10 Oct is in October.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 644. This year died at Rochester [Map], on the tenth of October, Paulinus, who was first Archbishop at York, and afterwards at Rochester. He was bishop nineteen winters, two months, and one and twenty days. This year the son of Oswy's uncle (Oswin), the son of Osric, assumed the government of Deira, and reigned seven winters.
Most dear and beloved nephew,.
We have well understood what you have sent us word by your letters; and, as to our estate, we give you to know that we are even in great trouble of heart, but, considering the condition we are in, we were in good health of body at the setting forth of these letters, which our Lord ever grant to you. Dearest nephew, we pray you that you will leave off all excuses, and come to the king our son in the best manner you can, and as he commands you more fully by his letters. For you well know, dearest nephew, if you come not, considering the necessity that now exists, it will be greatly talked of, and will be a great dishonour to you. Wherefore make an effort to come at this time as hastily as you can, and you know well, dearest nephew, that we shall ever be ready to counsel you as well as we can in all things that shall be to your honour and profit. Most dear and beloved nephew, our Lord have you in his keeping. Given at Nottingham [Map], the 10th day of October.
Froissart. Around 10 Oct 1339. As soon as king Edward had passed the river of I'Escault and was entered into the realm of France, he called to him sir Henry of Flanders, who was as then a young squire, and there he made him knight, and gave him yearly two hundred pounds sterling, sufficiently assigned him in England. Then the king went and lodged in the abbey of Mount Saint-Martin, and there tarried two days, and his people abroad in the country; and the duke of Brabant was lodged in the abbey of Vaucelles.
When the French king at Compiegne heard these tidings, then he enforced his summons, and sent the earl of Eu and of Guines his constable to Saint-Quentin's, to keep the town and frontiers there against his enemies, and sent the lord of Coucy into his own country, and the lord of Ham to his, and sent many men of arms to Guise and to Ribemont, to Bohain, and the fortresses joining to the entry of the realm; and so went himself toward Peronne.
In the mean season that king Edward lay at the abbey of Mount Saint-Martin, his men ran abroad in the country to Bapaume and near to Peronne and to Saint-Quentin's. They found the country plentiful, for there had been no war of a long season; and so it fortuned that sir Henry of Flanders, to advance his body and to increase his honour, [went] on a day with other knights, whereof sir John of Hainault was chief, and with him the lord of Fauquemont, the lord of Berg, the lord of Bautersem, the lord of Cuyk and divers other to the number of five hundred: and they avised a town thereby, called Honnecourt, wherein much people were gathered on trust of the fortresses, and therein they had conveyed all their goods; and there had been sir Arnold of Baquehem and sir William of Duvenvoorde and their company, but they attained nothing there.
There was at this Honnecourt an abbot of great wisdom and hardiness; and he caused to be made without the town a barrier overthwart the street, like a grate, not past half a foot wide every grate, and he made great provisions of stones and quicklime, and men ready to defend the place. And these lords, when they came thither, they lighted afoot and entered to the barrier with their glaives in their hands, and there began a sore assault, and they within valiantly defended themselves. There was the abbot himself, who received and gave many great strokes: there was a fierce assault: they within cast down stones, pieces of timber, pots full of chalk1 and did much hurt to the assailers: and sir Henry of Flanders, who held his glaive in his hands, and gave therewith great strokes. At the last the abbot took the glaive in his hands and drew it so to him, that at last he set hands on sir Henry's arm, and drew it so sore that he pulled out his arm at the barrier to the shoulder and held him at a great advantage, for an the barrier had been wide enough, he had drawn him through; but sir Henry would not let his weapon go for saving of his honour. Then the other knights strake at the abbot to rescue their fellow: so this wrastling endured a long space, but finally the knight was rescued, but his glaive abode with the abbot. And on a day, when I wrote this book, as I passed by I was shewed the glaive by the monks there, that kept it for a treasure.2
So this said day Honnecourt was sore assailed, the which endured till it was night, and divers were slain and sore hurt. Sir John of Hainault lost there a knight of Holland called sir Herman. When the Flemings, Hainowes, Englishmen and Almains saw the fierce wills of them within, and saw how they could get nothing there, withdrew themselves against night. And the next day on the morning the king departed from Mount Saint-Martin, commanding that no person should do any hurt to the abbey, the which commandment was kept. And so then they entered into Vermandois, and took that day their lodging betimes on the mount Saint-Quentin in good order of battle: and they of Saint-Quentin's might well see them, howbeit they had no desire to issue out of their town. The foreriders came running to the barriers skirmishing, and the host tarried still on the mount till the next day. Then the lords took counsel what way they should draw, and by the advice of the duke of Brabant they took the way to Thierache, for that way their provision came daily to them, and were determined that if king Philip did follow them, as they supposed he would do, that theii they would abide him in the plain field and give him battle.
Thus they went forth in three great battles: the marshals and the Almains had the first, the king of England in the middleward, and the duke of Brabant in the rearward. Thus they rode forth, brenning and pilling the country, a three or four leagues a day, and ever took their lodging betimes. And a company of Englishmen and Almains passed the river of Somme by the abbey of Vermand, and wasted the country all about: another company, whereof sir John of Hainault, the lord of P'auquemont and sir Arnold of Baquehem were chief, rode to Origny-Saint-Benoiste, a good town, but it was but easily closed: incontinent it was taken by assault and robbed, and an abbey of ladies violated, and the town brent. Then they departed and rode toward Guise and Ribemont, and the king of England lodged at Boheries, and there tarried a day, and his men ran abroad and destroyed the country.
Then the king took the way to the Flamengerie3, to come to Leschelle in Thierache; and the marshals and the bishop of Lincoln (age 47) with a five hundred spears passed the river of Oise and entered into Laonnois, toward the land of the lord of Coucy, and brent Saint-Gobain and the town of Marie, and on a night lodged in the valley beside Laon: and the next day they drew again to their host, for they knew by some of their prisoners that the French king was come to Saint-Quentin's with a hundred thousand men, and there to pass the river of Somme. So these lords in their returning brent a good town called Crecy and divers other towns and hamlets there-about.
Now let us speak of sir John of Hainault and his company, who were a five hundred spears. He came to Guise and brent all the town and beat down the mills: and within the fortress was the lady Jane (age 16), his own daughter, wife to the earl of Blois called Louis: she desired her father to spare the heritage of the earl his son-in-law, but for all that sir John of Hainault (age 51) would not spare his enterprise. And so then he returned again to the king, who was lodged in the abbey of Fervaques, and ever his people ran over the country.
And the lord of Fauquemont with a hundred spears came to Nouvion in Thierache, a great town; and the men of the town were fled into a great wood and had all their goods with them, and had fortified the wood with felling of timber about them. The Almains rode thither, and there met with them sir Arnold of Baquehem and his company, and so there they assailed them in the wood, who defended them as well as they might; but finally they were conquered and put to flight; and there were slain and sore hurt more than forty, and lost all that they had. Thus the country was over-ridden, for they did what they list.
Note 1. 'Chaulx,' i.e. 'quicklime.'
Note 2. The fuller text has it as follows: ' But his glaive abode with the abbot by reason of his great prowess, who kept it many years after; and it is still, as I believe, in the hall of Honnecourt. It was there assuredly at the time when I wrote this book, and it was shewed to me on a day when I passed that way, and I had relation made to me of the truth of the matter and of the manner how the assault was made; and the monks kept it still as a great ornament."
Note 3. La Flamengerie, dep. Aisne.
On 10 Oct 1361 Edward "Black Prince" (age 31) and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 33) were married at Windsor Castle [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. His first wife, her second (or third depending on how you count them) husband. She had four children already. They had known each other since childhood. Thirty-one and thirty-three respectively. A curious choice for the heir to the throne; foreign princesses were usual. They were married nearly fifteen years and had two children. She the daughter of Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent and Margaret Wake Countess Kent. He the son of King Edward III of England (age 48) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 47). They were half first cousin once removed. She a granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.
On 10 Oct 1415 John Chidiock 5th Baron Fitzpayn (age 40) died. His son John Chideock 6th Baron Fitzpayn (age 13) succeeded 6th Baron Fitzpayn 1C 1299.
After 10 Oct 1441 John Bourchier 1st Baron Berners (age 25) and Margery Berners Baroness Berners (age 32) were married. He the son of William Bourchier 1st Count Eu and Anne of Gloucester Plantagenet Countess Eu and Stafford. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England.
Before 10 Oct 1496 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 25) and Margaret Scrope Duchess Suffolk were married. Margaret Scrope Duchess Suffolk by marriage Duchess Suffolk. He the son of John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk and Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 52). They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.
Hall's Chronicle 1532. [10 Oct 1532]. The 10th day of October, the King came to Dover, and on the 11th day in the morning being Friday, at three of the clock, he took ship in Dover Road, and before ten of the clock the same day, he with the lady Marchioness of Pembroke (age 31), landed at Calais, where he was honourably received with procession, and brought to Saint Nicholas church, where he heard Mass, and so to his place called The Exchequer, where he lodged. And on the Sunday after came to Calais, the Lorde Roche Baron, and Monsieur de Mountpesat, messengers from the French King, advertising the King of England, that the French King would repair to Abuile the same night marching towards Boulogne, of which tidings the King was very glad, but suddenly came a messenger, and reported that the great Master of France, and the Archbishop of Rouen, with diverse noble men of France, were come to Sandifeld, intending to come to Calais, to salute the King, from the King their Master. He being thereof advertised, sent in great haste the fifteenth day of October, the Duke of Norfolk, the Marques of Exeter, the Earles of Oxford, Derby, and Rutland, the Lord Sandys, and the Lord Fitzwater, with three hundred gentlemen, which honourably received the French Lords, at the English pale, and so brought them to the King’s presence in Calais, which stood under a rich clothe of estate of such value that they much mused of the riches. The King (as he that knew all honour and nurture) received the French Lords, very lovingly and amiably, and with them took a day and place of meeting: these Lords were highly feasted, and after diner departed to Boulogne.
Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1561. The x day of October [the] quen('s) (age 28) grace dyd gret cost at Westmynster boyth with-in here plase, and pavyng from the end of the Tyltt rond abowt the sydes, and closyd in the tylt.
Evelyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1647. I came to Wotton, Surrey [Map], the place of my birth, to my brother (age 30), and on the 10th to Hampton Court [Map] where I had the honor to kiss his Majesty's (age 46) hand, and give him an account of several things I had in charge, he being now in the power of those execrable villains who not long after murdered him. I lay at my cousin, Sergeant Hatton's at Thames Ditton, Surrey [Map], whence, on the 13th, I went to London.
On 10 Oct 1654 John Savage 2nd Earl Rivers (age 51) died at Frodsham Castle [Map]. His son Thomas Savage 3rd Earl Rivers (age 26) succeeded 3rd Earl Rivers 2C 1626, 3rd Viscount Colchester, 3rd Viscount Savage, 3rd Baron Darcy of Chiche, 4th Baronet Savage of Rocksavage in Cheshire. Elizabeth Scrope Countess Rivers (age 27) by marriage Countess Rivers.
On 10 Oct 1655 Robert Arbuthnot 1st Viscount Arbuthnott (age 30) died. His son Robert Arbuthnot 2nd Viscount Arbuthnot succeeded 2nd Viscount Arbuthnot.
Evelyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1666. This day was ordered a general Fast through the Nation, to humble us on the late dreadful conflagration, added to the plague and war, the most dismal judgments that could be inflicted; but which indeed we highly deserved for our prodigious ingratitude, burning lusts, dissolute court, profane and abominable lives, under such dispensations of God's continued favor in restoring Church, Prince, and People from our late intestine calamities, of which we were altogether unmindful, even to astonishment. This made me resolve to go to our parish assembly, where our Doctor preached on Luke xix. 41: piously applying it to the occasion. After which, was a collection for the distressed losers in the late fire.
Evelyn's Diary. 09 Oct 1671 and 10 Oct 1671. I went, after evening service, to London, in order to a journey of refreshment with Mr. Treasurer (age 41), to Newmarket, where the King (age 41) then was, in his coach with six brave horses, which we changed thrice, first, at Bishop-Stortford [Map], and last, at Chesterford; so, by night, we got to Newmarket, where Mr. Henry Jermain (age 35) (nephew to the Earl of St. Alban (age 66)) lodged me very civilly. We proceeded immediately to Court, the King (age 41) and all the English gallants being there at their autumnal sports. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's; and, the next day, after dinner, I was on the heath, where I saw the great match run between Woodcock and Flatfoot, belonging to the King (age 41), and to Mr. Eliot, of the bedchamber, many thousands being spectators; a more signal race had not been run for many years.
On 10 Oct 1675 Robert Ker 3rd Earl Roxburghe (age 17) and Margaret Hay Countess Roxburghe were married. Margaret Hay Countess Roxburghe by marriage Countess Roxburghe. She the daughter of John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale (age 50) and Jean Scott Marchioness Teviotdale. He the son of William Ker 2nd Earl Roxburghe and Jane Ker Countess Roxburgh. They were second cousin once removed.
On 10 Oct 1698 George Berkeley 1st Earl Berkeley (age 70) died. He was buried at St Dunstan Church Cranford. His son Charles Berkeley 2nd Earl Berkeley (age 49) succeeded 2nd Earl Berkeley, 2nd Viscount Dursley, 10th Baron Berkeley 2C 1421. Elizabeth Noel Countess Berkeley (age 44) by marriage Countess Berkeley.
On 10 Oct 1719 Francis Greville 1st Earl Brooke Warwick Castle 1st Earl Warwick was born to William Greville 7th Baron Brooke (age 24) and Mary Thynne Baroness Brooke (age 17).
On 10 Oct 1723 William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper (age 58) died. His son William Clavering-Cowper 2nd Earl Cowper (age 14) succeeded 2nd Earl Cowper, 2nd Baron Cowper of Wingham in Kent, 4th Baronet Cowper of Ratling Court in Kent.
On 10 Oct 1752 Lucius Charles Carey 7th Viscount Falkland (age 45) and Sarah Inwen Countess Suffolk were married.
On 10 Oct 1765 Lionel Cranfield Sackville 1st Duke Dorset (age 77) died at Knole House. His son Charles Sackville 2nd Duke Dorset (age 54) succeeded 2nd Duke Dorset 1C 1720, 8th Earl Dorset 4C 1604, 3rd Earl Middlesex 2C 1675, 8th Baron Buckhurst 1C 1567, 3rd Baron Cranfield of Cranfield in Middlesex.
On 10 Oct 1788 John Ward 2nd Viscount Dudley and Ward (age 63) died. His brother William Ward 3rd Viscount Dudley and Ward (age 38) succeeded 3rd Viscount Dudley and Ward of Dudley in Worcestershire, 8th Baron Ward of Birmingham.
On 10 Oct 1803 George Moberly Bishop was born in St Petersburg.
On 10 Oct 1846 two Spanish Princesses were married ...
Francisco de Asís King Consort Spain (age 24) and Isabella II Queen Spain (age 16) were married. They were double first cousins. She was forced to marry by the Moderare Party. She, apparently commented, "what shall I tell you about a man whom I saw wearing more lace than I was wearing on our wedding night?". She the daughter of Ferdinand VII King Spain and Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies Queen Consort Spain (age 40). They were first cousins.
Antoine Orléans Duke Montpensier (age 22) and Infanta Luisa Fernanda Duchess of Montpensier (age 14) were married. She the daughter of Ferdinand VII King Spain. He the son of King Louis Philippe I of France (age 73).
On 10 Oct 1876 George Hay 8th Marquess Tweedale (age 89) died. His son Arthur Hay 9th Marquess Tweedale (age 51) succeeded 9th Marquess Teviotdale. Julia Charlotte Sophia Stewart-Mackenzie Marchoness Tweedale (age 30) by marriage Marchioness Teviotdale.
On 08 Oct 1881 Florence Chaplin was born to Henry Chaplin 1st Viscount Chaplin (age 40) and Florence Sutherland Leveson-Gower (age 26). Florence Sutherland Leveson-Gower (age 26) died from childbirth two days later. She was buried in the churchyard of St Oswald's Church, Blankney. Her husband's account of her last days .... Lady Florence's second daughter was born on Saturday, and her birth was followed by convulsions from which she never recovered consciousness. Through the night Dr. Brook and her husband watched by her, and on Sunday there was a slight improvement which continued throughout the day. "At that time ", says Mr. Chaplin (age 40)," my spirit had revived, and I allowed myself, foolishly perhaps, to become quite sanguine—only, alas, to be bitterly disappointed." On Sunday evening the breathing again became more rapid, and on Monday afternoon "my darling passed away, with her head resting on my (age 40) shoulder, and with the most beautiful expression on her face as she died".
On 10 Oct 1890 Henry William Parnell 3rd Baron Congleton (age 81) died.
On 10 Oct 1905 Hugh Fortescue 3rd Earl Fortescue (age 87) died. His son Hugh Fortescue 4th Earl Fortescue (age 51) succeeded 4th Earl Fortescue, 4th Viscount Ebrington of Ebrington in Gloucestershire.
On 10 Oct 1932 George Cecil Beaumont Weld-Forester 6th Baron Forester (age 65) died. His son Cecil George Weld-Forester 7th Baron Forester (age 33) succeeded 7th Baron Forester of Willey Park in Shropshire.
On 10 Oct 1959 Roderick Alexander Cavendish 8th Baron Waterpark was born to Frederick Caryll Philip Cavendish 7th Baron Waterpark (age 33).