On this Day in History ... 19th May

19 May is in May.

1123 Burning of Lincoln

1312 Gaveston Surrenders

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1426 Henry VI Knighting ceremony

1499 Proxy Marriage of Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1536 Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

See Births, Marriages and Deaths.

Events on the 19th May

On 19 May 1051 King Henry I of France (age 43) and Anne Rurik Queen Consort France (age 21) were married at Reims Cathedral, Reims. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of Robert "Pious" II King France and Constance Arles Queen Consort France.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 19 May 1123. This same year, ere the Bishop of Lincoln came to his bishopric, almost all the borough of Lincoln was burned, and numberless folks, men and women, were consumed: and so much harm was there done as no man could describe to another. That was on the fourteenth day before the calends of June.

On 19 May 1312 Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 28) surrendered to Aymer de Valence 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 37), John Warenne 7th Earl of Surrey (age 25), Henry Percy 9th and 1st Baron Percy (age 39) and Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 28) who were besieging the castle. The terms of the surrender were that Pembroke, Warenne and Percy would take Gaveston to York, where the barons would negotiate with the king.

On 19 May 1319 Louis I Count Évreux (age 43) died. His son Philip "Noble" III King Navarre (age 13) succeeded Count Évreux.

On 19 May 1322 Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) and Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) marriage annulled as a consequence of her adultery. In 1313 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 18) gave gifts of coin-purses to her sisters-in-law Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) and Margaret of Burgundy Queen Consort France. The coin-purses were subsequently seen by Isabella to be in the possession of the Norman knights Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay. When Isabella visited her father Philip "The Fair" IV King France again in 1314 she informed him she suspected the two sisters to be having affairs with the two knights. The two knights were arrested, confessed to adultery under torture, and were executed. The two women were sentenced to life imprisonment at Château Gaillard [Map]. Margaret's husband Louis X King France I Navarre became King in Nov 1314 whilst she was in prison; she became Queen of France by marriage. Somewhat conveniently she died five months later. Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) remained in prison until her husband Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) became King in 1322 at which time he had their marriage annulled.

After 19 May 1322 Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) and Marie Luxemburg Queen Consort France (age 18) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Henry Luxemburg VII Holy Roman Emperor and Margaret Brabant Countess Luxemburg and Namur. He the son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

In May 1359 King Edward III of England (age 46) and his son Edward "Black Prince" (age 28) took part in a tournament in London. For the amusement of the citizens both Edwards and their friends dressed as the mayor and aldermen of London. The tournament possibly in celebration of the two Royal marriages of his children John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) on 19 May 1359.

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey [Map] whereby two children of King Edward III of England (age 46) were married:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 39). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) were married. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) was a ward of King Edward III of England (age 46) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later in 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). He the son of Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 42). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

On 19 May 1396 King John I of Aragon (age 45) died. His brother Martin I King Aragon (age 39) succeeded I King Aragon.

On 19 May 1426, Whitsunday, King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 4) was knighted by his uncles John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 36) and Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 35) at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map]. Henry then went on to knight Ralph Longford (age 25), Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon (age 12) and Robert Wingfield (age 23).

On 19 May 1499 Arthur Prince of Wales (age 12) and Catherine of Aragon (age 13) were married by proxy at Tickenhill Manor, Bewdley [Map]. Roderigo de Puebla stood in for Catherine. The service was performed by John Arundel Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry.

Hall's Chronicle 1533. 19 May 1533. The coming by water from Greenwich the Thursday.

The ninetteeth day of May the Mayor and his brethren all in Scarlet, and such as were knights had collars of Esses and the remnant having good chains, and the counsel of the city with them assembled at saint Mary Hill, and at one of the clock descended to the New Stair to their barge, which was garnished with many goodly banners and streamers, and richly covered. In which barge were Shalmes, Shagbushes and diverse other instruments, which continually made goodly harmony. After that the Mayor and his brethren were in their barge seeing that all the companies to the number of fifty barges were ready to wait upon them. They gave commandment to the companies that no barge should row nearer to another then twice the length of the barge upon a great pain. And to see the order kept, there were three light wherys prepared, and in every one of them two officers to call on them to keep their order, after which commandment given they set forth in order as hereafter is described.

First before the Mayors barge was a Foyst or Wafter full of ordinance, in which Foyst was a great Dragon continually moving, and casting wildfire, and round about the said Foyst stood terrible monsters and wild men casting fire and making hideous noises: Next after the Foyst a good distance came the Mayors barge, on whose right hand was the Batchelors barge, in the which were trumpets and diverse other melodious instruments. The decks of the said barge and the sailyards and the top castles were hanged with rich cloth of gold and silk. At the foreship and the Stern were two great banners rich beaten with the arms of the king and the queen, and on the top castle also was a long streamer newly beaten with the said arms. The sides of the barge were set full of Flags and banners of the devises of the company of Haberdashers and merchant adventurers, and the cords were hanged with innumerable pensels having little bells at the ends which made a goodly noise and a goodly sight wavering in the wind. On the outside of the barge were three dozen Escutcheons in metal of arms of the king and the Queen which were beaten upon square bucram divided so that the right side had the King's colours, and the left side the Queen's, which Escutcheons were fastened on the clothes of gold and silver hanging on the decks on the left hand. On the left hand of the Mayor was another Foyst, in the which was a mount and on the same stood a white Falcon crowned upon a rote of gold environed with white roses and red, which was the Queens devise: about which mount sat virgins singing and playing sweetly. Next after the Mayor followed his fellowship the Haberdashers. Next after them the Mercers, then the Grocers, and so every company in his order, and last of all the Mayors and sheriff's officers, every company having melody in his barge by himself, and goodly garnished with banners and some garnished with silk and some with Arras and rich carpets, which was a goodly sight to behold, and in this order they rowed to Greenwich to the point next beyond Greenwich, and there they turned backward in another order, that is to wete, the Mayor and Sheriff's officers first, and the meanest craft next, and so ascending to the uttermost crafts in order and the Maior last as they go to Paul's at Christmas, and in that order they rowed downward to Greenwich town and there cast anchor making great melody. At three of the clock the Queen appeared in rich cloth of gold and entered into her barge accompanied with diverse ladies and gentlewomen, and incontinent the Citizens set forwards in their order, their minstrels continually playing, and the Batchelors barge going on the queen's right hand which she took great pleasure to behold. About the Queen's barge were many noble men, as the duke of Suffolk, the Marques Dorset, the Erie of Wiltshire, her father, the Earls of Arundel, Derby, Rutland, Worcester, Huntingdon, Sussex, Oxford, and many bishops and noblemen every one in his barge, which was a goodly sight to behold. She thus being accompanied rowed toward the Tower, and in the mean way the shippes which were commanded to lie on the shore for letting of the barges shot diverse peals of guns, and or she landed there was a marvellous shot out of the Tower as ever was heard there. And at her landing there met with her the Lord Chamberlain with the officers of arms and brought her to the King, which received her with loving countenance at the Posterne by the water side and kissed her, and then she turned back again and thanked the Mayor and the citizens with many goodly words, and so entered into the Tower. After which entry the citizens all this while housed before the Tower making great melody and went not aland, for none were assigned to land but the Mayor, the Recorder and two Aldermen. But for to speak of the people that stood on every shore to behold the sight, he that saw it not would not believe it.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 920. "The late Queen (age 35) suffered this day in the Tower, who died boldly; and also her brother (deceased), Mr. Noreys (deceased), Bruirton, Weston (deceased), and Markes (deceased) suffered the 17th day of this instant upon Tower Hill; all which died charitably. God take them to his mercy if it be his pleasure. Mr. Paige and young Wyat (age 15) are in the Tower. What shall become of them God best knoweth."

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 918. Today the Queen (age 35) was put to death within the Tower in the presence of a thousand people. London, 19 May.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. The said Queen (unjustly called) finally was beheaded upon a scaffold within the Tower with open gates. She was brought by the captain upon the said scaffold, and four young ladies followed her. She looked frequently behind her, and when she got upon the scaffold was very much exhausted and amazed. She begged leave to speak to the people, promising to say nothing but what was good. The captain gave her leave, and she began to raise her eyes to Heaven, and cry mercy to God and to the King for the offence she had done, desiring the people always to pray to God for the King, for he was a good, gentle, gracious, and amiable prince. She was then stripped of her short mantle furred with ermines, and afterwards took off her hood, which was of English make, herself. A young lady presented her with a linen cap, with which she covered her hair, and she knelt down, fastening her clothes about her feet, and one of the said ladies bandaged her eyes.

Immediately the executioner did his office; and when her head was off it was taken by a young lady and covered with a white cloth. Afterwards the body was taken by the other ladies, and the whole carried into the church nearest to the Tower of London. It is said that she was condemned to be burned alive, but that the King commuted her sentence to decapitation. Thus, he who wrote this billet says that, according to old writings, he has seen the prophecy of Marlin fulfilled.

Sp., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Ib. 2. French translation of the preceding, pp. 2 (modern copy).

A copy of this will be found in the Rymer Transcripts in the Record Office (145, No. 7); and the part relating to Anne Boleyn's execution has been printed by, Gachard in his "Analectes Historiques," I., 17, note. An English translation of the whole, except the heading, will be found in Froude's "The Pilgrim," 116.

Note 1. The date is wrong. Anne Boleyn was executed on the 19th, the others on the 17th.

On 19 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map] as described in Agnes Strickland’s 1852 Lives of the Queens of England Volume 4. Page 212.

Calais in the Hands of the English. 19 May 1536. The nineteenth of May Queen Ann Boleyn (age 35) was behedyd in the Towre of London, by the hands of the hangman of Calais, withe the swerde of Calais.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 919. The Queen (age 35) suffered with sword this day within the Tower, upon a new scaffold, and died boldly.

Letters 1536. La Ana (age 35) was beheaded before many people. She took the Sacrament in prison before her execution, and complained that she had not been executed on Wednesday with her brother, saying that she hoped to have gone to Paradise with him, and that she died by the laws of the kingdom. Two of the five confessed their guilt. One, who was the principal gentleman of the King's chamber, said a great deal about the justice of his death, and that a favoured servant ought not to flatter his prince and consent to his desires as he had done. Rome, 11 June 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 19 May 1536. But the Queen (age 35) was with a sword beheaded within the Tower. And these following were the words that she spoke the day of her death which was the nineteenth day of May, 1536.

Good Christen people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the King and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and Sovereign Lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. And then she kneeled down saying: To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul diverse times, till that her head was stricken of with the sword. And on the Ascencion day following, the King wore white for mourning.

Life of Anne Boleyn by Lancelot du Carle. Hall’s Chronicle describes the execution: ‘But the Queen (age 35) was with a sword beheaded within the Tower. And these following were the words that she spoke the day of her death which was the nineteenth day of May, 1536: “Good Christen people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the King and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and Sovereign Lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. And then she kneeled down saying: To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul diverse times, till that her head was stricken of with the sword. And on the Ascencion day following, the King wore white for mourning.”’

Le jour suivant, Et quand le capitaine The next day when the captain
Dire lui vint que l'heure estoit prochainecame to tell her the time was near
Et qu'il estoit temps que si disposastand that it was time to prepare herself
Elle luy dist que lui mesmes advisastshe told him that she herself advised him
De s'aquitter de sa charge et vouloirto discharge his duty and desire
Car des long temps Dieu a voulu pourveoirbecause for a long time God has wanted to provide
A lui donner courage et fermetéher courage and steadfastness
Pour resister a plus grand cruaultéto resist greater cruelty.
Ainsi s'en va au lieu de son supliceSo, she went to the place of her punishment
Pour obeyr au vouloir de justiceto obey the will of justice.
Tousjours monstrant un visage constantalways showing a constant face
Comme le monde en rien ne regretantnot regretting anything in the world
Car sa couleur, et sa face estoit tellefor her complexion and face were such
Que ne fut oncques de tout veuë si bellenever before was a sight so beautiful.
Par grand douleur que de ses yeulx rendoitdespite the great sadness that her eyes showed.
En soubzriant le peuple regardoitAs she sighed, the people looked at her,
Auquel soubdain qu'elle fut arriveand when suddenly she arrived
Sur l'eschaffault d'une grace privéeat the scaffold with a private grace
Sans s'effrayer a sa voix addresseewithout being frightened, in a strained voice she addressed them
Que toutesfois trouve un peu presséewhich, however, she found difficult
De la foiblesse en elle dominantfrom the weakness dominating her.
Mais peu a peu sa force reprenantBut little by little, she regained her strength
Et asseurant sa debile façonand asserting her feeble manner
Feist de sa voix sortir de piteux son.she made a pitiful sound with her voice:
O mes amis, amis et plus que freresO my friends, friends and more than brothers,
Puis qu'avec vous je ne puis estre guieressince I cannot be with you much longer
Et que fini est le cours de mes parens and the course of my life among my family has ended.
Je vous suppli que ne soyez desplaisansI beg you not to be unpleasant
Et me vueillez pardonner de bon coeur and please forgive me with all your heart
Si je n'ay point usé de la doulceurif I did not use kindness
Envers vous tous selon que je debvoisto all of you as I should have
Veu le pouvoir, et moyen qu'en avois, considering the power and means that I had.
Et vous prie tous que par fraternitéAnd pray all of you out of fraternity
De chrestienne, et vraye charitéChristian, and true charity
Me departez vos prieres devotesshare your devout prayers with me
Envers Jesus, affin que par les notestowards Jesus, only by the notes
De mes pechez n’en soit point maculéeof my sins my soul will not be stained
Mon ame apres que m'en seray allée.by my sins after I am gone.
De vous narrer pourquoy je suis iciTo tell you why I am here
Ne serviroit pour vous, ne moy aussiwould not be serve for you, or me either
Parquoy me taiz, mais le juge du mondetherefore, I remain silent, but the judge of the world
En qui justice et verité abundein whom justice and truth abound
Congnoist le tout, lequel d'affectionknows everything, without prejudice,
Je prie qu'il vuelle avoir compassionI pray that He has compassion
De ceulx qui m'ont a ceste mort jugéefor those who judged me to die
Et quand d'ici je seray deslogéeand when from here I am departed
Souviennne vous que je vous recommanderemember that I recommend to you
Vostre bon Roy, en qui j'ay veu si grande your good King, in whom I have seen such great
Humanité et comble de tous bienshumanity and an abundance of all blessings,
Craincte envers Dieu, amour envers les siensfear of God, love of his own,
Et grans vertuz lesquelles je refereeand great virtues, of which I bear witness,
Qu'estes heureux, si Dieu le vous conserveyou are fortunate if God preserves him.
Priez doncq Dieu que longuement le tienneSo pray to God that He may for a long time
Avec vous, et aussi que m'adviennebe with you, and also, that on me
Sa grace pour me tirer avec luyhis grace pulls me to him
Et recepvoir mon ame ce jourdhuyand receives my soul this day.
Ce fut la fin de sa foible paroleThis was the end of her feeble speech
Qui toutesfoys le peuple ainsi consolewhich nevertheless consoled the people
Fort desollé de veoir la paouvre Roynegreatly saddened to see the poor Royne
En tel estat meneé en ceste peineled into so much pain
Car n'est aulcun qui n'ait ferme sperancefor there is no one who does not have firm hope
Que ne sera son esprit en souffrancethat her spirit will not suffer
Veu sa grand Foy et patience saigegiven her great Faith and wise patience
Qui surmontoit de femme le couraige:that overcame the courage of a woman.
Ce neantmoins, qui la veult regarderNevertheless, whoever looked at her
Par grand pitié ne se sçauroit gardercannot help but feel pity
De se douloir, et tant plus que croissoitat her suffering, and the more grew
Son ferme cæur, tant plus amoindrissoither steadfast heart, all the more diminished
Aux assistans, qui ne pouvoyent tenirin those present, who could not hold back
Les pleurs, que bien elle a sceu contenir.the tears, which she was able to contain.
Quand la Royne eut elle mesme besséWhen the Queen herself had lowered
Son blanc collet, et chapperon laisseher white collar and hood, left
Pour ne donner au coup empeschementto not hinder or obstruct the blow
Se vint jecter a genoulx humblementshe knelt down humbly
En prononçant ceste voix plusieurs foysand uttering these words several times,
Christ, je te prie mon esperit reçoys: Christ, I pray to you, receive my spirit.
O grand pitié l'une des damoysellesO great pity, one of the maids
L’ectans sans fin larmes continuellesThe endless flow of continuous tears
Vint au davant pour faire le servicecame forward to do the service
De son dernier et pitoyable officeof her last and pitiful office
Et son visaige a d'ung linge voilêand her face was veiled with a cloth.
Le maistre alors luy mesme desoléThe executioner himself then sorry
Et perturbé de l'exécutionand disturbed by the execution
Se contraignant pour satisfactiongathering himself for completion
Le dernier coup d'une espée visaaimed the final blow of a sword
Dessus son col, que soubdain divisaat her neck, which suddenly divided.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 32. 19 May 1536. How Anne was beheaded, and what took place five days after the execution of the Duke and the others1.

The King ordered the Queen to be beheaded. He had sent a week before to St. Omer for a headsman who could cut off the head with sword instead of an axe, and nine days after they sent he arrived. The Queen was then told to confess, as she must die the next day, and she begged that she might be executed within the Tower, and that no foreigner should see her. So they erected the scaffold in the great courtyard of the Tower, and the next morning they brought her out. She would not confess, but showed a devilish spirit, and was as gay as if she was not going to die. When she arrived at the scaffold she was dressed in a night-robe of damask, with a red damask skirt, and a netted coif over her hair. This lady was very graceful, and had a long neck; and when she mounted the scaffold she saw on it many gentlemen, amongst them being the headsman, who was dressed like the rest, and not as executioner; and she looked around her on all sides to see the great number of people present, for although she was executed inside, there was a great crowd. They would not admit any foreigner, except one who had got in the night before, and who took good note of all that passed. And as the lady looked all round, she began to say these words, "Do not think, good people, that I am sorry to die, or that I have done anything to deserve this death. My fault has been my great pride, and the great crime I committed in getting the King to leave my mistress Queen Katherine for my sake, and I pray God to pardon me for it. I say to you all that everything they have accused me of is false, and the principal reason I am to die is Jane Seymour (age 27), as I was the cause of the ill that befell my mistress2."

The gentlemen would not let her say any more, and she asked which was the headsman. She was told that he would come presently, but that in the meanwhile it would be better for her to confess the truth and not be so obstinate, for she could not hope for pardon. She answered them, "I know I shall have no pardon, but they shall know no more from me." So seeing that she would not confess, the came and knelt before her, saying, "Madam, I crave your Majesty's pardon, for I am ordered to do this duty, and I beg you to kneel and say your prayers." So Anne knelt, but the poor lady only kept looking about her. The headsman, being still in front of her, said in French, "Madam, do not fear, I will wait till you tell me." Then she said, "You will have to take this coif off," and she pointed to it with her left hand. The sword was hidden under a heap of straw, and the man who was to give it to the headsman was told beforehand what to do; so, in order that she should not suspect, the headsman turned to the steps by which they had mounted, and called out, "Bring me the sword." The lady looked towards the steps to watch for the coming of the sword, still with her hand on her coif; and the headsman made a sign with his right hand for them to give him the sword, and then, without being noticed by the lady, he struck her head off on to the ground. And so ended this lady, who would never admit or confess the truth.

Her body was presently carried to the church within the Tower and buried, and a few days afterwards her father died of grief3 for the loss of her and the Duke. God pardon them!

Note 1. Anne was beheaded on the 19th of May, 1536.

Note 2. Constantyne, who was present, gives in his memoirs a report of Anne's speech not materially different from the above; but the Portuguese by Lingard, furnishes a much longer Constantyne says that Anne was dressed in black damask.

Note 3. He survived her more than two years.

Calendars. 26. "When the sentence of death was pronounced, the Queen raised her eyes to heaven, nor did she condescend to look at her judges, but went to the place of execution. Kneeling down, she asked that time for prayer should be granted her. When she had ceased praying, she herself arranged her hair, covered her eyes, and commanded the executioner to strike.

Excerpta Historica Page 260. [19 May 1536]. After this, on the next Friday, which was the 19th of the same month, the Queen was beheaded according to the manner and custom of Paris, that is to say, with a sword, which thing had not before been seen in this land of England.1 And a scaffold, having four or five steps, was then and there set up. And the unhappy Queen, assisted by the Captain of the Tower, came forth, together with the four ladies who accompanied her; and she was wholly habited in a robe of black damask, made in such guise that the cape, which was white, did fall on the outer side thereof. And she then besought the Captain of the Tower that he would in no wise hasten the minute of her death, until she should have spoken that which she had in mind to say: which he consenting to, she said as followeth:

"Good friends, I am not come here to excuse or to justify myself, forasmuch as I know full well that aught that I could say in my defence doth not appertain unto you, and that I could draw no hope of life from the same. But I come here only to die, and thus to yield myself humbly to the will of the King my Lord. And if in my life I did ever offend the King's Grace, surely with my death I do now atone for the same. And I blame not my judges, nor any other manner of person, nor any thing save the cruel law of the land by which I die. But be this, and be my faults as they may, I beseech you all, good friends, to pray for the life of the King my Sovereign Lord and yours, who is one of the best princes on the face of the earth, and who hath always treated me so well that better could not be: wherefore I submit to death with a good will, humbly asking pardon of all the world."

Then, with her own hands, she took her coifs2 from her head, and delivered them to one of her ladies, and then putting on a little cap of linen to cover her hair withal, she said, "Alas, poor head! in a very brief space thou wilt roll in the dust on this scaffold; and as in life thou didst not merit to wear the crown of a queen, so in death, thou deservest not a better doom than this. And ye, my damsels, who, whilst I lived, ever shewed yourselves so diligent in my service, and who are now to be present at my last hour and mortal agony, as in good fortune ye were faithful to me, so even at this my miserable death ye do not forsake me. And as I cannot reward you for your true service to me, I pray you take comfort for my loss; howbeit, forget me not; and be always faithful to the King's Grace, and to her whom with happier fortune ye may have as your Queen and Mistress. And esteem your honour far beyond your life; and in your prayers to the Lord Jesu, forget not to pray for my soul."

And being minded to say no more, she knelt down upon both knees, and one of her ladies covered her eyes with a bandage, and then they withdrew themselves some little space, and knelt down over against the scaffold, bewailing bitterly and shedding many tears. And thus, and without more to say or do, was her head stricken off; she making no confession of her fault, and only saying, "O Lord God, have pity on my soul;" and one of her ladies then took up the head, and the others the body, and covering them with a sheet, did put them into a chest which there stood ready, and carried them to the church which is within the Tower, where, they say, she lieth buried with the others.

Note 1. Segundo ho modo e costume de Pariz, com espada; q' nom hera aynda uzado fazer-se em aquela terra de Ingraterra.

Note 2. Tyrou hos toucados de ha cabeça.

Letters 1536. [19] May [1536]. Otho, C. x. 223. B. M. Burnet, i. 327. Ellis, 1 Ser. ii. 64. 910. Sir William Kingston (age 60) to Cromwell.

"Syr, thys shalbe to advertyse you I have reysayved your letter, wherin yo[u would] have strangerys conveyed yowt of the Towre, and so thay be by the [means] of Richard Gressum and William Loke and Wythepolle, bot the numbre of stra[ngers passed] not xxx., and not mony hothe (sic), and the imbassitor of the Emperor had a ser[vant] ther, and honestly put yowt. Sir, yf we have not anowre serten [as it may] be knowen in London, I thynke he (sic) wilbe bot few, and I thynke [a reasonable] humbure ware best, for I suppose she wylle declare hyr self to b[e a good] woman for alle men, bot for the Kynge, at the our of hyr de[ath, for this] mornynge she sent for me that I myght be with hyr at [such time] as she reysayved the gud Lord, to the intent I shuld here hy[r] s[peak as] towchyng hyr innosensy alway to be clere; and in the writ[ing of this] she sent for me. And at my comynge she sayd, 'Mr. Kyngston (age 60), I h[ear say I shall] not dy affore none, and I am very sory therfore, for I thowt[h to] be dede [by this time], and past my payne.' I told hyr it shuld be now payne, it [was so sotell. And then she said, 'I] heard say the executor was very gud, and I have a lyt[el neck,' and put he]r hand abowt it, lawynge hartely. I have sene [many men and a]lso wemen executed, and al thay have bene in gre[at sorrow, and to my knowle]ge thys lady hasse mech joy and plesure in dethe. Sir, [her almoner is contin]ewaly with hyr, and hasse bene syns ii. of the cl[ock after midnight. This is] the affecte of hony thynge that ys here at t[his time. And thus fare you] welle. Your Willm. Ky[ngston]." Hol. Add.: To Master Secretory.

Excerpta Historica Page 260. 19 May 1536. The next morning, Friday the 19th of May, a little before noon, Anne Boleyn was brought to the scaffold. Though they agree in the main points, there is some variation between the speech assigned to her by Hall and Bishop Burnet, and that which this letter attributes to her; but if the two reports be estimated according to what it is probable she would have said, the letter is certainly entitled to most credit. The allusion to her head, and her affecting address to her waiting-women, are not noticed by Burnet or Hall. Not a word occurs of the romantic story told by a modern writer1, that Anne refused to allow her eyes to be bandaged, and that the executioner was so affected by their tender glances as to be incapable of performing his office until he had recourse to a stratagem to attract her attention to another part of the scaffold. On the contrary, this writer expressly says, that her eyes were bandaged by one of her ladies.

In the fact of her being executed with a sword instead of an axe, all writers agree; but the author of this letter adds, that it was the first time that method was used in England. Bishop Burnet says each of the persons implicated in the charge against Anne Boleyn was beheaded, excepting Smeton, who was hanged; but according to this writer he also was decapitated.

That this Letter is of the highest interest is certain; and as the communications of the Lieutenant of the Tower close on the day preceding Anne Boleyn's execution, it is also very valuable as being perhaps the most authentic narrative of the affair which is now extant.

Note 1. D'I'sraeli's Curiosities of Literature, vol. ii. p. 297.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. Having written the above the day before yesterday, thought it well to delay the despatch to inform the Emperor of the execution of the Concubine (age 35), which was done at 9 o'clock this morning within the Tower, in presence of the Chancellor, Cromwell, and others of the Council, and a great number of the King's subjects, but foreigners were not admitted. It is said that although the bodies and heads of those executed the day before yesterday have been buried, her head will be put upon the bridge, at least for some time. She confessed herself yesterday, and communicated, expecting to be executed, and no person ever showed greater willingness to die. She requested it of those who were to have charge of it, and when the command came to put off the execution till today she appeared very sorry, praying the Captain of the Tower that for the honor of God he would beg the King that, since she was in good state and disposed for death, she might be dispatched immediately. The lady who had charge of her has sent to tell me in great secresy that the Concubine, before and after receiving the sacrament, affirmed to her, on the damnation of her soul, that she had never been unfaithful to the King. London, 19 May 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 10. The original endorsed: A Lempereur —De lambassadeur en angleterre du xixe de May, receues a Asti le ve de Juing.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 908. The joy shown by this people every day not only at the ruin of the Concubine (age 35) but at the hope of the Princess' restoration, is inconceivable, but as yet the King shows no great disposition towards the latter; indeed he has twice shown himself obstinate when spoken to on the subject by his Council. I hear that, even before the arrest of the Concubine, the King, speaking with Mistress Jane Semel (age 27) of their future marriage, the latter suggested that the Princess should be replaced in her former position; and the King told her she was a fool, and ought to solicit the advancement of the children they would have between them, and not any others. She replied that in asking for the restoration of the Princess she conceived she was seeking the rest and tranquillity of the King, herself, her future children, and the whole realm; for, without that, neither your Majesty nor this people would ever be content. Will endeavour by all means to make her continue in this vein. Hopes also to go and speak with the King within three days, and with those of the Council in general and particular. Will also get some of the lords spoken with who have been called hither for the Parliament to commence on the 8th proximo. Thinks the Concubine's little bastard will be excluded from the succession, and that the King will get himself requested by Parliament to marry. To cover the affection he has for the said Semel (age 27) he has lodged her seven miles hence in the house of the grand esquire, and says publicly that he has no desire in the world to get married again unless he is constrained by his subjects to do so. Several have already told me, and sent to say that, if it cost them their lives, when Parliament meets they will urge the cause of the Princess to the utmost (il pourteront jusques au boult laffaire de lad. princesse).

The very evening the Concubine (age 35) was brought to the Tower, when the Duke of Richmond (age 16) went to say Good night to his father, and ask his blessing after the English custom, the King began to weep, saying that he and his sister, meaning the Princess, were greatly bound to God for having escaped the hands of that accursed whore, who had determined to poison them; from which it is clear that the King knew something about it.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. Vienna Archives. 911. Anne Boleyn (age 35), Rochford (deceased), &c.

"Execution criminal hecha en Inglatierra el 16 de Mayo 15361."

The count (Viscount) Rochefort (deceased), brother of the Queen (unjustly so called) Anne Boleyn, was beheaded with an axe upon a scaffold before the Tower of London. He made a very catholic address to the people, saying he had not come thither to preach, but to serve as a mirror and example, acknowledging his sins against God and the King, and declaring he need not recite the causes why he was condemned, as it could give no pleasure to hear them. He first desired mercy and pardon of God, and afterwards of the King and all others whom he might have offended, and hoped that men would not follow the vanities of the world and the flatteries of the Court, which had brought him to that shameful end. He said if he had followed the teachings of the Gospel, which he had often read, he would not have fallen into this danger, for a good doer was far better than a good reader. In the end, he pardoned those who had condemned him to death, and asked the people to pray for his soul. After him Norris (deceased) was beheaded, then Weston (deceased) and Brereton, and Marc (deceased), the player on the spinnet, who said scarcely anything except to cry mercy of God and the King, and beg people to pray for their souls. Brereton and Marc (deceased) were afterwards quartered.

Letters 1536. 19 May [1536]. Vienna Archives. 909. Chapuys to Granvelle.

Refers him for the news to his letter to the Emperor. Hopes to make amends for his present brevity by writing to him the history of the conduct of this English Messalina or Agrippina during her imprisonment. The woman who has her in charge will not conceal anything from Chapuys. She has already sent to tell him some news, among others that the said Messalina could not imagine that anyone but Chapuys had got her in disgrace with the King, for ever since he came to Court the King has regarded her with an evil eye. It is well for Chapuys she did not escape, because with her humanity she would have given him to the dogs to eat. There are still two English gentlemen1 detained on her account, and it is suspected that there will be many more, because the King has said he believed that more than 100 had to do with her. You never saw prince nor man who made greater show of his horns or bore them more pleasantly. I leave you to imagine the cause.

Owing to my illness, and to await the last act of the story, besides that George must have informed you what was to follow, I have not hastened to write sooner. London, 18 May 1536.

Yesterday the archbishop of Canterbury declared by sentence that the Concubine's daughter was the bastard of Mr. Norris (deceased), and not the King's daughter. This already removes an obstacle in the way of the Princess, who, I hope, whatever difficulty the King has made hitherto, will be declared true heiress of the kingdom, not as born of lawful marriage, but as legitimate propter bonam fidem parentum. Others tell me that the said Archbishop had pronounced the marriage of the King and Concubine (age 35) invalid on account of the King having had connection with her sister (age 37), and that, as both parties knew of this, the good faith of the parents cannot make the said bastard legitimate. Although the matter is not much to be relied on, many think that most of the new bishops "ont davoir leur Sainct Marten," because, having persuaded the Concubine (age 35) that she had no need to confess, she grew more audacious in vice; and, moreover, they persuaded her that according to the said sect it was lawful to seek aid elsewhere, even from her own relations, when her husband was not capable of satisfying her. The Concubine (age 35), before her marriage with the King, said, to increase his love, that there was a prophecy that about this time a Queen of England would be burnt, but, to please the King, she did not care. After her marriage she boasted that the previous events mentioned in the prophecy had already been accomplished, and yet she was not condemned. But they might well have said to her, as was said to Cæsar, "the Ides have come, but not gone." Has no doubt that if the Emperor intends to negociate with the English he will send some one to give greater weight to the affair, according to the letters of his Majesty; and if the said personage could negociate before the conclusion of Parliament, it would be very advantageous both for the interests of the Princess and for the rest. If he come about St. John's Day, he will probably assist at the new marriage and coronation, in which the King intends to do wonders. He has already given orders to build a vessel like the "Busentaure de Venice," to carry the lady from Greenwich hither. London, 19 May. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Note 1. The mutilations in the original are supplied from Burnet. Compare also Herbert, who abridges.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 19 May 1554. 19 May 1554. The xixth of May, beinge Saterday and the eeven of the feast of the Holie Trinitie, Ladye Elizabeth (age 20) was had out of the Tower [Map] and went thorowe London Bridge in her barge at 3 of the clock in the afternoone, lyeinge at Richmond [Map] that night; and from thence conveyed to Woodstock [Map], Mr. Benyfield (age 45)b, Lorde Williams of Tame, and Sir Leonard Chamberlayne, waytinge on her, with iic horsemen, there to remayne at the Queenes pleasure.

Note b. Sir Henry Bedingfield (age 45), the recently appointed Constable of the Tower.

On 19 May 1648 Colonel William Legge was imprisoned at Arundel Castle [Map] for having supported King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 47) in his escape from Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1663. Thence home and being 10 o'clock was forced to land beyond the Custom House, and so walked home and to my office, and having dispatched my great letters by the post to my father, of which I keep copies to show by me and for my future understanding, I went home to supper and bed, being late. The most observables in the making of money which I observed to-day, is the steps of their doing it.

Note 1. Before they do anything they assay the bullion, which is done, if it be gold, by taking an equal weight of that and of silver, of each a small weight, which they reckon to be six ounces or half a pound troy; this they wrap up in within lead. If it be silver, they put such a quantity of that alone and wrap it up in lead, and then putting them into little earthen cupps made of stuff like tobacco pipes, and put them into a burning hot furnace, where, after a while, the whole body is melted, and at last the lead in both is sunk into the body of the cupp, which carries away all the copper or dross with it, and left the pure gold and silver embodyed together, of that which hath both been put into the cupp together, and the silver alone in these where it was put alone in the leaden case. And to part the silver and the gold in the first experiment, they put the mixed body into a glass of aqua-fortis, which separates them by spitting out the silver into such small parts that you cannot tell what it becomes, but turns into the very water and leaves the gold at the bottom clear of itself, with the silver wholly spit out, and yet the gold in the form that it was doubled together in when it was a mixed body of gold and silver, which is a great mystery; and after all this is done to get the silver together out of the water is as strange. But the nature of the assay is thus: the piece of gold that goes into the furnace twelve ounces, if it comes out again eleven ounces, and the piece of silver which goes in twelve and comes out again eleven and two pennyweight, are just of the alloy of the standard of England. If it comes out, either of them, either the gold above eleven, as very fine will sometimes within very little of what it went in, or the silver above eleven and two pennyweight, as that also will sometimes come out eleven and ten penny weight or more, they are so much above the goodness of the standard, and so they know what proportion of worse gold and silver to put to such a quantity of the bullion to bring it to the exact standard. And on the contrary, [if] it comes out lighter, then such a weight is beneath the standard, and so requires such a proportion of fine metal to be put to the bullion to bring it to the standard, and this is the difference of good and bad, better and worse than the standard, and also the difference of standards, that of Seville being the best and that of Mexico worst, and I think they said none but Seville is better than ours.

Note 2. They melt it into long plates, which, if the mould do take ayre, then the plate is not of an equal heaviness in every part of it, as it often falls out.

Note 3. They draw these plates between rollers to bring them to an even thickness all along and every plate of the same thickness, and it is very strange how the drawing it twice easily between the rollers will make it as hot as fire, yet cannot touch it.

Note 4. They bring it to another pair of rollers, which they call adjusting it, which bring it to a greater exactness in its thickness than the first could be.

Note 5. They cut them into round pieces, which they do with the greatest ease, speed, and exactness in the world.

Note 6. They weigh these, and where they find any to be too heavy they file them, which they call sizeing them; or light, they lay them by, which is very seldom, but they are of a most exact weight, but however, in the melting, all parts by some accident not being close alike, now and then a difference will be, and, this filing being done, there shall not be any imaginable difference almost between the weight of forty of these against another forty chosen by chance out of all their heaps.

Note 7. These round pieces having been cut out of the plates, which in passing the rollers are bent, they are sometimes a little crooked or swelling out or sinking in, and therefore they have a way of clapping 100 or 2 together into an engine, which with a screw presses them so hard that they come out as flat as is possible.

Note 8. They blanch them.

Note 9. They mark the letters on the edges, which is kept as the great secret by Blondeau, who was not in the way, and so I did not speak with him to-day1.

Note 1. Professor W. C. Roberts-Austen, C.B., F.R.S., chemist to the Royal Mint, refers to Pepys's Diary and to Blondeau's machine in his Cantor Lectures on "Alloys used for Coinage", printed in the "journal of the Society of Arts" (vol. xxxii.). He writes, "The hammer was still retained for coining in the Mint in the Tower of London, but the question of the adoption of the screw-press by the Moneyers appears to have been revived in 1649, when the Council of State had it represented to them that the coins of the Government might be more perfectly and beautifully done, and made equal to any coins in Europe. It was proposed to send to France for Peter Blondeau, who had invented and improved a machine and method for making all coins 'with the most beautiful polish and equality on the edge, or with any proper inscription or graining.' He came on the 3rd of September, and although a Committee of the Mint reported in favour of his method of coining, the Company of Moneyers, who appear to have boasted of the success of their predecessors in opposing the introduction of the mill and screw-press in Queen (age 24) Elizabeth's reign, prevented the introduction of the machinery, and consequently he did not produce pattern pieces until 1653.... It is certain that Blondeau did not invent, but only improved the method of coining by the screw-press, and I believe his improvements related chiefly to a method for 'rounding the pieces before they are sized, and in making the edges of the moneys with letters and graining,' which he undertook to reveal to the King (age 32). Special stress is laid on the engines wherewith the rims were marked, 'which might be kept secret among few men.' I cannot find that there is any record in the Paris mint of Blondeau's employment there, and the only reference to his invention in the Mint records of this country refers to the 'collars,' or perforated discs of metal surrounding the 'blank' while it was struck into a coin. There is, however, in the British Museum a MS. believed to be in Blondeau's hand, in which he claims his process, 'as a new invention, to make a handsome coyne, than can be found in all the world besides, viz., that shall not only be stamped on both flat sides, but shall even be marked with letters on the thickness of the brim.' The letters were raised. The press Blondeau used was, I believe, the ordinary screw-press, and I suppose that the presses drawn in Akerman's well-known plate of the coining-room of the Mint in the Tower, published in 1803 'Microcosm of London,' vol. ii., p. 202, if not actually the same machines, were similar to those erected in 1661-62 by Sir William Parkhurst and Sir Anthony St. Leger, wardens of the Mint, at a cost of £1400, Professor Roberts-Austen shows that Benvenuto Cellini used a similar press to that attributed to Blondeau, and he gives an illustration of this in his lecture (p. 810). In a letter to the editor the Professor writes: "Pepys's account of the operations of coining, and especially of assaying gold and silver, is very interesting and singularly accurate considering that he could not have had technical knowledge of the subject"..

Note 10. They mill them, that is, put on the marks on both sides at once with great exactness and speed, and then the money is perfect. The mill is after this manner: one of the dyes, which has one side of the piece cut, is fastened to a thing fixed below, and the other dye (and they tell me a payre of dyes will last the marking of £10,000 before it be worn out, they and all other their tools being made of hardened steel, and the Dutchman who makes them is an admirable artist, and has so much by the pound for every pound that is coyned to find a constant supply of dyes) to an engine above, which is moveable by a screw, which is pulled by men; and then a piece being clapped by one sitting below between the two dyes, when they meet the impression is set, and then the man with his finger strikes off the piece and claps another in, and then the other men they pull again and that is marked, and then another and another with great speed. They say that this way is more charge to the King (age 32) than the old way, but it is neater, freer from clipping or counterfeiting, the putting of the words upon the edges being not to be done (though counterfeited) without an engine of the charge and noise that no counterfeit will be at or venture upon, and it employs as many men as the old and speedier. They now coyne between £16 and £24,000 in a week. At dinner they did discourse very finely to us of the probability that there is a vast deal of money hid in the land, from this:-that in King Charles's time there was near ten millions of money coyned, besides what was then in being of King James's and Queene (age 53) Elizabeth's, of which there is a good deal at this day in being. Next, that there was but £750,000 coyned of the Harp and Crosse money2, and of this there was £500,000 brought in upon its being called in. And from very good arguments they find that there cannot be less of it in Ireland and Scotland than £100,000; so that there is but £150,000 missing; and of that, suppose that there should be not above 650,000 still remaining, either melted down, hid, or lost, or hoarded up in England, there will then be but £100,000 left to be thought to have been transported. Now, if £750,000 in twelve years' time lost but a £100,000 in danger of being transported, then within thirty-five years' time will have lost but £3,888,880 and odd pounds; and as there is £650,000 remaining after twelve years' time in England, so after thirty-five years' time, which was within this two years, there ought in proportion to have been resting £6,111,120 or thereabouts, beside King James's and Queen (age 24) Elizabeth's money. Now that most of this must be hid is evident, as they reckon, because of the dearth of money immediately upon the calling-in of the State's money, which was £500,000 that came in; and yet there was not any money to be had in this City, which they say to their own observation and knowledge was so. And therefore, though I can say nothing in it myself, I do not dispute it.

Note 2. The Commonwealth coins (stamped with the cross and harp, and the inscription, "The Commonwealth of England") were called in by proclamation, September, 1660, and when brought to the Mint an equal amount of lawful money was allowed for them, weight for weight, deducting only for the coinage (Ruding's "Annals of the Coinage", 18 19, vol. iii., p. 293). The harp was taken out of the naval flags in May, 1660.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1668. Up, and called on Mr. Pierce, who tells me that after all this ado Ward is come to town, and hath appeared to the Commissioners of Accounts and given such answers as he thinks will do every body right, and let the world see that their great expectations and jealousies have been vain in this matter of the prizes. The Commissioners were mighty inquisitive whether he was not instructed by letters or otherwise from hence from my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) friends what to say and do, and particularly from me, which he did wholly deny, as it was true, I not knowing the man that I know of. He tells me also that, for certain, Mr. Vaughan (age 64) is made Lord Chief justice, which I am glad of. He tells me, too; that since my Lord of Ormond's (age 57) coming over, the King (age 37) begins to be mightily reclaimed, and sups every night with great pleasure with the Queene (age 58): and yet, it seems, he is mighty hot upon the Duchess of Richmond (age 20); insomuch that, upon Sunday was se'nnight, at night, after he had ordered his Guards and coach to be ready to carry him to the Park, he did, on a sudden, take a pair of oars or sculler, and all alone, or but one with him, go to Somersett House [Map], and there, the garden-door not being open, himself clamber over the walls to make a visit to her, which is a horrid shame. He gone, I to the office, where we sat all the morning, Sir W. Pen (age 47) sick of the gout comes not out.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1669. By and by the Duke of York (age 35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King's leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (age 38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife, and to Mr. Holliard's (age 60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington [Map] and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (age 35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did just now come into the Queen's (age 30) bed-chamber, where the King (age 38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (age 57), the father of Harry (age 32), who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (age 41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (age 27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (age 35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

On 19 May 1676 John Greenhill (age 32) died. He had been returning home somewhat less than sober from an evening in the Vine Tavern when he fell into a ditch in Long Acre. He was carried to his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn Fields but didn't recover. He was buried in St Giles in the Fields.

After 19 May 1711. St Helen's Church, Tarporley [Map]. Monument to sisters Jane Done and Mary Done, and Mary's grand-daughter Mary Devereux Knightley.

Jane Done: On or before 14 Nov 1600 she was born to John Done of Utkinton. She was baptised on 14 Nov 1600. On 02 Mar 1662 she died.

Mary Done: On 12 Jul 1604 she was born to John Done of Utkinton. In Dec 1636 John Crewe and she were married at Stockport. On 06 Jul 1690 she died.

Mary Devereux Knightley: On or before 09 Jul 1673 she was born to Devereux Knightley and Elizabeth Crewe at Fawsley, Northamptonshire. She was baptised on 09 Jul 1673. On 13 Aug 1674 Mary Devereux Knightley died at Utkinton.

After 19 May 1711. St Helen's Church, Tarporley [Map]. Monument to John Crewe of Utkinton (deceased).

On 19 May 1782 John Donne died. Memorial in Church of St Mary, Bruton [Map].

Derbyshire Archaeological Journal Volume 30 1908 Page 155. May 19th 1825. We opened a barrow composed principally of stone situated on the top of Cronkstone Hill1. It is on a farm belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, called Cronkstone Grange, in the Parish of Hartington, and is about three miles N.W. of Arborlow, which can be distinctly seen from it. We have discovered the remains of a human skeleton, deposited in a cist, formed of Stones, widely piled together, and about 4 feet in length. The body could not, of course, have been laid straight, but was doubled up with the knees towards the chin and breast, and reclined on the right side. This mode of interment is not very unusual in the Derbyshire barrows, and is supposed to be of the most remote antiquity. Under the head of the skeleton was placed the part of the horn of what I imagine to be the red-deer, and apparently must have been of large dimentions. It measures 9¼ inches round the base or root.

I have before noticed in my essay on Arbor-low that it was not uncommon to bury the horns of Deer with human bodies in these sepulchral tumuli. There was the usual accompaniment of rats' bones in this barrow, which I conceive, from analogous examples, should be referred to a very early date among the ancient Britons.

The top of Cronkston hill2, which is of great elevation is surrounded by a vallum and rampart of earth and stones, of no great height, ranging about 100 yards on every side of the barrow, and apparently intended solely to enclose and protect it. On the East side of the Hill is an amphitheatre, which has been formed by the excavation of the earth from the sides of the hill in a semi-elliptic form. There is a low bench of turf running quite round the amphitheatre, which has clearly been used as a seat for the principal spectators. It is about 15 or 16 yards across, and to the eastward, which is the side open, a space of the same width, and perhaps 100 yds. in length has been carefully levelled, and may perhaps have served as a cursus. This place is very similar to the semi-circular cove of earth mentioned by Stukeley, in his 2nd Itinerary as existing at Staden Low, near Buxton, and which he, with great probability, imagined to have been used for shows. Whether these remains at Cronkstone have served as a place of common amusement for the inhabitants of this district, or have been used for games instituted in memory of, and to the honour of the warrior or hunter buried in this barrow, whose remains we have deterred, must, of course, be quite conjectural."

Samuel Mitchell Junior (age 22).

Note 1. Vestiges, p. 125.

On 19 May 1846 Christine Spartali Countess d'Anvers was born to Michael Spartali and Euphrosyne Varsini.

The Diary of George Price Boyce 1865. 19 May 1865. Dined with Rossetti (age 37) and Fanny (age 30) and Howell at Chelsea. Settled to take för 50 eleven selected pencil studies of heads, R. in addition giving me one of a new model he has got to sit.

On 19 May 1879 Nancy Witcher Langhorne Viscountess Astor was born.

Births on the 19th May

On 19 May 1450 Unamed Stewart was born to King James II of Scotland (age 19) and Mary of Guelders Queen Consort Scotland (age 16). He died the same day. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 19 May 1474 Isabella Este was born to Ercole Este I Duke Ferrara (age 42).

On 19 May 1492 Anne Albret was born to Jean III King Navarre (age 23) and Catherine Grailly I Queen Navarre (age 24).

On 19 May 1639 Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland was born to Jerome Weston 2nd Earl of Portland (age 33) and Frances Stewart Countess Portland (age 22). He was christened the same day at St Margaret's Church, Westminster [Map].

Before 19 May 1645 Winifred Trentham was born to Christopher Trentham.

On 19 May 1663 Sophie Elisabeth Saxe Gotha was born to Ernest "The Pious" Saxe Gotha I Duke Saxe Gotha (age 61) and Elisabeth Sophie Saxe Altenburg Duchess Saxe Gotha (age 43) at Gotha. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.17%.

On or before 19 May 1678 Charles Monck of St Stephen's Green, Dublin was born to Henry Blennerhassett Monck (age 48).

On 19 May 1710 Charles Tynte 5th Baronet was born to John Tynte 2nd Baronet and Jane Kemeys Lady Tynte (age 25).

On 19 May 1738 James Grant 5th Earl Seafield was born to Ludovic Grant 7th Baronet (age 31) and Margaret Ogilvy.

On 19 May 1746 Henry Butler 2nd Earl Carrick was born to Somerset Butler 1st Earl Carrick (age 27) and Juliana Boyle.

On 19 May 1782 William John Brown ffolkes was born. He died aged ten days old on 29 May 1829.

On 19 May 1791 George Finch-Hatton 5th Earl Nottingham 10th Earl Winchilsea was born to George Finch-Hatton (age 43) and Elizabeth Murray (age 31) at Kirby Hall, Gretton.

On 19 May 1794 Carlos Miguel Fitz James Stuart 12th Duke Veragua 7th Duke Berwick 14th Duke Alba was born to Jacobo Fitz James Stuart 10th Duke Veragua 5th Duke Berwick (deceased) and María Teresa Fernández Silva Duchess Veragua Duchess Berwick (age 22) at Madrid.

On 19 May 1800 George Washington Whistler was born.

On 19 May 1812 Edwin Wyndham-Quin 3rd Earl of Dunraven and Mount Earl was born to Windham Quin 2nd Earl Dunraven and Mount Earl (age 29) and Caroline Wyndham Countess Dunraven and Mount Earl.

On 19 May 1812 Charlotte Elizabeth Bertie was born to Albermarle Bertie 9th Earl Lindsey (age 67) and Charlotte Layard Countess Lindsey (age 32).

On 19 May 1815 Catherine Dickens nee Hogarth was born.

On 19 May 1815 Thomas Thornycroft was born to John Thornycroft.

On 19 May 1824 William Fitzclarence 2nd Earl Munster was born to George Fitzclarence 1st Earl Munster (age 30) and Mary Wyndham Countess Munster (age 31). He a grandson of King William IV of the United Kingdom.

On 19 May 1826 Mary Foulis was born to William Foulis 8th Baronet (age 36) and Mary Jane Ross.

Before 19 May 1830 Emily Elizabeth Noel was born to Baptist Wriothesley Noel (age 31).

On 19 May 1844 Horace Farquhar 1st Earl Farquhar was born to Walter Townsend-Farquhar 2nd Baronet (age 34) and Erica Catherine Mackay.

On 19 May 1846 Christine Spartali Countess d'Anvers was born to Michael Spartali and Euphrosyne Varsini.

On 19 May 1858 Roland Napoléon Bonaparte 6th Prince of Canino and Musignano was born to Prince Pierre-Napoléon Bonaparte (age 42).

On 19 May 1858 George Leveson-Gower was born to Edward Frederick Leveson-Gower (age 39) and Margaret Compton (age 28). His mother died three days later.

On 19 May 1860 Edward Hamilton Seymour 16th Duke of Somerset was born to Francis Payne Seymour (age 44) and Jane Margaret Dallas.

On 19 May 1862 Henry Charles Talbot Rice was born to Henry Rice (age 49).

On 19 May 1877 Major George Henry Edwardes was born to William Edwardes 4th and 1st Baron Kensington (age 42) and Grace Elizabeth Douglas Baroness Kensington (age 34).

On 19 May 1879 Waldorf Astor 2nd Viscount Astor was born to William Waldorf Astor 1st Viscount Astor (age 31) and Mary Dahlgren Paul (age 21).

On 19 May 1879 Nancy Witcher Langhorne Viscountess Astor was born.

On 19 May 1886 James Walter Theobold Gordon Butler was born to Theobald Butler (age 33) and Annabella Brydon.

On 19 May 1889 Second Lieutenant Robert Bosse was born at Eccleshall, Staffordshire.

On 19 May 1891 John Vernou Bouvier III was born to John Vernou Bouvier Jr (age 24) at East Hampton.

Marriages on the 19th May

On 19 May 1051 King Henry I of France (age 43) and Anne Rurik Queen Consort France (age 21) were married at Reims Cathedral, Reims. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of Robert "Pious" II King France and Constance Arles Queen Consort France.

On 19 May 1322 Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) and Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) marriage annulled as a consequence of her adultery. In 1313 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 18) gave gifts of coin-purses to her sisters-in-law Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) and Margaret of Burgundy Queen Consort France. The coin-purses were subsequently seen by Isabella to be in the possession of the Norman knights Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay. When Isabella visited her father Philip "The Fair" IV King France again in 1314 she informed him she suspected the two sisters to be having affairs with the two knights. The two knights were arrested, confessed to adultery under torture, and were executed. The two women were sentenced to life imprisonment at Château Gaillard [Map]. Margaret's husband Louis X King France I Navarre became King in Nov 1314 whilst she was in prison; she became Queen of France by marriage. Somewhat conveniently she died five months later. Blanche of Burgundy Queen Consort France (age 25) remained in prison until her husband Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) became King in 1322 at which time he had their marriage annulled.

After 19 May 1322 Charles IV King France I King Navarre (age 27) and Marie Luxemburg Queen Consort France (age 18) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort of France. She the daughter of Henry Luxemburg VII Holy Roman Emperor and Margaret Brabant Countess Luxemburg and Namur. He the son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France and Joan Blois I Queen Navarre. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey [Map] whereby two children of King Edward III of England (age 46) were married:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 39). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) were married. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) was a ward of King Edward III of England (age 46) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later in 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). He the son of Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 42). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

On 19 May 1440 Charles "Bold" Valois Duke Burgundy (age 6) and Catherine Valois (age 11) were married. She the daughter of Charles "Victorious" VII King France (age 37) and Marie Valois Anjou Queen Consort France (age 35). He the son of Philip "Good" Valois III Duke Burgundy (age 43) and Isabella Aviz Duchess Burgundy (age 43). They were third cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 19 May 1597 Charles Howard 2nd Earl Nottingham (age 17) and Charity White were married. He the son of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 61) and Katherine Carey Countess Nottingham (age 47).

On 19 May 1653 Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 21) and Elizabeth Percy Countess Essex (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland (age 50) and Anne Cecil.

On 19 May 1658 Henry Marwood 2nd Baronet (age 23) and Margaret Darcy were married. She the daughter of Conyers Darcy 1st Earl Holderness (age 59) and Grace Rokeby Countess Holderness.

Before 19 May 1691 Robert Barkham (age 46) and Frances Lister were married.

On or before 19 May 1746 Charles Stewart 5th Earl Traquair (age 49) and Teresa Conyers Countess Trauqair were married. She by marriage Countess Traquair. He the son of Charles Stewart 4th Earl Traquair and Mary Maxwell Countess Traquair (age 75).

On 19 May 1749 Alexander Simpson (age 24) and Isabella Grindlay were married.

On 19 May 1755 Charles Yorke (age 32) and Catherine Blount Freeman (age 18) were married. He the son of Philip Yorke 1st Earl of Hardwicke (age 64) and Margaret Cocks Countess Hardwicke.

On 19 May 1768 Noel Hill 1st Baron Berwick (age 23) and Anna Vernon (age 20) were married at St George's Church, Hanover Square.

On 19 May 1772 Richard Paul Jodrell of Lewknor Scholar (age 26) and Virtue Hase were married.

On 19 May 1773 George Townshend 1st Marquess Townshend (age 49) and Anne Montgomery Marchioness Townshend (age 21) were married. The difference in their ages was 27 years.

On 19 May 1789 Thomas Townshend 1st Viscount Sydney (age 56) and Elizabeth Powys Viscountess Sydney (age 53) were married.

On 19 May 1798 Francis Charles Seymour-Conway 3rd Marquess Hertford (age 21) and Maria "Mie Mie" Seymour-Conway Marchioness of Hertford (age 26) were married. She the illegitmate daughter of William Douglas 4th Duke Queensberry (age 73). He the son of Francis Ingram Seymour-Conway 2nd Marquess Hertford (age 55) and Isabella Anne Ingram Marchioness Hertford (age 38). He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 19 May 1817 Henry Cecil Lowther (age 26) and Lucy Eleanor Sherard (age 25) were married. She the daughter of Philip Sherard 5th Earl Harborough. He the son of William Lowther 1st Earl Lonsdale (age 59) and Augusta Fane Countess Lonsdale (age 55).

On 19 May 1818 Arthur Miller Rose (age 21) and Susanna Rose nee Anderson (age 23) were married at St Leonard's Church Shoreditch.

On 19 May 1819 John Tyssen Tyrell 2nd Baronet (age 23) and Elizabeth Ann Pilkington were married. They had two sons and three daughters.

On 19 May 1821 Frederick Fitzclarence (age 21) and Augusta Boyle (age 19) were married. He the illegitmate son of King William IV of the United Kingdom (age 55) and Dorothea Bland aka "Mrs Jordan".

On 19 May 1834 George Edgecumbe (age 33) and Fanny Lucy Shelley (age 23) were married. He the son of Richard Edgecumbe 2nd Earl of Mount Edgcumbe (age 69) and Sophia Hobart Countess Mount Edgcumbe.

On 19 May 1849 Francis George Spencer 2nd Baron Churchill (age 47) and Jane Conyngham Baroness Churchill (age 22) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of Francis Nathaniel Conyngham 2nd Marquess Conyngham (age 51) and Jane Paget Marchioness Conyngham (age 50). He a great x 4 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 19 May 1881 Coplestone Richard Bampfylde 3rd Baron Poltimore (age 21) and Margaret Harriet Beaumont Baroness Poltimore were married.

Deaths on the 19th May

On 19 May 988 Archbishop Dunstan (age 79) died. In the morning Mass was celebrated in his presence, then he received Extreme Unction and the Viaticum, and died. His final words were "He hath made a remembrance of his wonderful works, being a merciful and gracious Lord: He hath given food to them that fear Him.".

On 19 May 1106 Geoffrey "Hammer" Anjou IV Count Anjou (age 34) was killed at Candé.

On 19 May 1319 Louis I Count Évreux (age 43) died. His son Philip "Noble" III King Navarre (age 13) succeeded Count Évreux.

On 19 May 1360 Isabeau Chatillon died.

On 19 May 1382 Thomas Crophull (age 47) died.

On 19 May 1396 King John I of Aragon (age 45) died. His brother Martin I King Aragon (age 39) succeeded I King Aragon.

On 19 May 1432 Joan Valois (age 22) died at Angers [Map].

After 19 May 1468 Eleanor Fitzhugh Baroness Dacre Gilsland (age 37) died.

On 19 May 1480 Archbishop Lawrence Booth (age 60) died. He was buried at Southwell Minster [Map].

On 19 May 1502 Richard Bulstrode (age 62) died.

On 19 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map] as described in Agnes Strickland’s 1852 Lives of the Queens of England Volume 4. Page 212.

On 19 May 1577 Edward Capell (age 81) died.

On 19 May 1618 Elizabeth Harrington (age 73) died.

On 19 May 1643 Thomas Arundell 2nd Baron Arundel (age 57) died. He was buried at St John's Church, Tisbury. His son Henry Arundell 3rd Baron Arundel (age 35) succeeded 3rd Baron Arundel of Wardour in Wiltshire.

On 19 May 1649 Susannah Rich Countess Suffolk (age 21) died.

On 19 May 1657 Johann Philip Saxe Gotha died at Gotha.

On 19 May 1664 Richard Onslow (age 63) died.

On 19 May 1664 Élisabeth Bourbon Vendôme (age 49) died.

On 19 May 1672 Mary Nugent (age 49) died.

On 19 May 1676 John Greenhill (age 32) died. He had been returning home somewhat less than sober from an evening in the Vine Tavern when he fell into a ditch in Long Acre. He was carried to his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn Fields but didn't recover. He was buried in St Giles in the Fields.

On or before 19 May 1679 Elizabeth Hooker died. She was buried at St Breock Church, Cornwall [Map] on 19 May 1679 as recorded by a stone on the east wall of the south aisle.

On or before 07 Feb 1680 John Tregagle of Trevorder died. He was buried at St Breock Church, Cornwall [Map] on 07 Feb 1680. A stone on the east wall of the south aisle records his burial together with that of his wife Elizabeth Hooker on 19 May 1679..

On 19 May 1691 Robert Barkham (age 46) died.

On 19 May 1711 John Crewe of Utkinton (age 69) died.

On 19 May 1712 Henry Fletcher 3rd Baronet (age 51) died unmarried and without issue having converted to a monk and lived at the English monastery of Douai in France where he was buried. Baronet Fletcher of Hutton le Forest in Cumberland extinct.

Before 19 May 1714 Son St John (age 29) died.

On 19 May 1715 Charles Montagu 1st Earl Halifax (age 54) died. Earl Halifax extinct. His nephew George Montagu 1st Earl Halifax (age 31) succeeded 2nd Baron Halifax.

On 19 May 1718 Mary Berkeley Countess Tankerville died.

On 19 May 1734 John Sambroke (age 42) died.

Before 19 May 1735 Elizabeth Long died. She was buried on 19 May 1735 at St Peter's Church, Tawstock [Map].

On 19 May 1739 Jeremiah Dummer (age 58) died at Essex.

On 19 May 1761 Elizabeth Ashurst died.

On 19 May 1785 Robert Rich 5th Baronet (age 68) died without male issue. His brother George Rich 6th Baronet (age 56) succeeded 6th Baronet Rich of London.

On 19 May 1794 Thomas Hamilton 7th Earl Haddington (age 73) died. His son Charles Hamilton 8th Earl Haddington (age 40) succeeded 8th Earl Haddington.

On 19 May 1798 William Byron 5th Baron Byron (age 75) was killed in action by cannon fire whilst fighting in Corsica. His great nephew George "Lord Byron" 6th Baron Byron (age 10) succeeded 6th Baron Byron of Rochdale in Lancashire.

On 19 May 1806 Michael le Fleming 4th Baronet (age 57) died. He was buried at St Oswald's Church, Grasmere where he and his wife's memorial reads "To the memory of Sir Michael Le Fleming, fourth Baronet, M,P., of Ryall Hall, Westmorland, born 10th December 1748, died 19th May 1806, also of his wife Lady Diana (age 56) only child of Thomas Howard, 14th Earl of Suffolk & Berkshire, who died 20th June 1816, and of their only child Ann Frederica Elizabeth, relict of Sir Daniel Fleming (age 21) fifth Baronet, died at Rydal Hall 5th April 1861 aged 77."

Daniel Fleming 5th Baronet (age 21) succeeded 5th Baronet Fleming of Rydal in Cumbria.

On 19 May 1820 Dorothy Smelt Lady Thirkleby (age 70) died.

On 24 May 1825 John Grey Egerton 8th Baronet (age 58) died without issue. He had had a carriage accident at Epsom Races on 19 May 1825. His brother Philip Egerton 9th Baronet (age 57) succeeded 9th Baronet Egerton and Oulton. Rebecca Du Pre Lady Egerton (age 45) by marriage Lady Egerton and Oulton.

On 19 May 1833 James Ogle (age 55) died.

On 19 May 1837 Lieutenant-General William Fitzroy (age 63) died.

On 19 May 1843 Charles Bagot (age 61) died at Kingston, Ontario.

On 19 May 1844 Elizabeth Fane Lady Lowther (age 74) died.

On 19 May 1845 Richard Caton (age 82) died.

On 19 May 1845 Paulet St John-Mildmay (age 54) died.

On 19 May 1856 Mary Georgiana Somerset (age 63) died.

On 19 May 1861 Henry Cockayne-Cust (age 80) died.

On 19 May 1869 Susan Hester Hamlyn-Williams (age 45) died.

On 19 May 1873 Caroline Leeke Countess Abergavenny died at Birling, Kent [Map].

On 19 May 1887 John Boteville Thynne (age 19) died.

On 19 May 1887 Margaret Calder (age 70) died She was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery.

On 19 May 1898 William Ewart Gladstone (age 88) died.

On 19 May 1903 Katherine Frances Scott (age 65) died.

On 19 May 1910 Henry Aubrey-Fletcher 4th Baronet (age 74) died without issue. His brother Lancelot Aubrey-Fletcher 5th Baronet (age 64) succeeded 5th Baronet Fletcher of Clea Hall in Cumberland. He changed his surname under Royal Licence to Henry Aubrey-Fletcher to reflect his inheritance from the Aubrey estate. Emily Harriet Wade Lady Fletcher by marriage Lady Fletcher of Clea Hall in Cumberland.

On 19 May 1910 Alice Margaret Stanley (age 82) died.

On 19 May 1911 Gerard Noel (age 87) died.

On 19 May 1927 Edith Althea Hamilton Baroness Allendale (age 78) died at 32 Queen Anne's Gate Marylebone.

On 19 May 1932 Muriel Wheldale (age 52) died.

On 19 May 1935 Thomas Edward Lawrence "Lawrence of Arabia" (age 46) died in a motorcycle accident.

On 19 May 1944 Frederick Walter Stephenson (age 71) died.

On 19 May 1949 Amy Virginia Beaumont (age 90) died.

On 19 May 1957 Hilda Mary Dundas Baroness Southampton (age 84) died.

On 19 May 1972 Henry George Orlando Bridgeman (age 89) died.