On this Day in History ... 04 July

04 Jul is in July.

1360 Release of King John II of France

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1663 Battle of Ameixial

1666 Four Days' Battle

On 04 Jul 673 King Ecgberht I of Kent died. His son King Eadric of Kent succeeded King of Kent.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1060. This year was a great earthquake on the Translation of St. Martin, and King Henry (age 52) died in France. Kinsey, Archbishop of York, died on the eleventh before the calends of January; and he lies at Peterboorugh [Map]. Bishop Aldred succeeded to the see, and and Walter to that of Herefordshire. Dudoc also died, who was Bishop of Somersetshire; and Gisa the priest was appointed in his stead.

On 04 Jul 1307 Rudolph Habsburg III Duke Austria (age 25) died.

On 04 Jul 1336 Elisabeth Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal (age 65) died.

Release of King John II of France

On 30 Jun 1360 King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) left the Tower of London [Map] and proceeded to Eltham Palace [Map] where Queen Philippa (age 46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford [Map], he continued towards Dover [Map], stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury [Map] on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (age 30) at Dover Castle [Map], and reached English-held Calais [Map] on 08 Jul 1360.

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

On 04 Jul 1450 ...

James Fiennes 1st Baron Saye and Sele (age 55) was beheaded at the Standard in Cheapside [Map]. His son William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 22) succeeded 2nd Baron Saye and Sele 1C 1447.

His son in law William Cromer (age 34) was beheaded.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the hys mayny; that was Satyrday, and hyt was also a Synt Martyn ys day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry [Map], the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle [Map]; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (age 34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe owte Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton ys Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard [Map], Syr Jamys Fynes (age 55), beyng that tyme the Lorde Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London [Map] unto the Gylde Halle [Map], and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter. And thenne they brought hym unto the Standard in Cheppe [Map], and there he ressayvyd hys jewys and hys dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London [Map], and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

Note 1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

On 04 Jul 1466 William I Landgrave of Hesse was born to Louis II Landgrave of Hesse (age 27).

Before 04 Jul 1518 Thomas Wharton 1st Baron Wharton (age 23) and Eleanor Stapleton Baroness Wharton were married.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 04 Jul 1528. R. O. 4464. Clerk And Taylor To Wolsey.

Wrote on the 1st. Hear that the lanceknights have not gone to Genoa, but are at Lodi. The King is hunting at Fontainebleau, and will stay there all this month. My Lady is at St. Germain's; the Council at Paris. Much rain has fallen, and destroyed the corn and the vines. It is to be feared that a universal decay and dearth will prevail through the whole of France. We are told the plague is very bad in England. Paris, 4 July. Signed.


Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Letters and Papers 1535. 04 Jul 1535. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 84b, B. M. 985. Bishop of Faenza to M. Ambrosio.

Wrote from Amiens on the 25th about the fears for Fisher (deceased). The King's impiety has gone so far that on the 22nd ult. he had him beheaded publicly at the Tower, and his body left there all day for a public show. Hears that "Gramuel" went to him in prison, and told him that the bishop of Rome had created him one of his companions, and the King had sent him to know what was his opinion about it. He replied that honor was not in his thoughts now, and he thought only of the mercy of God, whose his soul was, though his body was in the King's power, who could do what he liked with it, but he would not change his opinion, believing that it was right. "Gramuel" then announced to him the day of his death. He was conducted on a mule, wearing a black cloth vest and cap tied under his chin, to the square (piazza), where he had to wait for an hour because the scaffold was not in order. And although, as the Admiral says, from age and suffering he was more like a shadow than a man, he spoke to the people boldly, telling them to be loving and obedient to their King, who was good by nature, but had been deceived in this matter; that he was led to death for wishing to preserve the honor of God and the Holy See; at which he did not grieve, but was content, for it was the will of God. Hears now from the English ambassador that he only said, that being of flesh, which naturally feared death, and knowing that Peter three times denied Christ through fear of death, and having always had the mind to die, if necessary, for the love of Christ and his Holy Church, now that he was come to it, he begged all present to pray to God to grant constancy and firmness to his fragile flesh to suffer cheerfully his approaching punishment. The Admiral had heard that he was quartered according to the sentence; but the English ambassador says that he was merely beheaded, "per grandissima gratia ottenuta dal furore infinito in questo di quel Re;" who finally was content that his body should be buried in the evening. The cause of his death is rumoured in England to have been his writing evil of the King to Thomas More (age 57), who was also in prison. And they had caused it to be said to his face by one of his chaplains that he had written to More against the King on a bit of wood with a needle, having neither paper nor ink. More (age 57) is thought to be already executed, or, at least, condemned to death with perhaps thirty other virtuous persons, religious and secular; so that we now see clearly that the tragedy will go far, and that there is no hope of good from the King.

PAINTINGS/MEYNART/Meynnart_Wewyck_Lady_Margaret_Beaufort.jpg PAINTINGS/HOLBEIN_YOUNGER/Thomas_More.jpg PAINTINGS/MADOXBROWN/Margaret_Roper.jpg

On 04 Jul 1539 Louis VI Elector Palatine was born to Frederick III Elector Palatine (age 24).

On 04 Jul 1546 Albert V Wittelsbach V Duke Bavaria (age 18) and Anna Habsburg Spain Duchess Bavaria (age 17) were married. Anna Habsburg Spain Duchess Bavaria by marriage Duchess Bavaria. She the daughter of Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor (age 43) and Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress (age 42). He the son of William Wittelsbach IV Duke Bavaria (age 52) and Marie Jakobaea Baden Duchess Bavaria (age 39). They were second cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

On 04 Jul 1602 Charles Cockayne 1st Viscount Cullen was born to William Cockayne (age 41) and Mary Morris Countess Dover (age 37).


1660 July Creation of Peerages

1663 Battle of Ameixial

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. So to St. James's by water with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), I giving occasion to a wager about the tide, that it did flow through bridge, by which Sir W. Batten (age 62) won 5s. of Sir J. Minnes (age 64). At St. James's we staid while the Duke (age 29) made himself ready. Among other things Sir Allen Apsley (age 47) showed the Duke (age 29) the Lisbon Gazette in Spanish, where the late victory is set down particularly, and to the great honour of the English beyond measure. They have since taken back Evora, which was lost to the Spaniards, the English making the assault, and lost not more than three men. Here I learnt that the English foot are highly esteemed all over the world, but the horse not so much, which yet we count among ourselves the best; but they abroad have had no great knowledge of our horse, it seems.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1665. This morning I did a good piece of work with Sir W. Warren, ending the business of the lotterys, wherein honestly I think I shall get above £100. Bankert, it seems, is come home with the little fleete he hath been abroad with, without doing any thing, so that there is nobody of an enemy at sea. We are in great hopes of meeting with the Dutch East India fleete, which is mighty rich, or with De Ruyter (age 58), who is so also. Sir Richard Ford (age 51) told me this day, at table, a fine account, how the Dutch were like to have been mastered by the present Prince of Orange1 (age 14) his father to be besieged in Amsterdam, having drawn an army of foot into the towne, and horse near to the towne by night, within three miles of the towne, and they never knew of it; but by chance the Hamburgh post in the night fell among the horse, and heard their design, and knowing the way, it being very dark and rainy, better than they, went from them, and did give notice to the towne before the others could reach the towne, and so were saved. It seems this De Witt and another family, the Beckarts, were among the chief of the familys that were enemys to the Prince, and were afterwards suppressed by the Prince, and continued so till he was, as they say, poysoned; and then they turned all again, as it was, against the young Prince (age 14), and have so carried it to this day, it being about 12 and 14 years, and De Witt in the head of them.

Note 1. The period alluded to is 1650, when the States-General disbanded part of the forces which the Prince of Orange (William) wished to retain. The prince attempted, but unsuccessfully, to possess himself of Amsterdam. In the same year he died, at the early age of twenty-four; some say of the small-pox; others, with Sir Richard Ford (age 51), say of poison. B.

Four Days' Battle

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the King (age 36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (age 49) and Bishop of Winchester (age 47), where the Dean of Westminster (age 31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (age 57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (age 32) second son, now born at St. James's [Map]; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. Thence home and dined, and then to the office, where busy all day, and in the evening Sir W. Pen (age 45) come to me, and we walked together, and talked of the late fight. I find him very plain, that the whole conduct of the late fight was ill, and that that of truth's all, and he tells me that it is not he, but two-thirds of the commanders of the whole fleete have told him so: they all saying, that they durst not oppose it at the Council of War, for fear of being called cowards, though it was wholly against their judgement to fight that day with the disproportion of force, and then we not being able to use one gun of our lower tier, which was a greater disproportion than the other. Besides, we might very well have staid in the Downs without fighting, or any where else, till the Prince (age 46) could have come up to them; or at least till the weather was fair, that we might have the benefit of our whole force in the ships that we had. He says three things must [be] remedied, or else we shall be undone by this fleete.

Note 1. That we must fight in a line, whereas we fight promiscuously, to our utter and demonstrable ruine; the Dutch fighting otherwise; and we, whenever we beat them.

Note 2. We must not desert ships of our own in distress, as we did, for that makes a captain desperate, and he will fling away his ship, when there is no hopes left him of succour.

Note 3. That ships, when they are a little shattered, must not take the liberty to come in of themselves, but refit themselves the best they can, and stay out-many of our ships coming in with very small disablenesses.


After 04 Jul 1681 Edward Conway 1st Earl Conway (age 58) and Ursula Stawell Countess Mulgrave and Conway were married. She by marriage Countess Conway.

On 04 Jul 1708 Henry Hare 2nd Baron Coleraine (age 72) died. His grandson Henry Hare 3rd Baron Coleraine (age 15) succeeded 3rd Baron Coleraine 1C 1625.

On 04 Jul 1726 Henry Bentinck 1st Duke Portland (age 44) died in Spanish Town Jamaica. His body was returned to England. On 03 Nov 1726 he was buried in the Duke of Ormonde, Vault Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey. His son William Bentinck 2nd Duke Portland (age 17) succeeded 2nd Duke Portland, 3rd Earl of Portland 2C 1689.

On 04 Jul 1752 Robert Monckton-Arundell 4th Viscount Galway was born to William Monckton aka Monckton-Arundell 2nd Viscount Galway (age 27) and Elizabeth Villareal Viscountess Galway.


On 04 Jul 1791 Philip Sherard 5th Earl Harborough (age 24) and Eleanor Monckton (age 19) were married. He the son of Robert Sherard 4th Earl Harborough (age 78).

On 04 Jul 1799 Frederick Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes 10th or 16th Baron Saye and Sele was born to Thomas James Twisleton (age 28).

On 04 Jul 1817 Hugh Fortescue 2nd Earl Fortescue (age 34) and Susan Ryder (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Dudley Ryder 1st Earl of Harrowby (age 54) and Susanna Leveson-Gower Countess Harrowby Lincolnshire (age 44). He the son of Hugh Fortescue 1st Earl Fortescue (age 64) and Hester Granville Countess Fortescue (age 51). They were fourth cousins.

On 04 Jul 1818 Francis Thomas-Fitzmaurice 3rd Earl Kerry (age 77) died. He was buried in Westminster Abbey [Map] in the same tomb as his wife Anastasia Daly Countess Kerry. His first cousin once removed Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice 3rd Marquess Lansdowne (age 38) succeeded 4th Earl Kerry.

After 04 Jul 1824. Monument to Caroline Fludyer Countess Brownlow (deceased) in St Peter and St Paul Church, Belton [Map].

Caroline Fludyer Countess Brownlow: On 05 Jun 1794 she was born to George Fludyer (age 32) and Mary Fane (age 21). Before 1819 John Cust 1st Earl Brownlow (age 39) and Caroline Fludyer Countess Brownlow (age 24) were married. She by marriage Countess Brownlow. On 04 Jul 1824 Caroline Fludyer Countess Brownlow (age 30) died.


On 04 Jul 1829 Thomas Capron (age 81) died. On 24 Feb 1832 Elizabeth Lucas (age 80) died. Memorial in Church of St Rumbold, Stoke Doyle [Map] sculpted by Henry Hopper (age 62).

Thomas Capron: He and Elizabeth Lucas were married. Around 1748 he was born.

Elizabeth Lucas: Around 1752 she was born to John Lucas of Nortoft Manor.

On 04 Jul 1859 John William Beaumont Pease 1st Baron Wardington was born.

On 04 Jul 1884 William Bernard Petre 12th Baron Petre (age 66) died.