bishop Edmund Stafford (age 75) died. He was buried at Exeter Cathedral [Map].

On 03 Sep 1507 Archbishop Thomas Savage (age 58) died at Cawood [Map].

On 03 Sep 1513 Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl of Kildare (age 57) died. His son Gerald Fitzgerald 9th Earl of Kildare (age 26) succeeded 9th Earl Kildare.

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1535. 03 Sep 1535. R. O. 259. John Wylliamson to Cromwell.

On the 2nd inst. I received your letter of the 31st Aug. by Mr. Vaghan, and according to your commandment have paid him £42 15s. 8d. My mother with all your household are well. I fear your house at Hackney will not be ready in 18 days as I wrote, because of the alterations. You will have as pleasant a place as shall be a great way about London. For your place by Friars Austins, towards the street, the kitchen and scullery are raised, the gutters leaded, the roof is lathing and tiling. From the kitchen towards the Friars, the offices are rising as fast as may be. The brick work, with the windows of freestone in your hall, are ready to lay on the floor of the hall. On Saturday, the 4th inst., there will be a great pay at Hackney, Frere Austins, and at Ewhurst. Thomas Thacker says he has no money, and I dare not deliver any without knowing your pleasure, though I consider the scarcity of victuals, the poverty of the workmen, and that without your payment every 14 days they would have no food. I have delivered to Thacker, for buildings and emptions, and the charges of your household, £140, taking his bill for the same. Richard Lee, Maxwell, and I, rest not from setting forth your works at Hackney and elsewhere. The plague rages in the city, but not so much as is spoken of. Friars' Austins, 3 Sept. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.

Battle of St Quentin

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1557. The sam day at nyght cam commondement that evere chyrche in London, and oder contrey and shyre, to syng and make bonfeyrs for the wynnynge of Sant Qwynten; and ther was slayn my lord Hare Dudley (deceased) the yonger sone of the duke of Northumberland that was he[aded,] with mony mo, at the wynnyng of yt.

Note. P. 150. Death of lord Harry Dudley. Fourth son of John duke of Northumberland. He was condemned at the time of the ruin of his family, (see p. 48,) but pardoned by the queen. He married Margaret only daughter of lord chancellor Audley; and, leaving no issue, his widow became the second wife of Thomas fourth duke of Norfolk, and from this match descend the earls of Suffolk and Carlisle. The duke's former lady had expired just before the death of lord Henry Dudley, and their surviving partners intermarried before the end of the year. The duchess Margaret died at Norwich Jan. 9, 1563-4. (See lord Braybrooke's History of Audley End, 1836, 4to. pp. 27, 296.)

On 03 Sep 1587 Henry Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 47) died.

Before 03 Sep 1602 Nicholas Tufton 1st Earl of Thanet (age 24) and Frances Cecil Countess Isle Thanet (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter (age 60) and Dorothy Neville Countess Exeter (age 54).

1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré

On 12 Jul 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 34) led an English force of 100 ships and 6,000 soldiers to capture the city of Saint-Martin-de-Ré on the Île de Ré.

In Aug 1627 more troops, including the newly promoted Lieutenant John Felton (age 32), arrived.

On 03 Sep 1627 two thousand Irish troops arrived under Ralph Bingley (age 57)

On 27 Oct 1627 a final assault was attempted; it failed because the attackers' siege ladders were shorter than the walls of the fortress.

In Nov 1627 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) retreasted and returned to England having lost thousands of his men.

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On 03 Sep 1634 Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice (age 82) died. Monument in Church of St Mary the Virgin Tittleshall [Map]. Simple sarcophagus on pedestal with lying effigy. Pair of flanking Tuscan columns supporting a full entablature with putti on frieze and broken segmental pediment. Carved and painted achievement in and above tympanum flanked by four reclining figures of the Virtues on pediment extrados.

Above. Quarterly of eight: Coke Arms, Crispin, Folkard, Sparham, Nerford, Yarmouth, Knightley Arms and Pawe. The crest is broken. Farrer says it was: On a chapeau Azure, turned up Ermine, an ostrich Argent, holding in its mouth a horseshoe Or. The motto reads Prudens qui Patiens.

The effigy was carved by John Hargrave, the rest of the memorial was made by Nicholas Stone (age 47).

Below the effigy are three shields. Left Coke Arms implaling Paston Arms. His first wife Bridget Paston. Middle Coke Arms. Right Coke Arms impaling Cecil Arms; his second wife Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire (age 38).

Bridget Paston: She was born to John Paston. On 13 Aug 1582 Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice (age 30) and she were married. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire: In 1596 she was born to William Cecil 2nd Earl Exeter (age 30) and Elizabeth Drury Countess Exeter (age 17). In 1614 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire (age 26) and Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire (age 18) were married. She the daughter of William Cecil 2nd Earl Exeter (age 48) and Elizabeth Drury Countess Exeter (age 35). He the son of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 52) and Catherine Knyvet Countess Suffolk (age 50). They were fourth cousins. In 1621 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire (age 33) was created 1st Baron Howard of Charlton in Wiltshire. Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire (age 25) by marriage Baroness Howard of Charlton in Wiltshire. On 07 Feb 1626 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire (age 38) was created 1st Earl Berkshire 2C 1626. Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire (age 30) by marriage Countess Berkshire. In 1672 Elizabeth Cecil Countess Berkshire (age 76) died.


Siege of Drogheda

Between 03 Sep 1649 and 11 Sep 1649 Drogheda [Map], under the command of the Royalist Arthur Aston Soldier (age 59), was besieged by the Parliamentary army commanded by Oliver Cromwell (age 50). When the Royalist forces surrendered they were killed once they had laid down their arms.

Arthur Aston Soldier (age 59) was killed.


1650 Battle of Dunbar

03 Sep 1650. The Battle of Dunbar was fought between the English New Model Army, under Oliver Cromwell and a Scottish army commanded by David Leslie, on 3 September 1650 near Dunbar, Scotland. The battle resulted in a decisive victory for the English.

The prisoners were taken to England and 3,000 were imprisoned at Durham Cathedral [Map]; many died on the march south, or in captivity.

On 03 Sep 1651 William Widdrington 1st Baron Widdrington (age 41) was killed in action whilst fighting for King Charles II. His son William Widdrington 2nd Baron Widdrington succeeded 2nd Baron Widdrington of Blankney in Lincolnshire.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at Worcester [Map] the Battle of Worcester Oliver Cromwell (age 52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle (age 22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 28), Thomas Blagge (age 38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 60) was captured. Giles Strangeways (age 36) provided 300 gold pieces to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21) following his defeat to aid his escape.NOTEXT

Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet (age 27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 44) fought for th Royalists.

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First Protectorate Parliament

On 03 Sep 1654 William Wray 1st Baronet (age 29) was elected MP Grimsby during the First Protectorate Parliament.

On 03 Sep 1654 Jane Granville Baroness Gower was born to John Granville 1st Earl Bath (age 26) and Jane Wyche.

On 03 Sep 1658 Oliver Cromwell (age 59) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son Richard Cromwell Lord Protector (age 31) succeeded Lord Protector.


Death and Funeral of Oliver Cromwell

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1658. Died that arch-rebel, Oliver Cromwell (age 59), called Protector.

On 03 Sep 1660 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) were married in secret. She by marriage Duchess York. She gave birth to their son Charles Stewart seven weeks later. She the daughter of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 51) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 43). He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 50).


Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1665. Church being done, my Lord Bruncker (age 45), Sir J. Minnes (age 66), and I up to the Vestry at the desire of the justices of the Peace, Sir Theo. Biddulph (age 53) and Sir W. Boreman (age 53) and Alderman Hooker (age 53), in order to the doing something for the keeping of the plague from growing; but Lord! to consider the madness of the people of the town, who will (because they are forbid) come in crowds along with the dead corps to see them buried; but we agreed on some orders for the prevention thereof.

On 03 Sep 1665 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 28) were married again since there first marriage had taken place in secret.

Great Fire of London

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside [Map] to the Thames, and all along Cornhill [Map] (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street [Map], Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle [Map], and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church [Map], to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage-"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. I had public prayers at home. The fire continuing, after dinner, I took coach with my wife (age 31) and son, and went to the Bankside in Southwark, where we beheld that dismal spectacle, the whole city in dreadful flames near the waterside; all the houses from the Bridge [Map], all Thames street, and upward toward Cheapside [Map], down to the Three Cranes, were now consumed; and so returned, exceedingly astonished what would become of the rest.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. About four o'clock in the morning, my Lady Batten sent me a cart to carry away all my money, and plate, and best things, to Sir W. Rider's at Bednall-greene. Which I did riding myself in my night-gowne in the cart; and, Lord! to see how the streets and the highways are crowded with people running and riding, and getting of carts at any rate to fetch away things. I find Sir W. Rider tired with being called up all night, and receiving things from several friends. His house full of goods, and much of Sir W. Batten's (age 65) and Sir W. Pen's (age 45) I am eased at my heart to have my treasure so well secured. Then home, with much ado to find a way, nor any sleep all this night to me nor my poor wife. But then and all this day she and I, and all my people labouring to get away the rest of our things, and did get Mr. Tooker to get me a lighter to take them in, and we did carry them (myself some) over Tower Hill [Map], which was by this time full of people's goods, bringing their goods thither; and down to the lighter, which lay at next quay, above the Tower Docke. And here was my neighbour's wife, Mrs.----,with her pretty child, and some few of her things, which I did willingly give way to be saved with mine; but there was no passing with any thing through the postern, the crowd was so great. The Duke of Yorke (age 32) of this day by the office, and spoke to us, and did ride with his guard up and down the City, to keep all quiet (he being now Generall, and having the care of all). This day, Mercer being not at home, but against her mistress's order gone to her mother's, and my wife going thither to speak with W. Hewer (age 24), met her there, and was angry; and her mother saying that she was not a 'prentice girl, to ask leave every time she goes abroad, my wife with good reason was angry, and, when she came home, bid her be gone again. And so she went away, which troubled me, but yet less than it would, because of the condition we are in, fear of coming into in a little time of being less able to keepe one in her quality. At night lay down a little upon a quilt of W. Hewer's (age 24) in the office, all my owne things being packed up or gone; and after me my poor wife did the like, we having fed upon the remains of yesterday's dinner, having no fire nor dishes, nor any opportunity of dressing any thing.

On 03 Sep 1678 Altham Annesley 1st Baron Altham and Alicia Leigh Baroness Altham (age 17) were married. He the son of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Annesley (age 64) and Elizabeth Altham Countess Anglesey (age 58).

After 03 Sep 1678 Digby Gerard 5th Baron Gerard (age 16) and Elizabeth Gerard Baroness Gerard were married. She by marriage Baroness Gerard of Gerard's Bromley. She the daughter of Charles Gerard 1st Earl Macclesfield (age 60) and Jeanne de Civelle Countess Macclesfield. They were third cousin once removed.

On 03 Sep 1685 Charles Powlett 3rd Duke Bolton was born to Charles Paulet 2nd Duke Bolton (age 24) and Frances Ramsden.

On 03 Sep 1709 Bennet Sherard 3rd Earl Harborough was born to Philip Sherard 2nd Earl Harborough (age 29) and Anne Pedley Countess Harborough (age 34).

On 03 Sep 1754 George Sackville aka Germain 1st Viscount Sackville (age 38) and Diana Sambrooke were married. He the son of Lionel Cranfield Sackville 1st Duke Dorset (age 66) and Elizabeth Colyear Duchess Dorset (age 65).


Around 03 Sep 1755 Thomas Fitzwilliam 9th Viscount Fitzwilliam was born to Richard Fitzwilliam 6th Viscount Fitzwilliam (age 44) and Catherine Decker.

On 03 Sep 1758 Henry Howard 4th Earl Carlisle (age 64) died. His son Frederick Howard 5th Earl Carlisle (age 10) succeeded 5th Earl Carlisle 3C 1661.NOTEXT

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On 03 Sep 1763 Robert Edward Petre 10th Baron Petre was born to Robert Edward Petre 9th Baron Petre (age 21) and Anne Howard (age 21). He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.NOTEXT

On 03 Sep 1809 George Coventry 6th Earl Coventry (age 87) died. His son George Coventry 7th Earl Coventry (age 51) succeeded 7th Earl Coventry. Margaret "Peggy" Pitches Countess Coventry (age 49) by marriage Countess Coventry.


On 03 Sep 1820 Charlotte Elizabeth Digby (age 42) died of rapid consumption. Monument in Worcester Cathedral [Map] sculpted by Francis Leggatt Chantrey (age 43) in 1825.

Charlotte Elizabeth Digby: On 07 Aug 1778 she was born. In 1802 Charlotte Elizabeth Digby (age 23) was appointed Maid of Honour to Charlotte Mecklenburg Strelitz Queen Consort England (age 57). On 03 Jan 1802 William Digby Prebendary (age 4) and Charlotte Elizabeth Digby (age 23) were married. Memorials of Francis Chantrey RA in Hallamshire and Elsewhere Part V London Life and Works. To 1825 belongs the figure of Mrs. Digby, in marble, seated on a couch, in Worcester Cathedral; and a similar one of Mrs. Boulton (age 29), in the church of Great Tew, Oxfordshire.


On 03 Sep 1874 Michael Edward Hicks-Beach 1st Earl St Aldwyn (age 36) and Lucy Catherine Fortescue Countess St Aldwyn (age 23) were married at St Mary Magdalene Church South Molton. She the daughter of Hugh Fortescue 3rd Earl Fortescue (age 56) and Georgina Augusta Dawson-Damer Countess Fortescue. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland.


On 03 Sep 1913 Jeanette Octavia Cliff (age 55) died. She was buried at, and/or has a memorial, at St Marcella's Church, Denbigh [Map] sculpted by Albert Toft (age 51).

Jeanette Octavia Cliff: On 17 Feb 1858 she was born to William Cliff (age 45). On 20 Jul 1892 Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Ward (age 29) and Jeanette Octavia Cliff (age 34) were married. On 28 Oct 1902 Lieutenant-Colonel John Foster Manifold (age 45) and Amy Mary Cliff (age 41) were married at the Mother Church at Hawarden, Flintshire. Her sister Jeanette Octavia Cliff (age 44) was a witness, as well as Walter Andrew Urquart and Augustus (Augusta?) Hodges.

On 03 Sep 1914 Ralph Beckett 3rd Baron Grimthorpe (age 23) and Mary Alice Archdale Baroness Beckett were married.

On 03 Sep 1971 Roundell Palmer 3rd Earl Selborne (age 84) died. His grandson John Palmer 4th Earl of Selborne (age 31) succeeded 4th Earl Selborne.