Biography of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

Maternal Family Tree: Blanca de la Cerda y Lara 1317-1347

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1605 New Years Honours

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1625 Death of James I

1649 Execution of Charles I

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 St James' Day Battle

1667 Raid on the Medway

1673 Test Act

1676 Treaty of Nimeguen

1677 Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

1682 Sinking of the Gloucester

1683 Rye House Plot

1683 Popish Plot

1683 Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

1685 Argyll's Rising

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1688 Test Act

1688 Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

1688 Glorious Revolution

1688 Battle of Reading

1688 Abdication of James II

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1701 Death of King James II

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. But then, by and by, the lords assembled together at London. To ward which meeting, the Archbishop of York (age 59), fearing that it would be ascribed (as it was indeed) to his overmuch lightness that he so suddenly had yielded up the Great Seal to the Queen-to whom the custody thereof nothing pertained without special commandment of the King-secretly sent for the Seal again and brought it with him after the customary manner. And at this meeting, the Duke of Buckingham, whose loyalty toward the King no man doubted nor needed to doubt, persuaded the lords to believe that the Duke of Gloucester (age 30) was sure and fastly faithful to his Prince and that the Lord Rivers (age 43) and Lord Richard (age 26) with the other knights were, for matters attempted by them against the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham, put under arrest for the dukes' safety not for the King's jeopardy and that they were also in safeguard and should remain there no longer till the matter were, not by the dukes only but also by all the other lords of the King's Council indifferently examined and by other discretions ordered, and either judged or appeased. But one thing he advised them beware, that they judged not the matter too far forth before they knew the truth-for by turning their private grudges into the common hurt, irritating and provoking men unto anger, and disturbing the King's coronation, toward which the dukes were coming up, they might perhaps bring the matter so far out of joint, that it should never be brought in frame again. This strife, if it should happen to come to battle, as it was likely, though both parties were in all things equal, yet should the authority be on that side where the King is himself.

With these arguments of the Duke of Buckingham - part of which he believed; part, he knew the contrary - these commotions were somewhat appeased, but especially because the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham (age 28) were so near, and came so quickly on with the King, in none other manner, with none other voice or semblance, than to his coronation, causing the story to be blown about that those lords and knights who were taken had contrived the destruction of the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham (age 28) and of other noble blood of the realm, to the end that they themselves would alone manage and govern the King at their pleasure. And for the false proof thereof, some of the dukes' servants rode with the carts of the stuff that were taken (among such stuff, no marvel, but that some of it were armor, which, at the breaking up of that household, must needs either be brought away or cast away), and they showed it unto the people all the way as they went: "Lo, here be the barrels of armor that these traitors had privately conveyed in their carriage to destroy the noble lords withal." This device, although it made the matter to wise men more unlikely, who well perceived that, if the intenders meant war, they would rather have had their armor on their backs than to have bound them up in barrels, yet much part of the common people were therewith very well satisfied, and said it were like giving alms to hang them.

When the King approached near to the city, Edmund Shaa (age 47), goldsmith then mayor, with William White and John Mathew, sheriffs, and all the other aldermen in scarlet, with five hundred horse of the citizens in violet, received him reverently at Hornsey, and riding from thence, accompanied him in to the city, which he entered the fourth day of May, the first and last year of his reign.

But the Duke of Gloucester bore himself in open sight so reverently to the Prince, with all semblance of lowliness, that from the great obloquy in which he was so late before, he was suddenly fallen in so great trust, that at the Council next assembled, he was the only man chosen and thought most suitable to be Protector (age 30) of the King and his realm, so that-were it destiny or were it folly-the lamb was given to the wolf to keep. At which Council also the Archbishop of York (age 59), Chancellor of England, who had delivered up the Great Seal to the Queen (age 46), was thereof greatly reproved, and the Seal taken from him and delivered to Doctor Russell, Bishop of Lincoln, a wise man and good and of much experience, and one of the best learned men undoubtedly that England had in his time. Diverse lords and knights were appointed unto diverse offices. The Lord Chamberlain and some others kept still their offices that they had before.

Now all was such that the Protector (age 30) so sore thirsted for the finishing of what he had begun-though he thought every day a year till it were achieved-yet he dared no further attempt as long as he had but half his prey in hand, well knowing that if he deposed the one brother, all the realm would fall to the other, if he either remained in sanctuary or should by chance be shortly conveyed farther away to his liberty.

Wherefore straight away at the next meeting of the lords at the Council, he proposed unto them that it was a heinous deed of the Queen (age 46), and proceeding from great malice toward the King's counselors, that she should keep in sanctuary the King's brother from him, whose special pleasure and comfort were to have his brother with him. And that by her such was done to no other intent, but to bring all the lords in obloquy and murmur of the people, as though they were not to be trusted with the King's brother-they who were, by the assent of the nobles of the land, appointed as the King's nearest friends for the protection of his own royal person.

"The prosperity whereof stands," said he, "not all in keeping from enemies or ill viands, [poison?] but partly also in recreation and moderate pleasure, which he cannot in this tender youth take in the company of elder persons, but in the familiar conversation of those who be neither far under nor far above his age, and nevertheless of state appropriate to accompany his noble majesty. Wherefore with whom rather than with his own brother? And if any man think this consideration light (which I think no man thinks who loves the King), let him consider that sometimes without small things, greater cannot stand. And verily it redounds greatly to the dishonor both of the King's Highness and of all us that have been about his Grace, to have it run in every man's mouth, not in this realm only, but also in other lands (as evil words walk far), that the King's brother should be glad to keep sanctuary. For every man will suppose that no man will so do for nothing. And such evil opinion, once fastened in men's hearts, hard it is to wrest out, and may grow to more grief than any man here can divine.

"Wherefore I think it were not worst to send unto the Queen (age 46) for the redress of this matter some honorable trusty man, such as both values the King's welfare and the honor of his Council, and is also in favor and credible with her. For all which considerations, none seems to me more suitable than our reverent father here present, my Lord Cardinal (age 65), who may in this matter do most good of any man, if it please him to take the pain. Which I doubt not of his goodness he will not refuse, for the King's sake and ours, and the well being of the young Duke himself, the King's most honorable brother, and after my Sovereign Lord himself, my most dear nephew, considering that thereby shall be ceased the slanderous rumor and obloquy now going about, and the hurts avoided that thereof might ensue, and much rest and quiet grow to all the realm.

"And if she be perchance so obstinate, and so precisely set upon her own will that neither his wise and faithful instruction can move her, nor any man's reason content her, then shall we, by mine advice, by the King's authority, fetch him out of that prison, and bring him to his noble presence, in whose continual company he shall be so well cherished and so honorably treated that all the world shall to our honor, and her reproach, perceive that it was only malice, audacity, or folly, that caused her to keep him there. This is my mind in this matter for this time, except any of your lordships anything perceive to the contrary. For never shall I by God's grace so wed myself to mine own will, but that I shall be ready to change it upon your better advice."

When the Protector (age 30) had spoken, all the Council affirmed that the motion was good and reasonable, and to the King and the Duke his brother, honorable, and a thing that should cease great murmur in the realm, if the mother might be by good means induced to deliver him. Such a thing the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65), whom they all agreed also to be thereto most appropriate, took upon himself to move her, and therein to give his uttermost best effort. However, if she could be in no way entreated with her good will to deliver him, then thought he and such others as were of the clergy present that it were not in any way to be attempted to take him out against her will. For it would be a thing that should turn to the great grudge of all men, and high displeasure of God, if the privilege of the holy place should now be broken, which had so many years been kept, and which both king and popes so good had granted, so many had confirmed, and which holy ground was more than five hundred years ago by Saint Peter, his own person come in spirit by night, accompanied with great multitude of angels, so specially hallowed and dedicated it to God (for the proof whereof they have yet in the Abbey Saint Peter's cloak to show) that from that time forward was there never so undevout a king who dared that sacred place to violate, or so holy a bishop that dared presume to consecrate.

"And therefore," said the Archbishop of Canterbury, "God forbid that any man should for any earthly enterprise break the immunity and liberty of that sacred sanctuary that has been the safeguard of so many a good man's life. And I trust," said he, "with God's grace, we shall not need it. But for any manner need, I would not we should do it. I trust that she shall be with reason contented, and all things in good manner obtained. And if it happen that I bring it not so to pass, yet shall I toward it so far forth do my best, that you shall all well perceive that no lack of my dutiful efforts, but the mother's dread and womanish fear, shall be the impediment."

"Womanish fear, nay womanish perversity," said the Duke of Buckingham. "For I dare take it upon my soul, she well knows she needs no such thing to fear, either for her son or for herself. For as for her, here is no man that will be at war with women. Would God some of the men of her kin were women too, and then should all be soon at rest. However, there is none of her kin the less loved for that they be her kin, but for their own evil deserving. And nevertheless, if we loved neither her nor her kin, yet were there no cause to think that we should hate the King's noble brother, to whose Grace we ourself be of kin. Whose honor, if she as much desired as our dishonor and as much regard took to his well being as to her own will, she would be as loath to suffer him from the King as any of us be. "For if she have any wit (as would God she had as good will as she has shrewd wit), she reckons herself no wiser than she thinks some that be here, of whose faithful mind, she nothing doubts, but verily believes and knows that they would be as sorry of his harm as herself, and yet would have him from her if she abide there. And we all, I think, are satisfied that both be with her, if she come thence and abide in such place where they may with their honor be.

"Now then, if she refuse in the deliverance of him, to follow the counsel of them whose wisdom she knows, whose truth she well trusts, it is easy to perceive that perversity hinders her, and not fear. But go to, suppose that she fear (as who may let her to fear her own shadow), the more she fears to deliver him, the more ought we fear to leave him in her hands. For if she cast such fond doubts that she fear his hurt, then will she fear that he shall be fetched thence. For she will soon think that if men were set (which God forbid) upon so great a mischief, the sanctuary would little impede them, for good men might, as I think, without sin somewhat less regard it than they do.

"Now then, if she doubt lest he might be fetched from her, is it not likely enough that she shall send him somewhere out of the realm? Verily, I look for none other. And I doubt not but she now thinks with great exertion on it, even as we consider the hindrance of sanctuary. And if she might happen to bring that to pass (as it were no great accomplishment, we letting her alone), all the world would say that we were a wise sort of counselors about a King-we that let his brother be cast away under our noses. And therefore I assure you faithfully for my mind, I will rather defy her plans, fetch him away, than leave him there, till her perversity or fond fear convey him away. "And yet will I break no sanctuary therefore. For verily since the privileges of that place and other like have been of long continued, I am not he that would be about to break them. And in good faith if they were now to begin, I would not be he that should be about to make them. Yet will I not say nay, but that it is a deed of pity that such men of the sea or their evil debtors have brought in poverty, should have some place of liberty, to keep their bodies out of the danger from their cruel creditors. And also if the Crown happen (as it has done) to come in question, while either part takes the other as traitors, I will well there be some places of refuge for both. But as for thieves, of which these places be full, and which never fall from the craft after they once fall thereto, it is pity the sanctuary should serve them. And much more murderers whom God bade to take from the altar and kill them, if their murder were willful. And where it is otherwise there need we not the sanctuaries that God appointed in the old law. For if either necessity, his own defense or misfortune draw him to that deed, a pardon serves which either the law grants of course, or the King of pity may.

"Then look me now how few sanctuary men there be whom any favorable necessity compelled to go thither. And then see on the other side what a sort there be commonly therein, of them whom willful prodigality has brought to nought. What a rabble of thieves, murderers, and malicious, heinous traitors, and that in two places specially: the one at the elbow of the city, the other in the very bowels. I dare well avow it. Weigh the good that they do with the hurt that comes of them, and you shall find it much better to lack both, than have both. And this I say, although they were not abused as they now be, and so long have been, that I fear me ever they will be while men be afraid to set their hands to the amendment: as though God and Saint Peter were the patrons of ungracious living.

"Now prodigals riot and run in debt upon the boldness of these places; yea, and rich men run thither with poor men's goods; there they build, there they spend and bid their creditors go whistle them. Men's wives run thither with their husbands' money, and say they dare not abide with their husbands for beating. Thieves bring thither their stolen goods, and there live thereon. There devise they new robberies; nightly they steal out, they rob and pillage and kill, and come in again as though those places gave them not only a safeguard for the harm they have done, but a license also to do more. However, much of this mischief, if wise men would set their hands to it, might be amended with great thanks to God and no breach of the privilege. The residue, since so long ago I knew never what pope and what prince more piteous than prudent has granted it, and other men because of a certain religious fear have not broken it, let us take a pain therewith, and let it in God's name stand in force, as far forth as reason will. Which is not fully so far forth as may serve to prevent us from fetching forth this noble man to his honor and wealth, out of that place in which he neither is nor can be a sanctuary man.

"A sanctuary serves always to defend the body of that man that stands in danger abroad, not of great hurt only, but also of lawful hurt. For against unlawful harms, never pope nor king intended to privilege any one place. For that privilege has every place. Know you any man any place wherein it is lawful for one man to do another wrong? That no man unlawfully take hurt, that liberty, the King, the law, and very nature forbid in every place and make to that regard for every man a sanctuary every place. But where a man is by lawful means in peril, there needs he the protection of some special privilege, which is the only ground and cause of all sanctuaries. From which necessity this noble prince is far. His love to his King, nature and kindred prove, whose innocence to all the world his tender youth proves. And so sanctuary as for him, neither none he needs, nor also none can have.

"Men come not to sanctuary as they come to baptism, to require it by their godfathers. He must ask it himself that must have it. And what reason-since no man has cause to have it but whose conscience of his own fault makes him feign need to require it-what reason then will yonder babe have? which, even if he had discretion to require it, if need were, I dare say would now be right angry with them that keep him there. And I would think without any scruple of conscience, without any breach of privilege, to be somewhat more homely with them that be there sanctuary men indeed. For if one go to sanctuary with another man's goods, why should not the King, leaving his body at liberty, satisfy the part of his goods even within the sanctuary? For neither king nor pope can give any place such a privilege that it shall discharge a man of his debts, being able to pay."

And that diversity of the clergy that were present, whether they said it for his pleasure or, as they thought, agreed plainly that by the law of God and of the church the goods of a sanctuary man should be delivered in payment of his debts, and stolen goods to the owner, and only liberty reserved him to get his living with the labor of his hands.

"Verily," said the Duke, "I think you say very truth. And what if a man's wife will take sanctuary because she wishes to run from her husband? I would think if she can allege none other cause, he may lawfully-without any displeasure to Saint Peter-take her out of Saint Peter's church by the arm. And if nobody may be taken out of sanctuary that says he will abide there, then if a child will take sanctuary because he fears to go to school, his master must let him alone. And as simple as that example is, yet is there less reason in our case than in that. For therein, though it be a childish fear, yet is there at the leastwise some fear. And herein is there none at all. And verily I have often heard of sanctuary men. But I never heard before of sanctuary children. And therefore, as for the conclusion of my mind, whosoever may have deserved to need it, if they think it for their safety, let them keep it. But he can be no sanctuary man that neither has wisdom to desire it nor malice to deserve it, whose life or liberty can by no lawful process stand in jeopardy. And he that takes one out of sanctuary to do him good, I say plainly that he breaks no sanctuary."

When the Duke had done, the laymen entire and a good part of the clergy also, thinking no earthly hurt was meant toward the young babe, agreed in effect that, if he were not delivered, he should be fetched. However, they all thought it best, in the avoiding of all manner of rumor, that the Lord Cardinal should first attempt to get him with her good will. And thereupon all the Council came unto the Star Chamber at Westminster. And the Lord Cardinal, leaving the Protector (age 30) with the Council in the Star Chamber, departed into the sanctuary to the Queen (age 46) with diverse other lords with him-were it for the respect of his honor, or that she should by presence of so many perceive that this errand was not one man's mind, or were it for that the Protector (age 30) intended not in this matter to trust any one man alone, or else, if she finally were determined to keep him, some of that company had perhaps secret instruction immediately, despite her mind, to take him and to leave her no chance to take him away, which she was likely to plan after this matter was revealed to her, if her time would in any way serve her.

When the Queen (age 46) and these lords were come together in presence, the Lord Cardinal showed unto her that it was thought by the Protector (age 30) and the whole Council that her keeping of the King's brother in that place was the thing which highly sounded, not only to the great rumor of the people and their obloquy, but also to the unbearable grief and displeasure of the King's royal majesty; to whose Grace it were as singular comfort to have his natural brother in company, as it was to both their dishonor and all theirs and hers also, to suffer him in sanctuary-as though the one brother stood in danger and peril of the other. And he showed her that the Council therefore had sent him unto her to require her the delivery of him that he might be brought unto the King's presence at his liberty, out of that place that they reckoned as a prison. And there should he be treated according to his estate. And she in this doing should both do great good to the realm, pleasure to the Council and profit to herself, assistance to her friends that were in distress, and over that (which he knew well she specially valued), not only great comfort and honor to the King, but also to the young Duke himself, for both of them great wealth it were to be together, as well for many greater causes, as also for their both entertainment and recreation; which thing the lords esteemed not slight, though it seem light, well pondering that their youth without recreation and play cannot endure, nor find any stranger according to the propriety of both their ages and estates so suitable in that point for any of them as either of them for the other.

"My lord," said the Queen (age 46), "I say not nay, but that it were very appropriate that this gentleman whom you require were in the company of the King his brother. And in good faith I think it were as great advantage to them both, as for yet a while, to be in the custody of their mother, the tender age considered of the elder of them both, but especially the younger, who besides his infancy that also needs good looking to, has awhile been so sore diseased, vexed with sickness, and is so newly rather a little amended than well recovered, that I dare put no earthly person in trust with his keeping but myself alone, considering, that there is, as physicians say, and as we also find, double the peril in the relapse that was in the first sickness, with which disease-nature being forelabored, forewearied and weakened-grows the less able to bear out a new excess of the illness. And although there might be found another who would by chance do their best unto him, yet is there none that either knows better how to order him than I that so long have kept him; or is more tenderly like to cherish him than his own mother that bore him."

"No man denies, good Madam," said the Cardinal, "but that your Grace were of all folk most necessary about your children, and so would all the Council not only be content but also glad that you were, if it might stand with your pleasure to be in such place as might stand with their honor. But if you appoint yourself to tarry here, then think they yet more apt that the Duke of York were at his liberty honorably with the King-to the comfort of them both than here as a sanctuary man to both their dishonor and obloquy. Since there is not always so great necessity to have the child be with the mother, but that occasion may sometime be such that it should be more expedient to keep him elsewhere. Which in this well appears that, at such time as your dearest son, then Prince and now King, should for his honor and good order of the country, keep household in Wales far out of your company, your Grace was well content therewith yourself."

"Not very well content," said the Queen (age 46), "and yet the case is not like: for the one was then in health, and the other is now sick. In which case I marvel greatly that my Lord Protector (age 30) is so desirous to have him in his keeping, where if the child in his sickness miscarried by nature, yet might he run into slander and suspicion of fraud. And where they call it a thing so sore against my child's honor and theirs also that he abides in this place, it is all their honors there to suffer him abide where no man doubts he shall be best kept. And that is here, while I am here, which as yet I intend not to come forth and jeopardize myself after the fashion of my other friends, who, would God, were here in surety with me rather than I were there in jeopardy with them."

"Why, Madam," said another lord, "know you anything why they should be in jeopardy?"

"Nay, verily, Sir," said she, "nor why they should be in prison neither, as they now be. But it is, I trust, no great marvel, though I fear lest those that have not omitted to put them in duress without falsity will omit as little to procure their destruction without cause." The Cardinal made a countenance to the other lord that he should harp no more upon that string. And then said he to the Queen (age 46) that he nothing doubted but that those lords of her honorable kin, who as yet remained under arrest should, upon the matter examined, do well enough. And as toward her noble person, neither was nor could be any manner of jeopardy.

"Whereby should I trust that?" said the Queen (age 46). "In that I am guiltless? As though they were guilty. In that I am with their enemies better beloved than they? When they hate them for my sake. In that I am so near of kin to the King? And how far be they away, if that would help, as God send grace it hurt not. And therefore as for me, I purpose not as yet to depart hence. And as for this gentleman my son, I mind that he shall be where I am till I see further. For I assure you, because I see some men so greedy without any substantial cause to have him, this makes me much the more further from delivering him."

"Truly, madam," said he, "and the further that you be to deliver him, the further be other men to suffer you to keep him, lest your causeless fear might cause you farther to convey him. And many be there that think that he can have no privilege in this place, who neither can have will to ask it, nor malice to deserve it. And therefore they reckon no privilege broken, though they fetch him out, which, if you finally refuse to deliver him, I verily think they will (so much dread has my Lord, his uncle, for the tender love he bears him), lest your Grace should by chance send him away."

"Ah, sir," said the Queen (age 46), "has the Protector (age 30) so tender zeal to him that he fears nothing but lest he should escape him? Thinks he that I would send him hence, which neither is in the plight to send out, and in what place could I reckon him sure, if he be not sure in this the sanctuary, whereof there was never tyrant yet so devilish that dared presume to break. And, I trust God, the most holy Saint Peter-the guardian of this sanctuary-is as strong now to withstand his adversaries as ever he was.

"But my son can deserve no sanctuary, and therefore he cannot have it. Forsooth he has found a goodly gloss by which that place that may defend a thief may not save an innocent. But he is in no jeopardy nor has no need thereof. Would God he had not. Trusts the Protector (age 30) (I pray God he may prove a Protector (age 30)), trusts he that I perceive not whereunto his painted process draws? He says it is not honorable that the Duke abide here and that it were comfortable for them both that he were with his brother because the King lacks a playfellow. Be you sure. I pray God send them both better playfellows than him who makes so high a matter upon such a trifling pretext-as though there could none be found to play with the King unless his brother, who has no lust to play because of sickness, come out of sanctuary, out of his safeguard, to play with him. As though princes as young as they be could not play but with their peers, or children could not play but with their kindred, with whom for the most part they agree much worse than with strangers.

"But the child cannot require the privilege-who told him so? He shall hear him ask it, if he will. However, this is a gay matter: Suppose he could not ask it; suppose he would not ask it; suppose he would ask to go out. If I say he shall not, if I ask the privilege but for myself, I say he that against my will takes out him, breaks the sanctuary. Serves this liberty for my person only, or for my goods too? You may not hence take my horse from me, and may you take my child from me? He is also my ward, for as my learned Council shows me, since he has nothing by descent held by knight's service, the law makes his mother his guardian. Then may no man, I suppose, take my ward from me out of sanctuary, without the breech of the sanctuary. And if my privilege could not serve him, nor he ask it for himself, yet since the law commits to me the custody of him, I may require it for him-unless the law give a child a guardian only for his goods and his lands, discharging him of the care and safekeeping of his body, for which only both lands and goods serve.

"And if examples be sufficient to obtain privilege for my child, I need not far to seek. For in this place in which we now be (and which is now in question whether my child may take benefit of it) mine other son, now King, was born and kept in his cradle and preserved to a more prosperous fortune, which I pray God long to continue. And as all you know, this is not the first time that I have taken sanctuary, for when my lord, my husband, was banished and thrust out of his kingdom, I fled hither being great with child, and here I bore the Prince. And when my lord, my husband, returned safe again and had the victory, then went I hence to welcome him home, and from hence I brought my babe the Prince unto his father, when he first took him in his arms. And I pray God that my son's palace may be as great safeguard to him now reigning, as this place was sometime to the King's enemy. In which place I intend to keep his brother.

"Wherefore here intend I to keep him because man's law serves the guardian to keep the infant. The law of nature wills the mother keep her child. God's law privileges the sanctuary, and the sanctuary my son, since I fear to put him in the Protector's (age 30) hands that has his brother already; and if both princes failed, the Protector (age 30) were inheritor to the crown. The cause of my fear has no man to do but examine. And yet fear I no further than the law fears, which, as learned men tell me, forbids every man the custody of them by whose death he may inherit less land than a kingdom. I can no more, but whosoever he be that breaks this holy sanctuary, I pray God shortly send him need of sanctuary, when he may not come to it. For taken out of sanctuary would I not my mortal enemy were."

The Lord Cardinal, perceiving that the Queen (age 46) grew ever longer the further off and also that she began to kindle and chafe and speak sore, biting words against the Protector (age 30), and such as he neither believed and was also loath to hear, he said unto her for a final conclusion that he would no longer dispute the matter. But if she were content to deliver the Duke to him and to the other lords there present, he dared lay his own body and soul both in pledge, not only for his safety but also for his estate. And if she would give them a resolute answer to the contrary, he would forthwith depart therewithal, and manage whosoever would with this business afterward; for he never intended more to move her in that matter in which she thought that he and all others, save herself, lacked either wit or truth-wit, if they were so dull that they could nothing perceive what the Protector (age 30) intended; truth, if they should procure her son to be delivered into his hands, in whom they should perceive toward the child any evil intended.

The Queen (age 46) with these words stood a good while in a great study. And forasmuch to her seemed the Cardinal more ready to depart than some of the remnant, and the Protector (age 30) himself ready at hand, so that she verily thought she could not keep him there, but that he should immediately be taken thence; and to convey him elsewhere, neither had she time to serve her, nor place determined, nor persons appointed, all things unready because this message came on her so suddenly, nothing less expecting than to have him fetched out of sanctuary, which she thought to be now beset in such places about that he could not be conveyed out untaken, and partly as she thought it might fortune her fear to be false, and so well she knew it was either needless or without remedy to resist; wherefore, if she should needs go from him, she thought it best to deliver him. And over that, of the Cardinal's faith she nothing doubted, nor of some other lords neither, whom she there saw, which as she feared lest they might be deceived, so was she well assured they would not be corrupted. Then thought she it should yet make them the more warily to look to him and the more circumspect to see to his safety, if she with her own hands gave him to them of trust. And at the last she took the young Duke by the hand, and said unto the lords:

"My Lord," said she, "and all my lords, I neither am so unwise to mistrust your wits, nor so suspicious to mistrust your truths. Of which thing I purpose to make you such a proof that, if either of both lacked in you, might turn both me to great sorrow, the realm to much harm, and you to great reproach. For, lo, here is," said she, "this gentleman, whom I doubt not but I could here keep safe if I would, whatsoever any man say. And I doubt not also but there be some abroad, so deadly enemies unto my blood, that if they knew where any of it lay in their own body, they would let it out.

"We have also had experience that the desire of a kingdom knows no kindred. The brother has been the brother's bane. And may the nephews be sure of their uncle? Each of these children is the other's defense while they be asunder, and each of their lives lies in the other's body. Keep one safe and both be sure, and nothing for them both more perilous than to be both in one place. For what wise merchant ventures all his goods in one ship?

"All this notwithstanding, here I deliver him and his brother in him-to keep into your hands-of whom I shall ask them both before God and the world. Faithful you be, that know I well, and I know well you be wise. Power and strength to keep him, if you wish, neither lack you of yourself, nor can lack help in this cause. And if you cannot elsewhere, then may you leave him here. But only one thing I beseech you for the trust that his father put in you ever, and for trust that I put in you now, that as far as you think that I fear too much, be you well wary that you fear not as far too little." And therewithal she said unto the child: "Farewell, my own sweet son. God send you good keeping. Let me kiss you once yet before you go, for God knows when we shall kiss together again." And therewith she kissed him, and blessed him, turned her back and wept

and went her way, leaving the child weeping as fast.

When the Lord Cardinal and these other lords with him had received this young duke, they brought him into the Star Chamber where the Protector (age 30) took him in his arms and kissed him with these words:

"Now welcome, my Lord, even with all my very heart." And he said in that of likelihood as he thought. Thereupon forthwith they brought him to the King, his brother, into the Bishop's Palace at Paul's, and from thence through the city honorably into the Tower, out of which after that day they never came abroad.

When the Protector (age 30) had both the children in his hands, he opened himself more boldly, both to certain other men, and also chiefly to the Duke of Buckingham, although I know that many thought that this Duke was privy to all the Protector's (age 30) counsel, even from the beginning.

And some of the Protector's (age 30) friends said that the Duke was the first mover of the Protector (age 30) to this matter, sending a private messenger unto him, straight after King Edward's death. But others again, who knew better the subtle cunning of the Protector (age 30), deny that he ever opened his enterprise to the Duke until he had brought to pass the things before rehearsed. But when he had imprisoned the Queen's (age 46) kinsfolks and gotten both her sons into his own hands, then he opened the rest of his purpose with less fear to them whom he thought meet for the matter, and specially to the Duke, who being won to his purpose, he thought his strength more than half increased.

The matter was broken unto the Duke by subtle folks, and such as were masters of their craft in the handling of such wicked devices, who declared unto him that the young king was offended with him for his kinsfolks' sakes, and that if he were ever able, he would revenge them, who would prick him forward thereunto if they escaped (for the Queen's (age 46) family would remember their imprisonment). Or else if his kinsfolk were put to death, without doubt the young king would be sorrowful for their deaths, whose imprisonment was grievous unto him. And that with repenting the Duke should nothing avail: for there was no way left to redeem his offense by benefits, but he should sooner destroy himself than save the King, who with his brother and his kinsfolks he saw in such places imprisoned, as the Protector (age 30) might with a nod destroy them all; and that it were no doubt but he would do it indeed, if there were any new enterprise attempted. And that it was likely that as the Protector (age 30) had provided private guard for himself, so had he spies for the Duke and traps to catch him if he should be against him, and that, perchance, from them whom he least suspected. The state of things and the dispositions of men were then such that a man could not well tell whom he might trust or whom he might fear. These things and such like, being beaten into the Duke's mind, brought him to that point where he had repented the way he had entered, yet would he go forth in the same; and since he had once begun, he would stoutly go through. And therefore to this wicked enterprise, which he believed could not be avoided, he bent himself and went through and determined that since the common mischief could not be amended, he would turn it as much as he might to his own advantage.

Then it was agreed that the Protector (age 30) should have the Duke's aid to make him king, and that the Protector's (age 30) only lawful son should marry the Duke's daughter, and that the Protector (age 30) should grant him the quiet possession of the Earldom of Hertford, which he claimed as his inheritance and could never obtain it in King Edward's time. Besides these requests of the Duke, the Protector (age 30) of his own mind promised him a great quantity of the King's treasure and of his household stuff. And when they were thus at a point between themselves, they went about to prepare for the coronation of the young king as they would have it seem. And that they might turn both the eyes and minds of men from perceiving their plans, the lords, being sent for from all parties of the realm, came thick to that solemnity.

But the Protector (age 30) and the Duke, after that, once they had set the Lord Cardinal, the Archbishop of York (then Lord Chancellor), the bishop of Ely (age 63), Lord Stanley, and Lord Hastings (age 52) (then Lord Chamberlain) with many other noble men to commune and devise about the coronation in one place, as fast were they in another place contriving the contrary, and to make the Protector (age 30) king. To which council, although there were admittedly very few, and they very secret, yet began there, here and there about, some manner of muttering among the people, as though all should not long be well, though they neither knew what they feared nor wherefore: Were it that before such great things, men's hearts of a secret instinct of nature misgives them, as the sea without wind swells of itself sometime before a tempest; or were it that some one man haply somewhat perceiving, filled many men with suspicion, though he showed few men what he knew. However, somewhat the dealing itself made men to muse on the matter, though the council was closed. For little by little all folk withdrew from the Tower and drew to Crosby's Place in Bishopsgate Street where the Protector (age 30) kept his household. The Protector (age 30) had the people appealing to him; the King was in manner alone. While some for their business made suit to them that had the doing, some were by their friends secretly warned that it might haply turn them to no good to be too much attendant about the King without the Protector's (age 30) appointment, who removed also many of the Prince's old servants from him, and set new ones about him. Thus many things coming together-partly by chance, partly by purpose-caused at length not only common people who wave with the wind, but also wise men and some lords as well, to mark the matter and muse thereon, so far forth that the Lord Stanley, who was afterwards Earl of Darby, wisely mistrusted it and said unto the Lord Hastings (age 52) that he much disliked these two several councils.

"For while we," said he, "talk of one matter in the one place, little know we whereof they talk in the other place."

"My Lord," said the Lord Hastings (age 52), "on my life, never doubt you. For while one man is there who is never thence, never can there be things once minded that should sound amiss toward me, but it should be in mine ears before it were well out of their mouths."

This meant he by Catesby, who was of his near secret counsel and whom he very familiarly used, and in his most weighty matters put no man in so special trust, reckoning himself to no man so dear, since he well knew there was no man to him so much beholden as was this Catesby, who was a man well learned in the laws of this land, and by the special favor of the Lord Chamberlain in good authority and much rule bore in all the county of Leicester where the Lord Chamberlain's power chiefly lay. But surely great pity was it that he had not had either more truth or less wit. For his dissimulation alone kept all that mischief up. If the Lord Hastings (age 52) had not put so special trust in Catesby, the Lord Stanley and he had departed with diverse other lords and broken all the dance, for many ill signs that he saw, which he now construed all to the best, so surely thought he there could be none harm toward him in that council intended where Catesby was. And of truth the Protector (age 30) and the Duke of Buckingham made very good semblance unto the Lord Hastings (age 52) and kept him much in company. And undoubtedly the Protector (age 30) loved him well and loath was to have lost him, saving for fear lest his life should have quelled their purpose. For which cause he moved Catesby to prove with some words cast out afar off, whether he could think it possible to win the Lord Hastings (age 52) to their part. But Catesby, whether he tried him or questioned him not, reported unto them that he found him so fast and heard him speak so terrible words that he dared no further say. And of truth the Lord Chamberlain, with great trust, showed unto Catesby the mistrust that others began to have in the matter.

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [his father] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace [Map]. He was created Duke Albany.

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 4) was created 1st Duke York and Knight of the Bath by his father [his grandfather] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 38)

Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland (age 27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset (age 26) was @@appointed Knight of the Bath.

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.

James Wriothesley (age 11), brothers Robert Howard (age 32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley (age 15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland (age 41) and John Cavendish were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 [his grandfather] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 58) died at Theobalds House, Hertfordshire. His son [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. Duke York merged with the Crown.

On 14 Oct 1633 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 23) at St James's Palace [Map]. He was created 1st Duke York at birth by his father.

In 1642 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 8) was appointed 439th Knight of the Garter by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [his father] Charles I (age 48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map]. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Sep 1649. The King (age 19) invited the Prince of Condé (age 28) to supper at St. Cloud; there I kissed the Duke of York's (age 15) hand in the tennis court, where I saw a famous match between Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke, and so returned to Paris. It was noised about that I was knighted, a dignity I often declined.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1651. I was shown a collection of books and prints made for the Duke of York (age 17).

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Dec 1651. The King (age 21) and Duke (age 18) received the Sacrament first by themselves, the Lords Byron (age 52) and Wilmot (age 39) holding the long towel all along the altar.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Jan 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (age 28) (since secretary to the Duke (age 23)), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely (age 71), now a prisoner in the Tower [Map]; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1660. Addressing myself to the Duke (age 26), I was carried to his Majesty (age 30), when very few noblemen were with him, and kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne (age 55), who came not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which time he kept up in his chapel the Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his no small honor, and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Papists and Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation.

On 03 Sep 1660 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) were married in secret. She by marriage Duchess York. She gave birth to their son Charles Stewart seven weeks later. She the daughter of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 51) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 43). He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 50).

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the [his mother] Queen-Mother (age 50), to break the marriage of the Duke (age 26) with the [his wife] daughter (age 23) of [his father-in-law] Chancellor Hyde (age 51). The Queen (age 50) would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's (age 51) to befriend the Queen (age 50), who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs go through his hands.

On 22 Oct 1660 [his son] Charles Stewart was born to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) at Worcester House Worcester Park Sutton, Surrey.

In 1661 Captain George Batts was appointed Captain of The Little Gift by James, Duke of York (age 27).

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 [his brother] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rode from the Tower of London [Map] to Whitehall Palace [Map]. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".

Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street [Map], that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.

At the Conduit in Cornhill [Map] a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.

The procession included the Duke of York (age 27), the Lord High Constable (age 58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (age 53).

The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Oct 1661. I sailed this morning with his Majesty (age 31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (age 31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's (age 27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich, Kent [Map] to Gravesend, Kent [Map] and back. The King (age 31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (age 31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (age 31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (age 31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (age 36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (age 31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (age 31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower [Map], Sir William Compton (age 36), Sir Charles Berkeley (age 31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (age 31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Dec 1661. I had much discourse with the Duke of York (age 28), concerning strange cures he affirmed of a woman who swallowed a whole ear of barley, which worked out at her side. I told him of the KNIFE SWALLOWED and the pins.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Dec 1661. I heard an Italian play and sing to the guitar with extraordinary skill before the Duke (age 28).

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1662. At St. James's chapel preached, or rather harangued, the famous orator, Monsieur Morus, in French. There were present the King (age 31), Duke (age 28), French Ambassador, Lord Aubigny (age 42), Earl of Bristol (age 49), and a world of Roman Catholics, drawn thither to hear this eloquent Protestant.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jan 1662. Having notice of the Duke of York's (age 28) intention to visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, when he was pleased to do me that honor of his own accord, and to stay some time viewing such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward he caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, and to sit with him covered at the same table. There were his Highness (age 28), the Duke of Ormond (age 51), and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds about a project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp (age 63). After this, I accompanied the Duke (age 28) to an East India vessel that lay at Blackwall [Map], where we had entertainment of several curiosities. Among other spirituous drinks, as punch, etc., they gave us Canary that had been carried to and brought from the Indies, which was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London with his Highness (age 28). This night was acted before his Majesty (age 31) "The Widow", a lewd play.

On 30 Apr 1662 [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland was born to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 28) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 25) at St James's Palace [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jan 1663. I saw a ball again at Court, danced by the King (age 32), the Duke (age 29), and ladies, in great pomp.

On 12 Jul 1663 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge was born to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 26) at St James's Palace [Map].

Calendars. 13 Nov 1664. 93. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet (age 46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes, Isle of Wight by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King's pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal, Kent [Map] should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to 'take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (age 31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King's ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (age 49) and Sir William Berkeley to his own, Mennes (age 65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert's (age 44), Sir George Aiscue (age 48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King's declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

In 1665 John Denham (age 50) and Margaret Brooke Lady Denham (age 25) were married. She, thereafter, conducted a very public affair with the future King James II (age 31). To her husband's mortification, she insisted on being acknowledged publicly as a Royal mistress, saying that she would not, unlike her predecessor Goditha Price "go up and down the back stairs". The difference in their ages was 25 years.

In 1665 Henry Savile (age 23) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York (age 31).

Around 1665 Arabella Churchill (age 15) became the mistress of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31).

Battle of Lowestoft

In 1665 Henry Brouncker 3rd Viscount Brounckner (age 38) was elected MP New Romney which seat he held until 21 Apr 1668 when he was expelled from the House of Commons when charges were brought against him, for allowing the Dutch fleet to escape during the Battle of Lowestoft, and for ordering the sails of the English fleet to be slackened in the name of the Duke of York (age 31). This was essentially an act of treason. Such a military decision, taken without the Duke's (age 31) authority, was an incident seemingly without parallel, especially as his apparent motive was simply that he was fatigued with the stress and noise of the battle.

On 03 Jun 1665 at the Battle of Lowestoft an English fleet commanded by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 45) and Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 39) defeated a Dutch Fleet.

Richard Boyle was killed.

Charles Maccarthy Viscount Muskerry was killed.

Charles Berkeley 1st Earl Falmouth (age 35) was killed by a cannonball aboard the Royal Charles. Earl Falmouth extinct, Baron Botetourt Langport in Somerset extinct. His father Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 65) succeeded 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Penelope Godolphin Viscountess Fitzhardinge by marriage Viscountess Fitzhardinge of Berehaven in Kerry. Possibly the only occasion when a father has succeeded his son.

Charles Weston 3rd Earl of Portland (age 26) was killed by a cannon shot. On 13 Jun 1665 His uncle Thomas Weston 4th Earl of Portland (age 55) succeeded 4th Earl of Portland.

Thomas Allin 1st Baronet (age 53) was present.

Admiral Jeremy Smith commanded the Mary.

Captain George Batts fought. He was assigned to Sir George Ayscue's (age 49) division in the Blue Squadron.

James Ley 3rd Earl Marlborough (age 47) was killed at the Battle of Lowestoft commanding Old James attempting to recover a captured ship. His half brother William Ley 4th Earl Marlborough (age 53) succeeded 4th Earl Marlborough.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. Came news of his highness's (age 35) victory, which indeed might have been a complete one, and at once ended the war, had it been pursued, but the cowardice of some, or treachery, or both, frustrated that. We had, however, bonfires, bells, and rejoicing in the city. Next day, the 9th, I had instant orders to repair to the Downs, so as I got to Rochester, Kent [Map] this evening. Next day I lay at Deal, Kent [Map], where I found all in readiness: but, the fleet being hindered by contrary winds, I came away on the 12th, and went to Dover, Kent [Map], and returned to Deal, Kent [Map]; and on the 13th, hearing the fleet was at Solbay, I went homeward, and lay at Chatham, Kent [Map], and on the 14th, I got home. On the 15th, came the eldest son of the present Secretary of State to the French King, with much other company, to dine with me. After dinner, I went with him to London, to speak to my Lord General for more guards, and gave his Majesty (age 35) an account of my journey to the coasts under my inspection. I also waited on his Royal Highness (age 31), now come triumphant from the fleet, gotten into repair. See the whole history of this conflict in my "History of the Dutch War"..

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. The Duke of York (age 31) told us that, when we were in fight, his dog sought out absolutely the very securest place in all the vessel. In the afternoon, I saw the pompous reception and audience of El Conde de Molino, the Spanish Ambassador, in the Banqueting-house [Map], both their Majesties [Note. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 26)] sitting together under the canopy of state.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. To Chatham, Kent [Map]; and, 1st July, to the fleet with Lord Sandwich (age 39), now Admiral, with whom I went in a pinnace to the Buoy of the Nore, where the whole fleet rode at anchor; went on board the Prince, of ninety brass ordnance, haply the best ship in the world, both for building and sailing; she had 700 men. They made a great huzza, or shout, at our approach, three times. Here we dined with many noblemen, gentlemen, and volunteers, served in plate and excellent meat of all sorts. After dinner, came his Majesty, the Duke (age 31), and Prince Rupert (age 45). Here I saw the King (age 35) knight Captain Custance for behaving so bravely in the late fight. It was surprising to behold the good order, decency, and plenty of all things in a vessel so full of men. The ship received a hundred cannon shot in her body. Then I went on board the Charles, to which after a gun was shot off, came all the flag officers to his Majesty (age 35), who there held a General Council, which determined that his Royal Highness (age 35) should adventure himself no more this summer. I came away late, having seen the most glorious fleet that ever spread sails. We returned in his Majesty's (age 35) yacht with my Lord Sandwich (age 39) and Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, landing at Chatham, Kent [Map] on Sunday morning.

Grammont. Sir George Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, was the confidant and favourite of the King: he commanded the Duke of York's regiment of guards, and governed the Duke himself. He had nothing very remarkable either in his wit, or his person; but his sentiments were worthy of the fortune which awaited him, when, on the very point of his elevation, he was killed at sea. Never did disinterestedness so perfectly characterise the greatness of the soul: he had no views but what tended to the glory of his master: his credit was never employed but in advising him to reward services, or to confer favours on merit: so polished in conversation, that the greater his power, the greater was his humility; and so sincere in all his proceedings, that he would never have been taken for a courtier.

On 06 Feb 1665 [his daughter] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland was born to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 27) at St James's Palace [Map] at 11:39pm being their fourth child and second daughter. She was baptised Anglican in the Chapel Royal with her elder sister [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 2) being Godparent as well as Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 13) and Archbishop Gilbert Sheldon (age 66).

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall [Map], to the King (age 34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (age 31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (age 34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (age 47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my [his father-in-law] Lord Chancellor's (age 56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (age 69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

Calendars. 13 Jun 1665. Royal Charles. Southwold Bay [Map]. 7. Sir William Coventry (age 37) to Lord Arlington (age 47). The sea there causing delay in refitting the ships, some are to be sent to Ousley Bay, the Rolling Grounds, Harwich [Map], and the buoy of the Nore, to be in smoother water. The Duke (age 31) is sailing for London. Capt. Holmes asked to be rear-admiral of the white squadron, in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke (age 31) gave the place to Capt. Harman (age 40), on which Holmes delivered up his commission, which the Duke (age 31) received, and put Capt. Langhorne in his stead. [2 pages.]

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jun 1665. This evening making my court to the Duke (age 31), I spake to Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, and his Highness (age 31) granted me six prisoners, Embdeners, who were desirous to go to the Barbadoes with a merchant.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. His royal highness (age 31) and his [his wife] duchess (age 28) came down to York, where they stayed till September the 23rd, when the Duke (age 31) went for Oxford, where the [his brother] King (age 35) was to meet the Parliament. The Duchess (age 28) went not till some time after. Most of the gentry attended at York whilst their liighnesses were there. The Duke passed his time in shooting and other exercises, the Duchess (age 28) in receiving the ladies, which she did very obligingly. One evening having a little snake (which I kept in bran in a box) in my hand as I was in the presence, one of the maids of honour seeing of it was frightened. The Duchess (age 28), hearing the noise, and what was the occasion, desired to see the snake, and took it into her hand without any fear. This Duchess (age 28) was [his father-in-law] Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess (age 28) not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. The [his wife] Duchess (age 28) in her return lay at Welbeck [Map], the old Duke of Newcastle (age 72) being alive, where she was splendidly entertained, the Duke of York (age 31) having directed that the same respect should be paid her wherever she passed as if he were present. The Duke of Buckingham (age 37) and my Lord Ogle (age 35) had a quarrel there.

On 03 Sep 1665 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 28) were married again since there first marriage had taken place in secret.

Around 1666 Peter Lely (age 47). Portrait of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 28). See Samuel Pepys' Diary 1666 March 24.

Four Days' Battle

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. The solemn Fast-day. Dr. Meggot preached an excellent discourse before the King (age 36) on the terrors of God's judgments. After sermon, I waited on my Lord Archbishop of Canterbury (age 49) and Bishop of Winchester (age 47), where the Dean of Westminster (age 31) spoke to me about putting into my hands the disposal of fifty pounds, which the charitable people of Oxford had sent to be distributed among the sick and wounded seamen since the battle. Hence, I went to the Lord Chancellor's (age 57) to joy him of his Royal Highness's (age 32) second [his son] son, now born at St. James's [Map]; and to desire the use of the Star-chamber for our Commissioners to meet in, Painters' Hall, Queenhithe not being so convenient.

On 04 Jul 1666 [his son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal was born to James Duke of York (age 32) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 29) at St James's Palace [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1666. Thursday. I represented to his Majesty (age 36) the case of the French prisoners at war in my custody, and besought him that there might be still the same care of watching at all places contiguous to unseized houses. It is not indeed imaginable how extraordinary the vigilance and activity of the King (age 36) and the Duke (age 32) was, even laboring in person, and being present to command, order, reward, or encourage workmen; by which he showed his affection to his people, and gained theirs. Having, then, disposed of some under cure at the Savoy, I returned to Whitehall [Map], where I dined at Mr. Offley's [Note. Not clear who Mr Offley is? John Evelyn's (age 45) brother George Evelyn of Wotton (age 49) was married to Mary Offley], the groom-porter, who was my relation.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Sep 1666. I presented his Majesty (age 36) with a survey of the ruins, and a plot for a new city, with a discourse on it; whereupon, after dinner, his Majesty (age 36) sent for me into the Queen's (age 27) bed-chamber, her Majesty (age 27) and the Duke (age 32) only being present. They examined each particular, and discoursed on them for near an hour, seeming to be extremely pleased with what I had so early thought on. The Queen (age 27) was now in her cavalier riding-habit, hat and feather, and horseman's coat, going to take the air.

St James' Day Battle

Calendars. 27 Oct 1666. Whitehall. 62. H. Muddiman to Sir Edward Stradling, St. Donat's Castle, Glamorganshire. The sickness is abating, 8 only have died of it at Plymouth, 8 at Sarum, decrease 17, one or two at Ips- wich, and 8 at Norwich. The English are said to have been forced from the Canaries, leaving their estates in the hands of Spaniards. The Commissioners for payment of seamen daily pay off great numbers who are discharged from winter service, and bring their tickets with them, and the rest are ordered by beat of drum to repair aboard. The planting of hemp is much enconraged. The Commons have answered the Lords' reasons about importing French commodities, and are settling supplies. Sir Jeremy Smith has got as much credit by his late examination as his enemies wished him disgrace, the [his brother] King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) being fully satisfied of his valour in the engagement. It appears that he had 147 men killed and wounded, while the most eminent of his accusers had but two or three. Peter Ceely of Cornwall, secured on suspicion of fanaticism, refused the liberty offered him if he would give security to the deputy lieutenants. The King has ordered a proclamation in Scotland for a convocation, which differs from a parliament in that it can levy money, but makes no laws. News from Germany, Brandenburg, Holland, and Munster. Sir Rich. Browne has brought into the House of Commons knives broad and sharp, able to pierce armour, of which 300 were found in the rubbish of a house where two Frenchmen lived; they can be guessed of no use but to massacre. A proclamation and other measures are proposed, for repressing the insolencies of the Papists. [8 pages.]

On 03 Dec 1666 [his son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge (age 3) was created 1st Duke Cambridge by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 33). See Samuel Pepys' Diary 1666 December 06.

Those present included [his brother] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 36), King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 33), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 46), William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury (age 75), George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 57), Thomas Howard 1st Earl Berkshire (age 79), Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond (age 27), Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester (age 64), James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 17).

In 1667 [his brother] King Chales II (age 36), his brother James (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 47) and James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 17) dined with Richard Neville (age 51) at Billingbear House Waltham St Lawrence.

In 1667 [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle was born to James Duke of York (age 33) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 29).

On 06 Jan 1667 Margaret Brooke Lady Denham (age 27) died. She was rumoured to have been poisoned by her husband John Denham (age 52) by giving her a poisoned cup of chocolate. In any case rumour named several other possible poisoners, including her former lover James (age 33), his wife [his wife] Anne Hyde (age 29) and his sister-in-law, Lady Rochester (age 21).

1667 Raid on the Medway

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1667. To London, alarmed by the Dutch, who were fallen on our fleet at Chatham, Kent [Map], by a most audacious enterprise, entering the very river with part of their fleet, doing us not only disgrace, but incredible mischief in burning several of our best men-of-war lying at anchor and moored there, and all this through our unaccountable negligence in not setting out our fleet in due time. This alarm caused me, fearing the enemy might venture up the Thames even to London (which they might have done with ease, and fired all the vessels in the river, too), to send away my best goods, plate, etc., from my house to another place. The alarm was so great that it put both country and city into fear, panic, and consternation, such as I hope I shall never see more; everybody was flying, none knew why or whither. Now, there were land forces dispatched with the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Lord Middleton (age 59), Prince Rupert (age 47), and the Duke (age 33), to hinder the Dutch coming to Chatham, Kent [Map], fortifying Upnor Castle, Kent [Map], and laying chains and bombs; but the resolute enemy broke through all, and set fire on our ships, and retreated in spite, stopping up the Thames, the rest of the fleet lying before the mouth of it.

On 15 Sep 1667 [his son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge was born to James Duke of York (age 33) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 30).

Evelyn's Diary. 13 May 1668. Invited by that expert commander, Captain Cox, master of the lately built "Charles II" now the best vessel of the fleet, designed for the Duke of York (age 34), I went to Erith, where we had a great dinner.

On 10 Sep 1669 [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 59) died.

After 1670. Daubigny Turberville (age 58) went to Wayford and married, but had no children. He began practice at Wayford and Crookhorn (Crewkerne), but got so busy that he moved to London. The city air not suiting him he finally settled in Salisbury; "thence he made several journeys to London. Once he was sent for by the [his wife] Dutchess of York (age 32) to cure the [his daughter] Princess of Denmnark (age 4) (Queen Anne), then a child, labouring under a dangerous inflammation in her eyes, and a breaking out in her face the cure for which had been attempted in vain by the Court fysicians." These despised Turberville, looking on him as a country quack. He had a quarrel with them, refused to meet them in consultation and won the day. The Duke (age 36) and Duchess (age 32) asked him to undertake the case, which he did successfully. The Duke ordered him a fee of £600, but he appears to have received only half that amount. "Many years afterwards he was called up again by one of the greatest and ancientest Peers of this Kingdom. to whom, after having attentively inspected his eye, he spoke after this manner: 'My Lord, I might bear you in hand,' a western frase, signifying to delay or keep in expectation, 'and feed you with promises, or at least hopes, that 1 should cure vou in some competent time, and so cause your Lordship to be at great expence to no purpose; I cannot cure you, and I believe no man in England can.' The Earl answered, 'Such and such will undertake it for a hundred pounds.' To which the doctor replied, 'I have so great an honour for your Lordship, and so much wish for your welfare, that I will joyfully give a hundred guineas out of my own purse to the person who shall restore your sight in that eye. I confess I am not able to cure it, but I can reduce it to a better figure.' Source. THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY SEPTEMBER, 1926.

On 21 Aug 1670 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick was born illegitimately to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 36) and Arabella Churchill (age 21).

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Aug 1670. One of the Canons preached; then followed the offering of the Knights of the Order, according to custom; first the poor Knights, in procession, then, the Canons in their formalities, the Dean and Chancellor, then his Majesty (age 40) (the Sovereign), the Duke of York (age 36), Prince Rupert (age 50); and, lastly, the Earl of Oxford (age 43), being all the Knights that were then at Court.

On 09 Feb 1671 [his daughter] Catherine Stewart was born to James Duke of York (age 37) and [his wife] Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 33). She was baptised by Bishop Nathaniel Crew 3rd Baron Crew (age 38).

On 31 Mar 1671 [his wife] Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 34) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Sep 1671. During my stay here with Lord Arlington (age 53), near a fortnight, his Majesty (age 41) came almost every second day with the Duke (age 37), who commonly returned to Newmarket, Suffolk, but the King (age 41) often lay here, during which time I had twice the honor to sit at dinner with him, with all freedom. It was universally reported that the fair lady -- [Note. Probably Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 22)], was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung, after the manner of a married bride; I acknowledge she was for the most part in her undress all day, and that there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it is utterly false; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing while I was there, though I had been in her chamber, and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss, as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at this time.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Sep 1671. On Sunday, a young Cambridge divine preached an excellent sermon in the chapel, the King (age 41) and the Duke of York (age 37) being present.

On 05 Dec 1671 [his daughter] Catherine Stewart died.

Around 1672 Henri Gascar (age 37). Portrait of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 38).

Evelyn's Diary. 10 May 1672. I was ordered, by letter from the Council, to repair forthwith to his Majesty (age 41), whom I found in the Pall-Mall [Map], in St. James's Park, where his Majesty (age 41) coming to me from the company, commanded me to go immediately to the seacoast, and to observe the motion of the Dutch fleet and ours, the Duke (age 38) and so many of the flower of our nation being now under sail, coming from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], through the Downs, where it was believed there might be an encounter.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1672. To Dover, Kent [Map]; but the fleet did not appear till the 16th, when the Duke of York (age 38) with his and the French squadron, in all 170 ships (of which above 100 were men-of-war), sailed by, after the Dutch, who were newly withdrawn. Such a gallant and formidable navy never, I think, spread sail upon the seas. It was a goodly yet terrible sight, to behold them as I did, passing eastward by the straits between Dover and Calais in a glorious day. The wind was yet so high, that I could not well go aboard, and they were soon got out of sight. The next day, having visited our prisoners and the Castle, and saluted the Governor, I took horse for Margate, Kent [Map]. Here, from the North Foreland Lighthouse top (which is a pharos, built of brick, and having on the top a cradle of iron, in which a man attends a great sea-coal fire all the year long, when the nights are dark, for the safeguard of sailors), we could see our fleet as they lay at anchor. The next morning, they weighed, and sailed out of sight to the N. E.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1672. At Sheerness [Map], I gave his Majesty (age 42) and his Royal Highness (age 38) an account of my charge, and returned to Queenborough [Map]; next day dined at Major Dorel's, Governor of Sheerness; thence, to Rochester, Kent [Map]; and the following day, home.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1672. Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore", where I met his Majesty (age 42), the Duke (age 38), Lord Arlington (age 54), and all the great men, in the "Charles", lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich (deceased) redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1672. Sir James Hayes (age 35), Secretary to Prince Rupert (age 52), dined with me; after dinner I was sent to Gravesend, Kent [Map] to dispose of no fewer than 800 sick men. That night I got to the fleet at the Buoy of the Nore, where I spoke with the King (age 42) and the Duke (age 38); and, after dinner next day, returned to Gravesend, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Mar 1673. At the sermon coram Rege, preached by Dr. Sparrow (age 61), Bishop of Exeter, to a most crowded auditory; I stayed to see whether, according to custom, the Duke of York (age 39) received the Communion with the King (age 42); but he did not, to the amazement of everybody. This being the second year he had forborne, and put it off, and within a day of the Parliament sitting, who had lately made so severe an Act against the increase of Popery, gave exceeding grief and scandal to the whole nation, that the heir of it, and the son of a martyr for the Protestant religion, should apostatize. What the consequence of this will be, God only knows, and wise men dread.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1673. My son (age 18) was made a younger brother of the Trinity House. The new master was Sir J. Smith, one of the Commissioners of the Navy, a stout seaman, who had interposed and saved the Duke (age 39) from perishing by a fire ship in the late war.

1673 Test Act

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1673. I went to Tunbridge Wells, Kent [Map], to visit my Lord Clifford (age 42), late Lord Treasurer, who was there to divert his mind more than his body; it was believed that he had so engaged himself to the Duke (age 39), that rather than take the Test, without which he was not capable of holding any office, he would resign that great and honorable station. This, I am confident, grieved him to the heart, and at last broke it; for, though he carried with him music, and people to divert him, and, when I came to see him, lodged me in his own apartment, and would not let me go from him, I found he was struggling in his mind; and being of a rough and ambitious nature, he could not long brook the necessity he had brought on himself, of submission to this conjuncture. Besides, he saw the Dutch war, which was made much by his advice, as well as the shutting up of the Exchequer, very unprosperous. These things his high spirit could not support. Having stayed here two or three days, I obtained leave of my Lord to return.

In Aug 1673 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzjames 1st Duke Albemarle was born illegitimately to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Arabella Churchill (age 24) at St James' Square.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (age 43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge [Map], and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War", with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (age 55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (age 55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty (age 43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (age 43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (age 55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (age 43) that Lord Arlington (age 55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (age 55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (age 43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (age 43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (age 43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (age 55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (age 39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (age 43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.

On 20 Sep 1673 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 14) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1673. This night the youths of the city burned the Pope in effigy, after they had made procession with it in great triumph, they being displeased at the Duke (age 40) for altering his religion and marrying an [his wife] Italian lady (age 15).

In 1674 [his illegitimate daughter] Arabella Fitzjames was born illegitimately to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Arabella Churchill (age 24).

Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely (age 55). Portrait of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) wearing his Garter Robes.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jul 1674. I went to Windsor [Map] with my wife (age 39) and son (age 19) to see my daughter Mary (age 9), who was there with my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his Majesty (age 44). Next day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's (age 52) at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor, in the Forest; there were his Majesty (age 44), the Queen (age 35), Duke (age 40), [his wife] Duchess (age 15), and all the Court. I returned in the evening with Sir Joseph Williamson (age 40), now declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College, Oxford, of which he came to be a fellow; then traveled with ... and returning when the King (age 44) was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr. Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (age 56) (now Lord Arlington) succeeding, Williamson is transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business (though sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to his man Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) there was a kind of necessity to advance him; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of this obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their original. Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at Jeu de Goblets, exceedingly formal, a severe master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord O'Brien (age 32), that after a few months of that gentleman's death, he married his widow (age 34), who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Richmond, brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they lived not so kindly after marriage as they did before. She was much censured for marrying so meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Aug 1674. In one of the meadows at the foot of the long Terrace below the Windsor Castle [Map], works were thrown up to show the King (age 44) a representation of the city of Maestricht, newly taken by the French. Bastians, bulwarks, ramparts, palisadoes, graffs, horn-works, counter-scarps, etc., were constructed. It was attacked by the Duke of Monmouth (age 25) (newly come from the real siege) and the Duke of York (age 40), with a little army, to show their skill in tactics. On Saturday night they made their approaches, opened trenches, raised batteries, took the counter-scarp and ravelin, after a stout defense; great guns fired on both sides, grenadoes shot, mines sprung, parties sent out, attempts of raising the siege, prisoners taken, parleys; and, in short, all the circumstances of a formal siege, to appearance, and, what is most strange all without disorder, or ill accident, to the great satisfaction of a thousand spectators. Being night, it made a formidable show. The siege being over, I went with Mr. Pepys (age 41) back to London, where we arrived about three in the morning.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1674. Was at the repetition of the "Pastoral", on which occasion Mrs. Blagg (age 22) had about her near £20,000 worth of jewels, of which she lost one worth about £80, borrowed of the Countess of Suffolk (age 52). The press was so great, that it is a wonder she lost no more. The Duke (age 41) made it good.

On 10 Jan 1675 [his daughter] Catherine Laura Stewart was born to James Duke of York (age 41) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Duchess of York (age 16).

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jul 1675. In this journey, went part of the way Mr. James Graham (age 26) (since Privy Purse to the Duke (age 41)), a young gentleman exceedingly in love with Mrs. Dorothy Howard (age 24), one of the maids of honor in our company. I could not but pity them both, the mother not much favoring it. This lady was not only a great beauty, but a most virtuous and excellent creature, and worthy to have been wife to the best of men. My advice was required, and I spoke to the advantage of the young gentleman, more out of pity than that she deserved no better match; for, though he was a gentleman of good family, yet there was great inequality.

On 03 Oct 1675 [his daughter] Catherine Laura Stewart died of convulsions.

Before 1676 Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 18) became the mistress of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Mar 1676. Dr. North (age 30), son of my Lord North (age 74), preached before the King (age 45), on Isaiah liii. 57, a very young but learned and excellent person. Note. This was the first time the Duke (age 42) appeared no more in chapel, to the infinite grief and threatened ruin of this poor nation.

Treaty of Nimeguen

Evelyn's Diary. 07 May 1676. I spoke to the Duke of York (age 42) about my Lord Berkeley's (age 74) going to Nimeguen. Thence, to the Queen's Council at Somerset House [Map], about Mrs. Godolphin's (age 23) lease of Spalding [Map], in Lincolnshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1676. In the afternoon, after prayers at St. James's Chapel, was christened a daughter of Dr. Leake's (age 34), the Duke's (age 42) Chaplain: godmothers were [his daughter] Lady Mary (age 14), daughter of the Duke of York (age 42), and the Duchess of Monmouth (age 25): godfather, the Earl of Bath (age 47).

On 28 Aug 1676 [his daughter] Isabel Stewart was born to James Duke of York (age 42) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Duchess of York (age 17).

Before 1677 Barbara Villiers Viscountess Fitzhardinge (age 23) became a Maid of Honour to the daughters of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43): [his daughter] Princess Mary (age 14) and [his daughter] Princess Anne (age 11) and possibly others.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1677. Saw again the [his future son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 26); his marriage with the [his daughter] Lady Mary (age 15), eldest daughter to the Duke of York (age 44), by [his former wife] Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared.

Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

On 04 Nov 1677 [his son-in-law] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) were married. She by marriage Princess Orange. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England. They were first cousins. He a grandson of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

On 07 Nov 1677 [his son] Charles Stewart was born to James Duke of York (age 44) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Duchess of York (age 19). He lived for five weeks.

On 12 Dec 1677 [his son] Charles Stewart died of smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Apr 1679. The Duke of York (age 45), voted against by the Commons for his recusancy, went over to Flanders; which made much discourse.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jul 1679. Now were there papers, speeches, and libels, publicly cried in the streets against the Dukes of York (age 45) and Lauderdale (age 63), etc., obnoxious to the Parliament, with too much and indeed too shameful a liberty; but the people and Parliament had gotten head by reason of the vices of the great ones.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Sep 1679. To Windsor [Map], to congratulate his Majesty (age 49) on his recovery; I kissed the Duke's (age 45) hand, now lately returned from Flanders to visit his brother the King (age 49), on which there were various bold and foolish discourses, the Duke of Monmouth (age 30) being sent away.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1679. Came over the Duke of Monmouth (age 30) from Holland unexpectedly to his Majesty (age 49); while the Duke of York (age 46) was on his journey to Scotland, whither the King (age 49) sent him to reside and govern. The bells and bonfires of the city at this arrival of the Duke of Monmouth (age 30) publishing their joy, to the no small regret of some at Court. This Duke (age 30), whom for distinction they called the Protestant Duke (though the son of an abandoned woman), the people made their idol.

In 1680 [his illegitimate daughter] Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby was born illegitimately to James Duke of York (age 46) and Catherine Sedley (age 22).

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1680. A solemn public Fast that God would prevent all Popish plots, avert his judgments, and give a blessing to the proceedings of Parliament now assembled, and which struck at the succession of the Duke of York (age 47).

On 04 Mar 1681 [his daughter] Isabel Stewart (age 4) died.

Sinking of the Gloucester

On 03 May 1682 the Duke of York (age 48) and his retinue including John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough (age 31) and George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 35) were seen off on their journey north by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland from Margate Roads, Kent [Map]. James (age 48) was possibly travelling to Edinburgh to collect his six months pregnant wife [his wife] Mary of Modena (age 23) to ensure their child was born in England.

On 06 May 1682 The Gloucester sank during a strong gale when it struck a sandbank twenty-eight miles off Great Yarmouth, Norfolk [Map] on a journey from Portsmouth to Edinburgh. Of the estimated 330 people on board it is believed between 130 and 250 sailors and passengers perished.

The Duke of York (age 48) [the future King James II] and John Churchill 1st Duke Marlborough (age 31) were rescued in the ship's boat.

Robert Ker 3rd Earl Roxburghe (age 24) drowned. His son Robert Ker 4th Earl Roxburghe (age 5) succeeded 4th Earl Roxburghe.

John Hope of Hopetoun drowned. He gave up his seat in a lifeboat to the future King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) for which his son was rewarded with an Earldom twenty-one years later when he came of age.

Richard Hill drowned.

The pilot James Ayres was blamed for the disaster. The Duke of York (age 48) wished him to be hanged immediately. He was court-martialled and imprisoned.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1682. The Duke (age 48) and King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) and [his wife] Duchess of York (age 23) were just now come to London, after his escape and shipwreck, as he went by sea for Scotland.

On 15 Apr 1703 Charles Hope 1st Earl Hopetoun (age 22) was created 1st Earl Hopetoun by [his daughter] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 38) in recognitions of his father having given up his seat in a lifeboat to the Duke of York during the Sinking of the Gloucester; his father subsequently drowned.

On 16 Aug 1682 [his daughter] Charlotte Maria was born to James Duke of York (age 48) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Duchess of York (age 23). He lived for two months.

On 16 Oct 1682 [his daughter] Charlotte Maria died.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Feb 1683. I made my court at St. James's [Map], when I saw the sea charts of Captain Collins (age 40), which that industrious man now brought to show the Duke (age 49), having taken all the coasting from the mouth of the Thames, as far as Wales, and exactly measuring every creek, island, rock, soundings, harbors, sands, and tides, intending next spring to proceed till he had finished the whole island, and that measured by chains and other instruments: a most exact and useful undertaking. He affirmed, that of all the maps put out since, there are none extant so true as those of Joseph Norden, who gave us the first in Queen Elizabeth's time; all since him are erroneous.

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate [his brother] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52) and his brother King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49) as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket, Suffolk on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket, Suffolk on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden [Map], the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (age 51) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower [Map], and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (age 43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (age 51) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King (age 53). It is certain the King (age 53) and Duke (age 49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (age 51) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jun 1683. The Lord Dartmouth (age 10) was elected Master of the Trinity House; son to George Legge (age 36), late Master of the Ordnance, and one of the grooms of the bedchamber; a great favorite of the Duke's (age 49), an active and understanding gentleman in sea affairs.

Popish Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (age 53) and the Duke (age 49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower [Map], the Lord Russell (age 43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (age 66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (age 34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (age 53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (age 60) and Russell (age 43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (age 53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!

In 1685, following his accession, King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) had Titus Oates (age 35) retried. He was found guilty of perjury on two separate indictments.

His sentence read ... First, The Court does order for a fine, that you pay 1000 marks upon each Indictment. Secondly, That you be stript of all your Canonical Habits. Thirdly, the Court does award, That you do stand upon the Pillory, and in the Pillory, here before Westminster-hall gate, upon Monday next, for an hour's time, between the hours of 10 and 12; with a paper over your head (which you must first walk with round about to all the Courts in Westminister-hall) declaring your crime. And that is upon the first Indictment.

Fourthly, (on the Second Indictment), upon Tuesday, you shall stand upon, and in the Pillory, at the Royal Exchange in London, for the space of an hour, between the hours of twelve and two; with the same inscription. You shall upon the next Wednesday be whipped from Aldgate to Newgate. Upon Friday, you shall be whipped from Newgate to Tyburn [Map], by the hands of the common hangman.

According to his sentence, Oates was to stand every year of his life in the pillory on five different days: before the gate of Westminster Hall on the 9th of August, at Charing Cross on the 10th, at the Temple on the 11th, at the Royal Exchange on the 2nd of September, and at Tyburn [Map] on the 24th of April; but, fortunately for the infamous creature, the Revolution deprived his determined enemies of power, and turned the criminal into a pensioner on Government."

The presiding judge was George "Hanging Judge" Jeffreys 1st Baron Jeffreys (age 39). Robert Sawyer Attorney General (age 52) acted for the prosecution.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1683. [his future son-in-law] George, Prince of Denmark (age 30), who had landed this day, came to marry the [his daughter] Lady Anne (age 18), daughter to the Duke (age 49); so I returned home, having seen the young gallant at dinner at Whitehall [Map].

Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1683. [his son-in-law] He was married to the [his daughter] Lady Anne (age 18) at Whitehall. Her Court and household to be modeled as the Duke's, her father (age 49), had been, and they to continue in England. See Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Sep 1683. After dinner, I walked to survey the sad demolition of Clarendon House, that costly and only sumptuous palace of the late [his former father-in-law] Lord Chancellor Hyde, where I have often been so cheerful with him, and sometimes so sad: happening to make him a visit but the day before he fled from the angry Parliament, accusing him of maladministration, and being envious at his grandeur, who from a private lawyer came to be father-in-law to the Duke of York (age 49), and as some would suggest, designing his Majesty's (age 53) marriage with the Infanta of Portugal (age 44), not apt to breed. To this they imputed much of our unhappiness; and that he, being sole minister and favorite at his Majesty's (age 53) restoration, neglected to gratify the King's (age 53) suffering party, preferring those who were the cause of our troubles. But perhaps as many of these things were injuriously laid to his charge, so he kept the government far steadier than it has proved since. I could name some who I think contributed greatly to his ruin,-the buffoons and the MISSIS, to whom he was an eye-sore. It is true he was of a jolly temper, after the old English fashion; but France had now the ascendant, and we were become quite another nation. The Chancellor gone, and dying in exile, the [his former brother-in-law] Earl his successor sold that which cost £50,000 building, to the young Duke of Albemarle (age 30) for £25,000, to pay debts which how contracted remains yet a mystery, his son (age 30) being no way a prodigal. Some imagine the Duchess his daughter (age 29) [Note. Daughter-in-law?] had been chargeable to him. However it were, this stately palace is decreed to ruin, to support the prodigious waste the Duke of Albemarle (age 30) had made of his estate, since the old man died. He sold it to the highest bidder, and it fell to certain rich bankers and mechanics, who gave for it and the ground about it, £35,000; they design a new town, as it were, and a most magnificent piazza [square]. It is said they have already materials toward it with what they sold of the house alone, more worth than what they paid for it. See the vicissitudes of earthly things! I was astonished at this demolition, nor less at the little army of laborers and artificers leveling the ground, laying foundations, and contriving great buildings at an expense of £200,000, if they perfect their design.

On 29 Nov 1683 [his son-in-law] Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (age 22) and [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle (age 16) were married. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 50) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England.

In 1684 [his illegitimate son] James Darnley was born illegitimately to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 50) and Catherine Sedley (age 26).

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1684. His Majesty (age 53) being dead, the Duke, now K. James II (age 50) went immediately to Council, and before entering into any businesse, passionately declaring his sorrow, told their Lordships that since the succession had fallen to him, he would endeavour to follow the example of his predecessor in his clemency and tendernesse to his people; that, however he had ben misrepresented as affecting arbitrary power, they should find the contrary, for that the Laws of England had made ye King as greate a monarch as he could desire; that he would endeavor to maintain the Government both in Church and State, as by Law established, its principles being so firme for monarchy, and the members of it shewing themselves so good and loyal subjects; and that as he would never depart from the just rights and prerogatives of y Crown, so would he never invade any man's property; but as he had often adventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would still proceede, and preserve it in all its lawful rights and liberties. This being the substance of what he said, the Lords desir'd it might be publish'd, as ontaining matter of greate satisfaction to a jealous people upon this change, which his Ma* consented to. Then were the Counsel sworn, and a Proclamation order'd to be publish'd, that all Officers should continue in their stations, that there might be no failure of public justice, till his further pleasure should be known.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 May 1684. I return'd to London, where I found the Commissioners of the Admiralty abolish'd, and the office of Admiral restor'd to ye Duke (age 50), as to the disposal and ordering all Sea businesse; but his Ma* (age 53) sign'd all Petitions, Papers, Warrants, and Commissions, that the Duke, not acting as Admiral by commission or office, might not incur the penalty of the late Act against Papists and Dissenters holding offices, and refusing the Oath and Test. Every one was glad of this change, those in the late Commission being utterly ignorant in their duty, to the greate damage of the Navy.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Dec 1684. Early in the morning I went into St James' Park [Map] to see three Turkish or Asian horses, newly brought over, and now first shewed to his Ma* (age 54). There were foure, but one of them died at sea, being three weekes coming from Hamborow. They were taken from a Bashaw at the siege of Vienna, at the late famous raising that leaguer. I never beheld so delicate a creature as one of them was, of somewhat a bright bay, two white feet, a blaze; such a head, eyes, cares, neck, breast, belly, haunches, legs, pasterns, and feete, in all reguards beautifull and proportion'd to admiration; spirited, proud, nimble, making halt, turning with that swiftnesse, and in so small a compasse, as was admirable. With all this so gentle and tractable as call'd to mind what I remember Busbequius speakes of them, to the reproch of our groomes in Europe, who bring up their horses so churlishly as makes most of them retain their 111 habits. They trotted like does, as if they did not feele the ground. 500 guinnies was demanded for the first; 300 for the second; and 200 for the third, wch was browne. All of them were choicely shap'd, but the two last not altogether so perfect as the first. It was judg'd by the spectators, among whom was the King (age 54), [his son-in-law] Prince of Denmark (age 31), Duke of Yorke (age 51), and several of the Court, noble persons, skill'd In horses, especialy Mons. Faubert and his sonn, (provost masters of yc Academie, and esteem'd of the best in Europe,) that there were never seene any horses in these parts to be compar'd with them. Add to all this, the furniture, consisting of embroidery on the saddle, houseings, quiver, bow, arrows, scymeter, sword, mace, or battle-axe a la Turcisq; the Bashaw's velvet mantle furr'd with the most perfect Ermine I ever beheld; all which, yron-worke in common furniture, being here of silver, curiously wrought and double gilt, to an incredible icon. Such and so extraordinary was the embrodery, that I never saw any thing approching it. The reins and headstall were of crimson silk, cover'd with chaines of silver gilt. There was also a Turkish royal standard of an horse's taile, together with all sorts of other caparisons belonging to a general's horse, by which one may estimate how gallantly and magnificently those infidels appeare in the field, for nothing could be seene more glorious. The gentleman (a German) who rid the horse was in all this garb. They were shod with yron made round and closed at the heele, with a hole in the middle about as wide as a shilling. The hoofes most intire.

In 1685 Louis Duras 2nd Earl Feversham (age 44) was appointed 493rd Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51)..

In 1685 Henry Howard 7th Duke of Norfolk (age 29) was appointed 490th Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51).

In 1685 [his former brother-in-law] Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester (age 42) was appointed 492nd Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51).

In 1685 Henry Mordaunt 2nd Earl Peterborough (age 63) was appointed 491st Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51).

Argyll's Rising

In 1685 Argyll's Rising was a plot to overthrow King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) led by Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 55).

Of the rebels 177 were transported to Jamaica and 100 to New Jersey.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 May 1685. In the morning I went with a French gentleman, and my [his former brother-in-law] Lord Privy Seale, to the House of Lords, where we were plac'd by his lordship next the Bar, just below yc Bishops, very commodiously both for hearing and seeing. After a short space came in ye [his wife] Queene (age 26) and [his daughter] Princesse of Denmark (age 20), and stood next above the Archbishops, at the side of the House on the right hand of the throne. In the interim divers of the Lords, who had not finish'd before, tooke the Test and usual Oathes, so that her Ma*, the Spanish and other Ambassadors, who stood behind the throne, heard the Pope and worship of the Virgin Mary, &c. renounc'd very decently, as likewise the prayers which follow'd, standing all the while. Then came in the King (age 51), the Crowne on his head, and being seated, the Commons were introduced, and the House being full, he drew forth a paper containing his speech, which he read distinctly enough, to this effect: "That he resolv'd to call a Parliament from the moment of his brother's decease, as the best meanes to settle all the concernes of the Nation, so as to be most easy and happy to himselfe and his subjects; that he would confirme whatever he had said in his declaration at the first Council concerning his opinion of the principles of the Church of England, for their loyaltie, and would defend and support it, and preserve its government as by law now establish'd; that, as he would invade no man's property, so he would never depart from his owne prerogative; and as he had ventur'd his life in defence of the Nation, so he would proceede to do still; that, having given this assurance of his care of our Religion (his word was your Religion) and Property (wch he had not said by chance but solemnly), so he doubted not of suitable returnes of his subjects duty and kindnesse, especialy as to settling his Revenue for life, for yte many weighty necessities of go vernment, weh he would not suffer to be precarious; that some might possibly suggest that it were better to feede and supply him from time to time only, out of their inclination to frequent Parliaments, but that that would be a very improper method to take with him, since the best way to engage him to meete oftener would be always to use him well, and therefore he expected their compliance speedily, that this Session being but short, they might meet againe to satisfaction". At every period of this the House gave loud shouts. Then he acquainted them with that morning's news of Argyle's (age 56) being landed in the West High lands of Scotland from Holland, and the treasonous declaration he had published, which he would communicate to them, and that he should take the best care he could it should meete with the reward It deserv'd, not questioning the Parliament's zeale and readinesse to assist him as he desir'd; at which there follow'd another Vive le Roi, and so his Ma* retlr'd.

In or after 1685 [his illegitimate son] Charles Darnley was born illegitimately to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 27). He died young.

Death and Burial of Charles II

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1685. Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (age 54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (age 68), the Bishops of London (age 53), Durham (age 52), and Ely (age 47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (age 47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (age 56) and Feversham (age 44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (age 51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (age 46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (age 54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (age 51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (age 44), and especialy Portsmouth (age 35), and that Nelly (age 35) might not starve.

On 06 Feb 1685 [his brother] King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace [Map] attended by Charles Scarburgh (age 69). His brother King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51), William Chiffinch (age 83), Richard Mason (age 52) and Archbishop William Sancroft (age 68) were present. Duke York merged with the Crown.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Feb 1685. The King (deceased) was this, night very obscurely buried in a vault under Hen. 7th's Chapell at Westminster [Map], without any manner of pomp, and soone forgotten after all this vanity, and the face of the whole Court was exceedingly chang'd into a more solemn and moral behaviour; the new King (age 51) affecting neither prophanenesse nor buffoonery. All the greate Officers broke their staves over the grave, according to form.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1685. Being sent to by the Sheriff of the County to appeare and assist in proclayming the King (age 51), I went the next day to Bromely, where I met the Sheriff of and the Commander of the Kentish Troop, with an appearance, I suppose, of above 500 horse, and innumerable people, two of his Ma*'s trumpets and a Serjeant with other officers, who having drawn up the horse in a large field neere the towne, march'd thence, wifh swords drawne, to the market-place, where making a ring, after sound of trumpets and silence made, the High Sheriff of read the pro claiming titles to his Bailiffe, who repeated them aloud, and then after many shouts of the people, his Ma*'s health being drunk in a flint glasse of a yard long, by the Sheriff, Commander, Officers and cheife Gentlemen, they all dispers'd, and I return'd.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Feb 1685. Dr. Tenison (age 48) preach'd to the Household. The second sermon should have ben before the King (age 51); but he, to the greate griefe of his subjects, did now for the first time go to masse publickly in ye little Oratorie at the Duke's lodgings, the doors being set wide open. Note. the 'greate grief' being the King (deceased) going to a Catholic Mass.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Feb 1685. This morning his Ma* (age 51) restor'd the staffe and key to Lord Arlington (age 67), Chamberlaine; to Mr. Savell (age 43), Vice-chamberlaine; to Lords Newport (age 64) and Malnard (age 62), Treasurer and Comptroler of the Household; Lord Godolphin (age 39) made Chamberlaine to ye [his wife] Queene (age 26); Lord Peterborow (age 63) Groome of ye Stole in place of the Earle of Bath (age 56); the Treasurer's staff to the [his former brother-in-law] Earle of Rochester (age 42); and his brother the [his former brother-in-law] Earle of Clarendon Lord Privie Seale in place of the Marquis of Halifax (age 51), who was made President of the Council; the Secretarys of State remaining as before.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Mar 1685. I was invited to the funerall of Capt. Gunman (deceased), that excellent pilot and seaman, who had behav'd himselfe so valiantly in the Dutch warr. He died of a gangrene, occasion'd by his fall from the pier of Calais. This was the Captain of the yacht carrying the Duke (age 51) (now King) to Scotland, and was accus'd for not giving timely warning when she split on the sands, where so many perish'd; but I am most confident he was no ways guilty, either of negligence or designe, as he made appeare not onely at the examination of the matter of fact, but in the Vindication he shew'd me, and which must needes give any man of reason satisfaction. He was a sober, frugal, cheerfull, and temperate man; we have few such seamen left.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Apr 1685. Being now somewhat compos'd after my greate affliction, I went to London to hear Dr. Tenison (age 48) (it being on a Wednesday in Lent) at Whitehall [Map]. I observ'd that tho' the King (age 51) was not in his seate above in the chapell, the Doctor made his three congees, which they were not us'd to do when the late King was absent, making then one bowing onely. I ask'd the reason; it was sayd he had a special order so to do. The Princesse of Denmark (age 34) was in the King's Closet, but sat on the left hand of the chaire, the Clearke of the Closet (age 50) standing by His Ma's chaire, as if he had ben present. I met the Queene Dowager (age 46) going now first from Whitehall to dwell at Somerset-house [Map]. This day my brother of Wotton and Mr. Onslow (age 30) were candidates for Surrey against Sr Adam Brown and my cousin Sr Edwd Evelyn, and were circumvented in their election by a trick of the Sheriff's taking advantage of my brother's party going out of the small village of Leatherhead [Map] to seek shelter and lodging, the afternoone being tempestuous, proceeding to the Election when they were gon; they expecting the next morning; whereas before and then they exceeded the other party by many hundreds, as I am assur'd. The Duke of Norfolk (age 30) led Sr Edw. Evelyn's and Sr Adam Brown's party. For this Parliament, very meane and slight persons (some of them gentlemen's servants, clearkes, and persons neither of reputation nor interest) were set up, but the country would choose my brother whether he would or no, and he miss'd it by the trick above mentioned. Sr Adam Brown was so deafe that he could not heare one word. S1 Edw. Evelyn was an honest gent much in favour with his Majesty.

On 22 Apr 1685 [his illegitimate son] James Darnley (age 1) died.

Coronation James II and Mary

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (age 51) and [his wife] Queene (age 26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (age 47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the King begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.

On 23 Apr 1685 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland by Archbishop William Sancroft (age 68). [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) crowned Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland.

Bishop Francis Turner (age 47) preached the sermon.

John Ashburnham 1st Baron Ashburnham (age 29) carried the canopy being one of the Barons of the Cinque Ports at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 21) was appointed Constable of England.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 May 1685. The Scots valueing themselves exceedingly to have ben ye first Parliament call'd by his Ma* (age 51), gave the Excise and Costomes to him and his successors for ever; yfc D. of Queensberry (age 48) making eloquent speeches, and especialy minding them of a speedy suppression of those late despe rate Field-Conventiclers who had done such unheard-of assassinations. In the meane time elections for the ensueing Parliament in England were thought to be very indirectly carried on in most places. God grant a better issue of it than some expect!

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1685. Then the King (age 51) rose, the Lords accompanying him to his bed-chamber, where, whilst he repos'd himselfe, tired indeede as he was with griefe and watching, they return'd againe Into the Council-chamber to take order for the proclaiming his Ma*, which (after some debate) they consented should be in the very forme his grandfather K. James I. was, after ye death of Queene Elizabeth; as likewise that the Lords, &c. should proceede in their coaches thro' the Citty for the more solemnity of it. Upon this was I, and severall other Gentlemen waiting in the Privy-gallerie, admitted into ye Council-chamber to be witnesse of what was resolv'd on. Thence with the Lords, the Lord Marshall and Heraulds, and other Crowne Officers being ready, we first went to White-hall gate, where the Lords stood on foote bare-headed, whilst the Herauld proclaim'd his Majesty's title to the Imperial Crowne and Succession according to ye forme, the trumpets and kettle-drums having first sounded 3 times, which ended with the people's acclamations. Then a Herauld call'd the Lords' coaches according to rank, myselfe accompanying the solemnity in my Lord Cornwallis's (age 29) coach, first to Temple Barr, where the Lord Maior and his brethren met us on horseback, in all theire formalities, and proclaim'd the King; hence to the Exchange in Cornhill, and so we return'd in the order we set forth. Being come to Whitehall, we all went and kiss'd the King (age 51) and [his wife] Queenes (age 26) hands. He had ben on ye bed, but was now risen and in his undresse. The [his daughter] Queene (age 23) was in bed in her appartment, but put forth her hand, seeming to be much afflicted, as I believe she was, having deported herselfe so decently upon all occasions since she came into England, which made her universally belov'd. Thus concluded this sad and not joyfull day.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1685. The Duke (age 36) landed with but 150 men, but the whole Kingdom was alarm'd, fearing triat the disaffected would joyn them, many of the train'd bands flocking to him. At his landing he publish'd a declaration, charging his Ma* (age 51) with usurpation and several horrid crimes, on pretence of his owne title, and offering to call a free Parliament. This declaration was order'd to be burnt by the hangman, the Duke proclaim'd a traytor, and a reward of £5,000 to any who should kill him. At this time the words engraved on the. Monument in London, intimating that the Papists fir'd the Citty, were erased and cut out.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jul 1685. Just as I was coming into the lodgings at Whitehall [Map], a little before dinner, my Lord of Devonshire (age 45) standing very neere his Ma's (age 51) bed-chamber doore in the lobby, came Col. Culpeper (age 50), and in a rude manner looking my Lord in the face, asked whether this was a time and place for excluders to appeare; my Lord at first tooke little notice of what he said, knowing him to be a hot-headed fellow, but he reiterating it, my Lord ask'd Culpeper whether he meant him; he said, yes, he meant his Lordship. My Lord told him he was no excluder (as indeed he was not); the other affirming it againe, my Lord told him he lied, on which Culpeper struck him a box on the eare, which my Lord return'd and fell'd him. They were soone parted, Culpeper was seiz'd, and his Ma*, who was all the while in his bed-chamber, order'd him to be carried to the Green Cloth Officer, who sent him to the Marshalsea [Map] as he deserv'd. My Lord Devon had nothing said to him. I supp'd this night at Lambeth at my old friend's Mr. Elias Ashmole's (age 68), with my Lady Clarendon, ye Bishop of St. Asaph (age 57), and Dr. Tenison (age 48), when we were treated at a greate feast.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Monmouth (age 36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (age 51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (age 48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower [Map], had an interview with his late Dutchesse (age 34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (age 24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (age 36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill [Map]) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (age 51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (age 48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (age 47) and Bath and Wells (age 48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jul 1685. I went to see the muster of the 6 Scotch and English regiments whom the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 34) had lately sent to his Ma* (age 51) out of Holland upon this rebellion, but which were now returning, there having ben no occasion for their use. They were all excellently clad and well disciplin'd, and were incamped on Blackheath [Map] with their tents: the King and Queene (age 46) came to see them exercise, and the manner of their incampment, which was very neate and magnificent. By a grosse mistake of the Secretary of his Ma*'s forces, it had ben order'd that they should be quarter'd in private houses, contrary to an Act of Parliament, but on my informing his Ma* timely of it, It was prevented. The two horsemen wch my son and myselfe sent into the county troopes, were now come home, after a moneth's being out to our greate charge.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1685. I accompanied his [his former brother-in-law] Lordship to Windsor (dining by the way at Sir Henry Capel's (age 47) at Kew), where his Ma* (age 51) receiving me with extra ordinary kindnesse, I kiss'd his hand. I told him how. sensible I was of his Ma*s (age 51) gracious favour to me, that I would endeavour to serve him with all sincerity, diligence, and loyalty, not more out of my duty than inclination. He said he doubted not of it, and was glad he had the opportunity to shew me the kindnesse he had for me. After this came aboundance of greate men to give me joy.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1685. Sunday. I went to prayer in the Chapell, and heard Dr. Standish. The second sermon was preach'd by Dr. Creighton (age 46), on 1 Thess. 4, 11, persuading to unity and peace, and to be mindfull of our owne businesse, according to the advise of the Apostle. Then I went to heare a Frenchman who preached before the King (age 51) and [his wife] Queene (age 26) in that splendid Chapell [Map] next St. George's Hall. Their Maties going to masse, I withdrew to consider the stupendous painting of ye Hall, which, both for the art and invention, deserve the inscription in honour of the painter, Signior Verrio (age 49). The history is Edward the 3rd receiving the Black Prince, coming towards him in a Roman triumph. The whole roofe is the history of St. George. The throne, the carvings, &e. are incomparable, and I think equal to any, and in many circumstances exceeding any, I have seene abroad.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1685. About 6 o'clock came Sl Dudley (age 44) and his brother Roger North (age 32), and brought the greate seale from my Lord Keeper (age 47), who died ye day before at his house [Map] in Oxfordshire. the King went immediately to Council; every body guessing who was most likely to succeed this greate officer; most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief Justice Jefferies (age 40), who had so vigorously prosecuted the late rebells, and was now gone the Western circuit, to punish the rest that were secur'd in the several counties, and was now neere upon his returne. I tooke my leave of his Ma* (age 51), who spake very graciously to me, and supping that night at Sr Stephen Fox's (age 58), I promis'd to dine there the next day.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Sep 1685. I accompanied Mr. Pepys (age 52) to Portsmouth [Map], whither his Ma* (age 51) was going the first time since his coming to the Crowne, to see in what state the fortifications were. We tooke coach and six horses, late after dinner, yet got to Bagshot that night. Whilst supper was making ready I went and made a visit to Mrs. Graham (age 34), some time maid of honour to ye Queene Dowager (age 46), now wife to James Graham, Esq (age 36) of the privy purse to the King; her house being a walke in the forest, within a little quarter of a mile from Bagshot towne. Very importunate she was that I would sup, and abide there that night, but being obliged by my companion, I return'd to our inn, after she had shew'd me her house, wch was very commodious and well furnish'd, as she was an excellent housewife, a prudent and virtuous lady. There is a parke full of red deere about it. Her eldest son was now sick there of the small-pox, but in a likely way of recovery, and other of her children run about, and among the infected, wnh she said she let them do on purpose that they might whilst young pass that fatal disease she fancied they were to undergo one time or other, and that this would be the best: the severity of this cruell disease so lately in my poore family confirming much of what she affirmed.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Sep 1685. The next morning setting out early, we ariv'd soon enough at Winchester [Map] to waite on the King (age 51), who was lodg'd at the Dean's (Dr. Meggot). I found very few with him besides my Lords Feversham (age 44), Arran [Note. Not clear which Earl of Arran], Newport (age 65), and the Bishop of Bath and Wells (age 48). His Ma* (age 51) was discoursing with the Bishops concerning miracles, and what strange things the Saludadors would do in Spaine, as by creeping into heated ovens without hurt, and that they had a black crosse in the roofe of their mouthes, but yet were commonly notorious and profane wretches; upon which his Majesty (age 51) further said, that he was so extreamly difficult of miracles, for feare of being impos'd upon, that if he should chance to see one himselfe, without some other witness, he should apprehend it a delusion of his senses. Then they spake of ye boy who was pretended to have a wanting leg restor'd him, so confidently asserted by Fr. de Sta Clara and others. To all which the Bishop added a greate miracle happening In Winchester to his certaine knowledge, of a poor miserably sick and decrepit child (as I remember long kept unbaptiz'd), who immediately on his baptism recover'd; as also of yc salutary effect of K. Charles his Ma*s father's blood, in healing one that was blind.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Sep 1685. There was something said of the second sight happening to some persons, especialy Scotch; upon which his Ma*, and I think Lord Arran, told us that Mons a French nobleman, lately here in England, seeing the late Duke of Monmouth come into yc play-house at London, suddenly cried out to somebody sitting in the same box, Voila Monsieur comme il entre sans tete. Afterwards his Ma* (age 51) spoke of some reliques that had effected strange cures, particularly a piece of our Bl. Saviour's Crosse, that heal'd a gentleman's rotten nose by onely touching; and speaking of the golden crosse and chaine taken out of the coffin of St. Edward the Confessor at Westmr*, by one of the singing men, who, as the scaffolds were taking down after his Ma*s coronation, espying a hole in the tomb, and something glisten, put his hand in, and brought it to the Deane, and he to the King; his Maty began to put the Bishop in mind how earnestly the late King (his brother) call'd upon him, during his agonie, to take out what he had in his pocket. I had thought, said the King, it had ben for some keys, which might lead to some cabinet that his Ma* would have me secure; but, says he, you well remember that I found nothing in any of his pockets but a crosse of gold, and a few insignificant papers; and thereupon he shew'd us the crosse, and was pleas'd to put it into my hand. It was of gold, about three inches long, having on one side a crucifix enamell'd and emboss'd, the rest was grav'd and garnish'd with goldsmiths' work, and two pretty broad table amethists (as I conceiv'd), and at the bottom a pendant pearle; within was inchas'd a little fragment, as was thought, of the true Crosse, and a Latine inscription in gold and Roman letters. More company coming in, this discourse ended. I may not forget a resolution which his Ma* made, and had a little before enter'd upon it at ye Council Board at Windsor or Whitehall, that the Negroes in the Plantations should all be baptiz'd, exceedingly declaiming against that impiety of their masters prohibiting it, out of a mistaken opinion that they would be ipso facto free; but his Ma* persists in his resolution to have them christen'd, wch piety ye Bishop blessed him for.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Sep 1685. Early next morning we went to Portsmouth [Map], something before his Ma* (age 51) ariv'd. We found all the way full of people, the women in their best dress, in expectation of seeing the King pass by, which he did riding on horseback a good part of the way. We found the Maior and Aldermen with their mace, and in their formalities, standing at the entrance of the fort, a mile on this side of the towne, where the Maior made a speech to the King, and then the guns of the fort were fired, as were those of the garrison so soone as the King was come into Portsmouth. All the souldiers (neere 3000) were drawn up, and lining the streetes and platforme to God's-house (the name of the Governor's house), where, after he had view'd the new fortifications and ship-yard, his Ma* was entertain'd at a magnificent dinner by Sir Slingsby yc Lieut. Governor (age 47), all the gentlemen in his traine setting down at table with him, wch I also had don had I not ben before engag'd to Sir Rob Holmes (age 63), Gov of ye Isle of Wight, to dine with him at a private house, where likewise we had a very sumptuous and plentiful repast of excellent venison, fowle, fish, and fruit.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Sep 1685. After dinner I went to wait on his Ma* (age 51) againe, who was pulling on his bootes in ye Townehall, adjoyning the house where he din'd, and then having saluted some ladys, who came to kiss his hand, he tooke horse for Winchester, whither he returned that night. This hall is artificialy hung round with armes of all sorts, like the Hall and Keep at Windsor.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1685. Being the King's (age 52) birthday, there was a solemne ball at Court, and before it musiq of instruments and voices. At the musiq I happen'd by accident to stand the very next to the [his wife] Queene (age 27) and the King (age 52), who talk'd with me about the musick.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Oct 1685. The King (age 52) was now building all that range from East to West by ye Court and Garden to the streete, and making a new Chapel for ye [his wife] Queene (age 27), whose lodgings were to be in this new building, as also a new Council chamber and offices next ye South end of yc Banquetting house [Map]. I returned home next morning to London.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1685. I din'd at our greate Lord Chancellor Jefferies (age 40), who us'd me with much respect. This was the late Chief Justice who had newly ben the Western Circuit to try the Monmouth conspirators, and had formerly don such severe justice amongst the obnoxious in Westmr Hall [Map], for which his Ma* (age 52) dignified him by creating him first a Baron, and now Lord Chancellor. He had some years past ben conversant at Deptford; is of an assur'd and undaunted spirit, and has serv'd the Court interest on all the hardiest occasions; is of nature cruel and a slave of the Court.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Nov 1685. Began the Parliament; the King (age 52) in his speech required continuance of a standing force instead of a militia, and indemnity and dispensation to Popish officers from the Test; demands very unexpected and unpleasing to the Commons. He also requir'd a supply of revenue, which they granted, but return'd no thanks to the King for his speech, till farther consideration.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Nov 1685. The Parliament was adjourn'd to February, severall both of Lords and Commons excepting against some passage of his Majesty's (age 52) speech relating to the Test, and continuance of Popish officers in command. This was a greate surprize in a Parliament which people believ'd would have complied in all things.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1685. Dr Patrick, Dean of Peterborough (age 59), preach'd at Whitehall [Map] before ye [his daughter] Princesse of Denmark (age 20); who since his Ma* (age 52) came to the Crown, allways sate in the King's closet, and had the same bowings and ceremonies applied to the place where she was, as his Ma* had when there in person.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Dec 1685. I din'd at the greate entertainment his Ma* (age 52) gave ye Venetian Ambassadors, Sign. Zenno and Justiniani, accompanied with 10 more noble Venetians of their most illustrious families, Cornaro, Maccenigo, &c. who came to congratulate their Maties coming to ye Crowne. The dinner was most magnificent and plentifull, at four tables, with music, kettle drums, and trumpets, wcb sounded upon a whistle at every health. The banquet [desert] was 12 vast chargers pil'd up so high that those who sat one against another could hardly see each other. Of these sweetemeates, weh doubtless were some days piling up in that exquisite manner, the Ambassadors touch'd not, but leaving them to ye spectators who came out of curiosity to see the dinner, were exceedingly pleas'd to see in what a moment of time all that curious work was demolished, the comfitures voided, and the tables clear'd. Thus his Ma* entertain'd them three days, which (for the table only) cost him £600, as the Cleark of the Greene cloth (Sr Wm Bbreman (age 73)) assur'd me. Dinner ended, I saw their procession or cavalcade to Whitehall, innumerable coaches attending. The two Ambass. had 4 coaches of their owne and 50 footemen (as I remember), besides other equipage as splendid as ye occasion would permitt, the Court being still in mourning. Thence I went to the audience wch they had in the Queene's presence chamber, the Banquetting house [Map] being full of goods and furniture till the galleries on the garden side, Council chamber, and new Chapell now in building, were finish'd. They went to their audience in those plain black gownes and caps which they constantly weare in the Citty of Venice. I was invited to have accompanied the 2 Ambassadors in their coach to supper that night, returning now to their own lodgings, as no longer at the King's expence; but being weary I excus'd myself.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1685. Our patent for executing the office of Privy Seal during the absence of the [his former brother-in-law] Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, being this day seal'd by the Lord Chancellor (age 40), we went afterwards to St James's, where the Court then was on occasion of building at Whitehall; his Ma* (age 52) deliver'd the seale to my Lord Tiviot and myselfe, the other Commissioners not being come, and then gave us his hand to kisse. There were the two Venetian Ambassadors, and a world of company; amongst the rest the first Popish Nuncio that had ben in England since the Reformation, so wonderfully were things chang'd, to the universal jealousy.

In 1686 Bishop Thomas Cartwright (age 52) was appointed Bishop of Chester by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52).

In 1686 [his son-in-law] Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (age 25) was created 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52) three years after Henry Waldegrave 1st Baron Waldegrave Chewton Somerset (age 25) married the King's illegitimate daughter [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle (age 19). Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle (age 19) by marriage Baroness Waldegrave Chewton Somerset.

In 1686 Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 28) was created 1st Earl Dorchester for life by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52) for services as his mistress. Her father Charles Sedley 5th Baronet (age 46) quipped "As the king (age 52) has made my daughter a countess, the least I can do, in common gratitude, is to assist in making his Majesty's [his daughter] daughter (age 23) a queen".

In 1686 Bishop Samuel Parker (age 46) was appointed Bishop of Oxford by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52).

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1686. Passed the Privie Seale, amongst others, the creation of Mrs. Sedley J (concubine to) Countesse of Dorchester (age 28), which the [his wife] Queene took very grievously (age 27), so as for two dinners, standing neere her I observed she hardly eate one morsel, nor spake one word to the King (age 52), or to any about her, tho' at other times she us'd to be extreamly pleasant, full of discourse and good humour. The Roman Catholics were also very angry, because they had so long valu'd the sanctity of their religion and proselytes. Dryden (age 54) the famous playwriter, and his two sonns, and Mrs. Nelly (age 35) (Misse to ye late) were said to go to masse; such proselytes were no greate losse to the church. This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Mountague's palace in Bloomsbury, than wch for painting and furniture there was nothing more glorious in England. This happen'd by the negligence of a servant, airing, as they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist season; indeede so wet and mild a winter had scarce ben seene in man's memory. At this Seale there also pass'd the creation of [his son-in-law] Sr H. Walgrave (age 25) to be a Peere. He had married one of the [his daughter] King's natural daughters (age 19) by [his former wife] Mrs. Churchill. These two Seales my brother Commissioners pass'd in the morning before I came to towne, at. wch I was not displeas'd. We likewise pass'd Privy Seales for 5.2/6,000 upon severall accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, pri vie purse, &c. besides divers pardons, and one more wch I must not forget (and wch by Providence I was not present at) one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a quorum.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1686. Being the day on wcb his Ma* (age 52) began his reign, by order of Council it was to be solemniz'd with a particular Office and Sermon, which the Bp. of Ely (age 48) preach'd at Whitehall [Map] on 11 Numb. 12; a Court oration upon the Regal office. It was much wonder'd at that this day, weh was that of his late Ma*'s death, should be kept as a festival, and not [instead of] the day of the present King's coronation. It is said to have ben formerly ye costom, tho' not till now since ye reigne of King James I.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Feb 1686. Many bloody and notorious duels were fought about this time. The Duke of Grafton (age 22) kill'd Mr. Stanley, brother to the Earle of Shrewsbury (age 25), indeede upon an almost insufferable provocation. It is to be hop'd his Ma* (age 52) will at last severely remedy this unchristian custome. Lord Sunderland (age 44) was now Secretary of State, President of the Council, and Premier Minister.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Mar 1686. Came Sir Gilbert Gerrard to treate with me about his sonn's marrying my daughter Susanna (age 17). The father being obnoxious, and in some suspicion and displeasure of the King (age 52), I would receive no proposal till his Ma* (age 52) had given me leave, wch he was pleas'd to do; but after severall meetings we brake off on his not being willing to secure any thing competent for my daughter's children; besides that I found most of his estate was in ye coal pits as far off as Newcastle, and on leases from the Bishop of Durham, who had power to make concurrent leases, with other difficulties.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Mar 1686. A docquet was to be seal' d importing a lease of 21 yeares to one Hall, who styl'd himselfe his Ma*'s (age 52) printer (he lately turn'd Papist) for the printing Missalls, Offices, Lives of Saints, Portals, Primers, &c. books expressly forbidden to be printed or sold, by divers Acts of Parliament; I refus'd to put the seale to it, making my exceptions, so it was laied by.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Mar 1686. I was at a review of the Army about London, in Hide Park [Map], about 6000 horse and foote, in excellent order; his Ma* (age 52) and infinity of people being present.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 May 1686. There being a Seale It was fear'd we should be requir'd to passe a doquett dispensing with Dr Obadiah Walker (age 70) and four more, whereof one was an apostate curate of Putney, ye others officers of University College, Oxford, to hold their masterships, fellowships, and cures, and keepe publiq schooles, and enjoy all former emoluments, notwithstanding they no more frequented or us'd the public formes of prayers or communion with ye Church of England, or took yc test and oathes of allegiance and supremacy, contrary to 20 Acts of Parliament; which dispensation being also contrary to his Ma*'s (age 52) owne gracious declaration at ye beginning of his reigne, gave umbrage (as well it might) to every good Protestant, nor could we safely have pass'd it under the Privy Seale, wherefore it was done by immediate warrant, sign'd by Mr. Solicitor. This Walker (age 70) was a learned person, of a monkish life, to whose tuition I had more than 30 yeares since recommended the sonns of my worthy friend Mr. Hyldyard of Horsly in Surrey, believing him to be far from what he prov'd, an hypocritical conceal'd Papist, by wch he perverted the eldest sonn of Mr. Hyldyard, Sr Edwd Hale's (age 41) eldest sonn, and severall more, to the greate disturbance of the whole Nation, as well as of the University, as by his now publiq defection appear'd. All engines being now at work to bring in Popery, wch God in mercy prevent ! This day was burnt in the old Exchange, by the common hangman, a translation of a booke written by ye famous Monsr Claude, relating onely matters of fact concerning the horrid massacres and barbarous proceedings of ye French King (age 47) against his Protestant subjects, without any refutation of any facts therein; so mighty a power and ascendant here had the French Ambass', who was doubtlesse in greate indignation at the pious and truly generous charity of all the Nation, for ye reliefe of those miserable sufferers who came over for shelter. About this time also the Duke of Savoy (age 19), instigated by ye French King to extirpate the Protestants of Piedmont, slew many thousands of those innocent people, so that there seem'd to be an universal designe to destroy all that would not go to masse, throughout Europe. Quod avertat D. O. M ! No faith in Princes!

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1686. Such storms, raine and foul weather, seldom known at this time of the yeare. The camp at Hounslow Heath [Map], from sicknesse and other inconveniences of weather, forc'd to retire to quarters; ye storms being succeeded by excessive hot weather, many grew sick. Greate feasting there, especialy in Lord Dunbarton's (age 51) quarters. There were many jealousies and discourses of what was the meaning of this incampment. A Seale this day, mostly pardons and discharges of Kn* Baronets fees, wch having ben pass'd over for so many yeares, did greatly dis oblige several families who had serv'd his Ma* (age 52). Lord Tirconnell (age 56) gon to Ireland, with greate powers and commissions, giving as much cause of talke as the camp, especialy 19 new privy councillors and judges being now made, amongst wch but three Protestants, and Tirconnell made Generall.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jun 1686. Now his Ma* (age 52), beginning with Dr Sharp (age 41) and Tully, proceeded to silence and suspend divers excellent divines for preaching against Popery.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Dec 1686. I went to hear the music of the Italians in the new chapel, now first opened publicly at Whitehall [Map] for the Popish Service. Nothing can be finer than the magnificent marble work and architecture at the end, where are four statues, representing St. John, St. Peter, St. Paul, and the Church, in white marble, the work of Mr. Gibbons (age 38), with all the carving and Pillars of exquisite art and great cost. The altar piece is the Salutation; the volto in fresco, the Assumption of the blessed Virgin, according to their tradition, with our blessed Savior, and a world of figures painted by Verrio. The throne where the King (age 53) and [his wife] Queen (age 28) sit is very glorious, in a closet above, just opposite to the altar. Here we saw the Bishop in his mitre and rich copes, with six or seven Jesuits and others in rich copes, sumptuously habited, often taking off and Putting on the Bishop's mitre, who sat in a chair with arms pontifically, was adored and censed by three Jesuits in their copes; then he went to the altar and made divers cringes, then censing the images and glorious tabernacle placed on the altar, and now and then changing place: the crosier, which was of silver, was put into his hand with a world of mysterious ceremony, the music playing, with singing. I could not have believed I should ever have seen such things in the King of England's palace, after it had pleased God to enlighten this nation; but our great sin has, for the present, eclipsed the blessing, which I hope he will in mercy and his good time restore to its purity.

In 1687 Bishop Samuel Parker (age 47) was appointed Magdalen College, Oxford University by the Ecclesiastical Commission when the fellows refused to elect any of the king's nominees. This act became one of the most celebrated episodes leading up to King James's (age 53) abdication.

In 1687 Robert Spencer 2nd Earl of Sunderland (age 45) was appointed 494th Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 53).

In 1687 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 16) was created 1st Duke Berwick by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 53).

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Mar 1687. His Majesty (age 53) sent for the Commissioners of the Privy Seal this morning into his bedchamber, and told us that though he had thought fit to dispose of the Seal into a single hand, yet he would so provide for us, as it should appear how well he accepted our faithful and loyal service with many gracious expressions to this effect; upon which we delivered the Seal into his hands. It was by all the world both hoped and expected, that he would have restored it to my [his former brother-in-law] Lord Clarendon; but they were astonished to see it given to Lord Arundel, of Wardour (age 79), a zealous Roman Catholic. Indeed it was very hard, and looked very unkindly, his Majesty (age 53) (as my Lord Clarendon protested to me, on my going to visit him and long discoursing with him about the affairs of Ireland) finding not the least failure of duty in him during his government of that kingdom, so that his recall plainly appeared to be from the stronger influence of the Papists, who now got all the preferments.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1687. An Anabaptist, a very odd ignorant person, a mechanic, I think, was Lord Mayor. The King (age 54) and [his wife] Queen (age 29), and Dadi, the Pope's Nuncio, invited to a feast at Guildhall. A strange turn of affairs, that those who scandalized the Church of England as favorers of Popery, should publicly invite an emissary from Rome, one who represented the very person of their Antichrist!

In 1688 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 17) was appointed 495th Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54).

Test Act

In 1688 Admiral Arthur Herbert 1st Earl Torrington (age 40) was dismissed by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) for refusing to sign the Test Act.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 May 1688. His Majesty (age 54), alarmed by the great fleet of the Dutch (while we had a very inconsiderable one), went down to Chatham, Kent [Map]; their fleet was well prepared, and out, before we were in any readiness, or had any considerable number to have encountered them, had there been occasion, to the great reproach of the nation; while being in profound peace, there was a mighty land army, which there was no need of, and no force at sea, where only was the apprehension; but the army was doubtless kept and increased, in order to bring in and countenance Popery, the King beginning to discover his intention, by many instances pursued by the Jesuits, against his first resolution to alter nothing in the Church Establishment, so that it appeared there can be no reliance on Popish promises.

Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

On 13 May 1688 the Archbishop of Canterbury and seven bishops were imprisoned for seditious libel: Archbishop William Sancroft (age 71), Bishop Henry Compton (age 56), Bishop Francis Turner (age 50), Bishop Thomas White (age 60), Bishop Thomas Ken (age 50), Bishop John Lake (age 64), Bishop Jonathan Trelawny 3rd Baronet (age 38) and Bishop William Lloyd (age 51). Their crime was to not read the Declaration of Indulgence as required by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 18 May 1688. King (age 54) enjoining the ministers to read his Declaration for giving liberty of conscience (as it was styled) in all churches of England, this evening, six Bishops, Bath and Wells (age 50), Peterborough (age 60), Ely (age 50), Chichester (age 64), St. Asaph (age 60), and Bristol (age 38), in the name of all the rest of the Bishops, came to his Majesty to petition him, that he would not impose the reading of it to the several congregations within their dioceses; not that they were averse to the publishing it for want of due tenderness toward dissenters, in relation to whom they should be willing to come to such a temper as should be thought fit, when that matter might be considered and settled in Parliament and Convocation; but that, the Declaration being founded on such a dispensing power as might at pleasure set aside all laws ecclesiastical and civil, it appeared to them illegal, as it had done to the Parliament in 1661 and 1672, and that it was a point of such consequence, that they could not so far make themselve parties to it, as the reading of it in church in time of divine service amounted to.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 May 1688. The King (age 54) was so far incensed at this address, that he with threatening expressions commanded them to obey him in reading it at their perils, and so dismissed them.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1688. The Queen Dowager (age 49), hitherto bent on her return into Portugal, now on the sudden, on allegation of a great debt owing her by his Majesty (age 54) disabling her, declares her resolution to stay.

On 10 Jun 1688 [his son] James "Old Pretender" Stewart was born to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 29). Winifred Trentham (age 43) and Charles Middleton 2nd Earl Middleton (age 38) were present.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jul 1688. One of the King's (age 54) chaplains preached before the [his daughter] Princess (age 26) on Exodus xiv. 13, "Stand still, and behold the salvation of the Lord", which he applied so boldly to the present conjuncture of the Church of England, that more could scarce be said to encourage desponders. The Popish priests were not able to carry their cause against their learned adversaries, who confounded them both by their disputes and writings.

On 28 Sep 1688 James Butler 2nd Duke Ormonde (age 23) was appointed 496th Knight of the Garter by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1688. Hourly expectation of the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange's (age 37) invasion heightened to that degree, that his Majesty (age 54) thought fit to abrogate the Commission for the dispensing Power (but retaining his own right still to dispense with all laws) and restore the ejected Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford. In the meantime, he called over 5,000 Irish, and 4,000 Scots, and continued to remove Protestants and put in Papists at Portsmouth and other places of trust, and retained the Jesuits about him, increasing the universal discontent. It brought people to so desperate a pass, that they seemed passionately to long for and desire the landing of that Prince (age 37), whom they looked on to be their deliverer from Popish tyranny, praying incessantly for an east wind, which was said to be the only hindrance of his expedition with a numerous army ready to make a descent. To such a strange temper, and unheard of in former times, was this poor nation reduced, and of which I was an eyewitness. The apprehension was (and with reason) that his Majesty's (age 54) forces would neither at land nor sea oppose them with that vigor requisite to repel invaders.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Oct 1688. The King's (age 55) birthday. No guns from the Tower as usual. The sun eclipsed at its rising. This day signal for the victory of William the Conqueror against Harold, near Battel, in Sussex. The wind, which had been hitherto west, was east all this day. Wonderful expectation of the Dutch fleet. Public prayers ordered to be read in the churches against invasion.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1688. There was a Council called, to which were summoned the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71), the Judges, the Lord Mayor, etc. The Queen Dowager (age 49), and all the ladies and lords who were present at the [his wife] Queen Consort's (age 30) labor, were to give their testimony upon oath of the [his son] Prince of Wales's birth, recorded both at the Council Board and at the Chancery a day or two after. This procedure was censured by some as below his Majesty (age 55) to condescend to, on the talk of the people. It was remarkable that on this occasion the Archbishop (age 71), Marquis of Halifax (age 54), the Earls of [his former brother-in-law] Clarendon and Nottingham (age 41), refused to sit at the Council table among Papists, and their bold telling his Majesty (age 55) that whatever was done while such sat among them was unlawful and incurred praemunire;-at least, if what I heard be true.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1688. Lady Sunderland (age 42) acquainted me with his Majesty's (age 55) taking away the Seals from Lord Sunderland (age 47), and of her being with the [his wife] Queen (age 30) to intercede for him. It is conceived that he had of late grown remiss in pursuing the interest of the Jesuitical counsels; some reported one thing, some another; but there was doubtless some secret betrayed, which time may discover.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1688. My birthday, being the 68th year of my age. O blessed Lord, grant that as I grow in years, so may I improve in grace! Be thou my protector this following year, and preserve me and mine from those dangers and great confusions that threaten a sad revolution to this sinful nation! Defend thy church, our holy religion, and just laws, disposing his Majesty (age 55) to listen to sober and healing counsels, that if it be thy blessed will, we may still enjoy that happy tranquility which hitherto thou hast continued to us! Amen, Amen!

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Nov 1688. Dined with Lord Preston (age 39), with other company, at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 61). Continual alarms of the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 37), but no certainty. Reports of his great losses of horse in the storm, but without any assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and printed manifestoes, and carried to Newgate [Map], after examination at the Cabinet Council. There was likewise a declaration of the States for satisfaction of all public ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the French. There was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords both spiritual and temporal had invited him over, with a deduction of the causes of his enterprise. This made his Majesty (age 55) convene my Lord of Canterbury (age 71) and the other Bishops now in town, to give an account of what was in the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by some public writing of this disloyal charge.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. I went to London; heard the news of the [his son-in-law] Prince (age 38) having landed at Torbay, coming with a fleet of near 700 sail, passing through the Channel with so favorable a wind, that our navy could not intercept, or molest them. This put the King (age 55) and Court into great consternation, they were now employed in forming an army to stop their further progress, for they were got into Exeter [Map], and the season and ways very improper for his Majesty's forces to march so great a distance.

Glorious Revolution

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. These are the beginnings of sorrow, unless God in his mercy prevent it by some happy reconciliation of all dissensions among us. This, in all likelihood, nothing can effect except a free Parliament; but this we cannot hope to see, while there are any forces on either side. I pray God to protect and direct the King (age 55) for the best and truest interest of his people!-I saw his Majesty (age 55) touch for the evil, Piten the Jesuit, and Warner officiating.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Nov 1688. It was now a very hard frost. The King (age 55) goes to Salisbury to rendezvous the army, and return to London. Lord Delamere (age 36) appears for the [his son-in-law] Prince (age 38) in Cheshire. The nobility meet in Yorkshire. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71) and some Bishops, and such Peers as were in London, address his Majesty (age 55) to call a Parliament. The King (age 55) invites all foreign nations to come over. The French take all the Palatinate, and alarm the Germans more than ever.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1688. Dr. Tenison (age 52) preached at St. Martin's [Map] on Psalm xxxvi. 5, 6, 7, concerning Providence. I received the blessed Sacrament. Afterward, visited my Lord Godolphin (age 43), then going with the Marquis of Halifax (age 55) and Earl of Nottingham (age 41) as Commissioners to the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 38); he told me they had little power. Plymouth, Devon [Map] declared for the Prince (age 38). Bath, Somerset [Map], York [Map], Hull [Map], Bristol, Gloucestershire [Map], and all the eminent nobility and persons of quality through England, declare for the Protestant religion and laws, and go to meet the Prince (age 38), who every day sets forth new Declarations against the Papists. The great favorites at Court, Priests and Jesuits, fly or abscond. Everything, till now concealed, flies abroad in public print, and is cried about the streets. Expectation of the Prince (age 38) coming to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]. The [his son] Prince of Wales and great treasure sent privily to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], the Earl of Dover (age 52) being Governor. Address from the Fleet not grateful to his Majesty (age 55). The Papists in offices lay down their commissions, and fly. Universal consternation among them; it looks like a revolution.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1688. The [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 38) is advanced to Windsor [Map], is invited by the King (age 55) to St. James's [Map], the messenger sent was the Earl of Faversham (age 47), the General of the Forces, who going without trumpet, or passport, is detained prisoner by the Prince (age 38), who accepts the invitation, but requires his Majesty (age 38) to retire to some distant place, that his own guards may be quartered about the palace and city. This is taken heinously and the King (age 38) goes privately to Rochester, Kent [Map]; is persuaded to come back; comes on the Sunday; goes to mass, and dines in public, a Jesuit saying grace (I was present).

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Dec 1688. The King (age 55) passes into France, whither the [his wife] Queen (age 30) and [his son] child were gone a few days before.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1688. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71) and some few of the other Bishops and Lords in London, were sent for to Whitehall, and required to set forth their abhorrence of this invasion. They assured his Majesty (age 55) that they had never invited any of the [his son-in-law] Prince's (age 38) party, or were in the least privy to it, and would be ready to show all testimony of their loyalty; but, as to a public declaration, being so few, they desired that his Majesty (age 55) would call the rest of their brethren and Peers, that they might consult what was fit to be done on this occasion, not thinking it right to publish anything without them, and till they had themselves seen the Prince's (age 38) manifesto, in which it was pretended he was invited in by the Lords, spiritual and temporal. This did not please the King; so they departed.

1688 Battle of Reading

On 09 Dec 1688 the Battle of Reading was fought between supporters of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) and [his son-in-law] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38). King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) was victorious. Thereafter King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) fled to France and King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) acceeded.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1688. The King (age 55) flies to sea, puts in at Faversham, Kent [Map] for ballast; is rudely treated by the people; comes back to Whitehall.

On 13 Dec 1688 Thomas Thynne 1st Viscount Weymouth (age 48), along with the Earl of Pembroke (age 32), led a deputation to the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 38) who was at Henley on Thames, Oxfordshire [Map] after the flight of King James II (age 55).

On 13 Dec 1688 Elizabeth Waller 1st Baroness Shelburne (age 52) was created 1st Baroness Shelburne for life only by King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55). Her son Charles Petty 1st Baron Shelburne (age 15) was created 1st Baron Shelburne.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Dec 1688. I saw the King (age 55) take barge to Gravesend, Kent [Map] at twelve o'clock-a sad sight! The [his son-in-law] Prince (age 38) comes to St. James's [Map], and fills Whitehall with Dutch guards. A Council of Peers meet about an expedient to call a Parliament; adjourn to the House of Lords. The Chancellor, Earl of Peterborough (age 67), and divers others taken. The Earl of Sunderland (age 47) flies; Sir Edward Hale (age 43), Walker, and others, taken and secured.

Abdication of James II

On 23 Dec 1688 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55) Abdicated II King England Scotland and Ireland. His daughter [his daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) succeeded II Queen England Scotland and Ireland. His nephew [his son-in-law] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 38) succeeded IIi King England Scotland and Ireland.

In 1689 [his son-in-law] Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland (age 35) was created 1st Duke Cumberland by his father-in-law King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 55). [his daughter] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 23) by marriage Duchess Cumberland.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1689. The great convention being assembled the day before, falling upon the question about the government, resolved that King James (age 55) having by the advice of the Jesuits and other wicked persons endeavored to subvert the laws of the Church and State, and deserted the Kingdom, carrying away the seals, etc., without any care for the management of the government, had by demise abdicated himself and wholly vacated his right; they did therefore desire the Lords' concurrence to their vote, to place the crown on the next heir, the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 38), for his life, then to the [his daughter] Princess (age 26), his wife, and if she died without issue, to the [his daughter] Princess of Denmark (age 23), and she failing, to the heirs of the Prince (age 55), excluding forever all possibility of admitting a Roman Catholic.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1689. I visited the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71), where I found the Bishops of St. Asaph (age 61), Ely (age 51), Bath and Wells (age 51), Peterborough (age 61), and Chichester (age 65), the Earls of Aylesbury (age 33) and [his former brother-in-law] Clarendon, Sir George Mackenzie (age 53), Lord-Advocate of Scotland, and then came in a Scotch Archbishop, etc. After prayers and dinner, divers serious matters were discoursed, concerning the present state of the Public, and sorry I was to find there was as yet no accord in the judgments of those of the Lords and Commons who were to convene; some would have the [his daughter] Princess (age 26) made Queen without any more dispute, others were for a Regency; there was a Tory party (then so called), who were for inviting his Majesty (age 55) again upon conditions; and there were Republicans who would make the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 38) like a Stadtholder. The Romanists were busy among these several parties to bring them into confusion: most for ambition or other interest, few for conscience and moderate resolutions. I found nothing of all this in this assembly of Bishops, who were pleased to admit me into their discourses; they were all for a Regency, thereby to salve their oaths, and so all public matters to proceed in his Majesty's (age 55) name, by that to facilitate the calling of Parliament, according to the laws in being. Such was the result of this meeting.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1689. I found by the Lord-Advocate (age 53) that the Bishops of Scotland (who were indeed little worthy of that character, and had done much mischief in that Church) were now coming about to the true interest, in this conjuncture which threatened to abolish the whole hierarchy in that kingdom; and therefore the Scottish Archbishop (age 55) and Lord-Advocate (age 53) requested the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71) to use his best endeavors with the Prince (age 55) to maintain the Church there in the same state, as by law at present settled.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1689. The votes of the House of Commons being carried up by Mr. Hampden (age 36), their chairman, to the Lords, I got a station by the Prince's (age 55) lodgings at the door of the lobby to the House, and heard much of the debate, which lasted very long. Lord Derby (age 34) was in the chair (for the House was resolved into a grand committee of the whole House); after all had spoken, it came to the question, which was carried by three voices against a Regency, which 51 were for, 54 against; the minority alleging the danger of dethroning Kings, and scrupling many passages and expressions in the vote of the Commons, too long to set down particularly. Some were for sending to his Majesty with conditions: others that the King (age 55) could do no wrong, and that the maladministration was chargeable on his ministers. There were not more than eight or nine bishops, and but two against the Regency; the archbishop (age 71) was absent, and the clergy now began to change their note, both in pulpit and discourse, on their old passive obedience, so as people began to talk of the bishops being cast out of the House. In short, things tended to dissatisfaction on both sides; add to this, the morose temper of the [his son-in-law] Prince of Orange (age 38), who showed little countenance to the noblemen and others, who expected a more gracious and cheerful reception when they made their court. The English army also was not so in order, and firm to his interest, nor so weakened but that it might give interruption. Ireland was in an ill posture as well as Scotland. Nothing was yet done toward a settlement. God of his infinite mercy compose these things, that we may be at last a Nation and a Church under some fixed and sober establishment!

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1689. The King's (age 55) coronation day was ordered not to be observed, as hitherto it had been.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1689. I saw the new [his daughter] Queen (age 26) and [his son-in-law] King (age 38), with great acclamation and general good reception. Bonfires, bells, guns, etc. It was believed that both, especially the Princess (age 26), would have shown some (seeming) reluctance at least, of assuming her father's (age 55) crown, and made some apology, testifying by her regret that he should by his mismanagement necessitate the nation to so extraordinary a proceeding, which would have shown very handsomely to the world, and according to the character given of her piety; consonant also to her husband's (age 38) first declaration, that there was no intention of deposing the King (age 55), but of succoring the nation; but nothing of all this appeared; she came into Whitehall laughing and jolly, as to a wedding, so as to seem quite transported. She rose early the next morning, and in her undress, as it was reported, before her women were up, went about from room to room to see the convenience of Whitehall; lay in the same bed and apartment where the late [his wife] Queen (age 30) lay, and within a night or two sat down to play at basset, as the Queen (age 30), her predecessor used to do. She smiled upon and talked to everybody, so that no change seemed to have taken place at Court since her last going away, save that infinite crowds of people thronged to see her, and that she went to our prayers. This carriage was censured by many. She seems to be of a good nature, and that she takes nothing to heart: while the Prince (age 38), her husband, has a thoughtful countenance, is wonderfully serious and silent, and seems to treat all persons alike gravely, and to be very intent on affairs: Holland, Ireland, and France calling for his care.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1689. The Archbishop of Canterbury (age 72) and some of the rest, on scruple of conscience and to salve the oaths they had taken, entered their protests and hung off, especially the Archbishop, who had not all this while so much as appeared out of Lambeth [Map]. This occasioned the wonder of many who observed with what zeal they contributed to the [his son-in-law] Prince's (age 38) expedition, and all the while also rejecting any proposals of sending again to the absent King (age 55); that they should now raise scruples, and such as created much division among the people, greatly rejoicing the old courtiers, and especially the Papists.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1689. The King (age 55) abroad was now furnished by the French King (age 50) with money and officers for an expedition to Ireland. The great neglect in not more timely preventing that from hence, and the disturbances in Scotland, give apprehensions of great difficulties, before any settlement can be perfected here, while the Parliament dispose of the great offices among themselves. The Great Seal, Treasury and Admiralty put into commission of many unexpected persons, to gratify the more; so that by the present appearance of things (unless God Almighty graciously interpose and give success in Ireland and settle Scotland) more trouble seems to threaten the nation than could be expected. In the interim, the new King refers all to the Parliament in the most popular manner, but is very slow in providing against all these menaces, besides finding difficulties in raising men to send abroad; the former army, which had never seen any service hitherto, receiving their pay and passing their summer in an idle scene of a camp at Hounslow, unwilling to engage, and many disaffected, and scarce to be trusted.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Mar 1689. The new [his son-in-law] King (age 38) much blamed for neglecting Ireland, now likely to be ruined by the Lord Tyrconnel (age 59) and his Popish party, too strong for the Protestants. Wonderful uncertainty where King James (age 55) was, whether in France or Ireland. The Scots seem as yet to favor King William (age 38), rejecting King James's letter to them, yet declaring nothing positively. Soldiers in England discontented. Parliament preparing the coronation oath. Presbyterians and Dissenters displeased at the vote for preserving the Protestant religion as established by law, without mentioning what they were to have as to indulgence.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. Scotland declares for [his son-in-law] King William (age 38) and [his daughter] Queen Mary (age 26), with the reasons of their setting aside King James (age 55), not as abdicating, but forfeiting his right by maladministration; they proceeded with much more caution and prudence than we did, who precipitated all things to the great reproach of the nation, all which had been managed by some crafty, ill-principled men. The new Privy Council have a Republican spirit, manifestly undermining all future succession of the Crown and prosperity of the Church of England, which yet I hope they will not be able to accomplish so soon as they expect, though they get into all places of trust and profit.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1689. King James (age 55) was now certainly in Ireland with the Marshal d'Estrades, whom he made a Privy Councillor; and who caused the King (age 55) to remove the Protestant Councillors, some whereof, it seems, had continued to sit, telling him that the King of France (age 50), his master, would never assist him if he did not immediately do it; by which it is apparent how the poor Prince (age 55) is managed by the French.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Apr 1689. There now came certain news that King James (age 55) had not only landed in Ireland, but that he had surprised Derry aka Londonderry, and was become master of that kingdom, to the great shame of our government, who had been so often solicited to provide against it by timely succor, and which they might so easily have done. This is a terrible beginning of more troubles, especially should an army come thence into Scotland, people being generally disaffected here and everywhere else, so that the seamen and landmen would scarce serve without compulsion.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jun 1689. King James's (age 55) declaration was now dispersed, offering pardon to all, if on his landing, or within twenty days after, they should return to their obedience.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1690. The Parliament was unexpectedly prorogued to 2d of April to the discontent and surprise of many members who, being exceedingly averse to the settling of anything, proceeding with animosities, multiplying exceptions against those whom they pronounced obnoxious, and producing as universal a discontent against [his son-in-law] King William (age 39) and themselves, as there was before against King James (age 56). The new King (age 39) resolved on an expedition into Ireland in person. About 150 of the members who were of the more royal party, meeting at a feast at the Apollo Tavern [Map] near St. Dunstan's [Map], sent some of their company to the King (age 39), to assure him of their service; he returned his thanks, advising them to repair to their several counties and preserve the peace during his absence, and assuring them that he would be steady to his resolution of defending the Laws and Religion established. The great Lord suspected to have counselled this prorogation, universally denied it. However, it was believed the chief adviser was the Marquis of Carmarthen (age 57), who now seemed to be most in favor.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Feb 1690. The Duchess of Monmouth's (age 39) chaplain preached at St. Martin's [Map] an excellent discourse exhorting to peace and sanctity, it being now the time of very great division and dissension in the nation; first, among the Churchmen, of whom the moderate and sober part were for a speedy reformation of divers things, which it was thought might be made in our Liturgy, for the inviting of Dissenters; others more stiff and rigid, were for no condescension at all. Books and pamphlets were published every day pro and con; the Convocation were forced for the present to suspend any further progress. There was fierce and great carousing about being elected in the new Parliament. The King (age 39) persists in his intention of going in person for Ireland, whither the French are sending supplies to King James (age 56), and we, the Danish horse to Schomberg (age 74).

Battle of the Boyne

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (age 57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower [Map], on suspicion of being affected to King James (age 56); among them was the [his former brother-in-law] Earl of Clarendon, the [his daughter] Queen's (age 28) uncle. [his son-in-law] King William (age 39) having vanquished King James (age 56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (age 56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (age 74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (age 39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (age 55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (age 60), was taken. It is reported that King James (age 56) is gone back to France. Drogheda [Map] and Dublin [Map] surrendered, and if King William (age 39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

On 01 Jul 1690 the Battle of the Boyne was fought between the armies of Protestant [his son-in-law] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Catholic King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 56).

The English army was commanded by Frederick Schomberg 1st Duke Schomberg (age 74).

The English or Protestant army included Richard Lumley 1st Earl Scarborough (age 40), Osmund Mordaunt and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney (age 49).

For the Irish or Catholic army [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 19) and Henry Hobart 4th Baronet (age 33) fought. Richard Hamilton was captured.

Drury Wray 9th Baronet (age 56) fought for James II for which he subsequently forfeit his lands.

On or before 15 Aug 1690 Charles Tuke 2nd Baronet (age 19) died of wound received at the Battle of the Boyne fighting for King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 56). Baronet Tuke of Cressing Temple extinct.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the [his former brother-in-law] Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower [Map], with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (age 62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (age 57), etc. The troops from Blackheath [Map] march to Portsmouth [Map]. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (age 19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (age 55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (age 56).

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1690. The French landed some soldiers at Teignmouth [Map], in Devon, and burned some poor houses. The French fleet still hovering about the western coast, and we having 300 sail of rich merchant-ships in the bay of Plymouth [Map], our fleet began to move toward them, under three admirals. The country in the west all on their guard. A very extraordinary fine season; but on the 12th was a very great storm of thunder and lightning, and on the 15th the season much changed to wet and cold. The militia and trained bands, horse and foot, which were up through England, were dismissed. The French King having news that [his son-in-law] King William (age 39) was slain, and his army defeated in Ireland, caused such a triumph at Paris, and all over France, as was never heard of; when, in the midst of it, the unhappy King James (age 56) being vanquished, by a speedy flight and escape, himself brought the news of his own defeat.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jan 1691. Lord Preston (age 41) condemned about a design to bring in King James (age 57) by the French. Ashton executed. The Bishop of Ely (age 53), Mr. Graham, etc., absconded.

Around May 1691 Dr Henry Dove was appointed Chaplain to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 57).

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jul 1691. To London to hear Mr. Stringfellow preach his first sermon in the newly erected Church of Trinity, in Conduit Street; to which I did recommend him to Dr. Tenison (age 54) for the constant preacher and lecturer. This Church, formerly built of timber on Hounslow-Heath by King James (age 57) for the mass priests, being begged by Dr. Tenison (age 54), rector of St. Martin's [Map], was set up by that public-minded, charitable, and pious man near my son's dwelling in Dover Street, chiefly at the charge of the Doctor (age 54). I know him to be an excellent preacher and a fit person. This Church, though erected in St. Martin's, which is the Doctor's parish, he was not only content, but was the sole industrious mover, that it should be made a separate parish, in regard of the neighborhood having become so populous. Wherefore to countenance and introduce the new minister, and take possession of a gallery designed for my son's family, I went to London, where, [NOTE. Text runs out?].

In 1692 Charles Middleton 2nd Earl Middleton (age 42) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for plotting to restore King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 58). After his release his joined the exiled court in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jan 1692. A frosty and dry season continued; many persons die of apoplexy, more than usual. Lord Marlborough (age 41), Lieutenant-General of the King's army in England, gentleman of the bedchamber, etc., dismissed from all his charges, military and other, for his excessive taking of bribes, covetousness, and extortion on all occasions from his inferior officers. Note, this was the Lord who was entirely advanced by King James (age 58), and was the first who betrayed and forsook his master. He was son of Sir Winston Churchill of the Greencloth.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Apr 1692. A fast. King James (age 58) sends a letter written and directed by his own hand to several of the Privy Council, and one to his [his daughter] daughter (age 29), the Queen Regent, informing them of the [his wife] Queen (age 33) being ready to be brought to bed, and summoning them to be at the birth by the middle of May, promising as from the French King (age 53), permission to come and return in safety.

On 28 Jun 1692 [his daughter] Louisa Maria Teresa Stewart was born to King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 58) and [his wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 33).

Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1693. Nothing yet of action from abroad. Muttering of a design to bring forces under color of an expected descent, to be a standing army for other purposes. Talk of a declaration of the French King (age 54), offering mighty advantages to the confederates, exclusive of [his son-in-law] King William (age 42); and another of King James (age 59), with an universal pardon, and referring the composing of all differences to a Parliament. These were yet but discourses; but something is certainly under it. A declaration or manifesto from King James (age 59), so written, that many thought it reasonable, and much more to the purpose than any of his former.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Jun 1693. I saw a great auction of pictures in the Banqueting house, Whitehall [Map]. They had been my Lord Melford's (age 42), now Ambassador from King James (age 59) at Rome, and engaged to his creditors here. Lord Mulgrave (age 45) and Sir Edward Seymour (age 60) came to my house, and desired me to go with them to the sale. Divers more of the great lords, etc., were there, and bought pictures dear enough. There were some very excellent of Vandyke, Rubens, and Bassan. Lord Godolphin (age 48) bought the picture of the Boys, by Murillo the Spaniard, for 80 guineas, dear enough; my nephew Glanville, the old Earl of Arundel's head by Rubens, for £20. Growing late, I did not stay till all were sold.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright (age 76). Portrait of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 60) when Duke of York.

On 26 Mar 1695 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 24) and [his daughter-in-law] Honora Burke Duchess Berwick (age 21) were married at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. She by marriage Duchess Berwick. She the daughter of William Burke 7th Earl Clanricarde. He the son of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 61) and Arabella Churchill (age 46).

On 03 Apr 1695 [his son-in-law] Piers Butler 1st Earl Newcastle (age 43) and [his daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle (age 28) were married. She by marriage Countess Newcastle in Limerick. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 61) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England.

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder [his former son-in-law] King William (age 45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais [Map], an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the [his illegitimate son] Duke of Berwick (age 25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (age 62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (age 45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (age 46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1696. The Venetian Ambassador made a stately entry with fifty footmen, many on horseback, four rich coaches, and a numerous train of gallants. More executions this week of the assassins. Oates (age 46) dedicated a most villainous, reviling book against King James (age 62), which he presumed to present to [his former son-in-law] King William (age 45), who could not but abhor it, speaking so infamously and untruly of his late beloved [his daughter] Queen's own father.

In 1698 David Colyear was born to David Colyear 1st Earl Portmore (age 42) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 40). Given his mother was a recent mistress of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 64) it is possible the father was King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 64).

In 1698 [his illegitimate son] James Fitzjames 1st Duke Berwick (age 27) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Bulkeley Duchess Berwick were married. She by marriage Duchess Berwick. He the son of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 64) and Arabella Churchill (age 48).

In Oct 1699 [his son-in-law] James Annesley 3rd Earl Anglesey (age 25) and [his illegitimate daughter] Catherine Darnley Duchess Buckingham and Normandby (age 19) were married. She by marriage Countess Anglesey. She the daughter of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 65) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 41). He the son of James Annesley 2nd Earl Anglesey and Elizabeth Manners Countess Anglesey (age 45).

On 27 Aug 1700 Charles Colyear 2nd Earl Portmore was born to David Colyear 1st Earl Portmore (age 44) and Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 42). Given his mother was a recent mistress of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 66) it is possible the father was King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 66).

1701 Death of King James II

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Sep 1701. The death of King James (age 67), happening on the 15th of this month, N. S., after two or three days' indisposition, put an end to that unhappy Prince's troubles, after a short and unprosperous reign, indiscreetly attempting to bring in Popery, and make himself absolute, in imitation of the French, hurried on by the impatience of the Jesuits; which the nation would not endure.

On 16 Sep 1701 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 67) died at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. He was buried in the Church of the English Benedictines.

On 13 Apr 1703 David Colyear 1st Earl Portmore (age 47) was created 1st Earl Portmore. Possibly for having married the King's former mistress Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 45). Catherine Sedley Countess Dorchester and Portmore (age 45) by marriage Countess Portmore.

Before 1707 Henry Bond 2nd Baronet accompanied King James II to France, for which he was attainted and his title and lands forfeited; they were restored in 1707.

On 07 May 1718 [his former wife] Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 59) died.

Grammont. Miss Hamilton had much difficulty to suppress her laughter during this harangue: however, she told him, that she thought herself much honoured by his intentions towards her, and still more obliged to him for consulting her, before he made any overtures to her relations: "It will be time enough," said she, "to speak to them upon the subject at your return from the waters; for I do not think it is at all probable that they will dispose of me before that time, and in case they should be urgent in their solicitations, your nephew William will take care to acquaint you; therefore, you may set out whenever you think proper; but take care not to injure your health by returning too soon."

The Chevalier de Grammont, having heard the particulars of this conversation, endeavoured as well as he could to be entertained with it; though there were certain circumstances in the declaration, notwithstanding the absurdity of others, which did not fail to give him some uneasiness. Upon the whole, he was not sorry for Russell's departure; and, assuming an air of pleasantry, he went to relate to the king, how Heaven had favoured him, by delivering him from so dangerous a rival. "He is gone then, Chevalier?" said the king "Certainly, Sir," said he, "I had the honour to see him embark in a coach, with his asthma, and country equipage, his perruque à calotte, neatly tied with a yellow riband, and his old-fashioned hat covered with oil-skin, which becomes him uncommonly well: therefore, I have only to contend with William Russell, whom he leaves as his resident with Miss Hamilton; and, as for him, I neither fear him upon his own account, nor his uncle's: he is too much in love himself, to pay attention to the interests of another; and as he has but one method of promoting his own, which is by sacrificing the portrait, or some love-letters of Mrs. Middleton, I have it easily in my power to counteract him in such kind of favours, though I confess I have pretty well paid for them."

"Since your affairs proceed so prosperously with the Russells," said the king, "I will acquaint you that you are delivered from another rival, much more dangerous, if he were not already married: my brother has lately fallen in love with Lady Chesterfield." "How many blessings at once!" exclaimed the Chevalier de Grammont: "I have so many obligations to him for this inconstancy, that I would willingly serve him in his new amour, if Hamilton was not his rival: nor will your majesty take it ill, if I promote the interests of my mistress's brother, rather than those of your majesty's brother." "Hamilton, however," said the king, "does not stand so much in need of assistance, in affairs of this nature. as the Duke of York; but I know Lord Chesterfield is of such a disposition, that he will not suffer men to quarrel about his wife, with the same patience as the complaisant Shrewsbury; though he well deserves the same fate." Here follows a true description of Lord Chesterfield.

He had a very agreeable face, a fine head of hair, an indifferent shape, and a worse air; he was not, however, deficient in wit: a long residence in Italy had made him ceremonious in his commerce with men, and jealous in his connection with women. He had been much hated by the king, because he had been much beloved by Lady Castlemaine: it was reported that he had been in her good graces prior to her marriage; and as neither of them denied it. it was the more generally believed.

He had paid his devoirs to the eldest daughter of the Duke of Ormond, while his heart was still taken up with his former passion. The king's love for Lady Castlemaine, and the advancement he expected from such an alliance, made him press the match with as much ardour as if he had been passionately in love: he had therefore married Lady Chesterfield without loving her, and had lived some time with her in such coolness, as to leave her no room to doubt of his indifference. As she was endowed with great sensibility and delicacy, she suffered at this contempt: she was at first much affected with his behaviour, and afterwards enraged at it; and, when he began to give her proofs of his affection, she had the pleasure of convincing him of her indifference.

They were upon this footing, when she resolved to cure Hamilton, as she had lately done her husband, of all his remaining tenderness for Lady Castlemaine. For her it was no difficult undertaking: the conversation of the one was disagreeable, from the unpolished state of her manners, her ill-timed pride, her uneven temper, and extravagant humours: Lady Chesterfield, on the contrary, knew how to heighten her charms, with all the bewitching attractions in the power of a woman to invent, who wishes to make a conquest.

Besides all this, she had greater opportunities of making advances to him, than to any other: she lived at the Duke of Ormond's, at Whitehall, where Hamilton, as was said before, had free admittance at all hours: her extreme coldness, or rather the disgust which she shewed for her husband's returning affection, wakened his natural inclination to jealousy: he suspected that she could not so very suddenly pass from anxiety to indifference for him, without some secret object of a new attachment; and, according to the maxims of all jealous husbands, he immediately put in practice all his experience and industry, in order to make a discovery, which was to destroy his own happiness.

Hamilton, who knew his disposition, was, on the other hand, upon his guard, and the more he advanced in his intrigue, the more attentive was he to remove every degree of suspicion from the earl's mind: he pretended to make him his confidant, in the most unguarded and open manner, of his passion for Lady Castlemaine: he complained of her caprice, and most earnestly desired his advice how to succeed with a person whose affections he alone had entirely possessed.

Chesterfield, who was flattered with this discourse, promised him his protection with greater sincerity than it had been demanded: Hamilton, therefore, was no further embarrased than to preserve Lady Chesterfield's reputation, who, in his opinion, declared herself rather too openly in his favour: but whilst he was diligently employed in regulating, within the rules of diseretion, the partiality she expressed for him, and in conjuring her to restrain her glances within bounds, she was receiving those of the Duke of York; and, what is more, made them favourable returns.

He thought that he had perceived it, as well as every one besides; but he thought likewise, that all the world was deceived as well as himself: how could he trust his own eyes, as to what those of Lady Chesterfield betrayed for this new rival? He could not think it probable, that a woman of her disposition could relish a man, whose manners had a thousand times been the subject of their private ridicule; but what he judged still more improbable was, that she should begin another intrigue before she had given the finishing stroke to that in which her own advances had engaged her: however, he began to observe her with more circumspection, when he found by his discoveries, that if she did not deceive him, at least the desire of doing so was not wanting. This he took the liberty of telling her of; but she answered him in so high a strain, and treated what he said so much like a phantom of his own imagination, that he appeared confused without being convinced: all the satisfaction he could procure from her, was her telling him, in a haughty manner, that such unjust reproaches as his ought to have had a better foundation.

Lord Chesterfield had taken the same alarm; and being convinced, from the observations he had made, that he had found out the happy lover who had gained possession of his lady's heart, he was satisfied; and without teazing her with unnecessary reproaches, he only waited for an opportunity to confound her, before he took his measures.

After all, how can we account for Lady Chesterfield's conduct, unless we attribute it to the disease incident to most coquettes, who, charmed with superiority, put in practice every art to rob another of her conquest, and spare nothing to preserve it.

Grammont. Sir John Denham, loaded with wealth as well as years, had passed his youth in the midst of those pleasures which people at that age indulge in without restraint: he was one of the brightest geniuses England ever produced for wit and humour, and for brilliancy of composition: satirical and free in his poems, he spared neither frigid writers, nor jealous husbands, nor even their wives: every part abounded with the most poignant wit, and the most entertaining stories; but his most delicate and spirited raillery turned generally against matrimony; and, as if he wished to confirm, by his own example, the truth of what he had written in his youth, he married, at the age of seventy-nine, this Miss Brook of whom we are speaking, who was only eighteen.

The Duke of York had rather neglected her for some time before; but the circumstance of so unequal a match rekindled his ardour; and she, on her part, suffered him to entertain hopes of an approaching bliss, which a thousand considerations had opposed before her marriage: she wished to belong to the court; and for the promise of being made lady of the bedchamber to the duchess, she was upon the point of making him another promise, or of immediately performing it, if required, when, in the middle of this treaty, Lady Chesterfield was tempted by her evil genius to rob her of her conquest, in order to disturb all the world.

However, as Lady Chesterfield could not see the Duke of York, except in public assemblies, she was under the necessity of making the most extravagant advances, in order to seduce him from his former connection; and as he was the most unguarded ogler of his time, the whole court was informed of the intrigue before it was well begun.

Grammont. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.

Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The [his brother] king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.

The character of the Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.

His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the [his sister] Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Grammont. Lady Robarts was then in the zenith of her glory: her beauty was striking; yet notwithstanding the brightness of the finest complexion, with all the bloom of youth, and with every requisite for inspiring desire, she nevertheless was not attractive. The Duke of York, however, would probably have been successful, if difficulties, almost insurmountable, had not disappointed his good intentions: Lord Robarts, her husband, was an old, snarling, troublesome, peevish fellow, in love with her to distraction, and, to complete her misery, a perpetual attendant on her person.

She perceived his royal highness's attachment to her, and seemed as if she was inclined to be grateful: this redoubled his eagerness, and every outward mark of tenderness he could possibly shew her; but the watchful husband redoubling his zeal and assiduity, as he found the approaches advance, every art was practised to render him tractable: several attacks were made upon his avarice and his ambition. Those who possessed the greatest share of his confidence, insinuated to him, that it was his own fault, if Lady Robarts, who was so worthy of being at court, was not received into some considerable post, either about the queen or the duchess: he was offered to be made lord lieutenant of the county where his estate was; or to have the management of the Duke of York's revenues in Ireland, of which he should have the entire disposal, provided he immediately set out to take possession of his charge; and having accomplished it, he might return as soon as ever he thought proper.

He perfectly well understood the meaning of these proposals, and was fully apprized of the advantages he might reap from them: in vain did ambition and avarice hold out their allurements; he was deaf to all their temptations, nor could ever the old fellow be persuaded to be made a cuckold. It is not always an aversion to, or a dread of this distinction, which preserves us from it: of this her husband was very sensible; therefore, under the pretence of a pilgrimage to Saint Winifred the virgin and martyr, who was said to cure women of barrenness, he did not rest, until the highest mountains in Wales were between his wife and the person who had designed to perform this miracle in London, after his departure.

The duke was for some time entirely taken up with the pleasures of the chase, and only now and then engaged in those of love; but his taste having undergone a change in this particular, and the remembrance of Lady Robarts wearing off by degrees, his eyes and wishes were turned towards Miss Brook; and it was in the height of this pursuit, that Lady Chesterfield threw herself into his arms, as we shall see, by resuming the sequel of her adventures.

Grammont. Among her lovers, the most considerable, though the least professedly so, was the Duke of York: it was in vain for him to conceal it, the court was too well acquainted with his character to doubt of his inclinations for her. He did not think it proper to declare such sentiments as were not fit for Miss Hamilton to hear; but he talked to her as much as he could, and ogled her with great assiduity. As hunting was his favourite diversion, that sport employed him one part of the day, and he came home generally much fatigued; but Miss Hamilton's presence revived him, when he found her either with the queen or the duchess. There it was that, not daring to tell her of what lay heavy on his heart, he entertained her with what he had in his head: telling her miracles of the cunning of foxes and the mettle of horses; giving her accounts of broken legs and arms, dislocated shoulders, and other curious and entertaining adventures; after which, his eyes told her the rest, till such time as sleep interrupted their conversation; for these tender interpreters could not help sometimes composing themselves in the midst of their ogling.

Grammont. About this time Talbot returned from Portugal: this connection had taken place during his absence; and without knowing who Lady Southesk was, he had been informed that his master was in love with her. A few days after his arrival, he was carried, merely to keep up appearances, to her house by the duke; and after being introduced, and some compliments having been paid on both sides, he thought it his duty to give his royal highness an opportunity to pay his compliments, and accordingly retired into the ante-chamber, which looked into the street, and placed himself at the window to view the people as they passed.

He was one of the best-meaning men in the world on such occasions; but was so subject to forgetfulness and absence of mind, that he once forgot, and left behind him at London, a complimentary letter which the duke had given him for the Infanta of Portugal, and never recollected it till he was going to his audience.

He stood sentry, as we have before said, very attentive to his instructions, when he saw a coach stop at the door, without being in the least concerned at it, and still less, at a man whom he saw get out of it, and whom he immediately heard coming up stairs.

The devil, who ought to be civil upon such occasions, forgot himself in the present instance, and brought up Lord Southesk in propriâ personâ: his royal highness's equipage had been sent home, because my lady had assured him that her husband was gone to see a bear and a bull baiting, an entertainment in which he took great delight, and from whence he seldom returned until it was very late; so that Southesk, not seeing any equipage at the door, little imagined that he had such good company in his house; but if he was surprised to see Talbot carelessly lolling in his wife's ante-chamber, his surprise was soon over. Talbot, who had not seen him since they were in Flanders, and never supposing that he had changed his name: "Welcome, Carnegy, welcome, my good fellow," said he, giving him his hand, "where the devil have you been, that I have never been able to set eyes on you since we were at Brussels? What business brought you here? Do you likewise wish to see Lady Southesk? If this is your intention, my poor friend, you may go away again; for I must inform you, the Duke of York is in love with her, and I will tell you in confidence, that, at this very time, he is in her chamber."

Southesk, confounded as one may suppose, had no time to answer all these fine questions: Talbot, therefore, attended him down stairs as his friend; and, as his humble servant, advised him to seek for a mistress elsewhere. Southesk, not knowing what else to do at that time, returned to his coach; and Talbot, overjoyed at the adventure, impatiently waited for the duke's return, that he might acquaint him with it; but he was very much surprised to find that the story afforded no pleasure to those who had the principal share in it; and his greatest concern was, that Carnegy had changed his name, as if only to draw him into such a confidence.

This accident broke off a commerce which the Duke of York did not much regret; and indeed it was happy for him that he became indifferent; for the traitor Southesk meditated a revenge, whereby, without using either assassination or poison, he would have obtained some satisfaction upon those who had injured him, if the connection had continued any longer.

He went to the most infamous places, to seek for the most infamous disease, which he met with; but his revenge was only half completed; for after he had gone through every remedy to get quit of his disease, his lady did but return him his present, having no more connection with the person for whom it was so industriously prepared.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now then as I began to show you, it was by the Protector and his council concluded that this Doctor Shaa should in a sermon at Paul's Cross signify to the people that neither King Edward himself nor the Duke of Clarence were lawfully begotten, nor were the very children of the Duke of York, but gotten unlawfully by other persons by the adultery of the Duchess, their mother-and that also Dame Elizabeth Lucy was verily the wife of King Edward, and so the Prince and all his children were bastards that were gotten upon the Queen.

Grammont. The next day the news was made public, and the whole court was eager to pay her that respect, from a sense of duty, which in the end became very sincere.

The petits-maîtres who had spoken against her, seeing their intentions disappointed, were not a little embarrassed. Women are seldom accustomed to forgive injuries of this nature; and, if they promise themselves the pleasure of revenge, when they gain the power, they seldom forget it: in the present case, however, the fears of these petits-maîtres were their only punishment.

The Duchess of York, being fully informed of all that was said in the cabinet concerning her, instead of shewing the least resentment, studied to distinguish, by all manner of kindness and good offices, those who had attacked her in so sensible a part; nor did she ever mention it to them, but in order to praise their zeal, and to tell them, "that nothing was a greater proof of the attachment of a man of honour, than his being more solicitous for the interest of his friend, or master, than for his own reputation:" a remarkable example of prudence and moderation, not only for the fair sex, but even for those who value themselves most upon their philosophy among the men.

The Duke of York, having quieted his conscience by the declaration of his marriage, thought that he was entitled, by this generous effort, to give way a little to his inconstancy: he therefore immediately seized upon whatever he could first lay his hands upon: this was Lady Carnegy, had been in several other hands. She was still tolerably handsome, and her disposition, naturally inclined to tenderness, did not oblige her new lover long to languish. Every thing coincided with their wishes for some time: Lord Carnegy, her husband, was in Scotland; but his father dying suddenly, he as suddenly returned with the title of Southesk, which his wife detested; but which she took more patiently than she received the news of his return. Some private intimation had been given him of the honour that was done him in his absence; nevertheless, he did not shew his jealousy at first; but, as he was desirous to be satisfied of the reality of the fact, he kept a strict watch over his wife's actions. The Duke of York and her ladyship had, for some time, been upon such terms of intimacy, as not to pass their time in frivolous amusements; however, the husband's return obliged them to maintain some decorum: he therefore never went to her house, but in form, that is to say, always accompanied by some friend or other, to give his amours at least the appearance of a visit.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now was it before devised that in the speaking of these words the Protector should have come in among the people during the sermon, to the end that those words, meeting with his presence, might have been taken among the hearers as though the Holy Ghost had put them in the preacher's mouth and should have moved the people even there to cry, "King Richard! King Richard!"-that it might have been afterwards said that he was specially chosen by God and in manner by miracle.

But this device failed, either by the Protector's negligence, or the preacher's overmuch diligence. For while the Protector delayed along the way lest he should arrive before those words, and while the Doctor, fearing that the Protector should come before his sermon would come to those words, hasted his matter thereto, the preacher came to them and past them and entered into other matters before the Protector came. When the Doctor beheld his coming, he suddenly left the matter with which he was in hand, and without any deduction thereunto, out of all order, and out of all frame, began to repeat those words again: "This is the very noble prince, the special pattern of knightly prowess, which as well in all princely behavior, as in the lineaments and favor of his appearance, represents the very face of the noble Duke of York, his father. This is the father's own figure, this his own countenance, the very print of his visage, the sure undoubted image, the plain express likeness of the noble Duke, whose remembrance can never die while he lives."

While these words were in speaking, the Protector, accompanied with the Duke of Buckingham, went through the people into the place where the doctors commonly stand in the upper story, where he stood to hear the sermon. But the people were so far from crying "King Richard" that they stood as they had been turned into stone, for wonder of this shameful sermon. After which once ended, the preacher got himself home and never after dared look out for shame, but kept himself out of sight like an owl. And when he once asked one that had been his old friend what the people talked of him, although his own conscience well showed him that they talked no good, yet when the other answered him that there was in every man's mouth spoken of him much shame, it so struck him to the heart that within few days after, he withered and consumed away.

Then on the Tuesday following this sermon, there came unto the Guildhall in London the Duke of Buckingham, accompanied with diverse lords and knights, who more than by chance knew the message that they brought. And there in the east end of the hall where the Mayor keeps the Court of Hustings, the Mayor and all the Aldermen being assembled about him, all the commons of the city gathered before them, after silence commanded upon great pain in the Protector's name, the Duke stood up, and (as he was not unlearned and of nature marvelously well spoken) he said unto the people, with a clear and a loud voice, in this manner the following:

"Friends, for the zeal and hearty favor that we bear you, we come to reveal unto you, a matter right great and weighty, and no less weighty than pleasing to God and profitable to all the realm, nor to no part of the realm more profitable than to you, the citizens of this noble city. Why? That thing that we know well you have long time lacked and sore longed for, that you would have given great good for, that you would have gone far to fetch-that thing we come hither to bring you, without your labor, pain, cost, adventure, or jeopardy.

"What thing is that? Certainly, the surety of your own bodies, the quiet of your wives and your daughters, the safeguard of your goods: of all which things in times past you stood ever more in doubt. For who was there among you that would reckon himself lord of his own goods, among so many snares and traps as was set, among so much pillaging and extortion, among so many taxes and arbitrary ones at that-of which there was never end and oftentimes no need, or if any were, it rather grew of riot and unreasonable waste than any necessary or honorable charge? So that there was daily, pillaged from good and honest men, great substance of goods to be squandered out among prodigals so far forth that fifteenths sufficed not, nor any of the usual names of known taxes; but under an easy name of "benevolence and good will" the commissioners so much of every man took, as no man would with his good will have given-as though the name of "benevolence" had signified that every man should pay, not what he himself of his good will pleases to grant, but what the King of his good will pleases to take, who never asked little, but everything was hiked above the measure: adjudged punishments turned into fines, fines into ransoms, small trespass to imprisonment, imprisonment into treason.

Grammont. The Duke of York found this last accusation greatly out of bounds, being convinced he himself had sufficient proofs of the contrary: he therefore returned thanks to these officious informers for their frankness, ordered them to be silent for the future upon what they had been telling him, and immediately passed into the king's apartment.

As soon as he had entered the cabinet, Lord Falmouth, who had followed him, related what had passed to the Earl of Ossory, whom he met in the presence chamber: they strongly suspected what was the subject of the conversation of the two brothers, as it was long; and the Duke of York appeared to be in such agitation when he came out, that they no longer doubted that the result had been unfavourable for poor Miss Hyde. Lord Falmouth began to be affected for her disgrace, and to relent that he had been concerned in it, when the Duke of York told him and the Earl of Ossory to meet him in about an hour's time at the chancellor's.

They were rather surprised that he should have the cruelty himself to announce such a melancholy piece of news: they found his royal highness at the appointed hour in Miss Hyde's chamber: a few tears trickled down her cheeks, which she endeavoured to restrain. The chancellor, leaning against the wall, appeared to them to be puffed up with something, which they did not doubt was rage and despair. The Duke of York said to them, with that serene and pleasant countenance with which men generally announce good news: "As you are the two men of the court whom I most esteem, I am desirous you should first have the honour of paying your compliments to the Duchess of York: there she is."

Surprise was of no use, and astonishment was unseasonable on the present occasion: they were, however, so greatly possessed with both surprise and astonishment, that in order to conceal it, they immediately fell on their knees to kiss her hand, which she gave to them with as much majesty as if she had been used to it all her life.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Of these two, the one had a sermon in praise of the Protector before the coronation, the other after; both so full of tedious flattery that no man's ears could abide them. Penker in his sermon so lost his voice that he was glad to leave off and come down in the midst. Doctor Shaa by his sermon lost his honesty and soon after his life, for very shame of the world, into which he dared never after come abroad. But the friar cared not for shame, and so it harmed him the less. However, some doubt and many think that Penker was not of counsel of the matter before the coronation, but after the common manner fell to flattery afterwards; namely, because his sermon was not immediately after it, but at Saint Mary's Hospital on the Easter after. But certain is it that Doctor Shaa was of counsel in the beginning so far forth that they determined he should first break the matter in a sermon at Paul's Cross, in which he should, by the authority of his preaching, incline the people to the Protector's ghostly purpose.

But now was all the labor and study in the device of some appropriate pretext for which the people should be content to depose the Prince and accept the Protector for king, for which diverse things they devised. But the chief thing, and the most weighty of all that invention, rested in this: they should allege bastardy, either in King Edward himself, or in his children, or both, so that he should seem unable to inherit the crown by the Duke of York, and the Prince by him. To lay bastardy in King Edward sounded openly to the rebuke of the Protector's own mother, who was mother to them both; for in that point could be none other color, but to pretend that his own mother was one adulteress, which, not withstanding, to further his purpose he omitted not; but nevertheless, he would the point should be less and more favorably handled, not even fully plain and directly, but that the matter should be touched upon, craftily, as though men spared, in that point, to speak all the truth for fear of his displeasure. But the other point, concerning the bastardy that they devised to surmise in King Edward's children, that would he be openly declared and enforced to the uttermost. The color and pretext whereof cannot be well perceived but if we first repeat to you some things long before done about King Edward's marriage.

After King Edward the Fourth had deposed King Henry the Sixth and was in peaceful possession of the realm, determining himself to marry, as it was requisite both for himself and for the realm, he sent over in embassy the Earl of Warwick with other noble men in his company unto Spain to entreat and conclude a marriage between King Edward and the king's daughter of Spain. In which thing the Earl of Warwick found the parties so toward and willing that he speedily, according to his instructions, without any difficulty brought the matter to a very good conclusion.

Now it happened in the meanwhile that there came to make a suit by petition to the King, Dame Elizabeth Gray, who was after his Queen, at that time a widow born of noble blood, specially by her mother, who was Duchess of Bedford before she married the Lord Woodville, Elizabeth's father. However, this Dame Elizabeth, herself being in service with Queen Margaret, wife unto King Henry the Sixth, was married unto one John Gray, a squire, whom King Henry made knight upon the battlefield where he had fought on Shrove Tuesday at Saint Albans against King Edward. And little while enjoyed he that knighthood, for he was at the same field slain. After he had died, and the Earl of Warwick being in his embassy about the before mentioned marriage, this poor lady made humble suit unto the King that she might be restored unto such small lands as her late husband had given her during their marriage. Whom when the King beheld and heard her speak, as she was both fair, of a good favor, moderate of stature, well made and very wise, he not only pitied her, but also grew enamored with her. And taking her afterward secretly aside, began to enter into talking more familiarly. Whose appetite, when she perceived it, she virtuously denied him. But that did she so wisely, and with so good manner, and words so well set, that she rather kindled his desire than quenched it. And finally after many a meeting, much wooing, and many great promises, she well spied the King's affection toward her so greatly increased that she dared somewhat the more boldly say her mind, as to him whose heart she perceived more firmly set than to fall off for a word. And in conclusion she showed him plain that as she knew herself too simple to be his wife, so thought she herself too good to be his concubine. The King, much marveling at her constancy, as he that had not been wont elsewhere to be so stiffly told nay, so much esteemed her continence and chastity that he set her virtue in the place of possession and riches. And thus taking counsel of his desire, determined in all possible haste to marry her. And after he was thus resolved, and there had between them an agreement been assured, then asked he counsel of his other friends, and in such manner, as they might easily perceive it remedied not greatly to say nay.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. According to this device, Doctor Shaa, the Sunday after, at Paul's Cross in a great audience (as always assembled great numbers to his preaching), he took for his theme Spuria vitulamina non agent radices altas, that is to say, "bastard slips shall never take deep root." Thereupon, when he had showed the great grace that God gives and secretly grants in right generation after the laws of matrimony, then declared he that commonly those children lacked that grace and, for the punishment of their parents, were for the most part unhappy, who were begotten in bastardy and especially in adultery. Of which, though some by the ignorance of the world and the truth hid from knowledge inherited for the time other men's lands, yet God always so provides that it continues not in their blood long, but the truth coming to light, the rightful inheritors be restored, and the bastard slip pulled up before it can be rooted deep. And when he had laid for the proof and confirmation of this sentence certain examples taken out of the Old Testament and other ancient histories, then began he to descend into the praise of the Lord Richard, late Duke of York, calling him father to the Lord Protector, and declared the title of his heirs unto the crown, to whom it was, after the death of King Henry the Sixth, entailed by authority of Parliament. Then showed he that his very right heir, of his own body lawfully begotten, was the Lord Protector alone. For he declared then, King Edward was never lawfully married unto the Queen, but was before God husband unto Dame Elizabeth Lucy, and so his children bastards. And besides that, neither King Edward himself, nor the Duke of Clarence, among those that were secret in the household, were reckoned very surely for the children of the noble Duke, as those that by their favors more resembled other known men than him, from whose virtuous conditions he said also that King Edward was far off. But the Lord Protector, he said, that very noble prince, the special pattern of knightly prowess, as well in all princely behavior as in the lineaments and favor of his appearance, represented the very face of the noble duke, his father. "This is," said he, "the father's own figure; this is his own countenance, the very print of his visage, the sure undoubted image, the plain express likeness of that noble duke."

The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. "For as that worshipful man thoroughly made clear to you, the children of King Edward the Fourth were never lawfully begotten, forasmuch as the King (while his true wife, Dame Elizabeth Lucy, was still living) was never lawfully married unto the Queen, their mother, whose blood, except that he set voluptuous pleasure before his honor, was fully unsuitable to be matched with his; and the mingling of their bloods together has been the effusion of the greater part of the noble blood of this realm. Whereby it may well seem that the marriage was not well made, out of which there is so much mischief grown. For lack of such lawful coupling, and also of other things which the said worshipful Doctor rather signified than fully explained, and which things shall not be spoken by me as the things wherein every man forbears to say because he knows to avoid the displeasure of my noble Lord Protector, who bears, as nature requires, a filial reverence to the Duchess his mother, for these causes before mentioned, I say, that is, for lack of other issue lawfully coming of the late noble Prince Richard, Duke of York, to whose royal blood the crown of England and of France is by the high authority of Parliament entailed, the right and title of the same is by the just course of inheritance, according to the common law of this land, handed down and come unto the most excellent Prince, the Lord Protector, as the very lawfully begotten son of the remembered noble Duke of York.

Grammont. The Duke of York consented, and Lord Falmouth having assembled both his counsel and his witnesses, conducted them to his royal highness's cabinet, after having instructed them how to act: these gentlemen were the Earl of Arran, Jermyn, Talbot, and Killegrew, all men of honour; but who infinitely preferred the Duke of York's interest to Miss Hyde's reputation, and who, besides, were greatly dissatisfied, as well as the whole court, at the insolent authority of the prime minister. The duke having told them, after a sort of preamble, that although they could not be ignorant of his affection for Miss Hyde, yet they might be unacquainted with the engagements his tenderness for her had induced him to contract; that he thought himself obliged to perform all the promises he had made her; but as the innocence of persons of her age was generally exposed to court scandal, and as certain reports, whether false or true, had been spread abroad on the subject of her conduct, he conjured them as his friends, and charged them upon their duty, to tell him sincerely every thing they knew upon the subject, since he was resolved to make their evidence the rule of his conduct towards her. They all appeared rather reserved at first, and seemed not to dare to give their opinions upon an affair of so serious and delicate a nature; but the Duke of York having renewed his entreaties, each began to relate the particulars of what he knew, and perhaps of more than he knew, of poor Miss Hyde; nor did they omit any circumstance necessary to strengthen the evidence. For instance, the Earl of Arran, who spoke first, deposed, that in the gallery at Honslaerdyk, where the Countess of Ossory, his sister-in-law, and Jermyn, were playing at nine-pins, Miss Hyde, pretending to be sick, retired to a chamber at the end of the gallery; that he, the deponent, had followed her, and having cut her lace, to give a greater probability to the pretence of the vapours, he had acquitted himself to the best of his abilities, both to assist and to console her.

Talbot said, that she had made an appointment with him in the chancellor's cabinet, while he was in council; and, that not paying so much attention to what was upon the table, as to what they were engaged in, they had spilled a bottle full of ink upon a despatch of four pages, and that the king's monkey, which was blamed for this accident, had been a long time in disgrace.

Jermyn mentioned many places where he had received long and favourable audiences: however, all these articles of accusation amounted only to some delicate familiarities, or at most, to what is generally denominated the innocent part of an intrigue; but Killegrew, who wished to surpass these trivial depositions, boldly declared that he had had the honour of being upon the most intimate terms with her: he was of a sprightly and witty humour, and had the art of telling a story in the most entertaining manner, by the graceful and natural turn he could give it: he affirmed that he had found the critical minute in a certain closet built over the water, for a purpose very different from that of giving ease to the pains of love: that three or four swans had been witnesses to his happiness, and might perhaps have been witnesses to the happiness of many others, as the lady frequently repaired to that place, and was particularly delighted with it.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Then on the morrow after, the Mayor with all the Aldermen and chief commoners of the city, in their best manner appareled, assembling themselves together, resorted unto Baynard's Castle [Map] where the Protector lay. To which place repaired also, according to their appointment, the Duke of Buckingham with diverse noble men with him, besides many knights and other gentlemen. And thereupon, the Duke sent word unto the Lord Protector of there being a great and honorable company to move a great matter unto his Grace.

Whereupon the Protector made difficulty to come out unto them unless he first knew some part of their errand, as though he doubted and partly distrusted the coming of such number unto him so suddenly without any warning or knowledge, whether they came for good or harm. Then the Duke, when he had showed this unto the Mayor and others, that they might thereby see how little the Protector expected this matter, they sent unto him by messenger such loving message again, and therewith so humbly besought him to graciously condescend so that they might come into his presence and propose their intent, of which they would unto none other person any part disclose, that at the last he came forth from his chamber, and yet not down unto them, but stood above in a gallery over them, where they might see him and speak to him, as though he would not yet come too near them till he knew what they meant.

And thereupon the Duke of Buckingham first made humble petition unto him, on behalf of them all, that his Grace would pardon them and give them permission to present unto his Grace the intent of their coming without his displeasure, without which pardon obtained, they dared not be bold to move him of that matter. In which, although they meant as much honor to his Grace as wealth to all the realm beside, yet were they not sure how his Grace would take it, whom they would in no way offend.

Then the Protector, as if he was very gentle himself and also longed sore to know what they meant, gave him leave to propose what he liked, verily trusting, because of the good mind that he bore them all, none of them would intend anything toward him wherewith he ought to be grieved.

When the Duke had this leave and pardon to speak, then grew he bold to show him their intent and purpose, with all the causes moving them thereto, as you before have heard, and finally to beseech his Grace that it would like him of his accustomed goodness and zeal unto the realm, now with his eye of pity, to behold the long continued distress and decay of the same, and to set his gracious hands to the redress and amendment thereof by taking upon him the crown and governance of this realm, according to his right and title lawfully descended unto him, and to the praise of God, profit of the land, and unto his Grace so much the more honor and less pain, in that never a prince reigned upon any people that were so glad to live under his rule as the people of this realm under his.

When the Protector had heard the proposition, he looked very strangely thereat and answered that although he partly knew the things by them alleged to be true, yet such entire love he bore unto King Edward and his children, that he so much more regarded his honor in other realms than the crown of any one, of which he was never desirous, that he could not find in his heart in this point to incline to their desire. For in all other nations, where the truth was not well known, it should perhaps be thought it were his own ambitious mind and device to depose the Prince and take for himself the crown. With such infamy he would not have his honor stained for any crown-a crown that he had ever perceived held much more labor and pain than pleasure to him that so would so use it, and he who would not use it were not worthy to have it. Not withstanding, he not only pardoned them the motion that they made him, but also thanked them for the love and hearty favor they bore him, praying them, for his sake, to give and bear the same to the Prince, under whom he was and would be content to live; and with his labor and counsel, as far as should the King like to use him, he would do his uttermost duty to set the realm in good state, which was already in this little while of his protectorship (the praise given to God) well begun, in that the malice of such as were before occasion of the contrary-and of new intended to be-were now, partly by good policy, partly more by God's special providence than man's provision, repressed.

Upon this answer given, the Duke, by the Protector's permission, a little whispered as well with other noble men about him, as with the Mayor and Recorder of London. And after that, upon like pardon desired and obtained, he showed aloud unto the Protector, for a final conclusion, that the realm was resolved King Edward's line should not any longer reign upon them, both because they had gone so far that there was now no safety to retreat, and because they thought it for the common good to take that way, although they had not yet begun it. Wherefore, if it would please his Grace to take the crown upon him, they would humbly beseech him thereunto. If he would give them a resolute answer to the contrary, which they would be loath to hear, then they must needs seek, and should not fail to find, some other noble man that would.

These words much moved the Protector, who else, as every man may know, would never of likelihood have inclined thereunto. But when he saw there was none other way, but either he must take it or else he and his both must go from it, he said unto the lords and commons: "Since we perceive well that all the realm is so set-whereof we be very sorry they will not suffer in any way King Edward's line to govern them, whom no earthly man can govern against their wills-and because we also perceive well that no man is there to whom the crown can by so just title appertain as to ourself as very right heir, lawfully begotten of the body of our most dear father, Richard, late Duke of York-to which title is now joined your election, the nobles and commons of this realm, which we of all titles possible take for most effectual-we be content and agree favorably to incline to your petition and request, and according to the same, here we take upon us the royal estate, preeminence, and kingdom of the two noble realms, England and France: the one from this day forward by us and our heirs to rule, govern and defend; the other, by God's grace and your good help, to get again and subdue and establish forever in due obedience unto this realm of England-the advancement-whereof we never ask of God longer to live than we intend to procure."

With this there was a great shout, crying, "Richard! King Richard!" And then the lords went up to the King (for so was he from that time called) and the people departed, talking diversely of the matter, every man as his fancy gave him.

But much they talked and marveled of the manner of this dealing, that the matter was on both parts made so strange, as though neither had ever communed thereof with the other before, when that they themselves well knew there was no man so dull who heard them, but he perceived well enough that all the matter was made between them. However, some excused that again and said all must be done in good order. And men must sometimes for the sake of manner not acknowledge what they know. For at the consecration of a bishop, every man knows well by the paying for his bulls that he purposes to be one, even though he pay for nothing else. And yet must he be twice asked whether he will be bishop or not, and he must twice say nay, and at the third time take it as compelled thereunto by his own will. And in a stage play all the people know right well that he who plays the sultan is perchance a shoemaker. Yet if one should be so foolish as to show out of turn what acquaintance he really has with him, and call him by his own name while he acts as his majesty, one of his tormentors might, by chance, break his head, and do so rightly for marring of the play. And so they said that these matters be kings' games, as it were, stage plays, and for the most part played upon scaffolds, in which poor men be but the on-lookers. And they that wise be, will meddle no further. For they who sometimes step up and play with them, when they cannot play their parts, they disorder the play and do themselves no good.

Grammont. But before we enter into the particulars of this adventure, let us take a retrospect of the amours of his royal highness, prior to the declaration of his marriage, and particularly of what immediately preceded this declaration. It is allowable sometimes to drop the thread of a narrative, when real facts, not generally known, give such a variety upon the digression as to render it excusable: let us see then how those things happened.

The Duke of York's marriage with the chancellor's daughter was deficient in none of those circumstances which render contracts of this nature valid in the eye of heaven: the mutual inclination, the formal ceremony, witnesses, and every essential point of matrimony, had been observed.

Though the bride was no perfect beauty, yet, as there were none at the court of Holland who eclipsed her, the duke, during the first endearments of matrimony, was so far from repenting of it, that he seemed only to wish for the king's restoration, that he might have an opportunity of declaring it with splendour; but when he saw himself enjoying a rank which placed him so near the throne; when the possession of Miss Hyde afforded him no new charms; when England, so abounding in beauties, displayed all that was charming and lovely in the court of the king his brother; and when he considered he was the only prince, who, from such superior elevation, had descended so low, he began to reflect upon it. On the one hand, his marriage appeared to him particularly ill suited in every respect: he recollected that Jermyn had not engaged him in an intimacy with Miss Hyde, until he had convinced him, by several different circumstances, of the facility of succeeding: he looked upon his marriage as an infringement of that duty and obedience he owed to the king; the indignation with which the court, and even the whole kingdom, would receive the account of his marriage, presented itself to his imagination, together with the impossibility of obtaining the king's consent to such an act, which for a thousand reasons he would be obliged to refuse. On the other hand, the tears and despair of poor Miss Hyde presented themselves; and still more than that, he felt a remorse of conscience, the scruples of which began from that time to rise up against him.

In the midst of this perplexity he opened his heart to Lord Falmouth, and consulted with him what method he ought to pursue. He could not have applied to a better man for his own interests, nor to a worse for Miss Hyde's; for at first, Falmouth maintained not only that he was not married, but that it was even impossible that he could ever have formed such a thought; that any marriage was invalid for him, which was made without the king's consent, even if the party was a suitable match: but that it was a mere jest, even to think of the daughter of an insignificant lawyer, whom the favour of his sovereign had lately made a peer of the realm, without any noble blood, and chancellor, without any capacity; that as for his scruples, he had only to give ear to some gentlemen whom he could introduce, who would thoroughly inform him of Miss Hyde's conduct, before he became acquainted with her; and provided he did not tell them that he really was married, he would soon have sufficient grounds to come to a determination.

Grammont. The court, as we have mentioned before, was an entire scene of gallantry and amusements, with all the politeness and magnificence, which the inclinations of a prince, naturally addicted to tenderness and pleasure, could suggest; the beauties were desirous of charming, and the men endeavoured to please; all studied to set themselves off to the best advantage; some distinguished themselves by dancing; others by show and magnificence; some by their wit, many by their amours, but few by their constancy. There was a certain Italian at court, famous for the guitar; he had a genius for music, and he was the only man who could make any thing of the guitar: his style of play was so full of grace and tenderness, that he would have given harmony to the most discordant instruments. The truth is, nothing was so difficult as to play like this foreigner. The king's relish for his compositions had brought the instrument so much into vogue, that every person played upon it, well or ill; and you were as sure to see a guitar on a lady's toilette, as rouge or patches. The Duke of York played upon it tolerably well, and the Earl of Arran like Francisco himself. This Francisco had composed a saraband, which either charmed or infatuated every person; for the whole guitarery at court were trying at it, and God knows what an universal strumming there was. The Duke of York, pretending not to be perfect in it, desired Lord Arran to play it to him. Lady Chesterfield had the best guitar in England. The Earl of Arran, who was desirous of playing his best, conducted his royal highness to his sister's apartments; she was lodged at court, at her father's, the Duke of Ormond's, and this wonderful guitar was lodged there too. Whether this visit had been preconcerted or not, I do not pretend to say; but it is certain that they found both the lady and the guitar at home; they likewise found there Lord Chesterfield, so much surprised at this unexpected visit, that it was a considerable time before he thought of rising from his seat, to receive them with due respect.

Jealousy, like a malignant vapour, now seized upon his brain; a thousand suspicions, blacker than ink, took possession of his imagination, and were continually increasing; for whilst the brother played upon the guitar to the duke, the sister ogled and accompanied him with her eyes, as if the coast had been clear, and no enemy to observe them. This saraband was at least repeated twenty times; the duke declared it was played to perfection. Lady Chesterfield found fault with the composition; but her husband, who clearly perceived that he was the person played upon, thought it a most detestable piece. However, though he was in the last agony, at being obliged to curb his passion, while others gave a free scope to theirs, he was resolved to find out the drift of the visit; but it was not in his power; for having the honour to be chamberlain to the queen, a messenger came to require his immediate attendance on her majesty. His first thought was to pretend sickness; the second to suspect that the queen, who sent for him at such an unseasonable time, was in the plot; but at last, after all the extravagant ideas of a suspicious man, and all the irresolutions of a jealous husband, he was obliged to go.

We may easily imagine what his state of mind was when he arrived at the palace. Alarms are to the jealous, what disasters are to the unfortunate: they seldom come alone, but form a series of persecution. He was informed that he was sent for to attend the queen at an audience she gave to seven or eight Muscovite ambassadors: he had scarce begun to curse the Muscovites, when his brother-in-law appeared, and drew upon himself all the imprecations he bestowed upon the embassy: he no longer doubted his being in the plot with the two persons he had left together; and in his heart sincerely wished him such recompense for his good offices as such good offices deserved. It was with great difficulty that he restrained himself from immediately acquainting him what was his opinion of such conduct: he thought that what he had already seen was a 'sufficient proof of his wife's infidelity; but before the end of the very same day, some circumstances occurred, which increased his suspicions, and persuaded him, that they had taken advantage of his absence, and of the honourable officiousness of his brother-in-law. He passed, however, that night with tranquillity; but the next morning, being reduced, to the necessity either of bursting or giving vent to his sorrows and conjectures, he did nothing but think and walk about the room until Park-time. He went to court, seemed very busy, as if seeking for some person or other, imagining that people guessed at the subject of his uneasiness: he avoided every body; but at length meeting with Hamilton, he thought he was the very man that he wanted; and having desired him to take an airing with him in Hyde Park, he took him up in his coach, and they arrived at the Ring, without a word having passed between them.

King James II of England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625

Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541

Royal Ancestors of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Grand Son of Henry IV King France

Royal Descendants of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland x 1

Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1

Ancestors of King James II of England Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

GrandFather: King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandmother: Mary Queen of Scots Great Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Father: King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland Son of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland

Great x 1 Grandfather: Frederick II King Denmark 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland England and Ireland 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Sophie Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

King James II of England Scotland and Ireland Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: Antoine King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Henry IV King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Mother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joanna of Austria Grand Duchess Tuscany 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England