Biography of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553

Paternal Family Tree: Sutton

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1536 Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

1540 May Day Jousting

1543 Creation of Garter Knights

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

1549 Kett's Rebellion

1551 Edward VI's 14th Birthday

1552 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1553 Grey and Dudley Triple Wedding

1553 Death of Edward VI

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Around 1494 [his father] Edmund Dudley (age 32) and Anne Windsor (age 28) were married.

Around 1502 [his father] Edmund Dudley (age 40) and [his mother] Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 22) were married.

In 1504 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland was born to Edmund Dudley (age 42) and Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 24).

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 [his father] Edmund Dudley (age 48) and Richard Empson (age 60) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for constructive treason for having carried out King Henry VII's rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

On 12 Nov 1511 [his step-father] Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle (age 47) and [his mother] Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 31) were married. He the illegitmate son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Waite.

In 1519 Elizabeth Grey Countess Devon (age 13) died. Her aunt [his mother] Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 39) succeeded 6th Baroness Lisle.

In 1525 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 21) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 16) were married. They had grown up together since John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 21) had become her father's ward.

On 22 Jan 1525 [his mother] Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 45) died.

In 1527 [his son] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 23) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 18).

Around 1530 [his daughter] Mary Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 26) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 21).

In 1530 [his son] Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 26) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 21).

Around 1531 [his son] Henry Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 27) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 22).

On 24 Jun 1532 [his son] Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 28) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 23).

In or before 1533 [his brother-in-law] Richard Guildford died.

In or before 1533 [his brother-in-law] Richard Guildford and Elizabeth Mortimer were married.

In 1534 Richard Clement of Ightham Mote (age 52) was imprisoned in the Fleet Prison [Map] for having used excessive force in his roile as Justice of the Peace Kent during a property dispute in Shipbourne, Kent between the rector and Robert Brenner of Hadlow, a servant of [his father-in-law] Edward Guildford (age 60) who was the father-in-law of John Dudley 1504-1553 (age 30), the future Duke of Northumberland.

Around 1535 [his son] Guildford Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 31) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 26).

Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

Letters 1536. 10 May 1536. R. O. 837. Sir John Duddeley (age 32) to Lady Lisle (age 42).

Asks her to speak to her husband (age 72) that the bearer may have the next vacant soldier's room. Is sure there is no need to write the news, for all the world knows them by this time. Today Mr. Norres (age 54), Mr. Weston (age 25), William a Brearton, Markes (age 24), and Lord Rochforde (age 33) were indicted, and on Friday they will be arraigned at Westminster. The Queen herself will be condemned by Parliament. Wednesday, 10 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: At Calais.

Around 1538 . Some sources say around 1544. [his daughter] Katherine Dudley Countess Huntingdon was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 34) and [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 29).

May Day Jousting

On 01 May 1540 a tournament was held at Westminster [Map]. Gregory Cromwell 1st Baron Cromwell Oakham (age 20), Thomas Poynings 1st Baron Poynings (age 28), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 32), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 36), Richard Cromwell (age 45) and George Carew (age 36) were challengers.

Holinshed's Chronicle 1542. 12 Mar 1541. After his deceasse, the twelfe of the same moneth of March, sir Iohn Audeleie (age 37) sonne and heire to the said lord Lisles wife, was at Westminster created vicount Lisle.

In 1543 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 39) was created 1st Viscount Lisle.

1543 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1543, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1543, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 51) created three new Knights of the Garter:

310th. John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 39).

311th. William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 60).

312th. William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31).

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 Henry VIII (age 55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9), Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 30) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne (age 46), Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 57), Anthony Denny (age 45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 45), Edward Montagu (age 61), Edward North 1st Baron North (age 50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 61), Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 46), Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton (age 41).

In 1547 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 43) was created 1st Earl Warwick.

Diary of Edward VI. 1547. The lord Lisle (age 43) was mad(e) Erle of Warwick, and the lord great chamberlainship was given to him;1 and the lord Sudley mad(e) Admirall of England.2 Al this thinges wer don, the King being in the towre. Afterwardes, al thinges being prepared for the corronation3, the King being then but nin(e) yere old, passed through the cite of London as hiertofore hath ben used, and cam to the palace of Whestmuster, and the nest day cam into Whestmuster hall, and it was asked the peple whether they would have him to be there King? who answered "Ye, ye." Then he was crowned King of England, Eraunce, and Irlande by th'ar(ch)bishop of Caunterbury and al the rest of the cleargie and nobles, and anointed with al such ceremonies as wer accustomed, and toke his othe, and gave a general pardon4, and so was brought to the hale to diner, Shroft sunday, wher he satt with the croune on his hed, and th'arbishop of Caunterbury and the lord Protectour, and al the lordes satt at bourdes in the hal beneth; and the lord Marshales deputy, for my lord of Somerset was lord Marshal, rode about the hal to make rome. Then came in sir John Dimoke, champion, and mad his chaleng, and soe the King drounke to him, and he had the cup. At night the King retourned to his palace at Whest muster, wher ther wer justes and barieres; and afterward order was taken for al his servauntes being with his father and him being prince, and the ordinary and unordinary were appointed.

Note 1. On the 21st May following the Council made the following order relative to the hereditary claim of the earl of Oxford to this office: "This day it was ordered by the Lord Protectour's grace, with th'assent of others of the Counsail, that the patent of the Great Chambrelenship of Inglande shuld be demanded of th'erle of Oxenfourth, to be by him surrendered into the King's Mates hands, for the clere extinction of his pretenced clayme to the said office, whereunto he could showe nothing of good ground to have right to the same."' (Register of the Privy Council.)

Note 2. The office of Lord Admiral was resigned by the earl of Warwick (age 43) at this time, and resumed after lord Seymour of Sudeley's disgrace. The letters patent to Seymour, dated 17th February, 1547, are printed in Kymer's collection, as are other letters to the like purport, dated 30th August following. On the same day (17th February) the office of Earl Marshal was granted for life to the duke of Somerset; that of Great Constable of England was granted, for the day of the coronation, to the marquess of Dorset (age 30); and that of Great Steward of England, for the same day, to the earl of Bedford. (Ibid.)

Note 3. The ceremonial of the Coronation will be found in the Appendix.

Note 4. From this Pardon six persons were excepted: the duke of Norfolk, Edward lord Courtenay, son of the late marquess of Exeter, sir .... Fortescue, sir .... Throckmorton, cardinal Pole, and doctor Pates. (Stowe's Chronicle.) In the act for a General Pardon passed in the ensuing parliament, cap. 15, were excepted all persons being the 2nd Dec 1547, prisoners in the Tower of London. Statutes of the Realm, iv. 35.

Diary of Edward VI. 31 Jan 1547. The next day, being the [31st] of [January], he was brought to the towre of London, whear he taried th'espace of three wekes; and in the mean season the counsel sat every day for the performaunce of the will1, and at length thought best that the erle of Hartford shuld be made Due of Somerset, sir Thomas Seimour Lord Sudley, the erle of Essex Marquis of Northampton (age 35), and divers knights should be mad Barons, as the lord Sheffield (age 25), with divers other.2 Also thei thought best to chose the duke of Somerset to be Protectour of the realm and Governour of the Kinges person during his minorite, to which al the gentlemen and lordes did agre becaus he was the Kinges oncle on his mother's side.3 Also in this time the late King was buried at Windsor with much solemnite, and th' officers broke their staves, hurling them into the grave.4 But thei were restored to them again when thei come to the towre.

Note 1. The Will of Henry the Eighth was printed at length in 4to. 1793. The proceedings of the privy council with regard to its execution will be found in the Appendix.

Note 2. The creations were:

1. The protector to be Duke of Somerset;

2. The earl of Essex (age 35) (brother to the queen dowager) to be Marquess of Northampton;

3. The lord Lisle (age 43) to be Earl of Warwick;

4. the lord chancellor Wriothesley (age 41) to be Earl of Southampton;

5. sir Thomas Seymour (age 39) to be Lord Seymour of Sudeley;

6. sir Richard Rich (age 50) to be Lord Rich of Leez;

7. sir William Willoughby (age 32) to be Lord Willoughby of Parham; and

8. sir Edmund Sheffield (age 25) to be Lord Sheffield of Butterwick. The ceremonial of their creations will be found in the Appendix.

Note 3. On the subject of the Protectorate the reader is referred to the Appendix. The duke was also constituted Lord Treasurer on the 10th of February, and the next day sworn in to that office before the lord chancellor in Westminster hall. He further became Earl Marshal (see the next page), both these high offices being vacated by the attainder of the duke of Norfolk.

Note 4. The ceremonial of the Funeral of Henry the Eighth is printed at length in Strype's Eccles. Memorials, vol. ii. Appx. A. The interment was accomplished on the 14th Feb.

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

On 10 Sep 1547 an English army commanded by Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 47) defeated a Scottish army commanded by James Hamilton 2nd Earl Arran (age 31) and Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus (age 58) at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh at Musselburgh.

The English army included John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 43), Francis Talbot 5th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 47), Miles Partridge and Thomas Wentworth 2nd Baron Wentworth (age 22). John Thynne (age 32) and Edmund Brydges 2nd Baron Chandos (age 25) were knighted.

William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 26) accompanied Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 47).

John Forbes 6th Lord Forbes (age 82), Christopher Coningsby (age 31) and Edward Clere were killed.

John Thynne (age 32) was knighted after the battle.

The Scottish army included John Gordon 11th Earl Sutherland (age 22) who commanded the Rearguard and Gilbert Kennedy 3rd Earl Cassilis (age 32). John Stewart, Robert Douglas (age 41), John Livingston, Thomas Hamilton of Priestfield and Hugh Montgomerie were killed. John Hay 4th Lord Hay was captured but soon released.

Malcolm Fleming 3rd Lord Fleming (age 53) was killed. His son James Fleming 4th Lord Fleming (age 13) succeeded 4th Lord Fleming. Barbara Hamilton Lady Fleming by marriage Lord Fleming.

Robert Graham Master of Montrose was killed.

Around 1549 [his son] Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick (age 19) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Whorwood were married. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 45) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 40).

Kett's Rebellion

Diary of Edward VI. Aug 1549. Now to Northfolk.4 The people sodenly gathered together in Norfolke, and encreased to a great nomber; against whom was the lord marquise Northampton (age 37) sent, with the nombre of 10601a horsmen, who winning the towne of Norwich, kept it one day and one night, and the next day in the morning with losse of 100 departed out of the towne; among whom the lord Sheffield (deceased)2a was slaine. There were takin divers gentlemen and serving men to the nombre of 30, with wich victory the rebels were very glade. But afterward, hearing that th'erle of Warwic (age 45) came against them, thei began to stay upon a strong plat of ground upon a hil niere to the towne of Norwich, having the towmie confederat with them. Th'erle of Warwic (age 45) came with the nombre of 6000 men and 1500 horsmen, and entred into the toune of Norwich, wich having wone, it was so weke that he cold scarcely defend it, and oftentimes the rebels came into the streets killing divers of his mene, and were repulsed again; ye, and the townsmen were gieven to mischief themselfis. So, having endured ther assaultis three dayes, and stoped there vitailes, the rebels were constrained for lake of raeat to remove, whome th'erle of Warwic (age 45) folowed with 1000 Almans and al his horsemen, leaving th'English footmen in the towme, and overcam them in plaine battail, killing 2000 of them and taking Keit there captain, who in January folowing was hanged at Norwich, and his head hanged out. Kelt's brother was taken also, and punished alike.3a.

Note 4. Of the Norfolk rebellion a history was written in Latin by Alexander Nevylle, secretary to archbishop Parker, the archbishop himself having been present in the city of Norwich during the tumults, against which his oratory was unsuccessfully inhsted. It was printed in 1575, under the title, "Alexandri Nevylli Angli de Furoribus Nolfolciensium, Ketto duce. Liber unus. Ejusdem Norwicus. Ex ofEcina Henrici Bynneman, 1575." There was a second edition in 1582; and an English translation, made by Richard Woods, was printed in 1615, entitled, "Norfolk Furies and their Foyle, under Kett, their accursed Captaine. Second edition, 1623." See Upcott's British Topography, pp. 972, 973. In the first instance the duke of Somerset himself intended to take the field against "one Kett, a tanner, who hath taken upon himself our royal power and dignity, and calleth himself master and king of Norfolk and Suffolk." See letter under the King's signet, dated 6th August, printed by Strype, Memorials, II. i. 174, from MS. Cotton. Vesp. P. ixi. A subsequent proclamation, dated 16th August, when it was determined to send the earl of Warwick (age 45) on this service, is partly given ibid. p. 176.

Note 1a. So the MS., perhaps an error for 1600.

Note 2a. Edmund Sheffield (deceased), raised to the peerage in 1547 (see p. 211).

Note 3a. "The 29 of November, Robert Ket, and William Ket his brother, were delivered out of the Tower of London to sir Edmond Windham, knight, and sherifie of Norfolke, to be conveyed to Norwich, where Robert Ket was hanged in chains on the top of Norwich castle, and William Ket likewise hanged on the top of Windham steeple." Stowe's Chronicle.

On 27 Aug 1549 the rebels were defeated by an army led by John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 45). Henry Willoughby (age 32) was killed at Mousehold Heath, Norwich [Map].

Diary of Edward VI. 06 Oct 1549. In the meane season in Englond rose great sturres, like to increase much if it had not been well forseen.1 The counsel, about 19 of them, were gathered in London, thinking to mete with the lord Protectour (age 49), and to make him amend some of his disordres. He, fearing his state, caused the secretary [Petre (age 44)] in my name to be sent to the lordes, to know for what cause they gathered their powres togethers, and, if they ment to talke with him, that they should come in peacable maner. The next morning, being the 6 of October, and Saturday [Sunday], he commaunded the armoure to be brought downe out of th'armury of Hampton court, about 600 harnesses, to arme both his and my men withal, the gates of the hous to be rempared; peple to be raysed. Peple came abundantly to the house. That night, with al the peple, at 9 or 10 a cloke at night, I went to Windsore [Map], and there was watch and ward kept every night. The lordis sat in open places of London, calling for gentlemen before them, and declaring the causes of accusation of the lord Protectour (age 49), and caused the same to be proclaimed. After wich time few came to Windsore, but only myn owne men of the garde, whom the lordes willed, fearing the rage of the peple so lately quietid. Then begane the Protectour (age 49) to treate by letters, sending Sir Philip Hobbey (age 44), lately cum from his ambassad in Flaundres to see to his famyly, who brought in his returne a letter to the Protectour (age 49) very gentle, wich he delivered to hime, another to me, another to my house, to declare his fautes, ambicion, vain glorie, entriag into rashe warres in mine youth, negligent loking on Newhaven, enriching of himself of my treasour, folowing his owne opinion, and doing al by his owne authorite, et [?]; wich lettres was openly redd, and immediately the lordes came to Windsore, toke him, and brought him through Holborn to the Tower. Afterward I came to Ampton court [Map], wheir they appointed by my consente six lordes of the counsel to be attendant on me, at lest tow, and fower knightes; lordes, the marches Northampton (age 37), th'erles of Warwike (age 45) and Arondel, lordes Russel (age 64), Seintjone, and Wentworth; knigh(tes) sir [his brother] Andrew Dudely (age 42), sir Edward Rogers (age 51), sir Thomas Darcy, sir Thomas Wroth.1a After I came through London to Westmuster.2a The lord of Warwike made Admyral of England.3a Sir Thomas Cheiney sent to the em perour for relief4, wich he could not obteine. Mr. Wotton5 made secretary. The lord Protectour, by his owne agreement and submission, lost his protectourship, treasourirshipe, marchalshipe, al his moveables, and niere 2,000 pound lande, by acte of parliement.

Note 1. Under the influence of the earl of Warwick (age 45), seconded by the ex-chancellor Southampton and the Romanist party, a majority of the council now undertook to terminate the supreme dictatorship assumed by the Protector. It appears that Somerset's suspicions of his insecurity were first alarmed by learning that the councillors in London dined at each others' houses (see Tytler, p. 249); he consequently took measures on the 5th October, if not before (see the documents quoted in p. 285 hereafter), to strengthen his military resources. According to the record of the council, entered in their register, they had appointed on the morning of Sunday the 6th of October "to repayr to Hampton court, accompanied with their ordinary numbers of servants, to have had friendly communication with the lord Protectour about the reformation of the state;" when, "as they were booted and ready to have mounted upon their horses," they "were certainely advertised, as well as credible reportes of diverse gentlemen, as by letters subscribed by the hands of the said lord Protectour, that he, having some intelligence of their lordships' intents, and moved with the conscience of his ill-government, whereof he would abyde no reformation, had suddenly raised a power of the commons, to the intent, if their lordships had come to the court, to have destroyed them; which power he had levyed as well by letters whereunto he caused his Matie to set his most gracious hand, as by most sedicious bills, which he had devised for that purpose, the tenor whereof word for word foloweth. Good People," &c. (not entered in the Council Book, but preserved in the State Paper office, see hereafter, p. 242). Their lordships consequently determined to remain in London, assembling themselves at Ely Place, then the mansion of the earl of Warwick (age 45), in Holborn, where the following councillors were present: lord St. John, lord great master (who had been with the Protector at Hampton court only two days before), the earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), and Southampton, mr. secretary Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), sir Edward Wotton (age 59), and mr. doctor Wotton dean of Canterbury. Their first step was to unfold their views to the magistrates of London, who consequently held a court of aldermen at Guildhall that same afternoon, and their proceedings will be found detailed at full by Stowe. The council sent out various letters to countermand and counteract the orders issued by the Protector, and also to levy forces on their own party; and, sending for the lieutenant of the Tower of London sir John Markham, they "required him to suffer certain others to enter for the good keeping thereof to his Majesties use; whereunto the said lieutenant according, sir Edmund Peckham (age 54) knight and Leonard Chamberlayne esquire, with their servants, were commanded to enter into the Tower, as associates to the said lieutenant, for the better presidy and guard of the same."

The next morning, Monday Oct. 7, the council met at Mercers' hall in London, in number sixteen, there being present, in addition to those of the day before, the lord chancellor (age 52) (Rich), mr. treasurer (Cheyne), sir John Gage, sir Edward Mountagu, sir Ralph Sadler (age 42), and sir John Baker. They were informed that, during the previous night, the lord Protector had hastily conveyed the King from Hampton court to Windsor castle, and they directed to Windsor the letters hereafter noticed.

On the 8th, at 9 a.m. they met at Guildhall, with the further accession to their company of the marquess of Northampton (age 37) and the earl of Shrewsbury. The mayor, aldermen, and common council were ordered to attend them, and, the lord chancellor (age 52) and others (as Stowe relates) having declared divers abuses of the lord Protector, they persuaded the citizens to take their part. "The lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes, and in the afternoone proclamation was made in divers places of the cittie, with trumpets, heraults, and kings at armes, wherein was contained divers articles touching the evill government of the lord Protector."

On the 9th the council was held "at the house of mr. Yorke, sheriff of London" (this was the ancient mansion, then belonging to the Crown, called the Duke's Place in Southwark, the new sheriff being master of the mint then established there). The names of the lord privy seal (Russell), the master of the horses (Herbert (age 48)), the lord Wentworth, and the vice-chamberlain (Wingfield), are also entered as present in council; but the two former were certainly this day at Wilton, as shown by their autograph signatures to the letter mentioned hereafter, and none of the four signed the council's letters of this day.

"The tenth of October (says Stowe, but this certainly should be the 9th), by a common councell at the guild-hall, was granted five hundred men of the citie (one hundred to be horsemen) to be readie on the next morrow: and this day the lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes of London."

On the 10th, "the same appearance of the councell as before" assembled "at the house of the lord St. John, lord great master, being in London," when they were informed" that, through their former letters, and other means by them devised, and by the dihgent travail also of the archbishop of Canterbury and sir William Paget, then being at Windsor, the Kinges Matie owne servants were again restored to their places of attendance about his Matie person, and that the duke of Somerset's servants and others of the bands were sequestered from his Majtie Having received the private communication from Paget, noticed hereafter, they this day sent to Windsor sir Anthony Wingfield the vice-chamberlain, sir Anthony Sellenger one of the gentlemen of the privy chamber, and sir John Williams treasurer of the augmentations and revenues of the crown, with their servants, for the better guard of the King's person, and for the prevention of Somerset's escape. These officers effected the arrest of the duke the next morning; and, on Sunday the 12th, the lords in a body repaired to Windsor "and presented themselves forthwith before the King's Matie, most humbly on their knees, declaring to the same the occasion and order of their doings, the which his Matie did accept in most gratious part, giving to their lordships his Matie most hearty thanks." Calling before them sir Thomas Smith, sir Michael Stanhope, sir John Thynne (age 34), Edward Wolfe one of his Matie privy chamber, and William Gray esquire, of Reading, "adherents of the said duke, and the principal instruments and councellours that he did use, both at this time, and otherwise also in the affairs of his government," they charged them with their offences, and ordered them to the Tower of London, sir Thomas Smith being at the same time sequestered from the council, and deprived of his secretaryship.

On the 13th, the duke himself "being sent for t'appeare before their lordships, and charged by them with his faults, was with the others before named sent to the Tower of London, under the conduct of the earls of Sussex (not Southampton, as some of the chroniclers state) and Huntingdon, the lords Grey and Burgayny, sir John Gage constable of the Tower, and certain other gentlemen and their bands. This day also the King's Matie departed from Windsor to Hampton court."

Such is the account of this revolution which the privy council were pleased to place upon record. The course of these important events may be further traced by abundant documentary evidence, the greater part of which has been published, but scattered in various places. The two letters placed first in the annexed list may be regarded as a portion of the series — the first clouds that foreboded the coming storm: —

May 8, 1549. A letter of warning from sir William Paget to the lord Protector, remonstrating on his angry and snappish conduct towards those of the council who differed from him or ventured to express their own sentiments. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. Appendix GG.

July 7. A second, and very long, letter of expostulation and advice, written by Paget when abroad, upon hearing of the insurrection in the West. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; another in State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. viii. art. 4; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. App. HH.

Oct. 1 [or 5 ?] a letter, signed by the King and the Protector, summoning all the King's loving subjects with all haste to repair to Hampton Court, "in most defensible array, with harness and weapons, to defend his most royal person, and his most entirely beloved uncle the lord Protector, against whom certain hath attempted a most dangerous conspiracy." It is plainly dated "the furstoi October; "but was received (by a party unnamed) on "the vj of October, of George Dunstalle my lord of Canterbury's servant." In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. ix. art. 1; printed in Tytler's "England under Edward VI. and Mary," i. 205. Another (transcript) copy in the State Paper office, dated Oct. 5, is addressed "To all Justices of peace, mayers, shrives, balives, constables, hed boroughes, and all other the Kynges Matie officers and subjects."

Oct. 4. A letter from the lords at Hampton court to lord Cobham (age 52), deputy of Calais, directing him to select twenty gunners from Calais, and send them to lord Clinton (age 37) (at Boulogne), is signe.d by the Protector, archbishop Cranmer, W. St. John, Wm. Paget, and Wm. Petre (age 44). Original in MS. Harl. 284, fol. 46, printed by Tytler, i. 211.

Oct. 5. Letter of the Protector to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), then in command of the forces lately employed against the "Western rebels, requesting both of them to come to Hampton court, and the latter by post, and his servants to follow. In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI., vol. ix. art. 5; unpublished.

Letter signed by the Protector, the King's signature being prefixed by a stamp, to Sir Harry Seymour, to levy horse and foot. In State Paper office, art. 3, partly printed by Tytler, p. 213.

Oct. 6. Circular letter, of the like form, summoning those to whom it was sent to repair to Hampton court. In State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 214.

Letter under the King's signet, dated from Hampton court, addressed to the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, requiring them to levy men, to watch their gates, and to send one thousand, well harnessed, and with good and convenient weapons, to be at Hampton court that night, or at least on the morrow before noon. This was accompanied by a letter requiring credence to the bearer, Owen Claydon, signed EDWARD and SOMERSET; printed in Poxe's Actes and Monuments, under the head of "The troubles of the duke of Somerset;" and in Hollnshed's Chronicle.

Letter under the King's signet to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), announcing that "suche a henous and grevus conspiracye as never was seen, is attempted against us," &c. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 9.

Another like letter to the same parties, desiring them to assemble with all expedition as many men, both horse and foot, as they could, and bring them to Hampton court. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 8.

A third letter to the same, representing the matter more at fuU, and desiring them to repair "with such force as ye have" to Windsor castle. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, art. 6; printed by Foxe, Actes and Monuments.

A shorter letter of the same date desiring the same parties to give credence to lord Edward Seymour, the Protector's eldest son, who was the bearer of one or more of the preceding letters. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 7.

A letter from the Protector to the earl of Shrewsbury, requiring his aid; printed in Lodge's Illustrations of British History, i. 135.

Letter of certain of the council to the lord mayor, &c. denouncing the conduct of the Protector, and requiring that no harness, weapons, or munitions should be sent to him. It is signed by nine councillors — St. John, Northampton (age 37), Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Southampton, Petre (age 44), North, Gage, and Southwell; printed in Foxe and Holinshed.

Circular letter of the council in London, being a summons to arm in support of their side of the dispute. An original copy, undirected, but having the autograph signatures of R. Ryche, cane, W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Henry Sussex, T. Cheyne, Edward North, and John Gage: in the State Paper office, art. 10.

Oct. 7. Circular letters from the council to the sheriffs, forbidding the levies ordered to be raised by the Protector. One undirected is preserved in the State Paper office, art. 20, bearing the autograph signatures of the same councillors as above, except Cheyne.

Another letter nearly of the same import, addressed to certain commissioners: signed Kke the last, excepting that it wants the names of the earls of Arundel (age 37) and Shrewsbury, and has that of Edward Mountagu. Ibid. art. 21.

Letters under the signet, signed both by the King and Somerset, directing levies to be made by the bailiffs of Uxbridge, Hillington, and Cullam. Dated "at our castle of Windsor." Original in State Paper office, art. 15.

Letter of the lord Protector, now at Windsor, to the lords in London, declaring his intention, "if you will take no other way but violence, to defend us (as nature and our allegiance doth bind us) to extremity of death, and to put all to God's hand, who giveth the victory as it pleaseth him." He desires an answer either by secretary Petre (age 44), whom he had sent with a message, or, if they would not let him leave them, by the bearer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 16, signed only by the Protector's hand, printed by Tytler, p. 214; also previously pubHshed by Foxe, Holinshed, and Stowe.

The lords of the council in London to those at Windsor, requiring the duke of Somerset to absent himself from his Majesty, and to disperse the force which he had levied. "Consider, my lords, for God's sake, we heartely pray you, that we be almost the hole Councell," viz. the chancellor Eich, lord great master St. John, marquess of Northampton (age 37), earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Shrewsbury, and Southampton, sir Thomas Cheyne, sir William Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir John Gage, sir Ealph Sadleyr, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), and dr. Nicholas Wotton — in all fourteen. Sent by master Hunnings, a clerk of the council. Original in MS. Cotton. Calig. B. vn. fol. 404; printed in Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. ii. App. No. 44; Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 166. Draft copy in State Paper office, art. 22.

Letter to the King, signed by the same councillors, with the addition of sir Edward Mountagu. Original in MS. Cotton. Titus, B. ii. fol. 35; three draft copies in State Paper office, Nos. 17, 18, and 20; printed in Burnet's History of the Keformation, Part II. Book I. Eecords, No. 41.

To this day (Oct. 7) probably belongs a document which Mr. Tytler has edited, i. 207, with the date Oct. 4, from the State Paper office, art. 13, being suggestions for a letter to be written by the King strongly justifying the general conduct of the Protector. On the second leaf of the same sheet are various memoranda in the same handwriting, (but not copied by Tytler,) consisting partly of informations and partly of suggestions, apparently intended for the eye of the Protector. Among the latter are these: —

"Also that the Kinges matie wold make a letter unto the Maior, sherifes and aldremen of the citie, and to be delyvered unto the messenger by the Kinges own hande.

"Also lettre unto the lordes wylleng that asm any of them as are his treue honorable [subjects] shuld repayre unto him against his ennemys, or else they sought his blode aswell as his uncle's."

A previous paragraph states, "Also that upon sondaie [Oct. 6] my lorde grete m"^ [St. John] entered into the Tower of London to the Kinges use, and have made mr. Peckeham [sir Edward Peckham, treasurer of the mint,] lieutenant therof, and given him allowance for a table."

"Also the disobedyence of mr. Markham [the lieutenant of the Tower] in his office.

"Also that sir Thomas Darcy is laid in the Tower as a traytor."

Oct. 8. Circular letters to counties, countermanding the duke of Somerset's orders for levies, and charging all men to follow their vocations peaceably. Two copies (undirected), each bearing the autograph signatures of — E. Eyche, cane. W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Thomas' Southampton, William Petre (age 44), Nicholas Wotton, Edward Mountagu, Jo. Baker, are in the State Paper office, art. 28, 29.

Autograph letter of Harry lord Morley, acknowledging the council's summons, and expressing his readiness "with that pore power I have within one bower's warnyng, so ether to lyve or to dy." Dated from Mark hall. In State Paper office, art. 30.

Reply of the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), written from Andover, to the lord Protector: after having received other letters from the lords dated the same day (Oct. 6) as the Protector's letter to them. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 217: the substance given in Foxe's Actes and Monuments.

Letter from the lords at Windsor (Cranmer, Paget, and Smith) to those in London, in answer to theirs sent the day before. Original in the State Paper office, art. 26, printed by Tytler, p. 223; contemporary transcript in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 406; also printed in Stowe's Chronicle, and by Todd, in his Life of Cranmer, 1832, vol, iii. p. 57, Strype and Sharon Turner having considered the archbishop to have been the writer of it.

Letter from the King to the lords in London, entreating them to hold a moderate course; being accompanied by "certain articles exhibited unto us by our said uncle, signed with his own hand." Original in the State Paper office, art. 24; printed by Tytler, p. 220. Draft copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 405.

"Articles offered by me the lord Protector to the King's majestic, in the presence of his highnes counsail and other his majesties lordes and gentlemen at Wyndesor, to be declared in my behalf to the lordes and the reste of his highnes counsail remayning in London." Original in the State Paper office, marked 24 i. It is signed both at the beginning and end by the King, and at the foot by Somerset: contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 407; printed in Burnet, No. 42; Ellis, I. ii. 173.

Private letter from the duke of Somerset to the earl of Warwick (age 45), soliciting reconciliation. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Private letter from secretary Smith to secretary Petre (age 44), earnestly begging him to advocate moderation. Original in the State Paper office, art. 27, printed by Tytler, p. 228. There is also (art. 39) a second letter of Smith to Petre (age 44), which commences with thanking "my lords of Warwicke (age 45), Arondell, and yow, that my brother George had leave to come and visite me." It is written in a tone somewhat less anxious than the other, yet it is difficult to say whether a few hours before or a few hours after.

Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) was the bearer of these five documents. On the same day the council were actively proceeding in their prosecution of the Protector, by issuing a public proclamation. The charges it contained against him are given by Foxe and by Stowe.

Oct. 9. The following anecdote regarding this day is related on the authority of sir Thomas Smith, who remained faithful to the Protector: —

"Sir Phillip Hobby, [having] receaved an answere of the lordes in London by letter, came out of London, and by the way, faininge he had loste his letter out of his poquet, said to his man he would returne for a newe, and willed him to goe to the courte and tell the Counsell all should be well. This excuse was of purpose before devised by the lords, to the end they might winne tyme the better that they might doe their feates. The next daye he came to the courte with a letter to the Kinge from the lordes, and before he delivered said thus —

"Sir Phillip Hobby's saying or mesuage declared to the duke of Somerset, the archebishop of Canterbury, sir W. Pagett mr. comptrolor, sir Thomas Smithe secretary, in the presence of mr. Cecill, sir John Thinne, sir Richard Cotton, and divers others; reported by sir Thomas Smith.'" MS. Harl. 353, fol. 77; printed by Tytler, p. 238.

Letter from the lords in London, to the King. Printed from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 43. Draft copy in the State Paper office, art. 35.

Reply of the lords in London to those at Windsor, sent by sir Philip Hoby (age 44). Original, with fifteen autograph signatures, in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 408; draft copy in State Paper office, art. 37; printed from the former in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 169; and from the Council book by Burnet, No. 44.

Letter from the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48) to the lords of the council, dated from Wilton, they having retired farther with their military forces, instead of advancing. Original in State Paper office, art. 31, printed by Tytler, p. 231.

Letter of the lord privy seal and sir W. Herbert (age 48) to the sheriff of Gloucestershire. "The like letters are goone unto other shirrefes, not only to the sherrifes, but also to every justice of peace and gentleman privately." Summoning levies to repair to Wilton, from which town the letter is dated. Contemporary copy in the State Paper office, art. 31 i.

Letters, addressed to the lady Mary and the lady Elizabeth respectively, relating, on the part of the council, the events that had occurred, and denouncing the pride and ambition of the Protector. Original draft in the State Paper office, art. 33; printed by Tytler, p. 248.

Oct. 10. Letter of the archbishop of Canterbury, sir William Paget, and sir Thomas Smith, the lords at Windsor, acknowledging the receipt of the letter brought by sir Philip Hoby (age 44), and professing themselves ready to obey the directions of those in London. Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) returned with their submission. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. VII. fol. 412; printed in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 171; also printed, from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 45.

Letter from the lords in London to sir William Paget, acknowledging a credence sent them by his servant Bedill, and desiring him to give firm credence to the bearer mr. vicechamberlain sir Anthony Wingfield, who was also captain of the guard. In a postscript (to wliicli the council repeated their signatures), it was intimated to Paget that "if yow shall see any good oportunite for this purpose, and if it may be conveniently doon, as by your sei-vant's message it semed," the duke should be apprehended, and also secretary Smith, sir John Thynne, Richard Whalley, and William Cycill, who was then the duke's private secretary and master of his court of requests. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 410; printed by Ellis, I. ii. 173.

A Proclamacion, set furth by the body and state of the Kynges majesties privey counsayle, concernyng the devisers, writers and casters abrode of certain vile, slaunderous, and moste trayterous letters, billes, scrowes, and papers, tendyng to the seducement of the Kynges majesties good and lovyng subjectes: persons "whiche do labor now to maintain the trayterous doynges of the duke of Somerset," for that purpose "doon devise the moste vile, false, and traiterous billes, papers, and bokes that ever wer hard of, strawyng the same in the stretes, as well within the citie of London as in diverse tounes and other places in the country, wherein thei do falsely and traitorously travaile to slaunder the Kynges majesties oounsaill, thinkynge thereby to amase and abuse his majesties good subjects, whiche bee in areadinesse to joyne with the said counsaill for delivery of the Kyng our sovereigne lordes most royall persone, remainyng to his greate perill and daunger in the saied duke's custody." A reward of one hundred crounes is offered for the apprehension of every offender. This document, of which the draft is in the State Paper office, art. 40, is extant in an original broadside copy preserved in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries, It is subscribed by the names of all the following councillors:

The Lorde Riche (age 52), Lord Chancellor.

The Lorde Sainct Jhon, Lorde Great Master, and President of the Counsaill.

The Lorde Eussell, Lorde Privey Scale,

The Lorde Marques of Northampton (age 37).

The Erle of Warwicke (age 45), Lorde Greate Chamberlain.

The Erle of Arundell (age 37), Lorde Chamberlain.

The Erle of Shrewsbery,

The Erle of Southampton,

The Lorde Wentworth.

Sir Thomas Cheiney, Knight of the Order, and Threasaurer of the Kynges Maiesties house, and Lord Warden of the Cinque Portes.

Sir Willyam Herbert (age 48), Knight, Master of the Kynges Majesties horses.

Sir Anthony Wingfeld, Knight of the Order, the Kynges Majesties vice Chamberlein, and Capitain of the Garde.

Sir Jhon Gage, Knight of the Order, Constable of the Towre.

Sir Willyam Petre (age 44), Knight, Secretary.

Sir Edward North, Knight.

Sir Edward Montague, Knight, Chief Justice of the Comon Place.

Sir Raufe Sadler (age 42), Knight.

Sir Jhon Baker, Knight.

Sir Edward Wotton (age 59), Knight.

Master doctor Wotton, Deane of Cantorbury.

Sir Richard Southwell (age 46), Knight.

Sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), Knyght, high Threasaurer of all the Kynges Majesties Myntes.

Of the handbills mentioned in this proclamation, two are preserved in the State Paper office: one (art. 11 of the volume so often cited) commencing, "Moste loving and trew Ynglishmen," and signed, "By the Kynges true and loving subject to his poure, Henry A." This is supposed to have been "cast about" in the city of London (see before, p. 233), and it is indorsed. Rede itt and gyve itt furth. (Printed by Tytler, p. 209: the word "conspire" in p. 210, should be read serve?) The other (art. 12) is indorsed, "The copie of the bill sowed emongest the commons" (printed by Tytler, p. 210, where, for "the extortions of gentlemen," read "the extortiouse gentylmen"). There can be little doubt that this was the very bill which the lord privy seal found at Andover; where, he tells the council, "The gentlemen had received like letters from the King's majestie as we had done; and the commons had found bills that were sown abroad, to raise them in the Kinges name and the Protector's quarrel, as by a copy of one of the same bills, which ye shall also receive herewith, your Lordships may more plainly perceive." In his letter written to the duke of Somerset the day before, Russell had directly taxed him with the authorship of these papers: "Your Grace's proclamations and billets sent abroad for the raising of the commons we mishke very much." It is to be considered that the nobility, with great effort and much difficidty, had very recently succeeded in suppressing various insurrections, which they attributed in part to the Protector's former conduct towards the comnion people; they now detected him in acts calculated to provoke a repetition of such troubles. This indiscretion had the effect of arraying them against him, and throwing them into the hands of the more subtle and insidious Warwick (age 45).

Oct. 11. Letter written partly by Wingfield, and partly by Paget, signifying to the council the arrest of the duke, and describing the King's behaviour. It is signed also by Cranmer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 42; printed by Tytler, p. 241.

Minute of the whole discourse of the duke of Somerset's doings, addressed to the English ambassadors abroad. In the State Paper office, art. 41.

A circular letter from the council to counties, announcing the dispersal of the forces assembled by the duke of Somerset, and staying any further musters. Contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Titus, B, ir. fol. 30.

Another circular letter announcing the duke's arrest, and directing the parties addressed "to staye your nombres at home, without taking eny further traveile for this matter." One with the autograph signatures of eleven councillors in State Paper office, art. 44.

Oct. 14. Letter of the council to the lieutenant of the Tower, that he sujBfer no one to speak with the duke of Somerset or any other prisoner. Ibid. art. 45.

Articles objected to the duke of Somerset. These have never been edited accurately. The most perfect printed copy is that in Stowe's Chronicle (but in article 12 for Iniunction read Commission; in article 26 the 6 instead of "9 of October," and there are other errors.) In Foxe's Actes and Monuments, the 29 articles are reduced to 20, by the omission of the 10th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th. Hohnshed follows Foxe. Hay ward's copy (Life and Eeign of King Edward VI.) is imperfect, by the omission of the 28th article, as well as by a modernization of the language throughout; and Burnet copies Hayward. Strype in his Life of Cramner, p. 265, has pointed out the significance of the 10th article, which charged the Protector with having laid the blame of the insurrections on the nobility; and it is to be regretted that Strype did not print the draft copy which he had seen. It was, as he imagined, in the handwriting of bishop Gardiner: but this was a very bold surmise. Strype is in error in attributing these articles to the time of the duke's "second apprehension and trial." There is an old transcript of the whole 29 articles in MS. Addit. Brit. Mus. 9069; which is worth consulting if no other can be recovered.

Dec. 23. The duke of Somerset's submission, having read and considered the said 29 articles. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Feb. 2. His second submission, dated from the Tower. Also in Stowe.

Feb. 6. His recognizance in 1000/. to reside at the King's manor of Sheen or his own house at Syon, without passing the limit of four miles from either house. In the Eegister of the Privy Council.

The 6 of February the duke of Somerset was delivered out of the Tower, and that night he supped at sir John Yorke's, one of the sheriffes of London," (Stowe,) where, it appears from the council book, the lords assembled to welcome him.

Feb. 16. A pardon to the duke by letters patent under this date is printed in Rymer, Foedera, &c. xv. 205.

Note 1a. Of the "four principal gentlemen of his Highness' privy chambre" (the knights) it was also ordered that "two at the least should be continually attendants, .. to whom was advanced, above their accustomed fee of L li. by the yeare, the yearly fee of L li. more, in consideration of the singular care and travail that they should have about his Majesties person." (Council Book.) See further arrangements under the 20th April, 1550, hereafter.

In 1550 Walter Mildmay (age 29), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 46) and William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 49) were directed to examine the accounts of the Royal Mint.

Diary of Edward VI. 02 Feb 1550. Sir Anthony Wingfeld (age 63), before visechamberlaine, made controller. Sir Thomas Darcy (age 43) made visechamberlaine.3

Note 3. "On Candlemas day, [Feb. 2] William lord Saint John (age 67) earl of Wiltshire, lord great master, president of the councell, was made Lord Treasurer; John Dudley (age 46) earl of Warwich, lord great chamberlain, was made Lord Great Master; William Parre (age 38), marques of Northampton, was made Lord Great Chamberlain; lord Wentworth was made Lord Cham

Annales of England by John Stow. 02 Feb 1550. On Candlemas day, William L. Saint-John earle of Wiltshire (age 67), L. great master, and president of the Counsell, was made Lord Treasurer: John Dudley earle of Warwike (age 46), lord great chamberlaine, was made lorde great master; William Parre Marques of Northhampton (age 38), was made Lorde great Chamberlaine: Lord Wentworth (age 49) was made L. chamberlaine of houshold: Sir Anthony Wingfield (age 63) captaine of the guard, was made comptroller of the kings house; and Thomas Darcy (age 43) knight, was made viz chamberlaine, and captaine of the Guard: and the earle of Arundel late lord Chamberlaine, with the Earle of Southampton (age 44), were put of the counsell, and commanded to heepe their houses in London.

The submission of the D. of Somerset (age 50) prisoner in the tower, made the 2, of Febuary.

Diary of Edward VI. 08 Apr 1550. My lord Warwic (age 46) made general warden of the North2, and mr. Herbert (age 49) president of Walis, and the one had graunted to him a 1000 marc lahd, th'other 500, and lord War(wick) 100 horsmen at my (altered to King) charge.

Note 2. Warwick, though glad to accept this important and influential office, was unwilling to encounter the exile from the chief administration of affairs which its personal execution would have involved: see hereafter, under July 18. Sir William Herbert (age 49) also did not proceed to his seat of government for some time: see under June 13.

On 03 Jun 1550 [his son] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 23) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Seymour (age 12) were married. She the daughter of Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 50) and Anne Stanhope Duchess Somerset (age 53). He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 46) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 41). She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 04 Jun 1550 [his son] Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 17) and [his daughter-in-law] Amy Robsart (age 17) were married at Sheen Palace [Map]. King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 12) and William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 29) attended. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 46) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 41).

In 1551 [his son-in-law] Henry Sidney (age 22) and [his daughter] Mary Dudley (age 21) were married. She the daughter of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 47) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 42).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jul 1551. The vj day of July the Kynges (age 13) grace rod thrugh Grenwyche parke [Map] unto Blake heth [Map], and my lord of Darbe (age 42), and my lord of Warwyke (age 47), and my lord admerall Clyntun (age 39), and sir Wylliam Harbard (age 50), and odur lordes and knyghts and gentyllmen, and trumpeters playhyng, and alle the gardes in ther dobelets and ther hosse, with bowes and arowes and halbards ij and ij to-gether, and the Kynges grace in the myds on horsse-bake, and ther the Kynges grace ran at the ryng on Blake heth with lordes and knyghtes. [The earl of Warwick met the King there with a hundred men of arms, and great horses, and gentlemen] in clothe, and brodered the alffe, and the same night the Kyng suppyd at Depforth [Map] in a shype with my lord Admyral, [and the lords] of the conselle, and with many gentylmen.

Note. The king supped at Deptford. Machyn has dated this event two days too late. It is thus recorded in the king's own diary: "4. I was banketted by the lord Clinton at Detford, where I saw the Primrose and the Marie Willoughby launched."

Edward VI's 14th Birthday

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Oct 1551. The xj day of October wher creatyd [at Hampton [Map]] curtte my lord marqwes Dorsett duke of Suffolk (age 34); the yerle of Warwyke duke of Northumburland (age 47); [the earl] of Wyllshere (age 68) created the marqwes of Wyncha[ster; sir] Wylliam Harbard (age 50) made lord of Cardyff, and after the yerle of Penbroke; and knyghtes mad the sam time, sir William Syssyll (age 31), secretery, knyght, and M. Hare Nevylle knyght, [sir William] Sydney knyght, and M. Cheke, the kynges scollmaster.

Note. Creation of new peerages. The intended creation of the dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk, the marquess of Winchester, and the earl of Pembroke, was made known to the Privy Council on the 4th Oct. 1551, as thus recorded in their minutes: "This daye the lord chamberlen together wth the lord chamberlen (sic), beinge sente from the kinge to the lordes, declared on his majesties behalfe, that, for asmuch as the lord marques of Dorset hath lately opened to his highness the occasyones of his inhabilletie to serve in the place of generall warden of the marches towardes Scotlande, and therefore besought his majestie to call him from that place; his majestie, thinkinge the same lord marques' suite reasonable, and mindinge not to leave such a rowme of importance unfurneshed of an able personage, hath resolved both to revoke the said marques from that offyce, and to appointe the earle of Warwicke in his steed, who for his greate experience, and namly in those partes, his highnes taketh to be moste meeteste for that rowme. And hath further determyned, as well to th'ende that the said earle of Warwicke may the rather be had in the estymacione he deserveth for his digneties sake, as for that also his majestie thinketh necessarye, the noble houses of this his realme being of late much decayed, to erect other in their stead by rewardinge such as have alredye well served, and maye be therby the rather encowraged to contynewe the same, to call both his lordship and other noble personages to hier estates and digneties; and therfore hath appointed to advaunce firste the said earle of Warwicke to the degree of a duke; the lorde marques Dorsett, as well for his service sacke as for that he is lyke by waye of maryage to have claime to the tytle of duke of Suffolke, his highnes is pleased to call to that degree; the lord treasuror nowe earl of Wiltesheir to the degree of a marques; the master of the horse [sir William Herbert] to the degree of an earle; which his majesties mynd and determenacion his highnes pleasure is shalbe gon through with all, and these personages to be created on Sondaye nexte; to the assistance whereof his majestie willeth that such of the lordes and nobles as shalbe thought needfull, to be presente," &c. (MS. Harl. 352, f. 188b.)

Note. The three new knights. Mr. Sidney (age 69) and Mr. Neville (age 31) had been made gentlemen of the privy chamber on the 18th April 1550, and Mr. Cheke held the same appointment. (King Edward's Diary.) Sir Henry Neville (age 31) was the first settler at Billingbere of his name and family. He married Frances (age 9), only daughter and heir of sir John Gresham (age 33), and died July 13, 1593.

11 Oct 1551, the day before his fourteenth birthday, King Edward VI (age 13) celebrated at Hampton Court Palace [Map] by rewarding his guardians; it may have been a case of his guardians rewarding themselves.

John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 47), leader of the Council, was created 1st Duke Northumberland. [his wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 42) by marriage Duchess Northumberland. His son Henry Dudley (age 25) was knighted.

Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 34) was created 1st Duke Suffolk for having married King Edward VI's (age 13) first cousin Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 34). Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 34) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

William Paulet (age 68), Master of the Kings Wards, was created 1st Marquess Winchester. Elizabeth Capell Marchioness Winchester by marriage Marchioness Winchester.

His guardian William Herbert (age 50) was created 1st Earl Pembroke. Anne Parr Countess Pembroke (age 36) by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 51), the King's (age 13) uncle attended.

Henry Dudley (age 25) was knighted at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Nov 1551. [The iiij day of November the Queen (age 35) rode unto the court, attended with a great train of noblemen, gentlemen, and ladies. At the Court gate stood all the guards in their best coats.] Ther the yerle of Pembroke (age 50) saluted her and brought her] to the hall dore, and ther mett her the duke [of Northumberland] (age 47) and broyth her into the hall, and ther mett the [King's (age 14) grace, who salu]tyd her, and dyd inbrasse her and kyssyd her, and [took her by] the hand, and led her up in to the chambur of [presence; and] so ther was a bankett, and so when all was [done, the Queen] toke her horsse and was browght unto the bysshopes palesse to soper, and ther she laye ther tyll the (blank)

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 04 Nov 1551. The 4 of November the sayd Quene (age 35) rode from the sayd place to the Kinges pallace at Whitehall by Westminster in hir charyot, accompanyed with diuers knightes and gentlemen, carles and lordes, the Lady Margaret Dowglas (age 36), the Duches of Richmond (age 32), the Duches of Suffolke (age 32), the [his wife] Duches of Northumberland (age 42), with diuers other noble women of England and ladyes of Scotland followinge after them; the Dukes of Northumberland (age 47) and Suffolke and the Lord Treasurer (age 68) receivinge her within the Court gate, all the guard standinge on euery syde of the Court; and at her entringe in at the hall the Kinges Maiestie (age 14) stode in the upper ende of the hall, the [his son] Earle of Warwicke (age 24) [Note. assumed to be referring to the subsiduary title of the Duke of Northumberland] houldinge the sworde afore the Kinge; she kneelinge downe, the Kinges Maiestie tooke her up and, kissinge her, he tooke her by the hand, she comminge with him, he led her up into the chamber of presence, and so from thence to the Queues chamber of presence, where he kissed all the ladyes of Scotland, and so departed for a while; and that daye she dyned on the Quenes syde with the Kinges Maiestie, the Kinges service and hers comminge both togeather, richely serued in gylt plate; the Kinges seruice on the right hand of the table, and the Quenes on the left hand, she sittinge by the Kinge apart by his cloth of estate; the goodly cupbord of plate of gould and gylte that day there occupyed, with the rich hanginges and costly meates, was wondrous to see. All the ladyes of England and Scotland dyned in the Quenes great chamber, and were serued in siluer all theyr meates; dinner ended, the Kinges Maiestie shewed her his galleries and gardens, with other commodityes of that place; and about foure of the clocke he brought her downe againe by the hand into the hall, where he received her and there kissed hir, and so she departed to the Bishops house againe to Pawles in lyke manner as she went thither.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Nov 1551. The vj day of November the Qwyne (age 35) rod thrught [London] to Bysshope-gatt [Map], and the duke of Northumberland (age 47) [and a hundred] of grett horsys and cotes of welvet in-brodery, [with] hats of velvet and whyt fethers and chynes of gold; [and the] yerle of Penbroke (age 50) with a C. gret horsses, cotes gardy [d with] velvet, and chynes, hats and whyt fethers, and every [man] havyng a new gayffelyns [javelins] in ther hands, and a bage; and then cam the lord Tresorer with a C. gret horsse and ther cotes of marbull, with bage the facon of gold and gayffelins; and with gret nombur of lords and knyghts, and gentyllmen and lades; and ther the Qwyne reseyvyd of the chamburlain of London at the gatt a C. marke owt of the chambur.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 06 Nov 1551. The 6 of November the sayd Scottishe Quene departed toward Scotland, and rode from Pawles through all the high streates London and out at Bishops-gate [Map], accompanyed with diuers noble Scotland, men and women, to bringe her through the Citye to Shordich Church; the Duke of Northumberlande (age 47) havinge standinge of horsemen in Cheapsyde with jauelinges, iC [Note. One hundred] persons, wherof xl [Note. 40] gentlemen were apparayled in black velvet and white feathers, and chaines of gold about their neckes; next them stoode vixx [Note. 120 ie 6x20] horsmen of the Earle of Pembrookes (age 50), with blacke jauelinges and hattes with feathers; next them stoode ic. [Note. 100] of the Lord Treasurers gentlemen and yeomen with jauelinges allso, which 3 rankes of horsemen compassed from the Crosse in Cheape to Birchin Lane ende. And when the sayd nobles had brought hir to Shordich Church, there they tooke their leaue, and departed home againe. The Sheriffes of London had the conduction of her to Waltham townes ende, where the shires of Middlesex and Essex parteth; and harbingers [were] sent afore into euery shyre to the borders to Scotland, that every sheriffe in euery shyre, accompanyed with the gentlemen of the country, [should] receaue her, and make provision in euery shyre for hir meates, both for hirselfe, familie, and horses, till she come to the borders of Scotland, at the charges of the Kinges Maiestie the shyres that she should passe thorough till she be in Scotland, euery shire for theyr owne precinct; this first night she lodged in Waltham towne.

The Earle of Arundell and the Lord Pagett (age 45) sent to the Tower [Map].

Diary of Edward VI. 01 Dec 1551. He answered he did not entend to raise London, [...] His assembling of men was but for his owne defence. He did not determin to kill the duke of Northumberland (age 47), the marquis (age 39), etc., but spake of it and determined after the contrary; and yet seamid to confess he went about there death. The lordis went togither. The duke of Northumberland (age 47) wold not agree that any searching of his death shuld bee treason. So the lordis acquited him of high treason, and condemned him of treason feloniouse, and so he was adjuged to be hangid. He gave thankis to the lordis for there open trial, and cried mercy of the duke of Northumberland (age 47), the marquis of Northampton (age 39), and th'erle of Penbroke (age 50) for his ill meaning against them, and made suet for his life, wife and children, servauntes and dettes, and so departed without the ax of the Toure. The peple, knowing not the matter, shouted hauf a douzen times, so loud that frome the halle dore it was hard at Chairing crosse plainly, and rumours went that he was quitte of all.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (age 51) was had from the Tower of London [Map] by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall [Map], and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (age 68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.

Note a. His judges were Northumberland (age 47), Northampton (age 39), Pembroke (age 50), and the other leading members of the government, - the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, - and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.

Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (age 47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Dec 1551. The vij day of Desember at Hyd parke [Map] a gret muster of men of armes: the furst the kynges trumpeters; [then] my lord Bray, in gylt harnes, captayn of the pe[nsioners, and a] gret baner of the kynges armes; and then cam the pensyoners in caumplet harnes, and gret hars, in [white and] blake, v and v a ranke, and after them cam the[ir servants, in number] a C. with grett harse, and harnes in whyt and blake, [and speres]. The secound my lord Tresorer, a C. men of arms, broderyd cott, red and whyt, and ther spers, ys [standard] a faucon of gold. The iij was [the] duke of Northumberland (age 47), with [C. men] of armes in welvet in-brodery, trumpeters, [his standard] a lyon crounyd gold. The iiij my lord marqws Northamtun (age 39) a C. men of armes, in yelow and [black], spers and pensels and trumpeters. The yerlle of Bedford (age 66) a C. men of armes and [in] red and whyt, ys standard a gott whyt, and a trumpeter, and pensels and spers, cotes red and whyt and blake. The yerle of Rottland (age 25) a C. men of armes in yelow and bluw; ys standard a pekoke, and pensels. The yerle of Huntyntun (age 37) men of armes 1. in bluw, and speres, and standard, and pensels. The yerle of Penbroke (age 50) C. men of armes. My lord Cobam (age 54) 1. men of armes, in blak and whyt. My lord Chamburlayne l. men of armes, cote(s) of whyt [and] red, and speres cotes in-brodere, and pensels. M. tresorer Cheyney a C. men of armes, all blake, and speres and pensells, by-syd costerells and geton.... and armes a-pone the blake at ... pryche the Skott of saynt Peters in Cornhyll ... the morow dyd pryche doythur Bartelett a godly ... at the berehyng was the masters and compeny of the ...

Note. Muster in Hyde Park. This is described nearly in the same terms in the King's diary. Burnet has misprinted the date Dec. 4 instead of 7.

Note. The Scot of St. Peter's in Cornhill. This preacher has been before mentioned in p. 6 as "the Skott the curett" of St. Peter's. Whether he was the same as Richardson, whose popularity as a preacher is mentioned in p. 91, has not been ascertained.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 16 Dec 1551. Item the xvj. day was a proclamacion for the new qwyne that no man [should speak ill o]f it, for because that the pepulle sayd dyvers that ther was the ragyd staffea it.

Note a. One of the many intimations of the unpopularity of the duke of Northumberland (age 47), whose badge was the ragged staff.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 21 Dec 1551. The 21 of December, beinge St. Thomas th' Apostles day. Lord Riche (age 54) beinge Lord Channcellor of England, the Kinges Maiesties great seale was taken from him by the Duke of Northumberland (age 47) and the Earl of Pembroke (age 50) in the afternoone. And the morrowe after Doctor Goodricke, Bishop of Elye, had the keepinge of the great seale, as custos, by the counselles commandement, which bishop was one of the Privie Counsell to the Kinges Maiestie.

Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

On 26 Feb 1552 Miles Partridge and Ralph Fane were hanged. Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle (age 50) and Michael Stanhope (age 45) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for plotting to assassinate John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 48).

Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle (age 50) was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jun 1552. The vij day of Juin the duke of Northumberland (age 48) and dyvers of the kynges consell sat at yeld-hall [to hear] serten causys, and toke up my lord mayre and [his] brodurne for vetell, because he lokyd not to yt, and for sellyng of the sam, and odur causys.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Jun 1552. [The xvj of June the duke of Northumberland (age 48) took horse at five of the clock in the morning, to look after the Marches towards Scotland, of which he was constituted lord Warden, with a] compeny of lords and knyghts [to bring him on his] way of his jornay,-the vj kyng Edward the vjth.

Note. Duke of Northumberland took horse towards Scotland. He had been appointed lord warden of the Scotish Marches some months before: "11th Oct. 1551. A letter to the lord chauncelor to make out for the duke of Northumberlande a pattente of the lord wardenshippe generall in the north partes foranempste Scotland, with asmuch fee, preheminence, and authoritie as any his predecessores in that offyce have had heretofore, with power also to substytute and make deputy wardenes under him, with such fees as any in that rowme heretofore have had, and further the allowance of C. lighte horsemen at xd. by the daye." (Privy Council Book, MS. Harl. 352, f. 191.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1553. The x day of January [Note. Probably February] rod my lade Mare('s) (age 36) grasse from Saynt [John's] and thrugh Flettstrett unto the kyng at Westmynster, with a grett nombur of lords and knyghtes, and alle the [great] women lades, the duches of Suffoke (age 35) and [his wife] Northumberland (age 44), my lade marqwes of Northamptun (age 26), and lade marqwes of Wynchester, and the contes of Bedfford (age 74), and the contes of Shrowsbere (age 53), and the contes of Arundelle, my lade Clynton (age 26), my lade Browne (age 24) and Browne [sic in manuscript], and many mo lades and gentyllwomen; and at the oter gatt ther mett her my lord of Suffoke (age 36) and my lord of Northumberland (age 49), my lord of Wynchester (age 70), my lord of Bedfford (age 68), and therle of Shrusbery (age 53), the therle of Arundell (age 40), my lord Chamburlayn, my lord Admerolle, and a gret nomber of knyghtes and gentyllmen, and so up unto the chambur of pressens, and ther the Kynges (age 15) grace mett her and salutyd her.... owyn a-pon payne of presunmentt and a grett [penalty, as ye] shalle fynd in the actes in secund yere of kyng ... the perlementt tyme of the sayd yere, and nott to be ... plasse as taverns, alle-howses, ines, or wher ... for cummers and gestes, and has commandyd unto alle shreyffes and baylles, constabulls, justes of pesse, or any .. thay shall se truthe (and) justys as thay shalle [inform the] kyng and ys consell, and bryng them to pressun of ... sun or poyssuns as be the offenders ther off for ... her of odur.

1553 Grey and Dudley Triple Wedding

On 25 May 1553 a triple wedding was celebrated at Durham Place, the London townhouse of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49), father of [his son] Guildford Dudley (age 18) and [his daughter] Katherine Dudley Countess Huntingdon (age 15) ...

Guildford Dudley (age 18) and [his daughter-in-law] Lady Jane Grey (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 36) and Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 35). He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 44). They were third cousin once removed. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

[his son-in-law] Henry Hastings 3rd Earl Huntingdon (age 18) and Katherine Dudley Countess Huntingdon (age 15) were married. She the daughter of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 44). He the son of Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) and Catherine Pole Countess Huntingdon (age 42).

Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 15) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford (age 12) were married. She the daughter of Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 36) and Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 35). He the son of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 52) and Anne Parr Countess Pembroke. They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Death of Edward VI

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 06 Jul 1553. KING EDWARD (age 15) died at Greenwich, on the 6th July 1553, "towards night."a The event was kept perfectly secret during the next day;b but measures were taken to occupy and fortify the Tower of London [Map].c On "the 8. of July the lord maior of London was sent for to the court then at Greenwich, to bring with him sixe aldermen, as many merchants of the staple, and as many merchant adventurers, unto whom by the Councell was secretly declared the death of king Edward, and also how hee did ordaine for the succession of the Crowne by his letters pattents, to the which they were sworne, and charged to keep it secret."d

Note a. Letter of the council to sir Philip Hoby (age 48), ambassador with the emperor, printed in Strype's Memorials, 1721, ii. 430. It was not written until the 8th of the month, and is silent regarding the successor to the throne. Mary (age 37), in her letter to the lords of the council, dated from Kenynghall [Map] on the 9th of July (printed in Foxe's Actes and Monuments), also states that she had learned from some advertisement that the king her brother had died on Thursday (the 6th) at night last past.

Note b. Northumberland's (age 49) intention was to keep the death of the king (age 15) a secret, until he should have obtained possession of the person of the lady Mary (age 37), who had been summoned to visit her brother, and was at no further distance from London than the royal manor of Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But there were not wanting about the court those who from attachment to Mary, or from self-interest, ventured to incur the hazard of conveying to her this momentous intelligence; whereupon she immediately took alarm, and rode off towards the eastern coast, from which she might have escaped to the continent, had such a step become necessary. Many writers assert that it was the earl of Arundel (age 41) who made a private communication to her. I have not found any contemporary authority for this statement; but sir Nicholas Throckmorton (age 38), in his poetical autobiography (MS. Cole, vol xl. p. 272, verses 111, 112, 113, 114), claims the credit of having been the officious person. He had been a favourite servant of king Edward; and on his royal master's death,

"Mourning, from Greenwich I didd strayt departe

To London, to an house which bore our name.

My bretheren guessed by my heavie hearte

The King was dead, and I confess'd the same:

The hushing of his death I didd unfolde,

Their meaninge to proclaime queene Jane I tolde.

And, though I lik'd not the religion

Which all her life queene Marye hadd profest,

Yett in my mind that wicked motion

Right heires for to displace I did detest.

Causeless to proffer any injurie,

I meant it not, but sought for remedie.

Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,

How that her brother hee was dead and gone;

In post her goldsmith then from London went,

By whome the message was dispatcht anon.

Shee asked, ' If wee knewe it certainlie ? '

Whoe said, ' Sir Nicholas knew it verilie.'

The author bred the errand's greate mistrust:

Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.

Shee saide, ' If Robert had beene there shee durst

Have gag'd her life, and hazarded the happ.'

Her letters made, shee knewe not what to doe:

Shee sent them oute, butt nott subscrib'd thereto."

By "Robert" the lady Mary meant sir Robert Throckmorton, one of the four brothers.

Note c. See the Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 35. for 07 July 1553.

Note d. It appears most probable that this was the first intimation which the citizens had received of the existence of the letters patent: and that it was on this occasion that, being "sworn to them," they affixed their signatures, although the document had been previously executed on the 21st of June. No fewer than thirty-two signatures follow that of the lord mayor, but the parties were perhaps not all citizens, and from the arrangement of their names in the existing transcript (mentioned in the following note b ) it would be difficult to distinguish which were the aldermen, which the merchants of the staple, and which the merchant adventurers.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. About this tyme or therabouts the vj. shippes that were sent to lie befor Yarmothe [Map], that if she had fled to have taken hir, was by force of wether dreven into the haven, w(h)er about that quarters one maister Gerningham was ray sing power on quene Maryes (age 37) behalfe, and hering therof came thether. Wherupon the captaynes toke a bote and went to their shipes. Then the marynours axed maister Gernyngham what he wolde have, and wether he wolde have their captaynes or no; and he said, "Yea, mary." Saide they, "Ye shall have theym, or els we shall throwe theym to the bottom of the sea." The captaynes, seing this perplexity, saide furthwith they wolde serve quene Mary gladlie; and so cam fourthe with their men, and convayed certeyn great ordenaunce; of the which comyng in of the shipes the lady Mary and hir company were wonderfull joyous, and then afterwarde doubted smaly the duke's puisance. And as the comyng of the shipes moche rejoyced quene Mary's party, even so was it as great a hart-sore to the duke (age 49), and all his campe, whose hartes wer all-redy bent agaynst him. But after once the submyssyon of the shipes was knowne in the Tower [Map]a eche man then began to pluck in his homes; and, over that, worde of a greater mischief was brought to the Tower the noblemen's tenauntes refused to serve their lordes agaynst quene Mary. The duke he thought long for his succours, and writ somewhat sharplie to the counsayll here in that behalfe, aswell for lacke of men as munytion: but a slender answer he had agayn.

Note a. This passage, together with those that follow, shows that the Chronicler was still writing in the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. The morrow following great preparation was made. The duke (age 49) early in the morning calleda for all his owne harnes, and sawe yt made redy. At Duram Place he apoynted all the retenue to mete. The same day cartes were laden with munytion, and artyllery and felde peces prepared for the purpose. The same forenoone he moved eftesones the counsell to sende theire powers after him, as yt was before determyned, which should have met him at Newmarket, and they promysed him they wolde. He saide further to some of them, "My lordes, I and theis other noble personages, and the hole army, that nowe go furthe, aswell for the behalfe of you and yours as for the establishing of the queues highnes, shall not onely adventer our bodyes and lives amongest the bludy strokes and cruell assaltes of our adversaryes in the open feldes, but also we do leave the conservacion of our selves, children, and fameUies at home here with you, as altogether comytted to your truths and fydellyties, whom if we thought you wolde through malice, conspiracie, or discentyon leave us your frendes in the breers and betray us, we coulde aswell sondery waies foresee and provide for our owne savegardes as eny of you by betraying us can do for youres. But now upon the onely truste and faythefullnes of your honnours, wherof we thincke ourselves moste assured, we do hassarde and jubarde our lives, which trust and promise yf ye shall violate, hoping therby of life and promotyon, yet shall not God counte you innocent of our bloodes, neither acquite you of the sacred and holley othe of allegiance made frely by you to this vertuouse lady the queues highenes, who by your and our enticement is rather of force placed therin then by hir owne seking and request Consider also that Goddes cause, which is the preferment of his worde and the feare of papestry's re-entrance, hathe been as ye have herebefore allwaies layed,b the oryginall grounde wherupon ye even at the first motyon granted your goode willes and concentes therunto, as by your handes writinges evidentlie apperith. And thincke not the contrary, but if ye meane deceat, thoughe not forthwith yet hereafter, God will revenge the same. I can sale no more; but in theis troblesome tyme wishe you to use constaunte hartes, abandoning all malice, envy, and privat affections."

Note a. Here commences our Manuscript, at f. 31 of the Harleian volume No. 194, as now incorrectly bound.

Note b. i. e. alleged; printed said in Stowe.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. Therewith-all the first course for the lordes came uppe. Then the duke (age 49) did knit uppe his talke with theis words: "I have not spoken to you on this sorte upon any distrust I have of your truthes, of the which allwaies I have ever hitherto conceaved a trusty confidence; but I have put you in remembrance therof, what chaunce of variaunce soever might growe emongest you in myne absence; and this I praye you, wishe me no worse goode spede in this journey then ye wolde have to yourselves." "My lorde, (saith one of them,) yf ye mistrust eny of us in this matter, your grace is far deceaved; for which of us can wipe his. handes clene therof? And if we should shrincke from you as one that were culpable, which of us can excuse himself as guiltles ? Therefore herein your doubt is too farre cast." "I praie God yt be so (quod the duke); let us go to dyner." And so they satt downe.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. Note, thisse dale also sir John Gates (age 49) went oute. The morowe followinge ther was sent after the duke (age 49) the cartes with munytion and the ordenance.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. After the dyner the duke (age 49) went into the [his daughter-in-law] quene (age 17), wher his comyssion was by that tyme sealed for his liefetenantship of the armye, and ther he tooke his leave of hir; and so dyd certayn other lordes also. Then, as the duke cam thoroughe the counsayle chamber, he tooke his leave of the erle of Arundell (age 41), who praied God be with his grace; saying he was very sory yt was not his chaunce to go with him and beare him companye, in whose presence he coulde fynde in his harte to spende his bloode, even at his foote. Then my lorde of Arundell (age 41) tooke also my lordes boy Thomas Lovell (age 27) by the hande, and saide, "Farewell, gentyll Thomas (age 27), with all my harte." Then the duke cam downe, and the lorde marques (age 41),a my lorde Grey, with diverse other, and went out of the Tower and tooke their boote and went to Dyrrame Place or Whithall, wher that night they musteryd their company in names, and the next day in the morning the duke departed, to the nomber of vj c men or theraboutes. And as they went thoroughe Shordyshe [Map], saieth the duke to one that rid by him,b "The people precec to se us, but not one sayeth God spede us."

Note a. The marquess of Northampton (age 41).

Note b. Stowe has altered this to the lord Grey.

Note c. presse in Stowe.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 18 Jul 1553. The xviij. daye the duke (age 49), perceaving howe their succours came not, and also receyving from some of the counsell at the Tower lettres of discomfort, retoumed from Bury [Map], and came back agayn to Cambridge [Map].

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 19 Jul 1553. Note here, the xlx th day at night he harde howe that quene Mary (age 37) was proclaymed in London. And the next morning he called for a herolde and proclaymed hir himself.b Within an hower after he had lettresc from the counsell here that he should forthwith dismysse his armye, and not to come within x. myles of London, or els they wolde fight with him. The rumour hereof was no sooner abrode but every man departyd. Then was the duke (age 49) arested, by the mayre of the towne of Cambridge [Map] some say, some say by mr. Thomas Myldemay at the quenes commandement.d At last cam lettres from the counsell of London that all men shoulde go eche his waye. Then saide the duke to certayn that kepte him, "Ye do me wrong to withdrawe my libertye; se you not the counselles lettres, without exception, that all men should go whether they wolde?" At which wordes they than sett them agayn at libertye, and so contynued they all night; in so moche that the [his son] erle of Warwicke (age 26) was booted redy to have ryden in the mornynge. Then came the erle of Arundell (age 41), who had ben with the quene, to the duke into his chamber; and when the duke knewe therof he came out to mete him; and assone as ever he sawe the erle of Arundell (age 41) he fell downe on his knees and desyred him to be goode to him, for the love of God. "And consider (saith he) I have done nothing but by the concentes of you and all the hole counsell." "My lorde (quod he), I am sent hether by the quenes majestic, and in hir name I do arest you." "And I obey it, my lorde (quod he), and I beseeche you, my lorde of Arundell (quod the duke), use mercy towardes me, knowing the case as yt is." "My lorde (quod the erle), ye shoulde have sought for mercy sooner; I must do according to my commandement." And therwith he commytted the charge of him to diverse of the garde and gentyllmen that stoode by. And so the duke contynued walking up and downe in the utter chamber almost ij howers; and once or twyce he wolde have gone to the bedd-chamber about some busynes, but he coulde not be sufferyd. Then was Thome and Coxe from him.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1553. The xxj day of July was taken in Cambryg [Map] the duke of Northumberland (age 49), with dyvers lordes and knyghts; and that day qwen Mare (age 37) was proclamyd in Cambryg [Map], and [in-]contenent thrugh England.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1553. The xxv day of July, the wyche was Saynt James, [there] cam in-to London, and so to the Towre, serten traturs; the first was doctur Sandes, a prest; and next hym ser Thomas Palmer, ser Hare Gattes, ser John Gattes, ser [his brother] Andrew Dudley (age 46), [his son] lord H[are Dudley] (age 22), [his son] lord Ambrose Dudlay (age 23), lord Hastynges, the erle of Huntingdon (age 39), the [his son] erle of Warwyke (age 26), the duke of Northumber land (age 49) [attended by] iiij M1. men be-syd the garde with gettenes and trompeters, [and] with speres and gunnes to the Towre.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 25 Jul 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49), [his son] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), [his son] Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 21), [his son] Guildford Dudley (age 18), [his brother] Andrew Dudley (age 46), [his son] Henry Dudley (age 22) and Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) were imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for supporting [his daughter-in-law] Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Aug 1553. The xvij day of August was mad a grett skaffold in Westmynster hall agaynst the morow, for the duke of Northumberland (age 49) commyng to be raynyd, with odur, as the marqwes of Northamton (age 41) and the [his son] yerle of Warwyke (age 26).

On 18 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and [his son] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26) were tried at Westminster Hall [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) presided at the trial.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1553. The xviij day of August was reynyd at Westmynster hall the marqwes of Northamton (age 41), and the duke (age 49), and th'[his son] erle of Warwyke (age 26), and so they wher condemnyd to be had to the place that thay cam fro, and from thens to be drane thrugh London onto Tyburne [Map], and ther to be hangyd, and then to be cott downe, and ther bowells to be brentt, and ther heds to be sett on London bryge and odur [places.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Aug 1553. The xxj of August was, by viij of the cloke in the mornyng, on the Towre hylle a-boythe x M1. men and women for to have [seen] the execussyon of the duke of Northumberland (age 49), for the skaffold was mad rede, and sand and straw was browth, and all the men [that] longest to the Towre, as Hogston, Shordyche, Bow, Ratclyff [Map], Lymhouse, Sant Kateryns, and the waters of the Towre, and the gard, and shyreyffs offesers, and evere man stand in order with ther holbardes, and lanes made, and the hangman was ther, and sodenly they wher commondyd to [depart].

On 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. Duke Northumberland, Earl Warwick and Viscount Lisle forfeit. [his son] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), his son, was also attainted, with the Earldom of Warwick forfeit.

Thomas Palmer and John Gates (age 49) were hanged, drawn and quartered.

Before 22 Aug 1553 [his son] Henry Dudley (age 22) and [his daughter-in-law] Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk (age 13) were married. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 44). They were third cousin once removed.

After 22 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Sep 1553. The xxj day of September was the obseqwe of the baron of Dudley ser John Dudley (age 59) at Westmynster, the bake-syd of Sant Margatts; and ther was at ys beryng prestes and clarkes syngyng in Laten, the prest havyng a cope and the clarke havyng the halewater sprynkull in ys hand, and after a mornar baryng ys standard, and after a-nodur beyryng ys gret baner of armes gold and sylver, and a-nodur beyryng ys elmett, mantyll, and the crest a bluw lyon('s) hed standyng a-pon a crowne of gold, and after a-nodur mornar bayryng [his] targett, and a-nodur ys sword, and after cam master Somersett the harold bayryng ys cott armur of gold and selver, and then the corse covered with cloth of gold to the grond, and iiij of ys men beyryng hym, and ys armes hangyd a-pone the cloth of gold, and xij men of ys servands bayryng xij stayffs torchys bornyng to the chyrche; and in the qwer was a hersse mad of tymbur and covered with blake, and armes apon the blake, and after the mornars a grett compene; and a-for the durge began, the harold cam to the qwer dore and prayd for ys soll by ys stylle, and so began the durge song in Laten, all the lessons, and then the harold prayd for a for masse, and so the masse songe in Laten; and after ys helmet ofered, and cott and targatt, and after all was endyd offered the standard and the baner of armes; and so hom to dener, and ther was goodly ryngyng and a gret doll.

Note. P. 43. Funeral of John lord Dudley. This nobleman sold the castle of Dudley [Map] to his cousin John duke of Northumberland (deceased), and was never summoned to Parliament. (Nicolas's Synopsis of the Peerage.) His pecuniary distresses are noticed by Dugdale, Baronage, ii. 216; and it is added that he "was commonly called the Lord Quondam." [See this term used to bishop Latimer in p. 57 of this Diary.] His son and successor was restored to Dudley castle [Map], which was forfeited by the duke's attainder. See the funeral of the widowed baroness in p. 61.

Note. P. 44. Funeral of John lord Dadley. This is thus recorded in the register of St. Margaret's Westminster: "1553, September 18. Sir John Sutton knyght, Lorde Baron of Dudley." And that of his widow (see p. 61, and Note in p. 338) occurs under her maiden name: "1554, April 28. The Lady Cysslye Gray." The latter extraordinary circumstance is probably attributable only to the high rank of the Greys:—she was greataunt to the Lady Jane. His son, "The right honorable sir Edwarde Dudley knighte, Baron of Dudleye, the lord Dudleye," was buried in the same church on the 12th August, 1586; and his great-grandson, "Sir Ferdinando Sutton knight, Baro: Dudley," [but really the son and heir apparent of Edward then lord Dudley,] Nov. 23, 1621. Also in 1600, Mary lady Dudley, widow of the former Edward, and sister to Charles lord Howard of Effingham, lord admiral. She died Aug. 21, 1600, and a monument with her recumbent effigy, and a kneeling effigy of her second husband Richard Mompesson esquire, now remains near the south-east door of the church. See the History of St. Margaret's Church by the Rev. Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, M.A. 1847, 8vo. p. 19.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Nov 1553. [The 13th of November were arraigned at Guildhall doctor Cranmer (age 64), archbishop of Canterbury, the lord] [his son] Gylfford Dudlay (age 18), the sune of the duke of Northumberland and my [his daughter-in-law] lade Jane (age 17) ys wyff, the doythur of the duke of Suffoke-Dassett (age 36), and the lord [his son] Hambrosse Dudlay (age 23), [and the] lord [his son] Hare Dudlay (age 22), the wyche lade Jane was proclamyd [Queen]: they all v wher cast for to dee.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1554. The xxij day of January was reynyd at yeld hall [Map] the [his son] lord Robart Dudlay (age 21) for tresun, the duke of Northumberland('s) sune, and cast the sam day.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The monday, being the xij th of Februarie, about ten of the clocke, ther went out of the Tower to the scaffolde on Tower hill, the lorde [his son] Guilforde Dudley (age 19), sone to the late duke of Northumberland, husbande to the [his daughter-in-law] lady Jane Grey (age 18), daughter to the duke of Suffolke (age 37), who at his going out tooke by the hande sir Anthony Browne (age 25), maister John Throgmorton (age 30), and many other gentyllmen, praying them to praie for him; and without the bullwarke Offeleya the sheryve receyved him and brought him to the scaffolde, where, after a small declaration, having no gostlye fatherb with him, he kneeled downe and said his praiers; then holding upp his eyes and handes to God many tymesc; and at last, after he had desyred the people to pray for him, he laide himselfe along, and his hedd upon the block, which was at one stroke of the axe taken from him.

Note, the lorde marques (age 42)d stode upon the Devyl's towre, and sawe the executyon. His carcas throwne into a carre, and his hed in a cloth, he was brought into the chappell [Map] within the Tower, wher the ladye Jane (age 18), whose lodging was in Partrige's house, dyd see his ded carcase taken out of the cart, aswell as she dyd see him before on lyve going to his deathe, a sight to hir no lessee then deathf.

Note a. Sir Thomas Offley; see note in Machyn's Diary, p. 353.

Note b. He had probably refused the attendance of a Roman Catholic priest, and was not allowed one of his own choice.

Note c. Misread by Stowe with teares.

Note d. The marquess of Northampton (age 42).

Note e. no lesse in MS., not worse as given by Stowe and Holinshed.

Note f. "Great pitie was it for the casting awaye of that fayre Ladye, whome nature had not onely so bewtified, but God also had endewed with singuler gyftes and graces, so that she ignorantly receaved that which other wittingly devised and offred unto her.

"And in like manner that comely, vertuous, and goodly gentleman the lorde Gylford Duddeley most innocently was executed, whom God had endowed with suche vertues, that even those that never before the tyme of his execution saw hym, dyd with lamentable teares bewayle his death." Grafton's Abridgment, 1563.

In 1555 [his former wife] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 46) died.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jun 1557. The vij day of Juin was a proclamassyon in London by the quen('s) (age 41) grace, of the latt duke of Northumberland was supported and furdered by Henry the Frenche kyng (age 38) and ys menysters, and by the heddes of Dudley, Asheton, and by the consperacy of Wyatt and ys trayturs band; and the sayd kynges mynysters dyd secretly practysse and gyff, and they favorabulle; with trumpeters blohyng, and a x harroldes of armes, and with my lord mayre (age 57) and the althermen; and by the lat Stafford (deceased) and with odur rebelles whom he had interteynyd in ys rayme, and dyver odur mo, the wyche be ther yett on-taken.

Note. P. 138. Proclamation of war with France. A transcript (from the printed copy) of this Proclamation may be found in Starkey's collections, MS. Harl. 353, f. 184. See also Holinshed, 1st edit. p. 1767; Stowe's Chronicle, 1631, p. 631.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Up about seven o'clock; and, after drinking, and I observing Mr. Povy's (age 51) being mightily mortifyed in his eating and drinking, and coaches and horses, he desiring to sell his best, and every thing else, his furniture of his house, he walked with me to Syon [Map]1, and there I took water, in our way he discoursing of the wantonnesse of the Court, and how it minds nothing else, and I saying that that would leave the King (age 35) shortly if he did not leave it, he told me "No", for the King (age 35) do spend most of his time in feeling and kissing them naked... But this lechery will never leave him.

Note 1. Sion House [Map], granted by Edward VI to his uncle, the Duke of Somerset. After his execution, 1552, it was forfeited, and given to John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. The duke being beheaded in 1553, it reverted to the Crown, and was granted in 1604 to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. It still belongs to the Duke of Northumberland.

Letters of Horace Walpole. 05 Aug 1752. From Sevenoaks [Map] we went to Knowle. The park is sweet, with much old beech, and an immense sycamore before the great gate, that makes me more in love than ever with sycamores. The house is not near so extensive as I expected:330 the outward court has a beautiful decent simplicity that charms one. The apartments are many, but not large. The furniture throughout, ancient magnificence; loads of portraits, not good nor curious; ebony cabinets, embossed silver in vases, dishes, etc. embroidered beds, stiff chairs, and sweet bags lying on velvet tables, richly worked in silk and gold. There are two galleries, one very small; an old hall, and a spacious great drawing-room. There is never a good staircase. The first little room you enter has sundry portraits of the times; but they seem to have been bespoke by the yard, and drawn all by the same painter; One should be happy if they were authentic; for among them there is Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, Gardiner of Winchester, the Earl of Surry, the poet, when a boy, and a Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, but I don't know which. The only fine picture is of Lord Goring and Endymion Porter by Vandyke. There is a good head of the Queen of Bohemia, a whole-length of Duc d'Espernon, and another good head of the Clifford, Countess of Dorset, who wrote that admirable haughty letter to Secretary Williamson, when he recommended a person to her for member for Appleby: "I have been bullied by an usurper, I have been neglected by a court, but I won't be dictated to by a subject: your man shan't stand. Ann Dorset, Pembroke and Montgomery." In the chapel is a piece of ancient tapestry: Saint Luke in his first profession is holding an urinal. Below stairs is a chamber of poets and players, which is proper enough in that house; for the first Earl wrote a play331, and the last Earl was a poet332, and I think married a player333 Major Mohun and Betterton are curious among the latter, Cartwright and Flatman among the former. The arcade is newly enclosed, painted in fresco, and with modern glass of all the family matches. In the gallery is a whole-length of the unfortunate Earl of Surry, with his device, a broken column, and the motto Sat superest. My father had one of them, but larger, and with more emblems, which the Duke of Norfolk bought at my brother's sale. There is one good head of henry VIII, and divers of Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, the citizen who came to be lord treasurer, and was very near coming to be hanged.334 His Countess, a bouncing kind of lady-mayoress, looks pure awkward amongst so much good company. A visto cut through the wood has a delightful effect from the front: but there are some trumpery fragments of gardens that spoil the view from the state apartments.

Note 329. Only son of Dr. Richard Bentley, the celebrated Divine and classical scholar. He was educated at Trinity College, under his father. Cumberland, who was his nephew, describes him as a man of various and considerable accomplishments; possessing a fine genius, great wit, and a brilliant imagination; "but there was," he adds, "a certain eccentricity and want of prudence in his character, that involved him in distresses, and reduced him to situations uncongenial with his feelings, and unpropitious to the cultivation and encouragement of his talents."-E.

Note 330. Evelyn in his Diary for July 25, 1673, says, "In my way I visited my Lord of Dorset's house at Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a greate old-fashion'd house."-E.

Note 331. Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, while a student in the Temple, wrote his tragedy of Gordobuc, which was played before Queen Elizabeth, at Whitehall, in 1561. He was created Earl of Dorset by James the First, in 1604.-E.

Note 332. Charles Sackville, sixth Earl of Dorset. On the day previous to the naval engagement with the Dutch, in 1665, he is said to have composed his celebrated song, "to all you Ladies now on Land."-E.

Note 333. On the contrary, he married the Lady Frances, daughter of the Earl of Middlesex, who survived him.-E. [Note. This appears to be a mistake insofar as Richard Sackville 5th Earl Dorset married Frances Cranfield Countess Dorset who was the daughter of Lionel Cranfield 1st Earl Middlesex. Charles Sackville 6th Earl Dorset 1st Earl Middlesex married firstly Mary Bagot Countess Falmouth and Dorset and secondly Mary Compton Countess Dorset and Middlesex. There, however, references to his marrying an actress Alice Lee with whom he appear to have had a daughter Mary Sackville Countess Orrery.]

Note 334. Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, married two wives: the first was the daughter of a London citizen; the second, the daughter of James Brett, Esq. and half-sister of Mary Beaumont, created Countess of Buckingham. To this last alliance, Lord Middlesex owed his extraordinary advancement.-E.

[his daughter] Katherine Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland.

Diary of Edward VI. 2a. "The 17 of Octobre, King Edward came from Hampton court to his place in Southwarke, then called Suffolke place, and there dined, where after dinner he made master John Yorke one of the sheriffes of London knight, and then rode through the citie of London to Westminster." Stowe's Chronicle. In a subsequent entry (see p. 249) the King dated this passage through London as having taken place on the 15th of October; but "the xvij. day" is the date confirmed by the Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, p. 64. At the Council, "14 Oct. Sir Ralph Sadler, master of the wardrobe, (was directed) to deliver to the master of the King's horses so much cloth of gold and silke as shall serve for his Maties person and his horse at his highness' entering through London to Westminster in this month."

Note 3a. The letters patent for this second appointment of the earl of Warwick as High Admiral, dated 28 Oct. 1549, are printed by Kymer, Foedera, xv. 194. The office had remained vacant from the time of the attainder of lord Seymour of Sudeley.

Note 4a. "18 Oct. The Lords agreed this day to send sir Thomas Cheyney, knt of the order, and treasurer of his Majties houshold, and sir Philip Hobbey, knight, gentleman of his Majties privy chamber, and ambassadour ordinary with the Emperour, as Ambassadours to the said Emperour, aswell to declare to the same, as to his Majties good brother, the alteration of the present state, as to demand and require ayd of men, of carriages and victualls out of his Low Countries towards the defence and succour of Bulloin, according to the instructions delivered to them in that behalfe, the double whereof remayneth in the councell chamber." (Council Book.)

Note 5a. "14 Oct. This day mr. doctour Wotton, deane of Canterbury and Yorke, was by their lordships appointed to the roome of one of his Maties principall secretaryes, in the lieu of sir Thomas Smith." (Council Book.) He continued in this office to the 5th September, 1550, when he was succeeded by Cecill.

[his daughter] Temperance Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland.

Diary of Edward VI. Ther was great preparation mad to goe into Scoteland2 and the lord Protectour3, th'erl of Warwic4, the lord Dacres5, the lord Gray,1a and mr. Brian,2a went with a great nomber of nobles and gentlemen to Berwic, wbere, the first day after his conaming, he mustered al his company, wich wer to the nomber of 13,000 footmen and 5000 horsmen.3a The next day he marched on into Scoteland, and so passed the Pease.4 Then he burnt tow castels1b in Scoteland, and so passed a straight of a brig2b wher 300 Scottis light horsmen set upon him behind him, who wer discomfited. So he passed to Musselburough, where the first day after he come he went up to the hill, and saw the Scottis, thinking them, as thei were indeed, at lest 36,0003b men, and my lord of Warwic was almost taken, chasing th'erl of Huntley, by an ambush. But he was rescued by on(e) Bertivell,4b with twelve hagbusiers on horsbake, and the ambush ran away. The 7 day of September, the lord Protectour thought to get the hil; wich the Scottis seeing, passed the brig over the river of Muselburough, and strove for the hier ground, and almost gott it. But our horsmen set upon them, who although the(y) staled them, yet wer put to flight, and gathered together again by the due of Somerset lord Protectour, and th'erl of Warwic, and wer redie to give a new onset. The Scottis being amasid with this, fledde ther wayes, some to Edenburough, som to the see, and some to Dalkeith, and ther wer slain 10,000 of them.1c But of Englishe men 51 horsmen, wich were almost al gentilmen, and but one foteman.2c Prisoners were taken the lord Huntley3c chauncellour of Scoteland, and divers other gentlemen, and slain of lardes a 1000.1d And mr. Brian,2d Sadleir,3d and Vane4d were mad(e) Barnels5d [bannerets].

Note 2. The history of this campaign was related in "The Expedicion into Scotlande of the most woorthely fortunate prince Edward Duke of Somerset, uncle to our most noble sovereign lord the Kinges Majestie Edward the VI., Goovernour of hys Hyghnes persone, and Protectour of hys Grace's realmes, dominions, and subjectes; made in the first yere of his Majesties most prosperous reign, and set out by way of Diarie, By W. Patten, Londoner. Printed at London, 1548;" 12mo. and reprinted in Dalzell's Fragments of Scotish History, 1798. Patten was one of the judges of the marshalsea in the army, the other being William Cecill, afterwards the great Burghley. His narrative is largely quoted in Holinshed, and followed in Sir John Hay ward's Life and Reign of Edward VI. The Sieur Berteville has also left a memoir of the campaign: see note hereafter in p. 217.

Note 3. The duke of Somerset was experienced in the warfare of the Scotish border. He had been lord warden of the marches in 1542, when James the Fifth lost his life at Solway moss. The next year, accompanied by the lord Lisle, he visited the towns of Leith and Edinburgh with fire and devastation. And in 1544 as lord-lieutenant he commanded the expedition sent into Scotland, in which the towns of Leith and Edinburgh were again burnt, with those of Preston, Haddington, and Dunbar, and various castles, of which expedition a narrative, printed in the same year, is reprinted in Dalzell's Fragments of Scotish History, 1798, 4to. See the duke's military atchievements further particularised in the preface to the work of Patten, mentioned in the preceding note. On the present occasion he went as "general of the armie, and capitayn of the battalle, having in it iiii. m. fotemen." (Patten.) Letters patent constituting him "Lieutenant and Captain-generall of the warres both by sea and land," passed the great seal on the 11th of August (Burnet erroneously says the 21st); and they are printed in Rymer's Fœdera under the wrong year, 1548 instead of 1547, an error which misled Rapin (vol. ii. p. 12), who applied them to a time when (as he supposed) the Protector required authority to send the earl of Shrewsbury as Lieutenant-general, on the second year's campaign in Scotland.

Note 4. The earl of Warwick was Lieutenant of the army, and captain of the foreward of iii. M. footmen. (Patten.)

Note 5. William lord Dacre had the command of the rearward of iii. m. footmen.

Note 1a. The lord Grey of Wilton was high marshal of the army, and captain-generall of all the horsemen. See the account given of his conduct in the "Commentarie of the Services of William Lord Grey de Wilton," edited by Sir Philip Grey Egerton, Bart, for the Camden Society, 1847, p. 10. After the close of the campaign, lord Grey was left in Scotland in the chief command of the English forces.

Note 2a. Sir Francis Bryan was the captain of the light horsemen, being in number ii. m. (Patten.) He shortly after became marshal of Ireland (having married the countess dowager of Ormonde), and on the 27th December, 1549, was constituted lord justice of that kingdom; but during an expedition into Tipperary he died at Clonmell on the 2nd February following.

Note 3a. The King wrote 12,000 and 2000, and the figures are altered as above. The Sieur Berteville estimated the English army as about 12,000 (he at first wrote 14,000) footmen, 1300 men of arms, i.e. cavalry (he at first wrote "viii. centz." and so it is misprinted in the Bannatyne Club book hereafter noticed), and 2,500 light horsemen. These numbers may be compared with Patten's accoimt, p. xxv. of the several forces.

Note 4a. The lord protector, having left Berwick on Sunday the 4th of September, "marched that dale a six miles, and camped by a village called Rostan, in the baronrie of Boukendall." ..."The fift of September they marched an eight miles, untill they came to the Peaths, a clough or vallie running for a six miles west streight eastward, and toward the sea a twentie score brode from banke to banke above, and a five score in the bottome, wherein runs a little river. Steepe is this vallie on either side, and deep in the bottome." (Holinshed, following Patten.) The pass is called "the Pethes" in a letter of sir Ralph Sadler to the earl of Shrewsbury, printed in Lodge's Illustrations of British History, vol. i. pp. 120, 122. It is now called Cockburn's Path, anciently it is said Colbrand's Path; and the bridge which was built there in 1786 crosses a chasm in some parts more than 160 feet deep. It was this pass which the lord admiral told the King that his brother was not likely to surmount, "without losse of a great nombre of men, or of hymself" (see before, p. 58): it was, however, accomplished without difficulty, as Matthew Home, the captain of Dunglas castle, which commanded the pass, surrendered without a struggle.

Note 1b. Dunglas castle was defaced, and the next day the piles of Thornton and Anderwick.

Note 2b. Linton brig, on the 7th of September.

Note 3b. The King first wrote 23,000. Patten states that he heard some of the Scots confess that their army consisted of "above xxvi. ii. fighting footmen, beside ii. M. horsemen prickers (as they cal them), and hereto iii. thousande Irish archers brought by th'erle of Argile." Preface, p. xii.

Note 4b. This occurred (as Patten tells us) on the 7th of September, in a skirmish at the passage of the river Lin, near Hailes castle, when the earl of Warwick was accompanied by scant sixteen horses, whereof Berteville and John de Ribaud, Frenchmen, were two, seven or eight light horsemen more, and the rest his own servants. Berteville was "hurt in the buttok." And it is added that "As Bartevil that day had righte honestly served, so did the lordes righte honorably quite yt, for straight upon the overtakynge of my lordes Grace (i.e. Somerset) my lorde Lieutenant (i e. Warwick) did get him a surgion, and drest he was, straight after layde and conveyed in my lordes Grace's owne chariot, that was both right sumptuous for cost and easy for caryage." This gentleman has himself left a memoir of the campaign, but his modesty has not permitted him to insert this adventure. The memoir was contributed by David Constable, esq. to the Bannatyne Club, entitled "Recit de l'Expedition en Escosse, I'an MDXLVI. et de la Batayle de Muscleburgh, par le Sieur Berteville," and printed in 1825, accompanied by a fac-simile of a large contemporary engraving of the battle of Musklebroghe (or Pinkey, as it has been more frequently termed). The original of this memoir is preserved in the Cottonian Library, Cleopatra A. xi. It commences with an epistle from the author to the King, above which is written "Liber Georgii fferrers ex dono Regis Edouardi:" which shows that it was given by the King to George Ferrers, well known as the Christmas Lord of Misrule (whose magnificence is amply commemorated in the Loseley Manuscripts), as a contributor to the Chronicles of Hollnshed, and as the principal poet of The Mirroiir for Magistrates. He was himself in this campaign; and Patten, describing him as "George Ferrers a gentleman of my lord Protector's, and one of the commissioners of the carriages in this army," tells a story of his smothering some Soots hid in a cavern near Leith (p. 44). To return to Berteville: he was one of those knighted by the earl of Warwick at Berwick in September, when Patten calls him sir John Bartevile. He is noticed in a letter of dr. Wotton printed by Tytler, p. 91. His name occurs again in the King's Journal in connection with the charges made against the Protector by Warwick.

Note 1c. Sir James Balfour says "the Scotts lost 8000 men of all sortes, and weire 1000 prisoners taken." Aunales of Scotland, printed in 1825, 8vo. vol. i. p. 285.

Note 2c. Patten commemorates particularly the deaths of Edward Shelley, the lord Grey's lieutenant of the men of arms of Boulogne, upon whom he gives a long eulogium (p. 72); and another Bullener "little Preston," who was "found with both his handes cut of by the wreastes, and knowen to be he, for that it was knowen he had of each arme a bracelet of golde, for the which they so chopt him."

Note 3c. George Gordon, fourth earl of Huntly, constituted lord chancellor of Scotland in 1546. He was distinguished as a soldier, particularly by his victory over sir Robert Bowes at Haddenrig in 1542. On the 9th Sept. 1547 (the day before the battle of Pinkey or Musselburgh), the earl of Huntly challenged the duke of Somerset, to "fight for the whole quarrel, xx. to xx., x. to x., or els hymselfe alone with your Grace man to man." The Protector refused, "beynge of such estate by the sufferaunce of God as (to) have so weighty a charge of so precious a jewel, the governaunce of a Kynges person, and the protection of all his reames." See the incident related at considerable length by Patten, p. 49. The earl escaped from prison at Morpeth in 1548, and was killed in battle with the regent Moray at Corrichie in 1562.

Note 1d. At first -written 2000.

Note 2d. Sir Francis Bryan, already noticed.

Note 3d. Sir Ralph Sadleyr was treasurer of the army. Berteville bears this testimony to his valour: "En cest bataille monseigneur Sadeler le tresseurier monstra que son sens et proesse ne gist tant en office du finances qu'en experience de guerre." (p. 17.) Attached to sir Ralph Sadleyr's monument at Standon in Hertfordshire was a banner-staff of extraordinary height, said to have been a trophy of the field of Mussleburgh.

Note 4d. Sir Ralph Vane is described by Patten as "Lieutenaunt of all the men of armes and dimilaunces, beyng in number iiij. M." in which number there is perhaps un error. Berteville speaks of "la maison du roy, duquoy estoit chef Monsr de Vannez, ung aussi vaillant et saige capitaine." (p. 26.) But sir Thomas Darcy, according to Patten, was the "capitayn of all the Kynges majesties pencioners and men of armes."

Note 5d. Besides these three bannerets — "a dignitie (as Patten remarks) above a Knight, and next to a Baron," the duke of Somerset also made the following Knights in the camp at Roxburgh on the 28th of September: —

The lord Grey of Wilton, high marshal.

The lord Edward Seimour, my lordes grace's [eldest] son [by his first wife].

The lord Thomas Howard.

The lord Walldyke, a Clevelander.

Sir Thomas Dacre.

Sir Edward Hastings.

Sir Edmund Brydges.

Sir John Thynne, my lord's grace's steward of household.

Sir Miles Partridge.

Sir John Conway.

Sir Giles Poole.

Sir Ralph Bagnall.

Sir Oliver Lawrence.

Sir Henry Gates.

Sir Thomas Chaloner, one of the clerks of the council, and in this army chief secretary.

Sir Francis Flemmyng, master of the ordnance.

Sir Eichard Towneley.

Sir Marmaduke Constable.

Sir George Awdeley.

Sir John Holcroft (joint commissioner of the musters. Patten, p. xxvi )

Sir John Southworth

Sir Thomas Danby.

Sir John Talbot.

Sir Rowland Clerk.

Sir John Gresham.

Sir William Skipwith.

Sir John Buttes.

Sir George Blaag (joint commissioner of the musters. Patten, p. xxvi.)

Sir William Frauncis.

Sir Francis Knolles.

Sir William Thornborow.

Sir George Howard, who did bear the King's standard in the battail.

Sir James Wylforde (provost marshal of the army. Patten, p. xxv.)

Sir Ralph Coppinger (a pensioner.)

Sir Thomas Wentworth.

Sir John Mervyn.

Sir Nicholas Lestrange.

Sir Charles Stourton.

Sir Hugh Ascough.

Sir Francis Salvayn.

Sir John Horsle.y (captain of Bamborough castle. Patten, p. 28.)

Sir John Forster.

Sir Christopher Dies, Spaniards.

Sir Peter Negroo, Spaniards.

Sir Alonzo de Vile, Spaniards.

Sir Henry Hussey

Sir James Granado

Brabander

Sir Walter Bonham.

And at Newcastle, on the duke's return, he knighted the mayor, sir Robert Brandling.

Subsequently, the earl of Warwick, when lieutenant-general, made five knights at Berwick, — sir Thomas Neville (the lord Neville's brother), sir Andrew Corbet, sir Anthony Strelley, sir Arthur Mainwaring, sir Richard Verney, and sir John Berteville the Frenchman. (Patten, corrected by Holinshed.)

[his son] Charles Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland.

[his daughter] Margaret Dudley was born to John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland.

John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 1382-1439

Royal Ancestors of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553

Kings Wessex: Great x 13 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 16 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 7 Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 11 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 11 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 8 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Royal Descendants of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 3

Ancestors of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 1504-1553

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Sutton 2nd Baron Sutton

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Sutton 3rd Baron Sutton 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Clinton Baroness Sutton Dudley 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Sutton 4th Baron Sutton 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Unknown Baroness Sutton Dudley

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Blount

Great x 3 Grandfather: Walter Blount 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Beauchamp 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Constance Blount Baroness Sutton Dudley 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Diego Gómez Toledo

Great x 3 Grandmother: Sancha Toledo

GrandFather: John Dudley 6 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Maurice Berkeley 7th and 2nd Baron Berkeley 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Rich Berkeley 8th and 3rd Baron Berkeley 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eva Zouche

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Berkeley 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Clivedon

Great x 3 Grandmother: Katherine Clivedon Baroness Berkeley

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Berkeley Baroness Cherleton Baroness Dudley 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bettershorne

Father: Edmund Dudley 7 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Bramshott

John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Grey 1st Baron Grey Ruthyn 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Reginald Grey 2nd Baron Grey Ruthyn 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Hastings Baroness Grey Ruthyn 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Reginald Grey 3rd Baron Grey Ruthyn 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Strange 2nd Baron Strange Blackmere 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alianore Strange Baroness Grey Ruthyn 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ankaret Boteler Baroness Strange Blackmere 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edward Grey Baron Ferrers of Groby 6 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Astley 3rd Baron Astley

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Astley 4th Baron Astley 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Astley 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Astley Baroness Grey Ruthyn 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Willoughby Baroness Astley 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Roscelyn Baroness Willoughby and Latimer

GrandFather: Edward Grey 1st Viscount Lisle 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Ferrers 4th Baron Ferrers of Groby 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Ferrers 5th Baron Ferrers of Groby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Hoo Baroness Ferrers Groby

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry Ferrers 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Clifford 5th Baron Clifford 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa Clifford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Beauchamp Baroness Clifford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Ferrers 6th Baroness Ferrers Groby 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Mowbray 4th Baron Mowbray Baron Segrave 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave Baroness Mowbray Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabel Mowbray Baroness Berkeley 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Mother: Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Gilbert Talbot 3rd Baron Talbot 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Talbot 7th Baron Strange Blackmere 4th Baron Talbot 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Petronella Butler Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John "Old Talbot" Talbot 1st Earl of Shrewsbury 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Strange 4th Baron Strange Blackmere 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ankaret Strange 7th Baroness Strange Blackmere, Baroness Talbot 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mary Fitzalan Baroness Strange Blackmere 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Talbot 1st Viscount Lisle 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Ferrers Countess Warwick 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Beauchamp Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Berkeley 10th and 5th Baron Berkeley, Baron Lisle 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Berkeley Countess Warwick 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Lisle Baroness Berkeley 3rd Baroness Lisle 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Talbot Viscountess Lisle 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Cheddar

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joan Cheddar Viscountess Lisle