Europe, British Isles, England, Home Counties, Middlesex, Tyburn [Map]

Tyburn is in Middlesex.

1330 Execution of Roger Mortimer

1400 Epiphany Rising

1404 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1477 Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

1486 Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

1499 Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

1534 Execution of Elizabeth Barton and her Supporters

1535 Execution of the Carthusians

1536 Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

1537 Execution of the Fitzgeralds

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1537 Lincolnshire Rising

1541 Executions

1541 Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

1550 Prayer Book Rebellion

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1616 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1641 Irish Rebellion

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1683 Rye House Plot

1685 Popish Plot

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1715 Battle of Preston

1760 Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

Execution of Roger Mortimer

On 29 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was hanged naked at Tyburn [Map] accused of assuming royal power and of various other high misdemeanours. His body hung at the gallows for two days and nights. He was buried at Christ Church Greyfriars [Map]. Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 35) subsequently requested his burial at Wigmore Abbey [Map] and, after firstly refusing, King Edward III of England (age 18) allowed his remains to be removed to Wigmore Abbey [Map]. His grandson Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March (age 2) succeeded 2nd Earl March, 4th Baron Mortimer of Wigmore.

Epiphany Rising

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas (age 46) was tried, and condemned to death, by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl of Surrey 12th Earl of Arundel (age 18) at Tower of London [Map] for his role in the Epiphany Rising having been captured in Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 05 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas (age 46) was beheaded at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map].

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

In 1404 William Serle was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for having been one of the murderers of Murder of Thomas of Woodstock.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

On 18 Nov 1441, Saturday, Roger Bolingbroke was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1447. 14 Jul 1447. And on Fryday the xiiij day of Juylle nexte folowynge by jugement at Westemyster, there by fore v [5] personys were dampnyd to be drawe, hanggyd and her bowellys i-brente by fore hem, and thenne her heddys to ben smetyn of, ande thenne to be quarteryde, and every parte to be sende unto dyvers placys by assygnement of the jugys. Whyche personys werethes: Arteys the bastarde of the said Duke of Glouceter, Syr Rogger Chambyrlayne knyght, Mylton squyer, Thomas Harberde squyer, Nedam yeman, whyche were the said xiiij day of Juylle i-drawe fro Syn Gorgys thoroughe out Sowthewerke and on Londyn Brygge [Map], ande so forthe thorowe the cytte of London to the Tyborne [Map], and there alle they were hanggyde, and the ropys smetyn a-sondyr, they beynge alle lyvynge, and thenne, ar any more of any markys of excecusyon were done, the Duke of Sowthefolke (age 50) brought them alle yn generalle pardon and grace from our lord and sovereign King Harry the vj (age 25)te.

On 29 Jul 1460 Thomas Browne (age 58) was beheaded at Tyburn [Map].

Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) were hanged at Tyburn [Map] for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 42).

John Stacy and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire (age 52) were hanged.

Croyland Chronicle. Before 18 Feb 1478. The indignation of the duke (age 28) was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's (age 28) household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp (age 43), at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn [Map], they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna28, 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. History of Susanna, verse. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford (age 43), wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 43) is reported by some sources as dying on 27 Jan 1466?

Stafford and Lovell Rebellion

Around Apr 1486 the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion was an armed uprising against King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 29). With the failure of the plot Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 30) fled to Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 39) in Flanders.

On 08 Jul 1486 brothers Humphrey Stafford (age 60) and Thomas Stafford was executed at Tyburn [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 22 Jun 1497. This yeare was Blackheath [Map] feild in June.e The Lord Awdley (age 34) chiefe capteyn with 30,000 Cornishe men. The capteynes put to death,f.

Note e. June 22nd.

Note f. Lord Audley (age 34) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]; Flammock, an attorney, and Michel Joseph, a blacksmith, were hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn [Map]; all the rest were pardoned by proclamation.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 23 Nov 1499. Perkin Werbeck (age 25) putt to death at Tyburne [Map]; and the Earle of Warwyke (age 24),b sonne to the Duke of Clarence, who had bene kept in the Tower [Map] from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill [Map].c A great pestilence throughout all England.

Note b. Edward Earl of Warwick (age 24) was the last remaining male of the honse of Plantagenet. He bore the title of Earl of Warwick, though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed.

Note c. Warbeck (age 25) was executed at Tyburn [Map] on the 23rd Norember, together with O'Water, Mayor of C!ork, and the Earl of Warwick on the following day, or, according to some anthorities, on the 28th.

Note. "though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed." Edward's (age 24) claim was from through his mother Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence, daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick, whose claim had come from her mother Anne Beauchamp, so his father's attainder was irrelevant.

Trial and Execution of Perkin Warbreck and Edward Earl of Warwick

On 23 Nov 1499 Perkin Warbreck (age 25) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Annales of England by John Stow. 20 Feb 1523. The 20 of February, the ladie Alice Hungerford (age 38) a knights wiſe, for murdering her husband, was led from the tower of London to Holborn, and there put in a cart with one of her servants and so carried to Tyburn [Map], and both hanged. He was buried in the Greyfriers church at London.

On 20 Feb 1523 Alice aka Agnes Cotell (age 38) and William Mathewe were hanged at Tyburn [Map] for the murder of her first husband John Cotell.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 1524. This yeare there were three persons, viz. Charles, sometyme master of the Kinges henchmen, and one Pickeringe, sometyme of the King's bakehowse, and one Thomas, a servinge man, latelie come from the Rhodesa which were drawne to Tiburne [Map], and there hanged, their bowells brent afore them, and after quartered, their heades sett on London bridge, and their quarters hanged at divers gates of the Cittie, which persons made an insurrection in Coventree [Map].b

Note a. The Isle of Rhodes, which was this year taken by the Turks.

Note b. The account of this conspiracy is more circumstantially related in Hall's Chronicle, ed. 1809, p. 673.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. Dec 1531. This yeare Mr. Risse (age 23)c was beheaded at Tower hill, and one that was his servante was drawne from the Tower of London to Tibume [Map], where he was hanged, his bowells burnt, and his bodie quartered.

Note c. "Griffeth Rise (age 23) beheaded for treason."— Fabyan's Chronicle.

Execution of Elizabeth Barton and her Supporters

On 20 Apr 1534 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton (age 28) was hanged for treason at Tyburn [Map]. Five of her supporters were hanged alongside her:

Edward Bocking, Benedictine Monk of Christ Church, Canterbury

John Dering, Benedictine Monk

Henry Gold, Priest

Hugh Rich, Franciscan Friar

Richard Risby, Franciscan Friar

Execution of the Carthusians

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 28 Apr 1535. This yeare, the 28 of Aprill, 1535, being Weddensdaye, were arreigned at Westminster in the Kings Benche (the Lord Chauncellor sittinge there as Highe Commissioner, with the moste parte of the nobles of the realme and the judges allso)a three munckes of the Charterhowsse, one beinge Prioure of the Charterhowsse in London named Mr. John Houghton (age 48), another named Mr. Robarte Lawrence,b prioure of a place in Lincolneshire, and sometyme chaplein to the Duke of Northfolke (age 62) now being, and the thirdc prioure of a place in Northamptonshire, and one, Richarde Reynold,d a brother of the monasterie of Syon, and two priests allso, one beinge Vicare of Thistleworthe in the shire of Middlesex, and this day were all endicted of highe treason against the Kinge; and the morrowe after, beinge the 29th of Aprill, all the saide persons appeared there agayne, the Lords beinge agayne present; and there their inditements being redd afore them, a jurie of esquiers and gentlemen of Middlesex were swome to passe on them, and incontinent gave verditt of them beinge guiltie of the same treason, whereupon the Lorde Cheefe Justice of Englande gave sentence on them, which was: that the saide muncks and priests should goe from thence to the place they came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawen throughe London to Tiburne [Map], and there to be hanged, and beinge aly ve cutt downe, their bowells to be brent afore them, and then their heades to be cutt of and theyr bodies to be quartered, and then their heades and bodies to be sett at suche placesf as the King should assigne them.

. And the 4th day of May followinge, being Tewsday in the Rogation week, the parties aforesayde were drawne from the Tower to Tybome [Map], and there had execution as afore is written, savinge the other priest called Jo. Ferne, who had his pardon delyvered him on the Tower Hill, and so was quitt.

Note a. It was with the full approral of his Council that Henry VIII took the resolution of executing the laws without mercy against such as impugned his spiritual authority.

Note b. Thomas Laurence, Prior of Hexham. — Stow.

Note c. Augustine Webster, Prior of "Bevall."— Stow.

Note d. Richard Reginalds, doctor, a monk of Sion.— Stow.

Note e. John Haile, Vicar of Isleworth.

Note f. Their heads and quarters were set on the gates of the City all sare one quarter, which was set on the Charterhouse at London.-Stow.

Hall's Chronicle 1535. 19 Jun 1535. And the nineteenth day of June was three monks of the Charterhouse hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyborne [Map] and their quarters set up about London or denying the King to be Supreme Head of the Church. Their names were Exmewe, Myddlemore, and Nudigate. These men when they were arraigned at Westminster, behaved themselves very stiffly and stubbornly, for hearing their inditement read how traitorously they had spoken against the King’s Majesty his crown and dignity, they neither blushed nor bashed at it, but very foolishly and hypocritically acknowledged their treason which maliciously they avouched, having no learning for their defence, but rather being asked diverse questions, they used a malicious silence, thinking as by their examinations afterward in the Tower of London it did appear, for so they said, that they thought those men which was the Lord Cromwell (age 50) and other that there sat upon them in judgement to be heretics and not of the Church of God, and therefore not worthy to be either answered or spoken unto. And therefore as they deserved, they received as you have heard before.

Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 May 1536. After this, immediately the Lord of Rocheforde (age 33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower [Map] from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume [Map], and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London.

Execution of the Fitzgeralds

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 03 Feb 1537. The third day of February was Thomas Fitz Garrad (age 24) late Earl of Kildare and five of his uncles drawn, hanged and quartered at Tiborne [Map] for high treason.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 03 Feb 1537. Also the 3rd day of February [1537] the lorde Fitzgerald (age 24) with his five uncles of Ireland - these were their names, Thomas lorde Fytzgerald (age 24), sir James Fitzgerald (age 41), sir John Fitzgerald, sir Richard Fitzgerald lord of St. Ines in Ireland, Sir Oliver Fitzgerald (age 41), and sir Walter Fitzgerald (age 41) drawn from the tower unto Tyburn [Map], and there all hanged and beheaded and quartered, save the lorde Thomas (age 24), for he was but hanged and headed and his body buried at the Cross Friars [Map] in the choir, and the quarters with their heades set up about the city.

On 03 Feb 1537 six members of the Fitzgerald family, nephew and five uncles, Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl of Kildare (age 24), James Fitzgerald (age 41), Oliver Fitzgerald (age 41), Richard Fitzgerald, John Fitzgerald and Walter Fitzgerald (age 41) were executed at Tyburn [Map].

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 19 Feb 1537. Also the 19th day of February was hangyd at Tyburn [Map] ten women and three men.

Bigod's Rebellion

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 25 May 1537. And the 25th day of the same month was drawn from the Tower of London [Map] unto Tyburn [Map] Sir John Bulmer knyght, Sir Stephen Hamertone knight, master Nicolas Tempest (age 57) squire, William Thurston Abbot of Fountains [Map] and Bachelor of Divinity, Doctor John Pekerynge Prior of the Blackfriars in York, Sir James Pekerelle Canon and Doctor of Divinity. And after Sir John Bowmer [and] Sir Stephen Hamertone ware but hanged and headed, and all the residue ware both hangyd, headed and quarted. And at that time was drawn from the Tower after, the Lady Margaret Bowmer (age 26) wife unto Sir John Bulmer, and he made her his wife, but she was the wife of one Cheney, for he sold her unto Sir Bowmer; and she was drawn when she came to Newgate into Smythfelde, and there burned the same fore-none. And that same day at Tyburn was a young Friar of the Blackfriars brought up, and for because he desired the heart of him that brought him up, to have it and to burn it, the Sheriff sent him to Newgate and there was a seneyt [?] or more.

On 02 Jun 1537 Thomas Percy (age 33), Francis Bigod (age 29), and John Bulmer and Ralph Bulmer were hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 02 Jun 1537 In June the lord Darcy (age 70) and the lord Hosey [Map] were arraigned at Westminster before the Marques of Exceter (age 41), then High Steward of England, and they were both found guilty and had their judgement as in cases of high treason.

After 02 Jun 1537. Shortly after were also arraigned Sir Robert Constable (age 59), Sir Thomas Percy (age 33), Sir Fraunces Bygod (age 29), Sir Stephin Hamelton, Sir Jhon Bulmer and his wife (deceased), which some reported was not his wife but his paramour, also William Lumley, Nicholas Tempest (age 57), and the Abbots of Jerney (age 35) and Rivers, and Robert Aske (age 37), and all found guilty of high treason, and all put to death at Tiborne [Map], saving Sir Robert Constable (age 59), which was hanged in chains on Beverley gate at Hull and Aske (age 37) was also hanged in chains in Yorke on a Tower, and Sir John Bulmer’s Paramour (deceased), was burned in Smithfclde [Map] in London. And in the latter end of June, was the Lord Darcy (age 70) beheaded at Tower Hill [Map], and shortly after was the Lord Hosey (age 70) beheaded at Lyncolne [Map].

On 12 Jul 1537 Robert Aske (age 37) was hanged in chains at Clifford's Tower. The date may have been Friday 06 Jul as implied by the letters of the Duke of Norfolk?

George aka William Lumley and Nicholas Tempest (age 57) were hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Lincolnshire Rising

Around 30 May 1537 the Abbots of Fountains Abbey [Map], Marmaduke Bradley, and Gisborough Priory [Map], Robert Pursglove, were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map] for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge [Map].

On 02 Jun 1537 Abbot Adam Sedbar (age 35) and Prior William Wood were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map] for their role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. Their heads were displayed on London Bridge [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1538. 20 Feb 1538. Also, the 20th dale of Februarie, their was drawen from Newgate to Tiburne [Map] a priest, sometyme chapleyne to my Lord Beawchamp, called Sira John Alane, for treason, and also an Irishman of my Lord Garrattesb kynnered,c also for treason, which tow persons were hanged, boyld,d and quartered, their heades and quarters sett about London.

Note a. Such priests as have the addition of Sir before their Christian name were men not graduated in the Universities, being in orders but not in degrees, whilst others entitled Masters had commenced in arts. Fuller, Church Hist.

Note b. Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, executed in 1537.

Note c. kindred.

Note d. Clerical error for boweled, but omitted in Stow.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1538. 20 Mar 1538. This yeare, the 20th daie of March, being Saterdaie the second weeke of Lent, Thomas Harford, gentleman, was drawen from Newgate to Tiburne [Map] for seditious wordes of treason against the Kinges Majestie, and also a yong man called Yewer, sometyme a freeman of London of the Company of the Marchant Tailors, was drawen to Tiburne [Map] for dyminishinge the Kinges coyne, as he confessed at the gallowes, to the value of sixteene grottes, and their the said Harford and Yewer were hanged, their bowells brent, headded, and quartered.

Hall's Chronicle 1538. Aug 1538. And in August was Edward Clifford for the same cause attainted, and both put to execution as traitors at Tiborne [Map].

In Aug 1540 Giles Heron (age 36) was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for treason; not clear what his crime was?.

1541 Executions

Hall's Chronicle 1541. 17 May 1541. In the beginning of this yere, five priests in Yorkshire began a new rebellion, with the assent of one Leigh a gentleman, and nine temporal men, which were apprehended, and shortly after in diverse places put in execution, in so much that on the seventeenth day of May, the said Leigh and one Tattersall, and Thornton, were drawn through London to Tyburn [Map], and there were executed. And Sir John Neville (age 53) knight was executed for the same at York.

On 20 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 26) was tried for the murder of John Busbrig, servant of Nicholas Pelham (age 24) on whose land they were poaching on 30 Apr 1541. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68) was appointed Lord High Steward for the trial.

On 29 Jun 1541 he was hanged at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate Church. Baron Dacre Gilsland forfeit. His son Gregory (age 1) would be restored to the title in 1558.

Note. Hall's Chronicle says strangled.

Catherine Howard Tyburn Executions

On 10 Dec 1541. At Tyburn [Map] ....

Francis Dereham (age 28) was hanged, drawn and quartered. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate Church.

Thomas Culpepper (age 27) was beheaded. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate Church.

On 07 Mar 1544 Thomas Larke (age 54) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Prayer Book Rebellion

Annales of England by John Stow. 27 Jan 1550. the 27 of January, Humfrey Arundell (age 37) esquire, Thomas Holmes, Winslowe and Bery, captaines of the rebels in Devonshire, were hanged and quartered at Tyboure [Map].

Annales of England by John Stow. 10 Feb 1550. The 10 of February one Bel a Suffolke man, was hanged and quartered at Tyborne [Map], for moving a new rebellion in Suffolk and Essex.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 May 1552. The sam day was hangyd at Tyborne [Map] ix fello[ns.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Jul 1552. The xj day of July hangyd one James Ellys, the grett pykke purs that ever was, and cutt-purs, and vij more for theyfft, at Tyburne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Dec 1552. The xxj day of Desember rod to Tyborne [Map] to be hangyd for a robery done on Honsley heth, iij talmen and a lake.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jan 1553. The xxj day of the sam monyth rod unto [Tyburn [Map]] ij felons, serten was for kyllyng of a gentylman [of] ser Edward North knyght, in Charturhowsse cheyr[ch yard?]-the vij yere of kyng Edward the vj.

Note. Kylling of a gentyllman [of] ser Edward North (age 57) knyght in Charterhowse cheyr[chyard]. Sir Edward North occupied the Charterhouse at this time, and was made a baron about a year after this occurrence. Machyn must have omitted the word "of," and the party murdered would be a gentleman attached to the household of sir Edward North.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1553. The xviij day of August was reynyd at Westmynster hall the marqwes of Northamton (age 41), and the duke (age 49), and th'erle of Warwyke (age 26), and so they wher condemnyd to be had to the place that thay cam fro, and from thens to be drane thrugh London onto Tyburne [Map], and ther to be hangyd, and then to be cott downe, and ther bowells to be brentt, and ther heds to be sett on London bryge and odur [places.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1554. The xiij day of January ther was a man drane from the Towre [Map] thrugh London a-pone a sled unto Tyborne [Map], and ther hangyd, dran, and quartered, for conterffeytyng the quen('s) senett [signet].

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle 15 Feb 1554. 15 Feb 1554. The 15 of February were hanged of the rebells iii against St Magnus Churche [Map], iii at Billingsgate, iii at Ledenhall [Map], one at Moregate, one at Creplegate, one at Aldrigegate, two at Paules, iii in Holborne, iii at Tower hill [Map], ii at Tyburne [Map], and at 4 places in Sowthwerke [Map] 14. And divers others were executed at Kingston [Map] and other places.

Allso this daye about ix of the clock in the foorenoone was seene in London in the middest of the Element a raynebowe lyke fyre, the endes upward, and two sunnes, by the space of an hower and an halfe.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 May 1554. The xviij day of May was drane a-pone a sled a proper man namyd Wylliam Thomas from the Towre [Map] unto Tyborne [Map]; the .. he was clarke to the consell; and he was hangyd, and after ys hed stryken of, and then quartered; and the morow after ys hed was sett on London bryge, and iij quarters set over Crepullgate.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 18 May 1554. 18 May 1554. Fridaye the xviiith of May William Thomas was drawne from the Tower of London [Map] to Tiburne [Map], and there hanged, headed, and quartered, and after his head sett on London Bridge [Map], and his quarters sett in 4 severall places, one myle out of the Cittie of London.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Sep 1554. The xx day of September was ij men dran of ij hyrdles unto Tyburne [Map] and un-to hangyng, the ij for qwynnyng [coining] of noythy [naughty] money, and deseyvyng of the quen('s) subjects; the one dwelt in London sum tym.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Sep 1554. The xxvij day of September wher iiij hangyd, on was a Spaneard, at Tyburne [Map]: ij wher goodly felows.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Jan 1555. The xviij day of January wher hangyd at Tyborne [Map] ij men and iiij women.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1555. The vij day of Marche was hangyd at Tyborne [Map] x theyffes for robere and odur thynges.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jul 1555. P. 91. The vj day of July rod to Tyburne [Map] to be hangyd iij men, and on drane [drawn] upon a hyrdyll unto Tyburne for qwynnyng [coining] of money.

On 21 Apr 1556 John Throckmorton (age 27) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1556. The xxviij day of Aprell was drane from the Towre to Tyborne [Map] ij gentyll-men; on ys name was master Waddall captayn of the yle of Wyth, and the odur master John Frogmorton (deceased); and so hangyd, and aftar cut downe and quartered, and the morowe after ther hedes sett on London bryge-the iij of quen Mare.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 May 1556. The xix day of May was dran [drawn] from the Towre unto Tyborne [Map] captain Wylliam Stantun, and ther hangyd and quartered, and ys hed sett on London bryge the morow after.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jun 1556. The ix day of June was drane from the Towre unto Tyborne [Map] iij gentyllmen for a consperace, master Rosey, master Bedylle, and master Dethyke, and ther hangyd and quartered, and ther quarters bered, master Rosey('s) hed on London bryge, and Bedylle('s) hed over Ludgatt, and master Dethyke('s) over Althergatt.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Jul 1556. The ij day of July rod in a care v. unto Tyborne [Map]; on was the hangman with the stump-lege for theft, [the] wyche he had hangyd mony a man and quartered mony, and hed [beheaded] mony a nobull man and odur.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. Apr 1557. The (blank) day of Aprell suffered dethe in [several] plases in the Northe for entrying in-to Sk[arborough] castyll [Map], (for) the wyche at London master Thomas [Stafford] (age 24) was heddyd on Towre hylle [Map]; and at Tyborne [Map] John Procter aleas Wylliamsun, Wyllyam Stowe, John Bradford, and more in dyvers plases; [in York]shyre, John Wylborne, Clement Tyllyd, John Cawsewelle, and Robart Hunter, at York, [by the] dethe of hangyng, drahyns, and quarter[ing].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 May 1577. [The xxviij day of May Thomas Stafford was beheaded on Tower hill [Map], by nine of the clock, master Wode being his] gostly father; and after ther wher iij more [drawn from the To] wre, and thrugh London unto Tyburne [Map], and ther [they were] hangyd and quartered; and the morow after was master [Stafford] quartered, and hangyd on a care, and so to Nuwgatt to [boil.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Apr 1557. The vj day of Aprell hangyd at Tyborne [Map] viij f ....

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1560. The sam day was sessyons at Nuwgatt, and ther ... wher cast xij, and vj was bornyd in ther hand, and the .... was iij [3] cared to Tyburne [Map], and ther hangyd, and on [one] rep[rieved].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Apr 1560. The xxix day of Aprell whent to hangyng ix men and one woman to Tyburne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Apr 1561. The xxj day of Aprell wher hangyd ix, at Hyd parke korner iij, and vj at Tyborne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Dec 1561. The xv day of Desember was bered in sant Donstons in the whest [Map] master Norrey (deceased), alleas Dalton, kynge of armes of the North from Trent unto Barwyke [Berwick].... were hanged at Tyb]orne [Map], and on [one] off them the sur[geons took] for a notyme [anatomy] in-to ther halle.

Note. P. 273. Funeral of Laurence Dalton, Norroy king of arms. See his epitaph in Stowe, and his funeral insignia described in the Collectanea Topogr. et Geneal. 1837, vol. iv. pp. 101–111. His funeral ceremony is recorded in the College of Arms. I. 13, f. 32, and his brass is drawn in the MS. Harl. 1099.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Apr 1562. The xiij day of Aprell was cared unto Tyburne [Map] ix, vij men and a boy and on woman, to be hangyd ther.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1562. The xxvij day of June whent to Tyburne [Map] v men and iiij women for to hange for thefte.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1562. The x day of August was drane from .... unto Tyborne [Map] Phelype Furney gold-smyth d[welling in] sant Barthelmuwe in Smythfeld for cowyning [coining], and hangyd after, and (blank) Walker was cared in a care to Tyburne, and hangyd for robere.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1563. The viij day of Marche wher hangyd at Tyburne [Map] x men; [one] was Brutun, and (blank) after browth bake to sant Pulkurs ther to be bered, and ther master Veron the vecar mad a sermon for them.

Annales of England by John Stow. 18 Feb 1593. The 18.of February one named Harington a seminary preist, was drawn from Newgate to Tyborne [Map] and there hanged, cut done al(ue, ſtrugled with fhe hangman, bat twas boweſled andquarter

On 07 Jun 1594 Roderigo Lopes (age 77), Ferreira da Gama and Tinoco were Hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map]. Lopes' property was forfeited on his attainder.

On 14 Feb 1601 Thomas Lee (age 50) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 20 Nov 1616 Gervase Helwys (age 55) was hanged at Tower Hill [Map]. He gave a speech to the crowd ...

... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman, making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.

Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill [Map], rather than in the place of common Execution [Map], where every base Malefactor dyeth.

Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.

It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (age 64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (age 50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.

My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.

And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.

I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.

I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.

The summe of his Prayer.

O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.

Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.

After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.

Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any unrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.

On 29 Nov 1628 John Felton (age 33) was hanged at Tyburn [Map] for having murdered the Duke of Buckingham.

1641 Irish Rebellion

In 1645 Connor Maguire 2nd Baron of Enniskillen (age 29) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map].

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

On 19 Oct 1660 at Tyburn [Map] ...

Daniel Axtell (age 38) was hanged, drawn and quartered. His head was set on Westminster Hall [Map].

Francis Hacker was hanged. His body was returned to his friends for burial.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1661. At the office all the morning; dined at home, and after dinner to Fleet Street, with my sword to Mr. Brigden (lately made Captain of the Auxiliaries) to be refreshed, and with him to an ale-house, where I met Mr. Davenport; and after some talk of Cromwell, Ireton and Bradshaw's bodies being taken out of their graves to-day1, I went to Mr. Crew's (age 63) and thence to the Theatre [Map], where I saw again "The Lost Lady", which do now please me better than before; and here I sitting behind in a dark place, a lady spit backward upon me by a mistake, not seeing me, but after seeing her to be a very pretty lady, I was not troubled at it at all. Thence to Mr. Crew's (age 63), and there met Mr. Moore, who came lately to me, and went with me to my father's, and with him to Standing's, whither came to us Dr. Fairbrother, who I took and my father to the Bear and gave a pint of sack and a pint of claret.

Note 1. "The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton, John Bradshaw, and Thomas Pride, were dug up out of their graves to be hanged at Tyburn [Map], and buried under the gallows. Cromwell's vault having been opened, the people crowded very much to see him".-Rugge's Diurnal.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell, Bradshawe (the judge who condemned his Majesty (age 30)), and Ireton (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster [Map] among the Kings, to Tyburn [Map], and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (age 30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jan 1661. So I went home, and there understand that my mother is come home well from Brampton, and had a letter from my brother John (age 20), a very ingenious one, and he therein begs to have leave to come to town at the Coronacion. Then to my Lady Batten's; where my wife and she are lately come back again from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hanged and buried at Tyburn [Map]. Then I home1.

Note 1. "Jan. 30th was kept as a very solemn day of fasting and prayer. This morning the carcases of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw (which the day before had been brought from the Red Lion Inn, Holborn), were drawn upon a sledge to Tyburn [Map], and then taken out of their coffins, and in their shrouds hanged by the neck, until the going down of the sun. They were then cut down, their heads taken off, and their bodies buried in a grave made under the gallows. The coffin in which was the body of Cromwell was a very rich thing, very full of gilded hinges and nails".-Rugge's Diurnal.

On 21 Jun 1661 William Monson 1st Viscount Monson (age 62) surrendered himself to Parliament and was imprisoned at Fleet Prison [Map] for being a Regicide. On 01 Jul 1661 he was brought up to the bar of the House of Commons, and, after being made to confess his crime, was degraded from all his honours and titles and deprived of his property. He was also sentenced to be drawn from the Tower through the city of London to Tyburn [Map], and so back again, with a halter about his neck, and to be imprisoned for life.

On 01 Jul 1661 Henry Mildmay (age 68) was sentenced and degraded from his honours and titles and to be drawn every year on the anniversary of the king's sentence (27 Jan) upon a sledge through the streets to and under the gallows at Tyburn [Map], with a rope about his neck, and so back to the Tower of London [Map], there to remain a prisoner during his life.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock in the morning and upon business at my office. Then we sat down to business, and about 11 o'clock, having a room got ready for us, we all went out to the Tower-hill [Map]; and there, over against the scaffold, made on purpose this day, saw Sir Henry Vane (age 49) brought1. A very great press of people. He made a long speech, many times interrupted by the Sheriff and others there; and they would have taken his paper out of his hand, but he would not let it go. But they caused all the books of those that writ after him to be given the Sheriff; and the trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard. Then he prayed, and so fitted himself, and received the blow; but the scaffold was so crowded that we could not see it done. But Boreman, who had been upon the scaffold, came to us and told us, that first he began to speak of the irregular proceeding against him; that he was, against Magna Charta, denied to have his exceptions against the indictment allowed; and that there he was stopped by the Sheriff. Then he drew out his, paper of notes, and begun to tell them first his life; that he was born a gentleman, that he was bred up and had the quality of a gentleman, and to make him in the opinion of the world more a gentleman, he had been, till he was seventeen years old, a good fellow, but then it pleased God to lay a foundation of grace in his heart, by which he was persuaded, against his worldly interest, to leave all preferment and go abroad, where he might serve God with more freedom. Then he was called home, and made a member of the Long Parliament; where he never did, to this day, any thing against his conscience, but all for the glory of God. Here he would have given them an account of the proceedings of the Long Parliament, but they so often interrupted him, that at last he was forced to give over: and so fell into prayer for England in generall, then for the churches in England, and then for the City of London: and so fitted himself for the block, and received the blow. He had a blister, or issue, upon his neck, which he desired them not hurt: he changed not his colour or speech to the last, but died justifying himself and the cause he had stood for; and spoke very confidently of his being presently at the right hand of Christ; and in all, things appeared the most resolved man that ever died in that manner, and showed more of heat than cowardize, but yet with all humility and gravity. One asked him why he did not pray for the King (age 32). He answered, "Nay", says he, "you shall see I can pray for the King (age 32): I pray God bless him!" the King (age 32) had given his body to his friends; and, therefore, he told them that he hoped they would be civil to his body when dead; and desired they would let him die like a gentleman and a Christian, and not crowded and pressed as he was.

Note 1. Sir Harry Vane (age 49) the younger was born 1612. Charles (age 32) signed on June 12th a warrant for the execution of Vane by hanging at Tyburn [Map] on the 14th, which sentence on the following day "upon humble suit made" to him, Charles was "graciously pleased to mitigate", as the warrant terms it, for the less ignominious punishment of beheading on Tower Hill [Map], and with permission that the head and body should be given to the relations to be by them decently and privately interred.- Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii, 123.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1663. Thence to the Cocke alehouse, and there having drunk, sent them with Creed to see "The German Princess1, at the Gatehouse, at Westminster, and I to my brother's, and thence to my uncle Fenner's to have seen my aunt James (who has been long in town and goes away to-morrow and I not seen her), but did find none of them within, which I was glad of, and so back to my brother's to speak with him, and so home, and in my way did take two turns forwards and backwards through the Fleete Ally to see a couple of pretty [strumpets] that stood off the doors there, and God forgive me I could scarce stay myself from going into their houses with them, so apt is my nature to evil after once, as I have these two days, set upon pleasure again.

Note 1. Mary Moders (age 21), alias Stedman alias Carleton, a notorious impostor, who pretended to be a German princess. Her arrival as the German princess "at the Exchange Tavern, right against the Stocks betwixt the Poultry and Cornhill [Map], at 5 in the morning...., with her marriage to Carleton the taverner's wife's brother", are incidents fully narrated in Francis Kirkman's "Counterfeit Lady Unveiled", 1673 ("Boyne's Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., p. 703). Her adventures formed the plot of a tragi-comedy by T. P., entitled "A Witty Combat, or the Female Victor", 1663, which was acted with great applause by persons of quality in Whitsun week. Mary Carleton was tried at the Old Bailey for bigamy and acquitted, after which she appeared on the stage in her own character as the heroine of a play entitled "The German Princess". Pepys went to the Duke's house to see her on April 15th, 1664. The rest of her life was one continued course of robbery and fraud, and in 1678 she was executed at Tyburn [Map] for stealing a piece of plate in Chancery Lane.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1666. After dinner Creed and I and wife and Mercer out by coach, leaving them at the New Exchange, while I to White Hall, and there staid at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) chamber till the Council rose, and then he and I, by agreement this morning, went forth in his coach by Tiburne [Map], to the Parke; discoursing of the state of the Navy as to money, and the state of the Kingdom too, how ill able to raise more: and of our office as to the condition of the officers; he giving me caution as to myself, that there are those that are my enemies as well as his, and by name my Lord Bruncker (age 46), who hath said some odd speeches against me. So that he advises me to stand on my guard; which I shall do, and unless my too-much addiction to pleasure undo me, will be acute enough for any of them. We rode to and again in the Parke a good while, and at last home and set me down at Charing Crosse [Map], and thence I to Mrs. Pierce's to take up my wife and Mercer, where I find her new picture by Hales do not please her, nor me indeed, it making no show, nor is very like, nor no good painting.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1666. I quite through with her, and so into the fields Uxbridge way, a mile or two beyond Tyburne [Map], and then back and then to Paddington, and then back to Lyssen green, a place the coachman led me to (I never knew in my life) and there we eat and drank and so back to Chasing Crosse, and there I set her down. All the way most excellent pretty company. I had her lips as much as I would, and a mighty pretty woman she is and very modest and yet kinde in all fair ways. All this time I passed with mighty pleasure, it being what I have for a long time wished for, and did pay this day 5s. forfeite for her company.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to my chamber, and there to the writing fair some of my late musique notions, and so to church, where I have not been a good while, and thence home, and dined at home, with W. Hewer (age 26) with me; and after dinner, he and I a great deal of good talk touching this Office, how it is spoiled by having so many persons in it, and so much work that is not made the work of any one man, but of all, and so is never done; and that the best way to have it well done, were to have the whole trust in one, as myself, to set whom I pleased to work in the several businesses of the Office, and me to be accountable for the whole, and that would do it, as I would find instruments: but this is not to be compassed; but something I am resolved to do about Sir J. Minnes (age 69) before it be long. Then to my chamber again, to my musique, and so to church; and then home, and thither comes Captain Silas Taylor (age 43) to me, the Storekeeper of Harwich [Map], where much talk, and most of it against Captain Deane (age 34), whom I do believe to be a high, proud fellow; but he is an active man, and able in his way, and so I love him. He gone, I to my musique again, and to read a little, and to sing with Mr. Pelling, who come to see me, and so spent the evening, and then to supper and to bed. I hear that eight of the ringleaders in the late tumults of the 'prentices at Easter are condemned to die1.

Note 1. Four were executed on May 9th, namely, Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Massenger, and Richard Beasley. They were drawn, hanged, and quartered at Tyburn [Map], and two of their heads fixed upon London Bridge [Map] ("The London Gazette", No. 259). See "The Tryals of such persons as under the notion of London Apprentices were tumultuously assembled in Moore Fields [Map], under colour of pulling down bawdy-houses", 4to., London, 1668. "It is to be observed", says "The London Gazette", "to the just vindication of the City, that none of the persons apprehended upon the said tumult were found to be apprentices, as was given out, but some idle persons, many of them nursed in the late Rebellion, too readily embracing any opportunity of making their own advantages to the disturbance of the peace, and injury of others".

The London Gazette 259. 09 May 1668. London. This day Thomas Limmerick, Edward Cotton, Peter Messenger and Richard Beasly, four of the persons formerly apprehended in the Tumult during the Easter-holidays, having upon their Trial at Hicks-Hall been found guilty, and since sentenced as Traytors, were accordingly Drawn, Hang'd and Quartered at Tyburn [Map], where they shewed many signs of there Penitence, their Quarters permitted Burial, only Two of their Heads ordered to be fixt upon London-bridge [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1668. Thence I to White Hall, to my Lord Sandwich's (age 43), where I find my Lord within, but busy, private; and so I staid a little talking with the young gentlemen: and so away with Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, towards Tyburne [Map], to see the people executed; but come too late, it being done; two men and a woman hanged, and so back again and to my coachmaker's, and there did come a little nearer agreement for the coach, and so to Duck Lane [Map], and there my bookseller's, and saw his moher, but elle is so big-bellied that elle is not worth seeing.

On 22 Jan 1673 Mary Moders (age 31) was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

Rye House Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1683. Several of the conspirators of the lower form were executed at Tyburn [Map]; and the next day.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jun 1684. Last Friday Sir Tho. Armstrong (deceased) was executed at Tyburn [Map] for treason, without tryal, having ben outlaw'd and apprehended in Holland, on the conspiracy of the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), Lord Russell, &c. which gave occasion of discourse to people and lawyers, in reguard it was on an outlawry that judgment was given and execution.

Popish Plot

In 1685, following his accession, King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) had Titus Oates (age 35) retried. He was found guilty of perjury on two separate indictments.

His sentence read ... First, The Court does order for a fine, that you pay 1000 marks upon each Indictment. Secondly, That you be stript of all your Canonical Habits. Thirdly, the Court does award, That you do stand upon the Pillory, and in the Pillory, here before Westminster-hall gate, upon Monday next, for an hour's time, between the hours of 10 and 12; with a paper over your head (which you must first walk with round about to all the Courts in Westminister-hall) declaring your crime. And that is upon the first Indictment.

Fourthly, (on the Second Indictment), upon Tuesday, you shall stand upon, and in the Pillory, at the Royal Exchange in London, for the space of an hour, between the hours of twelve and two; with the same inscription. You shall upon the next Wednesday be whipped from Aldgate to Newgate. Upon Friday, you shall be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn [Map], by the hands of the common hangman.

According to his sentence, Oates was to stand every year of his life in the pillory on five different days: before the gate of Westminster Hall on the 9th of August, at Charing Cross on the 10th, at the Temple on the 11th, at the Royal Exchange on the 2nd of September, and at Tyburn [Map] on the 24th of April; but, fortunately for the infamous creature, the Revolution deprived his determined enemies of power, and turned the criminal into a pensioner on Government."

The presiding judge was George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys (age 39). Robert Sawyer (age 52) acted for the prosecution.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 May 1685. Oates (age 35), who had but two dayes before ben pilloried at severall places and whipt at ye carts taile from Newgate to Aldgate, was this day plac'd on a sledge, being not able to go by reason of so late scourging, and dragg'd from prison to Tyburn [Map], and whipt againe all ye way, which some thought to be very severe and extraordinary; but if he was guilty of the perjuries, and so of the death of many innocents, as I feare he was, his punishment was but what he deserv'd. I chanc'd to pass just as execution was doing on him. A strange revolution!

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Dec 1690. Dr. Hough (age 39), President of Magdalen College, Oxford, who was displaced with several of the Fellows for not taking the oath imposed by King James, now made a Bishop. Most of this month cold and frost. One Johnson (age 42), a Knight, was executed at Tyburn [Map] for being an accomplice with Campbell (age 30), brother to Lord Argyle (age 32), in stealing a young heiress (age 13).

On 23 Dec 1690 John Johnston 3rd Baronet (age 42) was executed at Tyburn [Map] for having assisted Captain James Campbell (age 30) in the abduction and forced marriage of Mary Wharton (age 13).

In 1691 John Ashton Jacobite was hanged at Tyburn [Map].

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Apr 1696. Great offense taken at the three ministers who absolved Sir William Perkins (deceased) and Friend at Tyburn [Map]. One of them (Snatt) was a son of my old schoolmaster. This produced much altercation as to the canonicalness of the action.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston, Lancashire [Map]. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton (age 37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London [Map] on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.

On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

On 09 Feb 1716 William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (age 35) effected his escape from the Tower of London [Map] by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart (age 26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater (age 23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave (age 20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond (age 44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 54) in person without success.

On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map]. Earl Derwentwater, Baronet Radclyffe of Derwentwater in Cumberland forfeit.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

General Thomas Forster of Adderstone (age 31) was attainted. He was imprisoned at Newgate Prison, London [Map] but escaped to France.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper (age 50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Cansisk's Monumental Inscriptions Volume 1 Old St Pancras Churchyard. Churchyard St Pancras Old Church. Jonathan Wild, buried May 25th, 1725. 1

Note 1. Jonathan Wild was executed at Tyburn [Map], May 24th, 1725. About two o'clock on the following morning his remains were interred in this grave-yard, but a few nights afterwards the body was taken up, for the use of the surgeons, as it was supposed. At midnight a hearse and six was waiting at the end of Fig Lane, where the coffin was found next day.

Before 25 May 1725 Jonathan Wild was executed at Tyburn [Map].

Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

On 05 May 1760 Laurence Shirley 4th Earl Ferrers (age 39) was hanged at Tyburn [Map] (the last peer to be hanged) for having shot his old family steward. His estates and titles were forfeit however.

Diary of Caroline Girlie. 06 May 1760. Earl Ferrers (deceased) was carried from the Tower [Map] to Tyburn [Map] executed by a party of Horse and Foot Guards, a Clergyman and the two Sherifs were in the Coach with him he poor unhappy man was drest in his wedding suit, dating as he himself said his whole unhappy conduct from a forced marriage. He observed that the apparatus, and being made a spectacle of to so vast a multitude was greatly worse than death itself the procession was two hours & 3/4 from setting out, the Landau & six in which he was ye Sheriffs each in their Chariots one mourning Coach and a Hearse attended, and return'd thro' Lincoln's Inn Fields about one, I think I never shall forget a procession so moving, to know a man an hour before in perfect health then a Lifeless course, yet a just victim to his Country, for the abuse of of that power his rank in Life had given him a Title too, his rank indeed caused his punishment, as the good Old King, in answer to numerous petitions of his greatly to be pitied Family made this memorable speech, "That for the last years of his Life, he had been beyond his most Sanguine hopes successful, for which he should ever return thanks to God, and on his part he had and always would endeavor to Administer justice as he ought, as Events had shown by the punishment of his most exalted Subjects". This was a noble answer. yet none could help pitying this unhappy Lord, his intellects most probably was rather more in fault than his heart in the murder for which he Suffer'd, and had he been low born his majesty would have shewn more Mercy without such strict Justice.