Biography of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702

Paternal Family Tree: Orange

Maternal Family Tree: Blanca de la Cerda y Lara 1317-1347

1666 Holme's Bonfire

1677 Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

1688 Glorious Revolution

1688 Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven

1688 Battle of Reading

1688 Abdication of James II

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1689 Act of Poll

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1690 Siege of Limerick

1691 Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

1692 William III Creation of New Lords

1694 Death and Funeral of Queen Mary II

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1702 Death of King William III

On 02 May 1641 [his father] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 14) and [his mother] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 9) were married. She the daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31).

On 14 Mar 1647 [his grandfather] Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 63) died. His son [his father] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 20) succeeded II Prince Orange. [his mother] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 15) by marriage Princess Orange.

On 04 Nov 1650 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland was born to William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 24) and Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 19). He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

On 06 Nov 1650 [his father] William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 24) died. His son King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland succeeded III Prince Orange.

In 1653 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 2) was appointed 456th Knight of the Garter by [his uncle] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 22).

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1660. In the morning when I woke and rose, I saw myself out of the scuttle close by the shore, which afterwards I was told to be the Dutch shore; the Hague was clearly to be seen by us. My Lord went up in his nightgown into the cuddy1, to see how to dispose thereof for himself and us that belong to him, to give order for our removal to-day. Some nasty Dutchmen came on board to proffer their boats to carry things from us on shore, &c., to get money by us. Before noon some gentlemen came on board from the shore to kiss my Lord's hands. And by and by Mr. North (age 24) and Dr. Clerke went to kiss the Queen of Bohemia's' hands, from my Lord, with twelve attendants from on board to wait on them, among which I sent my boy, who, like myself, is with child to see any strange thing. After noon they came back again after having kissed the Queen of Bohemia's (age 63) hand, and were sent again by my Lord to do the same to the Prince of Orange (age 9)2.

Note 1. "A sort of cabin or cook-room, generally in the fore-part, but sometimes near the stern of lighters and barges of burden".-Smyth's Sailor's Word-Book.

Note 2. Son of the [his father] Prince of Orange and [his mother] Mary (age 28), eldest daughter of Charles I afterwards William III He was then in his tenth year, having been born in 1650.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1660. So I got the Captain to ask leave for me to go, which my Lord did give, and I taking my boy and judge Advocate with me, went in company with them. The weather bad; we were sadly washed when we came near the shore, it being very hard to land there. The shore is, as all the country between that and the Hague, all sand. The rest of the company got a coach by themselves; Mr. Creed and I went in the fore part of a coach wherein were two very pretty ladies, very fashionable and with black patches, who very merrily sang all the way and that very well, and were very free to kiss the two blades that were with them. I took out my flageolette and piped, but in piping I dropped my rapier-stick, but when I came to the Hague, I sent my boy back again for it and he found it, for which I did give him 6d., but some horses had gone over it and broke the scabbard. The Hague is a most neat place in all respects. The houses so neat in all places and things as is possible. Here we walked up and down a great while, the town being now very full of Englishmen, for that the Londoners were come on shore today. But going to see the Prince (age 9), he was gone forth with his governor, and so we walked up and down the town and court to see the place; and by the help of a stranger, an Englishman, we saw a great many places, and were made to understand many things, as the intention of may-poles, which we saw there standing at every great man's door, of different greatness according to the quality of the person. About 10 at night the Prince comes home, and we found an easy admission. His attendance very inconsiderable as for a prince; but yet handsome, and his tutor a fine man, and himself a very pretty boy. It was bright moonshine to-night. This done we went to a place we had taken to sup in, where a sallet and two or three bones of Mutton were provided for a matter of ten of us which was very strange. After supper the Judge and I to another house, leaving them there, and he and I lay in one press bed, there being two more in the same room, but all very neat and handsome, my boy sleeping upon a bench by me.

On 24 Dec 1660 [his mother] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 29) died of smallpox.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1665. This morning I did a good piece of work with Sir W. Warren, ending the business of the lotterys, wherein honestly I think I shall get above £100. Bankert, it seems, is come home with the little fleete he hath been abroad with, without doing any thing, so that there is nobody of an enemy at sea. We are in great hopes of meeting with the Dutch East India fleete, which is mighty rich, or with De Ruyter (age 58), who is so also. Sir Richard Ford (age 51) told me this day, at table, a fine account, how the Dutch were like to have been mastered by the present Prince of Orange1 (age 14) his [his father] father to be besieged in Amsterdam, having drawn an army of foot into the towne, and horse near to the towne by night, within three miles of the towne, and they never knew of it; but by chance the Hamburgh post in the night fell among the horse, and heard their design, and knowing the way, it being very dark and rainy, better than they, went from them, and did give notice to the towne before the others could reach the towne, and so were saved. It seems this De Witt and another family, the Beckarts, were among the chief of the familys that were enemys to the Prince, and were afterwards suppressed by the Prince, and continued so till he was, as they say, poysoned; and then they turned all again, as it was, against the young Prince (age 14), and have so carried it to this day, it being about 12 and 14 years, and De Witt in the head of them.

Note 1. The period alluded to is 1650, when the States-General disbanded part of the forces which the Prince of Orange (William) wished to retain. The prince attempted, but unsuccessfully, to possess himself of Amsterdam. In the same year he died, at the early age of twenty-four; some say of the small-pox; others, with Sir Richard Ford (age 51), say of poison. B.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1666. I went to Dr. Keffler (age 71), who married the daughter of the famous chemist, Drebbell, inventor of the bodied scarlet. I went to see his iron ovens, made portable (formerly) for the Prince of Orange's (age 15) army: supped at the Rhenish Wine-House with divers Scots gentlemen.

Holme's Bonfire

Pepy's Diary. 16 Aug 1666. This day Sir W. Batten (age 65) did show us at the table a letter from Sir T. Allen (age 54), which says that we have taken ten or twelve' ships (since the late great expedition of burning their ships and towne), laden with hempe, flax, tarr, deales, &c. This was good newes; but by and by comes in Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and he asked us with full mouth what we would give for good newes. Says Sir W. Batten (age 65), "I have better than you, for a wager". They laid sixpence, and we that were by were to give sixpence to him that told the best newes. So Sir W. Batten (age 65) told his of the ten or twelve ships Sir G. Carteret (age 56) did then tell us that upon the newes of the burning of the ships and towne the common people a Amsterdam did besiege De Witt's house, and he was force to flee to the Prince of Orange (age 15), who is gone to Cleve to the marriage of his [his aunt] sister (age 23) [Notee. his aunt]. This we concluded all the best newest and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and myself did give Sir G. Carteret (age 56) our sixpence a-piece, which he did give Mr. Smith to give the poor. Thus we made ourselves mighty merry.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1666. By and by comes down from the Committee Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and I find him troubled at several things happened this afternoon, which vexes me also; our business looking worse and worse, and our worke growing on our hands. Time spending, and no money to set anything in hand with; the end thereof must be speedy ruine. The Dutch insult and have taken off Bruant's head1, which they have not dared to do (though found guilty of the fault he did die for, of something of the Prince of Orange's (age 15) faction) till just now, which speaks more confidence in our being worse than before. Alderman Maynell, I hear, is dead.

Note 1. Captain Du Buat, a Frenchman in the Dutch service, plotted with two magistrates of Rotterdam to obtain a peace with England as the readiest means of pressing the elevation of the Prince of Orange to the office of Captain-General. He was brought before the Supreme Court of Holland, condemned, and executed. He had been one of the household of the Prince of Orange who were dismissed by De Witt.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1666. Dined with me Monsieur Kiviet (age 39), a Dutch gentleman-pensioner of Rotterdam, who came over for protection, being of the Prince of Orange's (age 16) party, now not welcome in Holland. The King (age 36) knighted him for some merit in the Prince's (age 16) behalf. He should, if caught, have been beheaded with Monsieur Buat, and was brother-in-law to Van Tromp, the sea-general. With him came Mr. Gabriel Sylvius, and Mr. Williamson (age 33), secretary to Lord Arlington (age 48); M. Kiviet (age 39) came to examine whether the soil about the river of Thames would be proper to make clinker bricks, and to treat with me about some accommodation in order to it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. At home, by appointment, comes Captain Cocke (age 50) to me, to talk of State matters, and about the peace; who told me that the whole business is managed between Kevet, Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and my Lord Arlington (age 49), who hath, by the interest of his wife there, some interest. We have proposed the Hague, but know not yet whether the Dutch will like it; or; if they do, whether the French will. We think we shall have the help of the information of their affairs and state, and the helps of the Prince of Orange (age 16) his faction; but above all, that De Witt, who hath all this while said he cannot get peace, his mouth will now be stopped, so that he will be forced to offer fit terms for fear of the people; and, lastly, if France or Spayne do not please us, we are in a way presently to clap up a peace with the Dutch, and secure them. But we are also in treaty with France, as he says: but it must be to the excluding our alliance with the King (age 36) of Spayne or House of Austria; which we do not know presently what will be determined in. He tells me the Vice-Chamberlaine is so great with the King (age 36), that, let the Duke of York (age 33), and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and this office, do or say what they will, while the King (age 36) lives, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) will do what he will; and advises me to be often with him, and eat and drink with him.; and tells me that he doubts he is jealous of me, and was mighty mad to-day at our discourse to him before the Duke of York (age 33). But I did give him my reasons that the office is concerned to declare that, without money, the King's work cannot go on.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Nov 1670. Saw the Prince of Orange (age 20), newly come to see the King (age 40), his uncle; he has a manly, courageous, wise countenance, resembling his [his mother] mother and the [his uncle] Duke of Gloucester, both deceased.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1671. Constantine Huygens (age 74), Signor of Zuylichem, that excellent learned man, poet, and musician, now near eighty years of age, a vigorous, brisk man, came to take leave of me before his return into Holland with the Prince (age 20), whose Secretary he was.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1677. Returned to London; in the evening, I saw the Prince of Orange (age 26), and supped with Lord Ossory (age 43).

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange (age 26); his marriage with the [his future wife] Lady Mary (age 15), eldest daughter to the [his uncle] Duke of York (age 44), by Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared.

Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) were married. She by marriage Princess Orange. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England. They were first cousins. He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1677. The Queen's (age 38) birthday, a great ball at Court, where the Prince of Orange (age 27) and his new [his wife] Princess (age 15) danced.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Nov 1677. They went away, and I saw embarked my Lady Sylvius (age 24), who went into Holland with her husband, made Hoffmaester to the Prince (age 27), a considerable employment. We parted with great sorrow, for the great respect and honor I bore her, a most pious and virtuous lady.

On 12 Dec 1677 [his brother-in-law] Charles Stewart died of smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Oct 1678. The Parliament and the whole Nation were alarmed about a conspiracy of some eminent Papists for the destruction of the King (age 48) and introduction of Popery, discovered by one Oates (age 29) and Dr. Tongue, WHICH LAST I KNEW, BEING THE TRANSLATOR OF THE "Jesuits' Morals"; I went to see and converse with him at Whitehall, with Mr. Oates (age 29), one that was lately an apostate to the church of Rome, and now returned again with this discovery. He seemed to be a bold man, and, in my thoughts, furiously indiscreet; but everybody believed what he said; and it quite changed the genius and motions of the Parliament, growing now corrupt and interested with long sitting and court practices; but, with all this, Popery would not go down. This discovery turned them all as one man against it, and nothing was done but to find out the depth of this. Oates (age 29) was encouraged, and everything he affirmed taken for gospel; the truth is, the Roman Catholics were exceedingly bold and busy everywhere, since the Duke (age 27) forbore to go any longer to the chapel.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing (age 24). Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 29) wearing his Garter Collar.

On 04 Mar 1681 [his sister-in-law] Isabel Stewart (age 4) died.

On 16 Oct 1682 [his sister-in-law] Charlotte Maria died.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Feb 1684. Newes of the Prince of Orange (age 33) having accus'd the Deputies of Amsterdam of Crimen lesse Majestatis, and being Pensioners to France. Dr. Tenison (age 47) communicated to me his intention of erecting a Library in St. Martin's parish, for the publiq use, and desir'd my assistance with Sr Chris Wren about the placeing and structure thereof. A worthy and laudable designe. He told me there were 30 or 40 young men in Orders in his parish, either Governors to young gentlemen or Chaplains to noblemen, who being reprov'd by him on occasion for frequenting taverns or coffee-houses, told him they would study or employ their time better, if they had books. This put the pious Doctor on this designe; and indeede a greate reproch it is that so greate a Citty as London should not have a publiq Library becoming it. There ought to be one at St. Paules; the West end of that church (If ever finish'd) would be a convenient place.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Feb 1684. I went to Sir John Chardine (age 40), who desired my assistance for the engraving the plates, the translation, and printing his History of that wonderfull Persian. Monument neere Persepolis, and other rare antiquities, which he had caus'd to be drawne from the originals in his second journey into Persia, which we now concluded upon. Afterwards I went with Sr Christ' Wren to Dr Tenison (age 47), where we made the drawing and estimate of the expence of the Library, to be begun this next Spring neere the Mewes. Greate expectation of the Prince of Orange's (age 33) attempts in Holland to bring those of Amsterdam to consent to the new levies, to which we were no friends, by a pseudo-politic adherence to the French interest.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 May 1684. The utter mine of the Low Country was threaten'd by the siege of Luxembergh, if not timely reliev'd, and by the obstinacy of the Hollanders, who refus'd to assist the Prince of Orange (age 33), being corrupted by the French.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1684. Luxembergh was surrender'd to the French, which makes them master of all the Netherlands, gives them entrance into Germany, and a fair game for universal monarchy; which that we should suffer, who only and easily might have hinder'd, astonish'd all the world. Thus is the poor Prince of Orange (age 33) ruin'd, and this nation and all the Protestant interest in Europe following, unlesse God in his infinite mercy, as by a miracle, interpose, and our greate ones alter their counsels. The French fleete were now besieging Genoa, but after burning much of that beautifull citty with their bombs, went off with disgrace.

On 22 Apr 1685 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] James Darnley (age 1) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jul 1685. I went to see the muster of the 6 Scotch and English regiments whom the Prince of Orange (age 34) had lately sent to his [his uncle] Ma* (age 51) out of Holland upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, there having ben no occasion for their use. They were all excellently clad and well disciplin'd, and were incamped on Blackheath [Map] with their tents: the King and Queene (age 46) came to see them exercise, and the manner of their incampment, which was very neate and magnificent. By a grosse mistake of the Secretary of his Ma*'s forces, it had ben order'd that they should be quarter'd in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, but on my informing his Ma* timely of it, It was prevented. The two horsemen wch my son and myselfe sent into the county troopes, were now come home, after a moneth's being out to our greate charge.

Glorious Revolution

In 1688 Michael Wharton and Lord Danby (age 55) secured Kingston upon Hull [Map] for the Prince of Orange (age 37) during the Glorious Revolution.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Nov 1688. Fresh reports of the Prince (age 38) being landed somewhere about Portsmouth [Map], or the Isle of Wight [Map], whereas it was thought it would have been northward. The Court in great hurry.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1688. The Prince (age 38) increases everyday in force. Several Lords go in to him. Lord Cornbury (age 26) carries some regiments, and marches to Honiton, Devon, the Prince's (age 38) headquarters. The city of London in disorder; the rabble pulled down the nunnery newly bought by the Papists of Lord Berkeley (age 60), at St. John's. The Queen (age 30) prepares to go to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] for safety, to attend the issue of this commotion, which has a dreadful aspect.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The [his uncle] King (age 55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (age 36) appears for the Prince (age 38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his Majesty (age 55) to call a Parliament. The King (age 55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (age 52) preached at St. Martin's [Map] on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (age 43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (age 55) and Earl of Nottingham (age 41) as Commissioners to the Prince of Orange (age 38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth, Devon [Map] declared for the Prince (age 38). Bath, Somerset [Map], York [Map], Hull [Map], Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map], and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (age 38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (age 38) coming to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]. The [his brother-in-law] Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], the Earl of Dover (age 52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his [his uncle] Majesty (age 55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1688. The Prince of Orange (age 38) is advanced to Windsor, Berkshire [Map], is invited by the [his uncle] King (age 55) to St. James's [Map], the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (age 47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (age 38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (age 38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (age 38) goes privately to Rochester, Kent [Map]; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present).

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Dec 1688. That night was a Council; his Majesty (age 38) refuses to assent to all the proposals; goes away again to Rochester, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Dec 1688. All the world go to see the Prince (age 38) at St. James's [Map], where there is a great Court. There I saw him, and several of my acquaintance who came over with him. He is very stately, serious and reserved. The English soldiers sent out of town to disband them; not well pleased.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1688. Dr. Tenison (age 51) now told me there would suddenly be some great thing discovered. This was the Prince of Orange (age 37) intending to come over.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Sep 1688. I went to London, where I found the Court in the utmost consternation on report of the Prince of Orange's (age 37) landing; which put Whitehall into so panic a fear, that I could hardly believe it possible to find such a change.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1688. The Court in so extraordinary a consternation, on assurance of the Prince of Orange's (age 37) intention to land, that the writs sent forth for a Parliament were recalled.

Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven

In Oct 1688 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle (age 18) and Robert Ferguson Minister (age 51) accompanied King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 37) to England during the Glorious Revolution.

On 15 Apr 1690 Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough (age 40) was created 1st Earl Scarborough by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) in recognition of his (age 40) support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Frances Jones Countess Scarborough (age 23) by marriage Countess Scarborough.

In 1694 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds (age 61) was created 1st Duke Leeds by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds 1632-1712's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds (age 65) by marriage Duchess Leeds.

In 1694 Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 52) was created 1st Earl Romney by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

In 1694 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire (age 53) was created 1st Duke Devonshire by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven. Mary Butler Duchess Devonshire (age 48) by marriage Duchess Devonshire.

On 30 Apr 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury (age 33) was created 1st Duke Shrewsbury, 1st Marquess Alton by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) in recognition of Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury 1660-1718's support of the Glorious Revolution he having been one of the signatories of the Invitation to William of Orange from the Immortal Seven.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1688. Hourly expectation of the Prince of Orange's (age 37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his [his uncle] Majesty (age 54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (age 37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's (age 54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Nov 1688. Dined with Lord Preston (age 39), with other company, at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 61). Continual alarms of the Prince of Orange (age 37), but no certainty. Reports of his great losses of horse in the storm, but without any assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and printed manifestoes, and carried to Newgate [Map], after examination at the Cabinet Council. There was likewise a declaration of the States for satisfaction of all public ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the French. There was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords both spiritual and temporal had invited him over, with a deduction of the causes of his enterprise. This made his [his uncle] Majesty (age 55) convene my Lord of Canterbury (age 71) and the other Bishops now in town, to give an account of what was in the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by some public writing of this disloyal charge.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1688. It was now certainly reported by some who saw the fleet, and the Prince (age 37) embark, that they sailed from the Brill on Wednesday morning, and that the [his wife] Princess of Orange (age 26) was there to take leave of her husband.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. A declaration was published, prohibiting all persons to see or read the Prince's (age 38) manifesto, in which was set forth at large the cause of his expedition, as there had been one before from the States.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71) and some few of the other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his [his uncle] Majesty (age 55) that they had never invited any of the Prince's (age 38) party, or were in the least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his Majesty (age 55) would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the Prince's (age 38) manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King; so they departed.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the Prince (age 38) having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. This put the [his uncle] King (age 55) and Court into great consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their further progress, for they were got into Exeter [Map], and the season and ways very improper for his Majesty's forces to march so great a distance.

1688 Battle of Reading

On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of [his uncle] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38). King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) was victorious. Thereafter King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) fled to France and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) acceeded.

On 13 Dec 1688 Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth (age 48), along with the Earl of Pembroke (age 32), led a deputation to the Prince of Orange (age 38) who was at Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire [Map] after the flight of [his uncle] King James II (age 55).

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Dec 1688. I saw the [his uncle] King (age 55) take barge to Gravesend, Kent [Map] at twelve o'clock-a sad sight! The Prince (age 38) comes to St. James's [Map], and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough (age 67), and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland (age 47) flies; Sir Edward Hale (age 43), Walker, and others, taken and secured.

Abdication of James II

On 23 Dec 1688 [his uncle] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) Abdicated II King England Scotland and Ireland. His daughter [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) succeeded II Queen England Scotland and Ireland. His nephew King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) succeeded IIi King England Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Dec 1688. The Peers and such Commoners as were members of the Parliament at Oxford, being the last of Charles II meeting, desire the Prince of Orange (age 38) to take on him the disposal of the public revenue till a convention of Lords and Commons should meet in full body, appointed by his circular letters to the shires and boroughs, 22d of January. I had now quartered upon me a Lieutenant-Colonel and eight horses.

In 1689 Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg (age 73) was appointed 497th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26).

In 1689 William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire (age 48) was appointed 498th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26).

After 1689 Dr Henry Dove was appointed Chaplain to King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26).

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1689. Note. The reference to Prince is somewhat abiguous. It may refer to King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38).

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1689. The great convention being assembled the day before, falling upon the question about the government, resolved that [his uncle] King James (age 55) having by the advice of the Jesuits and other wicked persons endeavored to subvert the laws of the Church and State, and deserted the Kingdom, carrying away the seals, etc., without any care for the management of the government, had by demise abdicated himself and wholly vacated his right; they did therefore desire the Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the crown on the next heir, the Prince of Orange (age 38), for his life, then to the [his wife] Princess (age 26), his wife, and if she died without issue, to the [his sister-in-law] Princess of Denmark (age 23), and she failing, to the heirs of the Prince (age 55), excluding forever all possibility of admitting a Roman Catholic.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71), where I found the Bishops of St. Asaph (age 61), Ely (age 51), Bath and Wells (age 51), Peterborough (age 61), and Chichester (age 65), the Earls of Aylesbury (age 33) and Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie (age 53), Lord-Advocate of Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Archbishop, etc. After prayers and dinner, divers serious matters were discoursed, concerning the present state of the Public, and sorry I was to find there was as yet no accord in the judgments of those of the Lords and Commons who were to convene; some would have the [his wife] Princess (age 26) made Queen without any more dispute, others were for a Regency; there was a Tory party (then so called), who were for inviting his [his uncle] Majesty (age 55) again upon conditions; and there were Republicans who would make the Prince of Orange (age 38) like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy among these several parties to bring them into confusion: most for ambition or other interest, few for conscience and moderate resolutions. I found nothing of all this in this assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to admit me into their discourses; they were all for a Regency, thereby to salve their oaths, and so all public matters to proceed in his Majesty's (age 55) name, by that to facilitate the calling of Parliament, according to the laws in being. Such was the result of this meeting.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jan 1689. Having thus exhausted ourselves rather than this wonderful child, or angel rather, for he was as beautiful and lovely in countenance as in knowledge, we concluded with asking him if, in all he had read or heard of, he had ever met with anything which was like this expedition of the Prince of Orange (age 38), with so small a force to obtain three great kingdoms without any contest. After a little thought, he told us that he knew of nothing which did more resemble it than the coming of Constantine the Great out of Britain, through France and Italy, so tedious a march, to meet Maxentius, whom he overthrew at Pons Milvius with very little conflict, and at the very gates of Rome, which he entered and was received with triumph, and obtained the empire, not of three kingdoms only, but of all the then known world. He was perfect in the Latin authors, spoke French naturally, and gave us a description of France, Italy, Savoy, Spain, ancient and modernly divided; as also of ancient Greece, Scythia, and northern countries and tracts: we left questioning further. He did this without any set or formal repetitions, as one who had learned things without book, but as if he minded other things, going about the room, and toying with a parrot there, and as he was at dinner (tanquam aliua agens, as it were) seeming to be full of play, of a lively, sprightly temper, always smiling, and exceedingly pleasant, without the least levity, rudeness, or childishness.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1689. The votes of the House of Commons being carried up by Mr. Hampden (age 36), their chairman, to the Lords, I got a station by the [his uncle] Prince's (age 55) lodgings at the door of the lobby to the House, and heard much of the debate, which lasted very long. Lord Derby (age 34) was in the chair (for the House was resolved into a grand committee of the whole House); after all had spoken, it came to the question, which was carried by three voices against a Regency, which 51 were for, 54 against; the minority alleging the danger of dethroning Kings, and scrupling many passages and expressions in the vote of the Commons, too long to set down particularly. Some were for sending to his Majesty with conditions: others that the King (age 55) could do no wrong, and that the maladministration was chargeable on his ministers. There were not more than eight or nine bishops, and but two against the Regency; the archbishop (age 71) was absent, and the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit and discourse, on their old passive obedience, so as people began to talk of the bishops being cast out of the House. In short, things tended to dissatisfaction on both sides; add to this, the morose temper of the Prince of Orange (age 38), who showed little countenance to the noblemen and others, who expected a more gracious and cheerful reception when they made their court. The English army also was not so in order, and firm to his interest, nor so weakened but that it might give interruption. Ireland was in an ill posture as well as Scotland. Nothing was yet done toward a settlement. God of his infinite mercy compose these things, that we may be at last a Nation and a Church under some fixed and sober establishment!

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1689. The anniversary of King Charles I's MARTYRDOM; but in all the public offices and pulpit prayers, the collects, and litany for the King (age 38) and Queen (age 30) were curtailed and mutilated. Dr. Sharp (age 43) preached before the Commons, but was disliked, and not thanked for his sermon.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Jan 1689. At our church (the next day being appointed a thanksgiving for deliverance by the Prince of Orange (age 38), with prayers purposely composed), our lecturer preached in the afternoon a very honest sermon, showing our duty to God for the many signal deliverances of our Church, without touching on politics.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1689. The Convention of the Lords and Commons now declare the Prince (age 38) and [his wife] Princess (age 26) of Orange King and Queen of England, France, and Ireland (Scotland being an independent kingdom), the Prince (age 38) and Princess (age 26) being to enjoy it jointly during their lives; but the executive authority to be vested in the Prince (age 38) during life, though all proceedings to run in both names, and that it should descend to their issue, and for want of such, to the [his sister-in-law] Princess Anne of Denmark (age 24) and her issue, and in want of such, to the heirs of the body of the Prince, if he survive, and that failing, to devolve to the Parliament, as they should think fit. These produced a conference with the Lords, when also there was presented heads of such new laws as were to be enacted. It is thought on these conditions they will be proclaimed.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1689. There was much contest about the King's (age 38) abdication, and whether he had vacated the government. The Earl of Nottingham (age 41) and about twenty Lords, and many Bishops, entered their protests, but the concurrence was great against them.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1689. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 72) and some of the rest, on scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as appeared out of Lambeth [Map]. This occasioned the wonder of many who observed with what zeal they contributed to the Prince's (age 38) expedition, and all the while also rejecting any proposals of sending again to the absent [his uncle] King (age 55); that they should now raise scruples, and such as created much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old courtiers, and especially the Papists.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1689. Another objection was, the invalidity of what was done by a convention only, and the as yet unabrogated laws; this drew them to make themselves on the 22d a Parliament, the new King (age 38) passing the act with the crown on his head. The lawyers disputed, but necessity prevailed, the government requiring a speedy settlement.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1689. I saw the new [his wife] Queen (age 26) and King (age 38), with great acclamation and general good reception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed that both, especially the Princess (age 26), would have shown some (seeming) reluctance at least, of assuming her [his uncle] father's (age 55) crown, and made some apology, testifying by her regret that he should by his mismanagement necessitate the nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would have shown very handsomely to the world, and according to the character given of her piety; consonant also to her husband's (age 38) first declaration, that there was no intention of deposing the King (age 55), but of succoring the nation; but nothing of all this appeared; she came into Whitehall laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported. She rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was reported, before her women were up, went about from room to room to see the convenience of Whitehall; lay in the same bed and apartment where the late Queen (age 30) lay, and within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as the Queen (age 30), her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon and talked to everybody, so that no change seemed to have taken place at Court since her last going away, save that infinite crowds of people thronged to see her, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by many. She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to heart: while the Prince (age 38), her husband, has a thoughtful countenance, is wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons alike gravely, and to be very intent on affairs: Holland, Ireland, and France calling for his care.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Mar 1689. The new King (age 38) much blamed for neglecting Ireland, now likely to be ruined by the Lord Tyrconnel (age 59) and his Popish party, too strong for the Protestants. Wonderful uncertainty where [his uncle] King James (age 55) was, whether in France or Ireland. The Scots seem as yet to favor King William (age 38), rejecting King James's letter to them, yet declaring nothing positively. Soldiers in England discontented. Parliament preparing the coronation oath. Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the vote for preserving the Protestant religion as established by law, without mentioning what they were to have as to indulgence.

Coronation William III and Mary II

On 11 Apr 1689 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) were crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham (age 33) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports.

George Compton 4th Earl of Northampton (age 24) bore the King's sceptre and cross at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1689. I saw the procession to and from the Abbey Church of Westminster [Map], with the great feast in Westminster Hall [Map], at the coronation of King William and Queen Mary. What was different from former coronations, was some alteration in the coronation oath. Dr. Burnet (age 45), now made Bishop of Sarum, preached with great applause. The Parliament men had scaffolds and places which took up the one whole side of the Hall [Map]. When the King (age 38) and [his wife] Queen (age 26) had dined, the ceremony of the Champion, and other services by tenure were performed. The Parliament men were feasted in the Exchequer chamber, and had each of them a gold medal given them, worth five-and-forty shillings. On the one side were the effigies of the King and Queen inclining one to the other; on the reverse was Jupiter throwing a bolt at Phäeton the words, "Ne totus absumatur": which was but dull, seeing they might have had out of the poet something as apposite. The sculpture was very mean.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. Scotland declares for King William (age 38) and [his wife] Queen Mary (age 26), with the reasons of their setting aside [his uncle] King James (age 55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.

Act of Poll

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1689. A fight by Admiral Herbert (age 41) with the French, he imprudently setting on them in a creek as they were landing men in Ireland, by which we came off with great slaughter and little honor-so strangely negligent and remiss were we in preparing a timely and sufficient fleet. The Scots Commissioners offer the crown to the new King and Queen on conditions. Act of Poll money came forth, sparing none. Now appeared the Act of Indulgence for the Dissenters, but not exempting them from paying dues to the Church of England clergy, or serving in office according to law, with several other clauses. A most splendid embassy from Holland to congratulate the King (age 38) and [his wife] Queen (age 26) on their accession to the crown.

Grant to the King and Queen of 10s. in every £100 of Personal Estate.

Wee Your Majestyes most Dutyfull and Loyal Subjects the Commons Assembled in Parlyament haveing entred into a Serious Consideration of the great and extraordinary Expences in which Your Majesties are Engaged for the Reduceing of Ireland and for the Carrying on the Warr against the French King In order towards the Enabling Your Majesties to Prosecute the said Ends with Speede and Vigour doe most humbly present to Your Majestyes a Free Gift of the severall Sums of Money hereafter specified Beseeching Your Majestyes that it may be Enacted And bee it Enacted by the King and Queens most Excellent Majestyes by and with the Advice and Consent of the Lords Spirituall and Temporall and of the Commons in this present Parliament Assembled and by the Authoritie of the same That all and every Person and Persons Bodies Politick and Corporate Guilds or Fraternities within this Kingdome of England Dominion of Wales or Towne of Berwicke upon Tweede haveing any Personall Estate either in Debts oweing to them within this Realme or without which he she or they doe not account as desperate other then such Debts as now are or shall be oweing from Their Majestyes (over and besides such just Debts as he she or they shall bona fide owe) or in ready Moneys shall yield and pay unto Their Majestyes for every Hundred pounds in such Debts and ready Moneys the Summe of Ten shillings (to be paid by the Lender notwithstanding any Agreement to the contrary) to be Assessed Imposed Levyed and Collected in manner herein after mentioned.

II. Public Officers (Exceptions) to pay is. for every 20s. of the Profits of their Offices.

III. Pensions, &c. from Government exceeding £20 per Ann. to pay is in the Pound.

IV. Judges, Serjeants at Law, Barristers, Advocates, and Persons practising Physick, to pay 3s. in the Pound.

V. Rates of Payments by Peers, &c.

VI. Gentleman having Estate of £300 or more, to pay 20s. though an Infant; under that Estate, on Oath, not charged.

VII. Archbishop, £50. Bishop, £20. Deans, £10. Archdeacons, £2. 10s.


Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1689. The Scots have now again voted down Episcopacy there. Great discontents through this nation at the slow proceedings of the King (age 38), and the incompetent instruments and officers he advances to the greatest and most necessary charges.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1689. The Convention (or Parliament as some called it) sitting, exempt the Duke of Hanover (age 29) from the succession to the crown, which they seem to confine to the present new King (age 38), his [his wife] wife (age 27), and [his sister-in-law] Princess Anne of Denmark (age 24), who is so monstrously swollen, that it is doubted whether her being thought with child may prove a TYMPANY only, so that the unhappy family of the Stuarts seems to be extinguishing; and then what government is likely to be next set up is unknown, whether regal and by election, or otherwise, the Republicans and Dissenters from the Church of England evidently looking that way.

On 02 Nov 1689 Richard Coote 1st Earl Bellomont (age 53) was created 1st Earl Bellomont by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) and was granted over 300 km2 of forfeited Irish lands. The land grant was highly controversial in Parliament, and was eventually rescinded by William.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1689. The Bishop of St. Asaph (age 62), Lord Almoner, preached before the King (age 39) and [his wife] Queen (age 27), the whole discourse being an historical narrative of the Church of England's several deliverances, especially that of this anniversary, signalized by being also the birthday of the Prince of Orange, his marriage (which was on the 4th), and his landing at Torbay this day. There was a splendid ball and other rejoicings.

In 1690 George Wilhelm Hanover Duke Brunswick-Lüneburg (age 65) was appointed 500th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 27).

In 1690 Frederick I King Prussia (age 32) was appointed 499th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 27).

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1690. The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2d of April to the discontent and surprise of many members who, being exceedingly averse to the settling of anything, proceeding with animosities, multiplying exceptions against those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing as universal a discontent against King William (age 39) and themselves, as there was before against [his uncle] King James (age 56). The new King (age 39) resolved on an expedition into Ireland in person. About 150 of the members who were of the more royal party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern [Map] near St. Dunstan's [Map], sent some of their company to the King (age 39), to assure him of their service; he returned his thanks, advising them to repair to their several counties and preserve the peace during his absence, and assuring them that he would be steady to his resolution of defending the Laws and Religion established. The great Lord suspected to have counselled this prorogation, universally denied it. However, it was believed the chief adviser was the Marquis of Carmarthen (age 57), who now seemed to be most in favor.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Feb 1690. I went to Kensington, which King William (age 39) had bought of Lord Nottingham (age 42), and altered, but was yet a patched building, but with the garden, however, it is a very sweet villa, having to it the park and a straight new way through this park.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1690. King William (age 39) set forth on his Irish expedition, leaving the [his wife] Queen (age 28) Regent.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 07 Jun 1690. Satorday, severall of the King's servants came to provide for him; viz: Mr Isaack, Lambe, Clarke, Fronteene, &c. neare 2 o'clock the King (age 39) came, with Lord: Portland (age 40), Scarborow (age 40); Overkirk (age 50), Solmes, Scranmore, Zulestein, &c. Dutch & English, the Bishop: & severall of the clergy, &c. the King (age 39) went to dine, past 2; had severall of his noblemen & gentry to dine with him; he also commanded the Bishop: & me to sitt downe; Lord Warrington (age 38) came when we were at dinner; sate downe; we were 13 or 14 at table; his Majesty (age 39) did me the honor to drink to me; after dinner he talked with me a long while at the window; then retired, writ letters, &c. Sir Thomas Delves (age 59) & severall gentlemen of the County dined with Mr Isack (who had tables provided in the Kilne) & the rest of the King's servants, officers of the Guards, &c. were provided for in one place or other; the King (age 39) walked in the gardens, to the stables in the evening; discoursed often very obligingly with me after he came in; retired to his chamber; had some new layd eggs to his supper; went to bed before 11. in the afternoone the County gentlemen, clergy, cittisens of Chester & Recorder (who were sent to [fo. 119r] know his Majesty's (age 39): pleasure about coming to Chester) kissed his hand; & in the evening my daughters, grandchildren, aunts &c; when he walked in the garden he gathered cherryes & seemed well pleased, &c. there was a good supper prepared in the Kilne for those that would eate, besides many of the King's great officers & servants; Lord Warrington (age 38), Sir Rowland Gwynn (age 32) & others lay in the house; I went to bed (weary) before 11 o'clock; Lord Brandon (age 31) lay at Mr Hardwares, also Mr Row.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 08 Jun 1690. Sonday, (Whitsonday) his Majesty (age 39) went from Peele to Chester; (Portland (age 40), Scarborough (age 40) & Warrington (age 38) in the coach with him interl); I, Bidolph & one of his servants followed the Guards, &c.( the Mayor, Aldermen met him at Boughton, the Livery & Bearers in the streete interl); he went directly to the Cathedral [Map], sate in the Bishops seate; the Bishop (age 57) attended him as Clarke of the Closet; then preached; after sermon took coach immediately at the church doore, soe to dinner at Geaton, &c. I had 2 pockets picked in the church & severall others besides myselfe; the Mayor invited me but I refused him; I, Bidolph & G.Mainwaring (age 47) dined with Streete; severall came here to us; Bellot & I went thence to visit Sir Thomas Delves (age 37), &c. I left Bellot there; went to Jacksons; there were Bidolph, Streete, G.Mainwaring (age 47), my 2 sons, Warburton, Wright, Governor (but he stayd not), Colonel Harman, another officer,&c. I and Bidolph & Roger left them past 7; came home neare 9; found Mr Offley there, he stayd all night.

Battle of the Boyne

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (age 57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower [Map], on suspicion of being affected to [his uncle] King James (age 56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the [his wife] Queen's (age 28) uncle. King William (age 39) having vanquished King James (age 56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (age 56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (age 74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (age 39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (age 55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (age 60), was taken. It is reported that King James (age 56) is gone back to France. Drogheda [Map] and Dublin [Map] surrendered, and if King William (age 39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Catholic [his uncle] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 56).

The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg (age 74).

The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough (age 40), Osmund Mordaunt and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 49).

For the Irish or Catholic army [his illegitimate brother-in-law] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet (age 33) fought. Richard Hamilton was captured.

Drury Wray 9th Baronet (age 56) fought for James II for which he subsequently forfeit his lands.

Before 01 Jul 1690 Henry Hobart 4th Baronet (age 33) was appointed Gentleman of the Horse to King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39).

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1690. The French landed some soldiers at Teignmouth [Map], in Devon, and burned some poor houses. The French fleet still hovering about the western coast, and we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the bay of Plymouth [Map], our fleet began to move toward them, under three admirals. The country in the west all on their guard. A very extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th was a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on the 15th the season much changed to wet and cold. The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which were up through England, were dismissed. The French King having news that King William (age 39) was slain, and his army defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris, and all over France, as was never heard of; when, in the midst of it, the unhappy [his uncle] King James (age 56) being vanquished, by a speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news of his own defeat.

Siege of Limerick

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1690. The unseasonable and most tempestuous weather happening, the naval expedition is hindered, and the extremity of wet causes the Siege of Limerick to be raised, King William (age 39) returned to England. Lord Sidney (age 41) left Governor of what is conquered in Ireland, which is near three parts [in four].

In 1691 Edward Villiers 1st Earl Jersey (age 35) was created 1st Viscount Villiers, 1st Baron Villiers probably as a consequence of his sister Barbara Villiers Viscountess Fitzhardinge (age 37) being a mistress of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40). Barbara Chiffinch Countess Jersey (age 28) by marriage Viscountess Villiers.

In 1691 Bishop Thomas Ken (age 53) was deprived of his See by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 28). He was given lodgings at Longleat House by Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth (age 51) with whom he was at Oxford. He resided at Longleat for some twenty years.

John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (age 41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (age 41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (age 40) and [his wife] Queen (age 28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend [Map], but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.

After this the Evidence for the King (age 40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower [Map]: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend [Map] they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Apr 1691. This night, a sudden and terrible fire burned down all the buildings over the stone gallery at Whitehall [Map] to the water side, beginning at the apartment of the late Duchess of Portsmouth (age 41) [Note. Not clear why 'late' since Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 41) died in 1734; possibly relates to her fall from grace following the death of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland] (which had been pulled down and rebuilt no less than three times to please her), and consuming other lodgings of such lewd creatures, who debauched both King Charles II and others, and were his destruction.

The King (age 40) returned out of Holland just as this accident happened-Proclamation against the Papists, etc.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Apr 1691. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 74), and Bishops of Ely (age 53), Bath and Wells (age 53), Peterborough (age 63), Gloucester (age 69), and the rest who would not take the oaths to King William (age 40), were now displaced; and in their rooms, Dr. Tillotson (age 60), Dean of St. Paul's, was made Archbishop: Patrick (age 64) removed from Chichester to Ely; Cumberland (age 59) to Gloucester. Note. A mistake. Bishop Edward Fowler (age 59) was made Bishop of Gloucester. Bishop Richard Cumberland (age 59) was made Bishop of Peterborough.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Apr 1691. I visited the Earl (age 49) and Countess of Sunderland (age 45), now come to kiss the King's (age 40) hand after his return from Holland. This is a mystery. The King (age 40) preparing to return to the army.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jul 1691. I dined with Mr. Pepys (age 58), where was Dr. Cumberland (age 59), the new Bishop of Norwich [Note. Should be John Moore Bishop], Dr. Lloyd (age 54) having been put out for not acknowledging the Government. Cumberland [Note. John Moore Bishop 1646-1707] is a very learned, excellent man. Possession was now given to Dr. Tillotson (age 60), at Lambeth, by the Sheriff; Archbishop Sancroft was gone (age 74), but had left his nephew to keep possession; and he refusing to deliver it up on the [his wife] Queen's message (age 29), was dispossessed by the Sheriff, and imprisoned. This stout demeanor of the few Bishops who refused to take the oaths to King William (age 40), animated a great party to forsake the churches, so as to threaten a schism; though those who looked further into the ancient practice, found that when (as formerly) there were Bishops displaced on secular accounts, the people never refused to acknowledge the new Bishops, provided they were not heretics. The truth is, the whole clergy had till now stretched the duty of passive obedience, so that the proceedings against these Bishops gave no little occasion of exceptions; but this not amounting to heresy, there was a necessity of receiving the new Bishops, to prevent a failure of that order in the Church. I went to visit Lord Clarendon in the Tower, but he was gone into the country for air by the Queen's (age 29) permission, under the care of his warden.

In 1692 John George Wettin IV Elector Saxony (age 23) was appointed 501st Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

William III Creation of New Lords

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1692. Lord Marlborough (age 41) having used words against the King (age 41), and been discharged from all his great places, his wife (age 31) was forbidden the Court, and the [his sister-in-law] Princess of Denmark (age 27) was desired by the [his wife] Queen (age 29) to dismiss her from her service; but she refusing to do so, goes away from Court to Sion house [Map]. Divers new Lords made: Sir Henry Capel (age 53), Sir William Fermor (age 43), etc. Change of Commissioners in the Treasury. The Parliament adjourned, not well satisfied with affairs. The business of the East India Company, which they would have reformed, let fall. The Duke of Norfolk (age 37) does not succeed in his endeavor to be divorced.

On 11 Apr 1692 Henry Capell 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury (age 54) was created 1st Baron Capell Tewkesbury by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

On 12 Apr 1692 William Fermor 1st Baron Leominster (age 43) was created 1st Baron Leominster by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41). Catherine Paulett Baroness Leominster by marriage Baroness Leominster.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Nov 1692. A solemn Thanksgiving for our victory at sea, safe return of the King (age 42), etc.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1693. After five days' trial and extraordinary contest, the Lord Mohun (age 18) was acquitted by the Lords of the murder of Montford, the player, notwithstanding the judges, from the pregnant witnesses of the fact, had declared him guilty; but whether in commiseration of his youth, being not eighteen years old, though exceedingly dissolute, or upon whatever other reason, the King (age 42) himself present some part of the trial, and satisfied, as they report, that he was culpable. 69 acquitted him, only 14 condemned him.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Mar 1693. A new Secretary of State, Sir John Trenchard (age 43); the Attorney-General, Somers (age 42), made Lord-Keeper, a young lawyer of extraordinary merit. King William (age 42) goes toward Flanders; but returns, the wind being contrary.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Mar 1693. I met the King (age 42) going to Gravesend [Map] to embark in his yacht for Holland.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering of a design to bring forces under color of an expected descent, to be a standing army for other purposes. Talk of a declaration of the French King (age 54), offering mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of King William (age 42); and another of [his uncle] King James (age 59), with an universal pardon, and referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. These were yet but discourses; but something is certainly under it. A declaration or manifesto from King James (age 59), so written, that many thought it reasonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his former.

In 1694 Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury (age 33) was appointed 503rd Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 43) and [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 31).

Death and Funeral of Queen Mary II

On 28 Dec 1694 [his wife] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) died of smallpox shortly after midnight at Kensington Palace. Her body lay in state at the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map].

On 05 Mar 1695 she was buried in Westminster Abbey [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Tenison (age 58) preached the sermon.

She had reigned for five years. Her husband King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 44) continued to reign for a further eight years.

In 1695 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 44) visited the newly built Belton House [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1695. The Thames was frozen over. The deaths by smallpox increased to five hundred more than in the preceding week. The King (age 44) and [his former sister-in-law] Princess Anne (age 29) reconciled, and she was invited to keep her Court at Whitehall, having hitherto lived privately at Berkeley House [Map]; she was desired to take into her family divers servants of the late [his former wife] Queen; to maintain them the King (age 44) has assigned her £5,000 a quarter.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Sep 1695. Very cold weather. Sir Purbeck Temple, uncle to my son Draper, died suddenly. A great funeral at Addiscombe. His lady being own aunt to my son Draper, he hopes for a good fortune, there being no heir. There had been a new meeting of the commissioners about Greenwich Hospital [Map], on the new commission, where the Lord Mayor, etc. appeared, but I was prevented by indisposition from attending. The weather very sharp, winter approaching apace. The King (age 44) went a progress into the north, to show himself to the people against the elections, and was everywhere complimented, except at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map], where it was not as he expected, so that he hardly stopped an hour there, and having seen the theater, did not receive the banquet proposed. I dined with Dr. Gale (age 60) at St. Paul's school, who showed me many curious passages out of some ancient Platonists' MSS. concerning the Trinity, which this great and learned person would publish, with many other rare things, if he was encouraged, and eased of the burden of teaching.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Nov 1695. Famous fireworks and very chargeable, the King (age 45) being returned from his progress. He stayed seven or eight days at Lord Sunderland's (age 54) at Althorpe [Map], where he was mightily entertained. These fireworks were shown before Lord Romney (age 54), Master of the Ordnance, in St. James's great square, where the King (age 45) stood.

In 1696 Prince William Duke Gloucester (age 6) was appointed 504th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 45)..

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (age 45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais [Map], an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Duke of Berwick (age 25) having secretly come to London to head them, [his uncle] King James (age 62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (age 45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (age 46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (age 46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against [his uncle] King James (age 62), which he presumed to present to King William (age 45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved [his former wife] Queen's own father.

In 1697 William Bentinck 1st Earl of Portland (age 47) was appointed 505th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 46).

In 1697 Edward Villiers 1st Earl Jersey (age 41) was created 1st Earl Jersey probably as a consequence of his sister Barbara Villiers Viscountess Fitzhardinge (age 43) being a mistress of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 46). Barbara Chiffinch Countess Jersey (age 34) by marriage Countess Jersey.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Nov 1697. The King's (age 47) entry very pompous; but is nothing approaching that of King Charles II

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1697. Thanksgiving Day for the Peace, the King (age 47) and a great Court at Whitehall [Map]. The Bishop of Salisbury (age 54) preached, or rather made a florid panegyric, on 2 Chron. ix. 7, 8. The evening concluded with fireworks and illuminations of great expense.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Dec 1697. I went to Kensington with the Sheriff, Knights, and chief gentlemen of Surrey, to present their address to the King (age 47). The Duke of Norfolk (age 42) promised to introduce it, but came so late, that it was presented before be came. This insignificant ceremony was brought in in Cromwell's time, and has ever since continued with offers of life and fortune to whoever happened to have the power. I dined at Sir Richard Onslow's (age 43), who treated almost all the gentlemen of Surrey. When we had half dined, the Duke of Norfolk (age 42) came in to make his excuse.

In 1698 Basil Firebrace 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Firebrace of London by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 47). Elizabeth Hough Lady Firebrace by marriage Lady Firebrace of London assuming she was alive in 1698.

In 1698 John Holles 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 35) was appointed 506th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 47).

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1698. The Czar of Muscovy being come to England, and having a mind to see the building of ships, hired my house at Sayes Court, Deptford [Map], and made it his court and palace, newly furnished for him by the King (age 47).

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Aug 1698. I dined with Pepys (age 65), where was Captain Dampier (age 46), who had been a famous buccaneer, had brought hither the painted Prince Job, and printed a relation of his very strange adventure, and his observations. He was now going abroad again by the King's (age 47) encouragement, who furnished a ship of 290 tons. He seemed a more modest man than one would imagine by the relation of the crew he had assorted with. He brought a map of his observations of the course of the winds in the South Sea, and assured us that the maps hitherto extant were all false as to the Pacific Sea, which he makes on the south of the line, that on the north end running by the coast of Peru being extremely tempestuous.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Mar 1699. The King (age 48) preferring his young favorite Earl of Albemarle (age 29) to be first Commander of his Guard, the Duke of Ormond (age 33) laid down his commission. This of the Dutch Lord (age 29) passing over his head, was exceedingly resented by everybody.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Apr 1699. I dined with the Archbishop (age 62); but my business was to get him to persuade the King (age 48) to purchase the late Bishop of Worcester's (deceased) library, and build a place for his own library at St. James's, in the Park, the present one being too small.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 May 1699. At a meeting of the Royal Society I was nominated to be of the committee to wait on the Lord Chancellor (age 44) to move the King (age 48) to purchase the Bishop of Worcester's library (Dr. Edward Stillingfleet).

In 1700 Arnold Keppel 1st Earl Albermarle (age 29) was appointed 508th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 49).

In 1700 Thomas Herbert 8th Earl Pembroke 5th Earl Montgomery (age 44) was appointed 507th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 49).

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Apr 1700. The Parliament nominated fourteen persons to go into Ireland as commissioners to dispose of the forfeited estates there, toward payment of the debts incurred by the late war, but which the King (age 49) had in great measure given to some of his favorites of both sexes, Dutch and others of little merit, and very unseasonably. That this might be done without suspicion of interest in the Parliament, it was ordered that no member of either House should be in the commission. The great contest between the Lords and Commons concerning the Lords' power of amendments and rejecting bills tacked to the money bill, carried for the Commons. However, this tacking of bills is a novel practice, suffered by King Charles II, who, being continually in want of money, let anything pass rather than not have wherewith to feed his extravagance. This was carried but by one voice in the Lords, all the Bishops following the Court, save one; so that near sixty bills passed, to the great triumph of the Commons and Country party, but high regret of the Court, and those to whom the King had given large estates in Ireland. Pity it is, that things should be brought to this extremity, the government of this nation being so equally poised between King and subject; but we are satisfied with nothing; and, while there is no perfection on this side heaven, methinks both might be contented without straining things too far. Among the rest, there passed a law as to Papists' estates, that if one turned not Protestant before eighteen years of age, it should pass to his next Protestant heir. This indeed seemed a hard law, but not only the usage of the French King to his Protestant subjects, but the indiscreet insolence of the Papists here, going in triumphant and public processions with their Bishops, with banners and trumpets in divers places (as is said) in the northern counties, has brought it on their party.

In 1701 James Douglas 2nd Duke Queensberry (age 38) was appointed 510th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 50).

In 1701 King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 40) was appointed 509th Knight of the Garter by King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 50).

1702 Death of King William III

On 08 Mar 1702 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 51) died. His first cousin [his former sister-in-law] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37) succeeded I Queen England Scotland and Ireland. She, Anne, being the sister of his wife Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1702. The King (age 51) had a fall from his horse, and broke his collar bone, and having been much indisposed before, and aguish, with a long cough and other weakness, died this Sunday morning, about four o'clock.

King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625

Royal Ancestors of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702

Kings Wessex: Great x 18 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 21 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Grand Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 11 Grand Son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great Grand Son of Henry IV King France

Ancestors of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702

GrandFather: Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange

Great x 1 Grandmother: Louise Coligny Princess Orange

Father: William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange

GrandMother: Amalia Solms Braunfels Princess Orange

King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland Grand Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Matthew Stewart 4th Earl Lennox 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabel or Elizabeth Stewart Countess Lennox 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus 10 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: King James IV of Scotland 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King James V of Scotland Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 2 Grandmother: Mary Queen of Scots Great Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Claude Lorraine 1st Duke Guise 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Antoinette Bourbon Duchess of Guise 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland Son of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Frederick I of Denmark

Great x 3 Grandfather: Christian III King Denmark 10 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna of Brandenburg 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Frederick II King Denmark 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Dorothea of Saxe Lauenburg Queen Consort Denmark and Norway

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland England and Ireland 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Albrecht VII Duke Mecklenburg

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ulrich Mecklenburg-Schwerin 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna Hohenzollern Duchess Mecklenburg 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Sophie Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Mother: Mary Stewart Princess Orange Daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Francis Bourbon Count Vendôme and Soissons 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Charles Bourbon Duke Vendôme 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marie Luxemburg Countess Vendôme and Soissons 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Antoine King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Rene Valois Duke Alençon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Françoise Valois Countess Vendôme 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Lorraine Duchess Alençon 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry IV King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Jean III King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Henry II of Navarre 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois Orléans Count Angoulême 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Marguerite Valois Orléans Queen Consort Navarre 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Louise of Savoy Countess Angoulême 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joanna "The Mad" Trastámara Queen Castile 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joanna of Austria Grand Duchess Tuscany 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Vladislaus II King Hungary 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anna Foix Queen Consort of Hungary and Bohemia 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England