Hanged

Hanged is in Executions.

1305 Execution of William Wallace

1307 Battle of Loch Ryan and the Execution of the Bruce Brothers

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge

1326 Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

1330 Execution of Roger Mortimer

1388 Merciless Parliament

1400 Epiphany Rising

1403 Battle of Shrewsbury

1404 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1417 Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1477 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1477 Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

1489 Yorkshire Rebellion

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1516 Evil May Day Riots

1534 Execution of Elizabeth Barton and her Supporters

1536 Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1539 Pilgrimage of Grace

1541 Executions

1544 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1552 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1586 Babington Plot

1616 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1533 Buggery Act

1650 Battle of Carbisdale

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1661 Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1760 Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

1812 Assassination of Primeminister Spencer Perceval

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 897. In the summer of this year went the army, some into East-Anglia, and some into Northumbria; and those that were penniless got themselves ships, and went south over sea to the Seine. The enemy had not, thank God, entirely destroyed the English nation; but they were much more weakened in these three years by the disease of cattle, and most of all of men; so that many of the mightiest of the king's thanes, that were in the land, died within the three years. Of these, one was Swithulf Bishop of Rochester, Ceolmund alderman in Kent, Bertulf alderman in Essex, Wulfred alderman in Hampshire, Elhard Bishop of Dorchester, Eadulf a king's thane in Sussex, Bernuff governor of Winchester, and Egulf the king's horse-thane; and many also with them; though I have named only the men of the highest rank. This same year the plunderers in East-Anglia and Northumbria greatly harassed the land of the West-Saxons by piracies on the southern coast, but most of all by the esks which they built many years before. Then King Alfred (age 48) gave orders for building long ships against the esks, which were full-nigh twice as long as the others. Some had sixty oars, some more; and they were both swifter and steadier, and also higher than the others. They were not shaped either after the Frisian or the Danish model, but so as he himself thought that they might be most serviceable. Then, at a certain turn of this same year, came six of their ships to the Isle of Wight; and going into Devonshire, they did much mischief both there and everywhere on the seacoast. Then commanded the king his men to go out against them with nine of the new ships, and prevent their escape by the mouth of the river to the outer sea. Then came they out against them with three ships, and three others were standing upwards above the mouth on dry land: for the men were gone off upon shore. Of the first three ships they took two at the mouth outwards, and slew the men; the third veered off, but all the men were slain except five; and they too were severely wounded. Then came onward those who manned the other ships, which were also very uneasily situated. Three were stationed on that side of the deep where the Danish ships were aground, whilst the others were all on the opposite side; so that none of them could join the rest; for the water had ebbed many furlongs from them. Then went the Danes from their three ships to those other three that were on their side, be-ebbed; and there they then fought. There were slain Lucomon, the king's reve, and Wulfheard, a Frieslander; Ebb, a Frieslander, and Ethelere, a Frieslander; and Ethelferth, the king's neat-herd; and of all the men, Frieslanders and English, sixty-two; of the Danes a hundred and twenty. The tide, however, reached the Danish ships ere the Christians could shove theirs out; whereupon they rowed them out; but they were so crippled, that they could not row them beyond the coast of Sussex: there two of them the sea drove ashore; and the crew were led to Winchester to the king, who ordered them to be hanged. The men who escaped in the single ship came to East-Anglia, severely wounded. This same year were lost no less than twenty ships, and the men withal, on the southern coast. Wulfric, the king's horse-thane, who was also viceroy of Wales, died the same year.

On 02 May 1230 William de Braose (age 26) was hanged by Llewellyn "The Great" Aberffraw (age 58) for having been found in the bedchamber of his wife Joan Plantagenet (age 39). His daughter Eva de Braose (age 3) succeeded 10th Baron Bergavenny (Feudal Creation). William Cantilupe by marriage Baron Bergavenny Feudal Creation.

On 03 Oct 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd Aberffraw Prince of Wales (age 45) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Shrewsbury, Shropshire [Map]. The first prominent person known to have suffered being hanged, drawn and quartered. Dafydd (age 45) was dragged through the streets of Shrewsbury, Shropshire [Map] attached to a horse's tail, then hanged alive, revived, then disembowelled and his entrails burned before him for "his sacrilege in committing his crimes in the week of Christ's passion", and then his body cut into four-quarters "for plotting the king's death". Geoffrey of Shrewsbury was paid 20 shillings for carrying out the act.

Execution of William Wallace

On 23 Aug 1305 William Wallace was hanged at the Elms in Smithfield [Map]. His head being displayed on London Bridge [Map].

On 08 Apr 1956 a plaque was unveiled on the wall of St Bartholomew's Hospital near to the site of his execution the text of which reads ...

To the immortal memory of Sir William Wallace Scottish patriot born at Elderslie Renfrewshire circa 1270 A.D. Who from the year 1296 fought dauntlessly in defence of his country's liberty and independence in the face of fearful odds and great hardship being eventually betrayed and captured brought to London and put to death near this spot on the 23rd August 1305.

His example heroism and devotion inspired those who came after him to win victory from defeat and his memory remains for all time a source of pride, honour and inspiration to his Countrymen.

"Dico tibi verum libertas optima rerum nunquam servili sub nexu vivito fili"

Translation: I tell you the truth, son, freedom is the best condition, never live like a slave

"Bas Agus Buaidh" aka Death and Victory, a traditional Scottish battle cry.

On 20 Sep 1305 Nigel Bruce (age 29) was hanged at Berwick on Tweed [Map].

In 1306 Simon Fraser was hanged.

After 26 Mar 1306 Christopher Seton (age 28) was hanged.

On 04 Aug 1306 John Seton (age 28) was hanged at Newcastle upon Tyne [Map] following his capture by English forces after the fall of Tibbers Castle, Carronbridge.

On 07 Nov 1306 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl (age 40) was hanged on a scaffold thirty feet higher than the others to denote his statusin London. His son David Strathbogie 10th Earl Atholl succeeded 10th Earl Atholl.

Battle of Loch Ryan and the Execution of the Bruce Brothers

On 09 Feb 1307 the Battle of Loch Ryan was a victory of local forces, led by Dungal MacDowall, supporter of King Edward I, over a force consisting of 1000 men and eighteen galleys led by Thomas Bruce (age 23) and Alexander Bruce (age 22), brothers of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland (age 32), supported by Malcolm McQuillan, Lord of Kintyre, and Sir Reginald Crawford. Only two galleys escaped. Malcolm McQuillan was captured an summarily executed.

Thomas Bruce (age 23), Alexander Bruce (age 22) and Reginald Crawford were hanged (possibly hanged, drawn and quartered) at Carlisle, Cumberland [Map].

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) was returning from Canterbury, Kent [Map] to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle, Kent [Map] which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (age 37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (age 37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros of Helmsley (age 13), Maud Badlesmere Countess of Oxford (age 13), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere (age 6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot (age 6)), and her nephew Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 34), were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

In 1322 William Cheney (age 47) was hanged.

Battle of Boroughbridge

On 16 Mar 1322 the rebel army led by Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 44) attempted to cross the bridge over the River Ure (between Ripon and York) at Boroughbridge Bridge [Map]. Their path was blocked by forces loyal to the King led by Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle (age 52). Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46), Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 34), John Botetort 1st Baron Botetort (age 57) and John Maltravers 1st Baron Maltravers (age 32) fought for the rebels. Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford (age 22), Nicholas Longford (age 37), Thomas Plantagenet 2nd Earl of Leicester, 2nd Earl Lancaster, Earl of Salisbury and Lincoln (age 44), John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray (age 35) were captured.

Warin Lisle (age 51) was hanged after the battle at Pontefract [Map].

Following the battle Hugh Audley 1st Earl Gloucester (age 31) and his wife Margaret Clare Countess Gloucester were both imprisoned. He in Nottingham Castle [Map] and she in Sempringham Priory [Map].

John Clinton 2nd Baron Clinton (age 22), Ralph Greystoke 1st Baron Greystoke (age 22), William Latimer 2nd Baron Latimer of Corby (age 46), Robert Lisle 1st Baron Lisle (age 34), Domhnall Mar II Earl Mar (age 29) and Peter Saltmarsh (age 42) fought for the King.

Adam Everingham 1st Baron Everingham of Laxton (age 43) was captured.

Humphrey Bohun 4th Earl Hereford 3rd Earl Essex (age 46) was killed. His son John Bohun 5th Earl Hereford 4th Earl Essex (age 15) succeeded 5th Earl Hereford, 4th Earl Essex.

Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley of Stratton Audley (age 55) surrendered before the battle and was imprisoned in Wallingford Castle [Map] for the rest of his life

On 23 Mar 1322 at York [Map] ...

Roger Clifford 2nd Baron Clifford (age 22) was hanged. His brother Robert Clifford 3rd Baron Clifford (age 16) succeeded 3rd Baron de Clifford.

John Mowbray 2nd Baron Mowbray (age 35) was hanged. He was buried at Fountains Abbey [Map]. His son John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray (age 11) succeeded 3rd Baron Mowbray.

On 03 Mar 1323 Andrew Harclay 1st Earl Carlisle (age 53) was hanged at Carlisle, Cumberland [Map] for having negotiated a truce with the Scots despite having successfuly defeated the rebels at the Battle of Boroughbridge a year before for which he was enobled by King Edward II of England (age 38). Earl Carlisle forfeit.

On 27 Oct 1326 Hugh "Elder" Despencer 1st Earl Winchester (age 65) was hanged at Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map]. Earl Winchester, Baron Despencer forfeit as a result of attainder.

Froissart. WHEN the queen (age 31) and her barons and all her company were lodged at their ease, then they besieged the castle [Map] as near as they might. The queen (age 31) caused sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) the elder and the earl of Arundel (age 41) to be brought forth before Edward her son (age 13) and all the barons that were there present, and said how that she and her son (age 13) should take right and law on them according to their deserts. Then sir Hugh Spencer (deceased) said, 'Madam, God be to you a good judge and give you good judgment1, and if we cannot have it in this world, I pray God we may have it in another.' Then stept forth Sir Thomas Wake (age 29), a good knight and marshal of the host, and there openly he recounted their deeds in writing, and then turned him to another ancient knight to the intent that he should bring him on that case fauty1, and to declare what should be done with such persons, and what judgment they should have for such causes. Then the said knight counselled with other barons and knights, and so reported their opinions, the which was, how they had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds, the which they have commised, for all the trespass rehearsed before to justify to be of truth;3 wherefore they have deserved for the diversities of their trespasses to have judgment in three divers manners-first, to be drawn, and after to be headed, and then to be hanged on the gibbet. This in likewise as they were judged so it was done and executed before the castle of Bristow [Map] in the sight of the king and of sir Hugh Spencer the younger (age 40). This judgment was done in the year of our Lord MCCCXXVI., on Saint Denis' day in October [Note. Saint Denis' day is 09 Oct not 27 Oct?].

Note 1. This should be, 'God give us a good judge and good judgment ' ; but Verard's edition, from which the translation was made, has 'vous' for 'nous.'

Note 2. This appears to mean, ' To the intent that he should find him guilty on the charge' ('fauty' for 'faulty'); but the original means, 'To the intent that he should declare upon his fealty (féaulté) what should be done with such persons,' etc.

Note 3. Or rather as follows: ' That the accused had well deserved death for divers horrible deeds which they had heard in that place rehearsed, and held them for true and manifest.'

Execution of Hugh Despencer The Younger

On 24 Nov 1326 Hugh "Younger" Despencer 1st Baron Despencer (age 40) was hanged in Hereford [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 31) and Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 39) were present.

He was dragged naked through the streets, for the crowd's mistreatment. He was made a spectacle, which included writing on his body biblical verses against the capital sins he was accused of. Then he was hanged as a mere commoner, yet released before full asphyxiation could happen.

He was then tied firmly to a ladder and his genitals sliced off and burned while he was still conscious. His entrails were slowly pulled out; finally, his heart was cut out and thrown into a fire. His body was beheaded and cut into four pieces. His head was mounted on the gates of London.

Baron Despencer forfeit.

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was hanged naked at Tyburn [Map] accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35) subsequently requested his burial at Wigmore Abbey [Map] and, after firstly refusing, King Edward III of England (age 18) allowed his remains to be removed to Wigmore Abbey [Map]. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March (age 2) succeeded 2nd Earl March, 4th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore.

Merciless Parliament

On 03 Feb 1388 the Merciless Parliament commenced. It ended on 04 Jun 1388. Its primary function was to prosecute members of the Court of King Richard II of England (age 21). The term "Merciless" is contemporary having been coined by the chronicler Henry Knighton.

Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 58) was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in his absence. He had escaped to France.

Archbishop Alexander Neville (age 47) was found guilty of treason and it was determined to imprison him for life in Rochester Castle, Kent [Map]. He fled to Louvain [Map] where he became a parish priest for the remainder of his life.

On 19 Feb 1388 Robert Tresilian was hanged naked and his throat cut. See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 25 Mar 1388 Nicholas Brembre was hanged. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

On 05 May 1388 Simon Burley (age 48) was executed despite the protestations of his friend Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York (age 46). See Chronicle of Adam of Usk.

On 12 May 1388 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp (age 69) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Baron Beauchamp of Kidderminster forfeit.

Robert de Vere 1st Duke Ireland (age 26) was attainted.

Epiphany Rising

On 12 Jan 1400 Thomas Blount (age 48) was hanged at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] by Thomas Erpingham (age 45).

Battle of Shrewsbury

On 21 Jul 1403 King Henry IV of England (age 36), with his son the future King Henry V of England (age 16), defeated the rebel army of Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 39) at the Battle of Shrewsbury at the site now known as Battlefield, Shrewsbury [Map]. King Henry V of England (age 16) took an arrow to the side of his face leaving him severely scarred. John Stanley (age 53) was wounded in the throat. Thomas Strickland (age 36) fought and was awarded £38 and two of the rebel Henry's horses. Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 21) fought for the King. Walter Blount (age 55), the King's Standard Bearer, was killed by Archibald Douglas 1st Duke Touraine (age 31).

Thomas Wendesley (age 59) and Edmund Cockayne (age 47) were killed.

Edmund Stafford 5th Earl Stafford (age 25) was killed. His son Humphrey Stafford  succeeded 6th Earl Stafford, 7th Baron Stafford.

Hugh Shirley (age 52) was killed; he was one of four knights dressed as King Henry IV of England (age 36).

Of the rebels, Henry "Hotspur" Percy (age 39), Madog Kynaston (age 43) and John Clifton were killed.

Thomas Percy 1st Earl of Worcester (age 60) was beheaded after the battle. Earl Worcester extinct.

Richard Vernon 11th Baron Shipbrook (age 48) was hanged. Baron Shipbrook forfeit.

John Rossall was killed. His sister Eleanor Rossall (age 26) inherited a half-share in the Rossall Shrewsbury [Map] estates.

John Massey (age 65) was killed.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

In 1404 William Serle was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for having been one of the murderers of Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 05 Jan 1415. Ande that same year, on the Twelfe the nyght, were a-restyd certayne personys, called Lollers, atte the sygne of the Ax, whithe out Byschoppe is gate, the whyche Lollers hadde caste to have made a mommynge at Eltham, and undyr coloure of the mommynge to have dystryte the kyng (age 28) and Hooly Chyrche. And they hadde ordaynyde to have hadde the fylde be-syde Syn Gylys. But, thonkyd be God Almighty, owre kyng (age 28) hadde warnyng thereof, and he come unto London and toke the felde be syde Syn Jonys in Clerkynwelle; and as they come the kyng (age 28) toke them, and many othyr. And there was a knyght take that was namy[d] Syr Roger of Acton, and he was drawe and hanggyd be syde Syn Gyly, for the King let to be made iiij payre of galowys, the whiche that were i-callyd the Lollers galowys. Al so a preste that hyght Syr John Bevyrlay, and a squyer that hyght John Browne of Oldecastellys, they were hanggyd; and many moo were hanggyd and brent, to the nomber of xxxviij personys and moo.

Execution of Lollard John Oldcastle

On 14 Dec 1417 John Oldcastle was hanged in St Giles' Field Holborn for being a Lollard.

Chronicle of Gregory 1440. 1440. Ande that year was the Parlyment concludyd, and ordaynyd that Lumbardys sholde goo to hoste. And that same year alyens were putte to her fynaunce to pay a certayne a year to the King. Also in the same year there were ij traytours hangyde on a payre of galowys that were made in Temys for the same purposse, be syde Syn Kateryns.

On 09 Jan 1450 Bishop Adam Moleyns was lynched by a mob of discontented unpaid soldiers who dragged him from the Royal Garrison Church, Portsmouth and executed him for being a supporter of William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) and for the losses in Normandy.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

On 26 Feb 1462 John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford (age 53) was hanged at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 19) succeeded 13th Earl of Oxford.

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho was arrested at Keyford, Somerset and taken to Bath, Somerset [Map]. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) believed she had murdered his wife Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence who had died four months before.

On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho taken to Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho and John Thursby were hanged at Myton Gallows, Warwick [Map].

Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) were hanged at Tyburn [Map] for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 42).

John Stacy and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire (age 52) were hanged.

Yorkshire Rebellion

On 28 Apr 1489 Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 40) was hanged at York [Map] by the rebels when attempting to collect the tax.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 11) succeeded 5th Earl of Northumberland, 8th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 16th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 7th Baron Poynings.

The King then sent an army of 8000 north led by Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 46). The rebels dispersed; their leader John à Chambre was hanged for treason. The rebels then chose John Percy (age 30) as their leader. His leadership proved less than reliable; he eventually fled to the court of Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 42) (sister of Edward IV and Richard III) who remained sympathetic to the Yorkist cause.

In Dec 1489 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 11) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham were married. She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham. The executors of her father Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland, who had been hanged by rebels during the Northern Rebellion earlier in the year, having paid King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 32) £4000 for the privilege. His father, Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham, had been hanged for treason in 1483. She the daughter of Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland and Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland. He the son of Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham and Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford (age 31). They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 23 Nov 1499 Perkin Warbreck (age 25) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Evil May Day Riots

On 30 Apr 1516 the Evil May Day Riots were a protest against foreigners living in London. Apprentices attacked foreign residents. Some of the rioters were later hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1510-1519. 30 Apr 1517. This yeare, on Thursday, the last day of Aprill, there was an insurrection of yonge men and aprentises in London.a And the Munday after, beinge the 4 of Maye, there was brought from the Tower of London to the Guyld-hall 54 persons,b and there were indited. And the morrowe after a 11 persons were judged to death; fower of them to be hanged, drawne, and their bowells brent, and then quartered, which was so done; one of them at Blanck Chappeltone,c another at Leaden Hall [Map], and two at the Standerd [Map] in Cheepe. And the other 7 were hanged on other gallowes which were sett up in divers places within the Cittie of London.

Note a. A fuller account of this uprising of the London Apprentices will be found in Hall and Stow.

Note b. 278 prisoners were arraigned before the Commissioners at Guildhall, of whom 13 were capitally executed. — Hall.

Note c. Blanche-Chapelton, i.e. Whitechapel.

On 20 Feb 1523 Alice aka Agnes Cotell (age 38) and William Mathewe were hanged at Tyburn [Map] for the murder of her first husband John Cotell.

Execution of Elizabeth Barton and her Supporters

On 20 Apr 1534 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton (age 28) was hanged for treason at Tyburn [Map]. Five of her supporters were hanged alongside her:

Edward Bocking, Benedictine Monk of Christ Church, Canterbury

John Dering, Benedictine Monk

Henry Gold, Priest

Hugh Rich, Franciscan Friar

Richard Risby, Franciscan Friar

Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 17 May 1536. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde (age 33), Mr. Norys (age 54), Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston (age 25), and Markys (age 24), were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill [Map]; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London [Map]; the Lord of Rochfordes (age 33) bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower [Map], Mr. Weston (age 25) and Norys (age 54) in the church yeard of the same [Map] in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes (age 24) in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Around Oct 1536. In this time of insurrection, and in the rage of hurley burley, even when the King’s army and the rebels were ready to join, the King’s banner being displayed, and the King’s Majesty then living at Winsore [Map], there was a butcher dwelling within five mile of Wynsore [Map] which caused a priest to preach that all such which took part with the Yorkshiremen whom he named God’s people, did fight and defend God’s quarrel and farther the said butcher in selling of his meat, one did bid him a less price of a sheep then he made of it, he answered nay by God’s soul, I had rather the good fellows of the north had it among them and a score more of the best I have: this priest and butcher were accused to the King’s Majesty’s Counsell, of the treasons abovesaid on the Monday in the morning and the same day were both sent for, which confessed there treasons and so according to the law marshal they were adjudged to die: and so the said Monday they were both examined, condemned and hanged, the bocher was hanged on a new pair of gallows set at the bridge end before the castle gate: and the priest was hanged on a tree at the foot of Winsore [Map] bridge.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 02 Jun 1537 Thomas Percy (age 33), Francis Bigod (age 29), and John Bulmer and Ralph Bulmer were hanged at Tyburn [Map].

On 06 Jul 1537 Robert Constable (age 59) was hanged in chains from the Beverley Gate in Kingston upon Hull witnessed by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk (age 64).

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske (age 37) was hanged in chains at Clifford's Tower. The date may have been Friday 06 Jul as implied by the letters of the Duke of Norfolk?

George aka William Lumley and Nicholas Tempest (age 57) were hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Pilgrimage of Grace

On 20 Nov 1539 Nicholas Tempest of Holmeside (age 53) was hanged for his part in the Pilgrimage of Grace.

In Aug 1540 Giles Heron (age 36) was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for treason; not clear what his crime was?.

1541 Executions

On 20 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 26) was tried for the murder of John Busbrig, servant of Nicholas Pelham (age 24) on whose land they were poaching on 30 Apr 1541. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68) was appointed Lord High Steward for the trial.

On 29 Jun 1541 he was hanged at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate Church. Baron Dacre Gilsland forfeit. His son Gregory (age 1) would be restored to the title in 1558.

Note. Hall's Chronicle says strangled.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Feb 1544. The xiiij day of Feybruary wher hangyd at evere gatt and plasse: in Chepe-syd vj; Algatt [Map] j, quartered; at Leydynhall [Map] iij; at Bysshope-gatt [Map] on, and quartered; Morgatt one; Crepullgatt [Map] one; Aldersgatt on, quartered; Nuwgat [Map] on, quartered; Ludgatt on; Belyngat iij hangyd; Sant Magnus iij hangyd; Towre hyll [Map] ij. hangyd; Holborne iij hangyd; Flettstret [Map] iij hangyd; at Peper alley gat iij; Barunsaystret iij; Sant Gorgus iij; Charyng crosse [Map] iiij, on Boyth the fottman, and Vekars of the gard, and ij moo; at Hydparke corner iij, on Polard a waterbeyrar; theys iij hanges in chynes; and but vij quartered, and ther bodys and heds set a-pon the gattes of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 14 Feb 1554. 14 Feb 1544. The 14 of February divers of the rebells were putt to death, that is to saye, Bothe, one of the Queenes footemen, one Vicars, a Yeoman of the Garde, great John Norton, and one Kinge, were hanged at Charinge Crosse [Map]. And three of the rebells, one called Pollarde, were hanged at the parke pale by Hide Parke; three allso in Fleet street, one at Ludgate, one at Bishopsgate [Map], one at Newgate [Map], one at Aldgate [Map], three at the Crosse [Map] in Cheape, three at Soper Lane ende in Chepe, and three in Smithfield [Map], which persons hanged still all that daye and night tyll the next morninge, and then cutt downe.a And the bodies of them that were hanged at the gates were quartered at Newgate [Map], and the heades and bodies hanged over the gates where they suffred.

Note a. The Grey Friares Chronicle (p. 88) adds "the whych ware of London that fled from the Dnke of Norfoke."

Wriothesley's Chronicle 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche [Map], iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall [Map], one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill [Map], ii at Tyburne [Map], and at 4 places in Sowthwerke [Map] 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston [Map] and other places.

Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.

Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (deceased) and her husband (deceased), the Duke of Suffolk's (age 37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (age 27) has been sent back to the Tower [Map], where are also the Duke of Suffolk (age 37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey and John Grey (age 30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (age 81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (age 53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.

They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (age 47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.

Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.

Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.

On 07 Mar 1544 Thomas Larke (age 54) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche was hangyd, in Smyth-feld [Map], on John Mosbe and ys syster, for the death of a gentyll man of Feyversham, one M. Arden the custemer, and ys owne wyff was decaul.... and she was burnyd at Canturbery [Map] and her sarvand hangyd ther, and ij at Feyversham and on at Hospryng, and nodur in the he way to Canturbery, for the death of M. Arden of Feyversham. [and at Flusshyng was bernyd Blake Tome for the sam deth of M. Arden. [Note. This last line was added to the entry some time after it was written.]

Note. The murder of master Arden of Feversham. The particulars of this memorable domestic tragedy will be found very fully narrated in Holinshed's Chronicle; and from the Wardmote Book of Feversham in Jacob's History of that town, 8vo. 1774, p. 197. See also a long narrative among Stowe's transcripts, MS. Harl. 542, ff. 34-37. It created so great a public interest that it became the subject not only of a Ballad which will be found in Evans's collection, 1810, vol. iii. pp. 217-225; but also of a Play published in 4to. 1592, again in 1599 and 1633, and lastly in 1770, when the editor, Edward Jacob, esq. who afterwards published the History of Feversham above mentioned, in his preface offered "some reasons in favour of its being the earliest dramatic work of Shakspeare now remaining." Mr. Collier's remarks on this subject will be found in his History of the Stage and of Dramatic Poetry, iii. 52. Lillo also began a tragedy founded on the same story, which was finished by Dr. John Hoadly, and printed in 12mo. 1762.

The concern taken by the government in the prosecution of the parties guilty of this murder, is shown by the following extracts from the Privy Council book:-

"1551, 5th Marche. A Lettere to the Justyces of Peace in Kente, advertesinge them the order taken for the punishmente of those that murdered Mr. Ardeyrn; Videliset, Sicely Pounder, widowe, and Thomas Mosbye, to be hanged in Smithfield, in London; Alice Ardeyrn, to be burned at Canterburye, and Bradshawe, to be hanged there in cheanes; Michaell Saunderson, to be hanged, drawne, and quartered, at Feversham, and Elizabeth Stafford to be burned there." (MS. Harl. 352, fol. 156.) On the same day, "A Letter to the Sherifes of London, to receave of the Sherife of Kent, Cicelye Poundere, widowe, and Thomas Mosbye, to be hanged in Smithfield, for the Murder of Thomas Ardeine of Fevershame; and a Letter to the Maiore of Canterburye, to receave of the Sherife of Kente Alice Ardeine, to be burned at Canterburye, and Bradshawe, to be hanged there, for the Murder of Mr. Ardeine." (lb. fol. 157.)

The actual murderer, and also one Greene, a confederate, had escaped. The following entries will be found to correct and explain Holinshed's account of their capture.

"1551, 28th May. A Lettere to Mr. North, to enlarge one Bate out of thecountere, who convayed away one Greene, of Fevershame, after the Murdere of Mr. Ardeine was ther don, and undertaketh to brynge forthe Greene again, yf he may have libertie; providinge that he take sufficient sureties, either to become prisonere againe, or else to bringe forthe the said Greene." (lb. fol. 174.)

"1551, 15th June. A Letter to Sr. William Godolphine knighte, of thankes for his dilligence in the apprehencione of Blacke Will, that killed Mr. Arderne of Feversham, and to send him in saufe garde, with promise of paymente for the charges of the bringeres "It appears from Holinshed and from our Diary (in which this person is called Black Tom,) that he was not sent home, according to this request, but was "burnt on a scaffold, at Flushing, in Zealand."

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (age 51) was had from the Tower of London [Map] by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall [Map], and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (age 68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.

Note a. His judges were Northumberland (age 47), Northampton (age 39), Pembroke (age 50), and the other leading members of the government, - the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, - and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.

Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (age 47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 27 Jan 1552. The 27 of January Sir Raphe Vane, knight, was arraigned at Westminster, and condempned for felony, and had judgment to be hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 28 Jan 1552. The 28 of January Sir Thomas Arundell (age 50), knight, was arraigned at Westminster, and condempned for fellonie, and had judgment to be hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 05 Feb 1552. The 5 of February, Sir Myles Patriche, knight, was arraigned at Westminster and condempned for fellonie, and had judgment to be hanged.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 09 Feb 1552. The 9 of February Sir Michaell Stanope (age 45), knight, was arraigned at Westminster and condempned for felonie, and had judgment to be hanged.

Annales of England by John Stow. 26 Feb 1552. The 26 of February, Sir Ralph a Vane and Sir Miles Partridge were hanged on the tower hill [Map], Sir Michael Stanhope (age 45) with Sir Thomas Arundel (age 50) were beheaded there: all which foure persons tooke on their death that thep never offended against the kings maiestie, nor against any of his counfell.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 May 1552. The sam day was hangyd at Tyborne [Map] ix fello[ns.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Jul 1552. The xj day of July hangyd one James Ellys, the grett pykke purs that ever was, and cutt-purs, and vij more for theyfft, at Tyburne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Dec 1552. The xxj day of Desember rod to Tyborne [Map] to be hangyd for a robery done on Honsley heth, iij talmen and a lake.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Jan 1553. [Note. Probably February] The iij day of January was cared from the Marshalleshe [Map] unto saynt Thomas of Wateryng a talman, and whent thedur with the rope a-bowt ys neke, and so he hangyd a whylle, and the rope burst, and a whylle after and then th[ey went f] or a-nodur rope, and so lyke-wyss he burst yt [and fell] to the grond, and so he skapyd with ys lyffe.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Apr 1553. The xxv day of Aprell wher hangyd at saynt T[homas] of Wateryng, of saynt Marke day, vj feylons; iiij [were] hangyd with ij altars [halters] a-pese, and the ij wher pore (?) with one.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Feb 1554. The sam day was Mans gohyng in-to-Kent, to Canboroke, and fochyd a-gayn, and browth to sant Gorgeus cyrche, and ther he was hangyd by iiij of the cloke at nyght, for he was a ryche man.

Note. P. 56. Execution of Mans. No mention of this "rich man" occurs under Cranbrook in Hasted's History of Kent.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Sep 1554. The xx day of September was ij men dran of ij hyrdles unto Tyburne [Map] and un-to hangyng, the ij for qwynnyng [coining] of noythy [naughty] money, and deseyvyng of the quen('s) subjects; the one dwelt in London sum tym.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Sep 1554. The xxvij day of September wher iiij hangyd, on was a Spaneard, at Tyburne [Map]: ij wher goodly felows.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Oct 1554. The xxvj day of October was hangyd at Charynge-crosse [Map] a Spaneard that kyld a servant of ser Gorge Gefford, the wyche was slayne with-owt Tempull-bare.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Jan 1555. The xviij day of January wher hangyd at Tyborne [Map] ij men and iiij women.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1555. The vij day of Marche was hangyd at Tyborne [Map] x theyffes for robere and odur thynges.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1555. The xxvj day of Aprell was cared from the Marselsee [Map] in a care thrugh London unto Charyng-crosse [Map] to the galows, and ther hangyd, iij men for robyng of serten Spaneardes of tresur of gold owt of the abbay of Vestmynster.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jul 1555. P. 91. The vj day of July rod to Tyburne [Map] to be hangyd iij men, and on drane [drawn] upon a hyrdyll unto Tyburne for qwynnyng [coining] of money.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Oct 1555. The xxviij day of October in the mornyng was set up in Fletstrett, be-syd the well, a payre of galaus, and ij men hangyd, for the robere of a Spaneard, (and they were) hangyng aganst the Spaneardes gate be-tyme in the mornyng, and so hangyng alle the day in the rayne.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Mar 1556. The xxvij day of Marche was hangyd be-yonde Huntyngtun in cheynes [chains] on Spenser, for the deth of master Rufford of Bokyngham-shyre, by ys fellow Conears hangys.

Note. P. 102. Benett Smith hanged for the murder of master Rufford. "An act of parliament passed in 1555 to take away the benefit of clergy from Benedict Smith of Edlesborough, yeoman, who had instigated Francis Coniers, of London, gent, and John Spencer, yeoman, by the promise of 40l. (in part of which 40s. and a gold ring was afterwards paid,) to murder Giles Rufford, esq. of Boteler's in Edlesborough, giving them two javelings and a dagge for that purpose. The murder was committed at Alconbury Weston, in the county of Huntingdon. This act, which is printed in Rastall's Statutes, was procured (the murderers being then not apprehended) by Margery, widow of Giles Rufford." (Lysons's Buckinghamshire, p. 691.) See also further particulars in Lipscomb's History of Buckinghamshire, vol. iii. p. 351; and the Journals of the House of Commons, vol. i. p. 45.

On 21 Apr 1556 John Throckmorton (age 27) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jul 1556. The vij day of July was hangyd on the galaus on Towre-hylle [Map] for tresun a-gaynst the quen, on master Hare Peckham, and the thodur master John Daneell, and after cutt downe and heded, and ther hedes cared unto Londune bryge and ther sett up, and ther bodys bered at Allalows-barkyng [Map].

Note. P. 109. Execution of Peckham and Daniel. "The 8. of July, Henry Peckham, son to sir Edmond Peckham, and John Daniel, were hanged and headed on Tower-hill, for being of counsell with them that should have robbed the queenes treasure of her exchequer, and their bodies buried in Barking church." Stowe's Chronicle.—Daniel's name remains cut on the wall of his prison, "John Daniel, 1556." See Bayley's History of the Tower of London, p. 207.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1556. The viij day of Julii was on of the laborars of Bryd-welle for brykyng upon of a chest was hangyd in the mydes of the furst courtt apon a jubett.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1556. The xxxj day of July was raynyd at the Yeld-halle [Map] .... robars of the see a vj, and the morow after thay wher hangyd at Wapyng at the low-water marke.

Note. P. 111. Pirates hung at Wapping at the low-water mark. Other instances of this will be found at pp. 131, 231, 256, 281. Stowe mentions Wapping as "the usuall place of execution for hanging of pirats and sea-rovers, at the low-water marke, there to remaine till three tides had overflowed them:" adding, that in his time the gallows had been removed to a greater distance from the city, in consequence of the street which had grown up within the last fifty years, "almost to Radcliffe, a good mile from the Tower."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Oct 1556. The xxx day of October was hanged at the [palace gate] at sant James iiij men for robyng [at the] courte of one of the quen('s) maydes, and ij for robyng [of the] knyght marshall('s) servandes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell was hangyd at the low-water marke at Wapyng be-yond santt Katheryns vij for robyng on the see.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell hangyd at Tyborne [Map] viij f ....

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1560. The sam day was sessyons at Nuwgatt, and ther ... wher cast xij, and vj was bornyd in ther hand, and the .... was iij [3] cared to Tyburne [Map], and ther hangyd, and on [one] rep[rieved].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1560. The sam day of Marche [rode to hanging] xj; vij wer men, and iiij women; on woman the sam woman that kyllyd the man in Turnagayne lane; and on man was a gentyllman; and a-nodur [a priest,] for cuttyng of a purse of iij s. but he was [burnt] in the hand afore, or elles ys boke [Note. A reference to the 'benefit of clergy' by which he would have been judged in an ecclesiatical court.] would have [saved] hym,-a man of liiij [54] yere old.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Apr 1560. The xxix day of Aprell whent to hangyng ix men and one woman to Tyburne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Apr 1561. The sam day wher ij hangyd at Wapyng, ij for robyng of the see.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Apr 1561. The xxj day of Aprell wher hangyd ix, at Hyd parke korner iij, and vj at Tyborne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1562. The xxvij day of June whent to Tyburne [Map] v men and iiij women for to hange for thefte.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1562. The x day of August was drane from .... unto Tyborne [Map] Phelype Furney gold-smyth d[welling in] sant Barthelmuwe in Smythfeld for cowyning [coining], and hangyd after, and (blank) Walker was cared in a care to Tyburne, and hangyd for robere.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1563. The viij day of Marche wher hangyd at Tyburne [Map] x men; [one] was Brutun, and (blank) after browth bake to sant Pulkurs ther to be bered, and ther master Veron the vecar mad a sermon for them.

Babington Plot

On 20 Sep 1586 Anthony Babington (age 24), John Ballard, Henry Donn, Thomas Salusbury (age 22) and Chideock Tichbourne (age 24) were hanged at St Giles' Field Holborn for their involvement.

On 14 Feb 1601 Thomas Lee (age 50) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

On 03 May 1606 Henry Garnet Jesuit (age 50) was hanged in St Paul's Cathedral Churchyard [Map].

On 29 Jun 1612 Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar was hanged in Westminster Palace Yard for having arranged the murder of his fencing Master John Painter Turner who had previously disfigured him during practice. At his trial Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban (age 51) read the charges.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 20 Nov 1616 Gervase Helwys (age 55) was hanged at Tower Hill [Map]. He gave a speech to the crowd ...

... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman, making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.

Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill [Map], rather than in the place of common Execution [Map], where every base Malefactor dyeth.

Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.

It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (age 64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (age 50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.

My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.

And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.

I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.

I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.

The summe of his Prayer.

O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.

Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.

After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.

Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any unrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.

On 29 Nov 1628 John Felton (age 33) was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for having murdered the Duke of Buckingham.

1533 Buggery Act

On 05 Dec 1640 John Atherton Bishop (age 42) was hanged at St Stephen's Green, Dublin for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act a law he had pushed for in Ireland.

In 1810 two men were hanged and six pilloried, known as the Vere Street Coterie, for offences against the 1533 Buggery Act. The The club had been operating for less than six months.

On 08 Jul 1810 the Bow Street police raided the White Swan on Vere Street in London that had been established as a molly-house in early 1810 by two men, James Cook and Yardley. Twenty-seven men were arrested, but the majority of them were released (perhaps as a result of bribe); eight were tried and convicted. On 27 Sep 1810 six men were pilloried at the Haymarket. On 07 Mar 1811 John Hepburn (46) and Thomas White (16), a drummer boy, were hanged at Newgate Prison, London [Map] despite not being present on the night of the raid.

On 27 Nov 1835 James Pratt 1805-1835 and John Smith 1795-1835 were the last two men to be executed under the 1828 Offences Against the Person Act which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act. They were hanged in front of Newgate Prison, London [Map].

Battle of Carbisdale

On 21 May 1650 James Graham 1st Marquess Montrose (age 37) was hanged at Edinburgh [Map] following his capture at the Battle of Carbisdale. His body was dismembered following his death. His son James Graham 2nd Marquess Montrose (age 19) succeeded 2nd Marquess Montrose.

In 1660 John Hay 1st Marquess Teviotdale (age 34) was imprisoned for supporting James Guthrie the Scottish Presbyterian minister who was exempted from the general pardon at the restoration of the monarchy and hanged in Edinburgh 01 Jun 1661.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1660. Saturday. A great while at my vial and voice, learning to sing "Fly boy, fly boy", without book. So to my office, where little to do. In the Hall I met with Mr. Eglin and one Looker, a famous gardener, servant to my Lord Salsbury (age 68), and among other things the gardener told a strange passage in good earnest.... Home to dinner, and then went to my Lord's lodgings to my turret there and took away most of my books, and sent them home by my maid. Thither came Capt. Holland to me who took me to the Half Moon tavern [Map] and Mr. Southorne, Blackburne's clerk. Thence he took me to the Mitre in Fleet Street, where we heard (in a room over the music room) very plainly through the ceiling. Here we parted and I to Mr. Wotton's, and with him to an alehouse and drank while he told me a great many stories of comedies that he had formerly seen acted, and the names of the principal actors, and gave me a very good account of it. Thence to Whitehall, where I met with Luellin and in the clerk's chamber wrote a letter to my Lord. So home and to bed. This day two soldiers were hanged in the Strand [Map] for their late mutiny at Somerset-house [Map].

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn [Map] ...

Daniel Axtell (age 38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall [Map].

Francis Hacker was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1660. In the morning with Sir W. Batten (age 59) and Pen (age 39) by water to Westminster, where at my Lord's I met with Mr. Creed. With him to see my Lord's picture (now almost done), and thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where we found the Parliament met to-day, and thence meeting with Mr. Chetwind, I took them to the Sun, and did give them a barrel of oysters, and had good discourse; among other things Mr. Chetwind told me how he did fear that this late business of the Duke of York's (age 27) would prove fatal to my Lord Chancellor (age 51). From thence Mr. Creed and I to Wilkinson's, and dined together, and in great haste thence to our office, where we met all, for the sale of two ships by an inch of candle1 (the first time that ever I saw any of this kind), where I observed how they do invite one another, and at last how they all do cry, [To cry was to bid.] and we have much to do to tell who did cry last. The ships were the Indian, sold for £1,300, and the Half-moon, sold for £830. Home, and fell a-reading of the tryalls of the late men that were hanged for the King's death, and found good satisfaction in reading thereof.

Note 1. The old-fashioned custom of sale by auction by inch of candle was continued in sales by the Admiralty to a somewhat late date. See September 3rd, 1662.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Dec 1660. From thence I to my Lord's, and dined with him and told him what we had done to-day. Sir Tho. Crew (age 36) dined with my Lord to-day, and we were very merry with Mrs. Borfett, who dined there still as she has always done lately. After dinner Sir Tho. (age 36) and my Lady to the Playhouse [Map] to see "The Silent Woman". I home by water, and with Mr. Hater in my chamber all alone he and I did put this morning's design into order, which being done I did carry it to Sir W. Batten (age 59), where I found some gentlemen with him (Sir W. Pen (age 39) among the rest pretty merry with drink) playing at cards, and there I staid looking upon them till one o'clock in the morning, and so Sir W. Pen (age 39) and I went away, and I to bed. This day the Parliament voted that the bodies of Oliver, Ireton, Bradshaw, &c., should be taken up out of their graves in the Abbey, and drawn to the gallows, and there hanged and buried under it: which (methinks) do trouble me that a man of so great courage as he was, should have that dishonour, though otherwise he might deserve it enough.

Execution of the Fifth Monarchists

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1661. To the Comptroller's (age 50), and with him by coach to White Hall; in our way meeting Venner and Pritchard upon a sledge, who with two more Fifth Monarchy men were hanged to-day, and the two first drawn and quartered.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1661. This morning Sir W. Batten (age 60), the Comptroller (age 50) and I to Westminster, to the Commissioners for paying off the Army and Navy, where the Duke of Albemarle (age 52) was; and we sat with our hats on, and did discourse about paying off the ships and do find that they do intend to undertake it without our help; and we are glad of it, for it is a work that will much displease the poor seamen, and so we are glad to have no hand in it. From thence to the Exchequer, and took £200 and carried it home, and so to the office till night, and then to see Sir W. Pen (age 39), whither came my Lady Batten and her daughter, and then I sent for my wife, and so we sat talking till it was late. So home to supper and then to bed, having eat no dinner to-day. It is strange what weather we have had all this winter; no cold at all; but the ways are dusty, and the flyes fly up and down, and the rose-bushes are full of leaves, such a time of the year as was never known in this world before here. This day many more of the Fifth Monarchy men were hanged.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (age 63) and thence to the Theatre [Map], where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (age 63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.

Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn [Map], and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".-Rugge's Diurnal.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John (age 20), a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion. Then to my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn [Map]. Then I home1.

Note 1. "Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn [Map], and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails".-Rugge's Diurnal.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. The Bishopps are high, and go on without any diffidence in pressing uniformity; and the Presbyters seem silent in it, and either conform or lay down, though without doubt they expect a turn, and would be glad these endeavours of the other Fanatiques would take effect; there having been a plot lately found, for which four have been publickly tried at the Old Bayley and hanged. My Lord Sandwich (age 37) is still in good esteem, and now keeping his Christmas in the country; and I in good esteem, I think, as any man can be, with him. Mr. Moore is very sickly, and I doubt will hardly get over his late fit of sickness, that still hangs on him. In fine, for the good condition of myself, wife, family, and estate, in the great degree that it is, and for the public state of the nation, so quiett as it is, the Lord God be praised!

On 21 Jan 1664 Colonel James Turner (age 55) was hanged at St Mary Axe.

Calendars. 13 Nov 1664. 93. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet (age 46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes, Isle of Wight by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King's pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal, Kent [Map] should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to 'take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (age 31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King's ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (age 49) and Sir William Berkeley to his own, Mennes (age 65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert's (age 44), Sir George Aiscue (age 48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King's declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

On 22 Jan 1673 Mary Moders (age 31) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

In 1691 John Ashton Jacobite was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

In 1692 Andrew Clench was murdered between nine and eleven o'clock on the night of Monday by Henry Harrison who was subequently convicted of the murder. On 15 Apr 1692 Henry Harrison was hanged.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

On 18 Mar 1696 Robert Charnock (age 33) was hanged for his involvement in the 1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III.

On In Sep 1701 John Fenwick of Rock was hanged for the murder of Ferdinando Forster (deceased) a month before. The hanging took place at the location in which the murder took place.

On 06 Apr 1752, Easter Monday, Mary Blandy (age 32) was hanged outside Oxford Castle for having murdered her father Francis Blandy with arsenic.

Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

On 05 May 1760 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers (age 39) was hanged at Tyburn [Map] (the last peer to be hanged) for having shot his old family steward. His estates and titles were forfeit however.

On 12 Jun 1786 George Robert "Fighting Fitzgerald" Fitzgerald (age 38) was hanged for conspiracy to murder Patrick Randall McDonnell an attorney who had acted for his father in their legal disputes, and with whom in consequence he had a longstanding feud at Castlebar, County Mayo.

Assassination of Primeminister Spencer Perceval

On 11 May 1812 Spencer Perceval (age 49) was assassinated at House of Commons. Robert Jenkinson 2nd Earl Liverpool (age 41) was appointed Prime Minister.

At 5:15 pm, on the evening of 11 May 1812, Perceval was on his way to attend the inquiry into the Orders in Council. As he entered the lobby of the House of Commons, a man stepped forward, drew a pistol and shot him in the chest. The assassin, John Bellingham, was a merchant who believed he had been unjustly imprisoned in Russia and was entitled to compensation from the government, but all his petitions had been rejected.

Perceval left a widow and twelve children aged between three and twenty. Parliament voted to settle £50,000 on Perceval's children, with additional annuities for his widow and eldest son.

On 18 May 1812 John Bellingham was hanged at Newgate Prison, London [Map]. René Martin Pillet says ...

This unfortunate man had presented several memorials, and had repeatedly demanded audience, but they had given him no answer. Driven to despair, he presented himself at the door of the house of commons, waited for the prime minister, Mr. Percival, and shot him. He was seized, confessed the crime, was tried, condemned to be hung, and executed a few days after. At the time of execution an immense crowd filled the public square, and these expressions were heard on every side: Farewell poor man, you owe satisfaction to the offended laws of your country, but God bless you! you have rendered an important service to your country, you have tdugllt ministers that they should do justice, and grant audience when it is asked of them.

A subscription was opened for the widow and children, and a handsome sum was raised. Their fortune was ten times greater than they could ever have expected in any other situation.

On 13 Jul 1955 Ruth Ellis née Neilson was the last woman to be executed in the United Kingdom following the fatal shooting of her lover, David Blakely.

On 13 Aug 1964 the last execution occurred in England. Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison, Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison, Manchester, were executed for the murder of John Alan West on 7 April that year.

Evelyn's Diary. Having packed up my purchases of books, pictures, casts, treacle, etc. (the making an extraordinary ceremony whereof I had been curious to observe, for it is extremely pompous and worth seeing), I departed from Venice, accompanied with Mr. Waller (the celebrated poet), now newly gotten out of England, after the Parliament had extremely worried him for attempting to put in execution the commission of Array, and for which the rest of his colleagues were hanged by the rebels.