Biography of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland 1516-1558

Paternal Family Tree: Tudor

Maternal Family Tree: Leonor de Alvim

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1516 Birth of Princess Mary

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

1527 Visit of the French Ambassadors

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1534 First Act of Succession

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Funeral of Jane Seymour

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1544 Wyatt's Rebellion

1545 Christening of Henry Wriothesley

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1533 Buggery Act

1553 Death of Edward VI

1553 Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

1553 Exeter Conspiracy

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Coronation of Mary I

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

1554 Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

1555 Protestant Executions

1555 England Re-established as Catholic

1556 Dudley Plot against Mary I

1557 Creation of Garter Knights

1558 Surrender of Calais

1558 Death of Mary I

1558 Funeral of Mary I

1559 Henry II of France Dies Francis and Mary "Queen of Scots" Succeed

In 1441 London's Lord Mayor obtained permission of Henry VI (age 19) to rebuild the Cheapside Cross [Map], being by length of time decayed […] in more beautifull manner for the honor of the citie. This new Cross was completed in 1486. During the first half of the Tudor period, the Cross was freshly gilded nearly every decade for important visitors and occasions: in 1522 for the visit of Charles I of Spain (by then Holy Roman Emperor Charles V); in 1533, for the coronation of Anne Boleyn; for the coronation of Edward VI; and in 1554, for the coronation of Philip, the Spanish consort of Mary.

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

On 28 Jun 1491 [her father] Henry VIII was born to [her grandfather] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34) and [her grandmother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall.

In 1494 [her father] Henry VIII (age 2) was created 1st Duke York.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

On 14 Nov 1501 [her uncle] Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (age 15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Henry Deane assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (age 51) and a further eighteen bishops. She wore a white satin dress with a farthingale and over her head wore a veil of fine silk trimmed with gold and pearls. She would, eight years later, marry his younger brother [her father] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 10) - see Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 49) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 50). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 44) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 35). They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Prince Henry (age 10) who escorted her up the aisle and gave her away.

Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 24) was Chief Answerer.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 18) and Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) attended.

Thomas Englefield was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Immediately after their marriage Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and Catherine of Aragon (age 15) resided at Tickenhill Manor, Bewdley [Map] for a month. Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow, Shropshire [Map].

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 [her father] Henry VIII (age 12) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 24) was created Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson (age 54) was knighted.

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [her grandfather] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace [Map]. His son [her father] Henry VIII  (age 17) succeeded VIII King England. Duke York and Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 11 Jun 1509, one month after the death of his father, [her father] Henry VIII (age 17) and [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (age 23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map]. She had, eight years before, married his older brother Prince Arthur Tudor - see Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 57) and Isabella Queen Castile. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Birth of Princess Mary

On 18 Feb 1516 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 24) and Catherine of Aragon (age 30) at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Margaret Bourchier 1st Baroness Bryan (age 48) was created 1st Baron Bryan and appointed the child's governess. Catherine York Countess Devon (age 36) was her godmother.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1510-1519. 18 Feb 1516. This yeare the Ladie Marie, Princes, was borne at Greenewich, in Februarie.

February 18th.

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

On 04 Mar 1522, Shrove Tuesday, at Cardinal Wolsey's York Place, a pageant known as Chateau Vert was performed. Believed to be the first public appearance of [her step-mother] Anne Bolyen (age 21) since her return from the French Court, and the first time [her father] King Henry VIII (age 30) had seen her since her childhood. The pageant was part of the Shrovetide celebrations which began on 1st March 1522 and which also celebrated the negotiations between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry VIII (age 30) for a joint attack on France, which were to be sealed by the marriage of [her future father-in-law] Charles V (age 22) and Princess Mary (age 6), Henry's daughter.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 01 Jun 1522. The morrow after, these princes removed to Sytingborne [Map], and the next day to Rochester [Map], where the Bishop (age 52) received them with the whole Covent, and on Monday they came to Gravesende [Map] by one of the clock, where they took their barges, and there were thirty barges appointed, for the strangers, and so by six of the clock they landed at Grenewiche [Map], the same Monday, the second day of June, where the Emperor (age 22) was of the King newly welcomed, and al his nobility, and at the hall door the [her mother] Queen (age 36) and the Prynces (age 6), and all the Ladies received and welcomed him: and he asked the Queen (age 36) blessing (for that is the fashion of Spain, between the aunt and the nephew) the Emperor (age 22) had great joy to see the Queen his aunt, and in especially his young cousin German [first-cousin] the lady Mary (age 6). The Emperor was lodged in the King’s lodging, which was so richly hanged, that the Spaniards wondered at it, and specially at the rich cloth of estate: nothing lacked that might be gotten, to cheer the Emperor and his lords, and all that came in his company, were highly feasted.

Hall's Chronicle 1527. 1527. Then out of a cave issued out the Lady Mary (age 10) daughter to the King and with her seven ladies, all apparelled after the Roman fashion in rich cloth of gold of tissue and crimson tinsel bendy and their hair wrapped in cauls of gold with bonnets of crimson velvet on their heads, set full of pearl and stone: these eight ladies danced with the eight lords of the mount, and as they danced, suddenly entered six personages, apparelled in cloth of silver and black tinsel satin, and whodes [?] on their heads with tippets of cloth of gold, there garments were long after the fashion of Iseland [Ireland or Iceland?], and these persons had visors with silver beards, so that they were not known: these maskers took Ladies and danced lustily about the place.

Visit of the French Ambassadors

Calendars. May 7. [1527] Sanuto Diaries, v. xlv. pp. 194–198.

105. Gasparo Spinelli, Venetian Secretary in London, to his brother Lodovico Spinelli, in Venice.

On the 4th instant all the ambassadors, with the exception of the Emperor's, were summoned to Greenwich, where, in the presence of the King and the chief personages of the Court, the French ambassador, the Bishop of Tarbes, delivered an oration, which was answered by the Bishop of London, who, on the morrow, Cardinal Wolsey being unable to officiate from indisposition, sang mass with the usual ceremonies; after which at the high altar, where the missal was opened by the Cardinal, the French ambassadors swore in his hands (“in mano dil R~mo Cardinal”) to observe the perpetual peace now concluded with the King of England, he on his part swearing in like manner.

Two of the ambassadors, namely the prelate and the soldier, dined with the King, the others dining together apart.

On rising from table they went to the Queen's apartment, where the Princess (age 11) danced with the French ambassador, the Viscount of Turenne, who considered her very handsome (“molto bella”), and admirable by reason of her great and uncommon mental endowments; but so thin, spare, and small (“cosi magreta et scarma et picola”) as to render it impossible for her to be married for the next three years.

Then yesterday1 there was a joust, the challengers at the tilt (“al campo”) being four2, the competitors (“concorrenti”) sixteen, each of whom ran six courses; a very delectable sight, by reason of the prowess of the knights. The joust ended with the day, not without rain, which rather impeded the jousting.

The King and the Queens3, with some 200 damsels (“damigelle”), then went to the apartments which I informed you in a former letter were being prepared [on one side of the list-yard at Greenwich] for the reception of the French ambassadors, the rest of the company following them. The site adjoined the other chambers from whence the King and the nobility view the jousts. They were but two halls, about thirty paces in length, and of proportional height and breadth. The centre of the ceiling of the first hall was entirely covered with brocatel of no great value, but producing a good effect; the walls were hung with the most costly tapestry in England, representing the history of David; and there was a row of torches closely set, illuminating the place very brilliantly, being ranged below the windows, which were at no great distance from the roof. The royal table was prepared in front of the hall, with a large canopy of tissue (“soprarizo”), beneath which was the King, with the Queens, his wife and sister, at the sides. Then came two long tables, at one of which, on the right-hand side, were seated the French ambassadors and the Princes, each pairing with some great lady. At the other table, to the left, the Venetian ambassador and the one from Milan placed themselves, with the rest of the lords and ladies. At no great distance from the two tables were two cupboards, reaching from the floor to the roof, forming a semicircle, on which was a large and varied assortment of vases, all of massive gold, the value of which it would be difficult to estimate, nor were any of them touched; silver gilt dishes of another sort being used for the viands of meat and fish, which were in such variety and abundance that the banquet lasted a long while.

The door of this hall was in the form of a very lofty triumphal arch, fashioned after the antique, beneath which were three vaulted entrances; through one passed the dishes for the table, through the other they were removed, and on each side of the centre one, which was the largest, stood two enormous cupboards bearing the wine to be served at table. Over the triumphal arch was a spacious balcony for the musicians, bearing the arms of the King and Queen, with sundry busts of Emperors, and the King's motto, “Dieu et mon droit” and other Greek (sic) words. Could never conceive anything so costly and well designed (“ben ordinata”) as what was witnessed on that night at Greenwich.

On rising from table all were marshalled, according to their rank, along a corridor of no great length to the other hall, which was of rather less size than the first. The floor was covered with cloth of silk embroidered with gold lilies. The ceiling, which was well nigh flat, was all painted, representing a map of the world (“mapamondo in Alpa forma”), the names of the principal provinces being legible; there were also the signs of the zodiac and their properties (“le loro proprietà”), these paintings being supported by giants. Along the sides of the hall were three tiers of seats, each of which had a beam placed lengthwise, for the spectators to lean on, nor did one tier interfere with the other. Above these tiers were in like manner three rows of torches, so well disposed and contrived as not to impede the view.

Within the space for the spectators, on the right-hand side, in the first tier, the ambassadors were placed, in the second the Princes, in the third those to whom admission was granted, they being few. On the opposite side, in the same order, were the ladies, whose various styles of beauty and apparel, enhanced by the brilliancy of the lights, caused me to think I was contemplating the choirs of angels; they, in like manner, being placed one above the other. Two-thirds of the distance down the hall, an arch of a single span had been erected, its depth being five feet and a half [English measure], all gilt with fine gold, the inside of the arch being decorated with a number of beautiful figures in low relief. The magnificence of this arch was such that it was difficult to comprehend how so grand a structure could have been raised in so short a space of time. In the centre, to the front (“nel fronte nel mezo”), stood the royal throne (“soglio”), on which the King sat, the two Queens being seated below at his feet.

All the spectators being thus methodically placed, without the least noise or confusion, and precisely as pre-arranged, the entertainment commenced. One thing above all others surprised me most, never having witnessed the like any where, it being impossible to represent or credit with how much order, regularity, and silence such public entertainments proceed and are conducted in England. First of all, there entered the hall eight singers, forming two wings, and singing certain English songs; in their centre was a very handsome youth alone, clad in skyblue tatfety, a number of eyes being scattered over his gown; and having presented themselves before the King, the singers then withdrew in the same order, there remaining by himself the youth, who, in the guise of Mercury, sent to the King by Jupiter, delivered a learned Latin oration in praise of his Majesty; which panegyric being ended, he announced that Jupiter, having frequently listened to disputes between Love and Riches concerning their relative authority, and that being unable to decide the controversy, he appointed his Majesty as judge, and requested him to pronounce and pass sentence on both of them. Thereupon Mercury departed, and next came eight young choristers of the chapel, four on each side; those to the right were all clad in cloth of gold, much ornamented, and the first of them was Cupid (“Amor”); the others to the left were variously arrayed, and their chief was Plutus (“la Richesa”); in the centre walked one alone, in the guise of Justice, who sang.

In this order they presented themselves to the King, before whom Justice commenced narrating the dispute between the parties, in English, and desired Cupid (“Amor”) to begin with his defence, to which Plutus (“la Richeza”) replied, each of the choristers on either side defending their leaders, by reciting a number of verses. The altercation being ended, Cupid and Plutus determined that judgment should go by battle, and thus, having departed, three men-at-arms in white armour, with three naked swords in their hands, entered from the end of the hall, and having drawn up under the triumphal arch, an opening was made in its centre by some unseen means, and out of the arch fell down a bar, in front of which there appeared three well-armed knights. The combat then commenced valiantly, man to man, some of them dealing such blows that their swords broke. After they had fought some while, a second bar was let down, which separated them, the first three having vanquished the others, fighting with great courage; and the duel (“duello”) being thus ended, the combatants quitted the hall in like manner as they had entered it. Thereupon there fell to the ground at the extremity of the hall a painted canvas [curtain], from an aperture in which was seen a most verdant cave (“antro”) approachable by four steps, each side being guarded by four of the chief gentlemen of the Court, clad in tissue doublets and tall plumes, each of whom carried a torch. Well grouped within the cave were eight damsels of such rare beauty as to be supposed goddesses rather than human beings. They were arrayed in cloth of gold, their hair gathered into a net, with a very richly jewelled garland, surmounted by a velvet cap, the hanging sleeves of their surcoats (“camisa”) being so long that they well nigh touched the ground, and so well and richly wrought as to be no slight ornament to their beauty. They descended gracefully from their seats to the sound of trumpets, the first of them being the Princess, hand in hand with the Marchioness of Exeter (age 24). Her beauty in this array produced such effect on everybody that all the other marvellous sights previously witnessed were forgotten, and they gave themselves up solely to contemplation of so fair an angel. On her person were so many precious stones that their splendour and radiance dazzled the sight, in such wise as to make one believe that she was decked with all the gems of the eighth sphere. Dancing thus they presented themselves to the King, their dance being very delightful by reason of its variety, as they formed certain groups and figures most pleasing to the sight. Their dance being finished, they ranged themselves on one side, and in like order the eight youths, leaving their torches, came down from the cave, and after performing their dance, each of them took by the hand one of those beautiful nymphs, and having led a courant together (“menata una chorea”) for a while, returned to their places.

Six masks then entered. To detail their costume would be but to repeat the words “cloth of gold,” cloth of silver,” &c. They chose such ladies as they pleased for their partners, and commenced various dances, which being ended, the King appeared. The French ambassador, the Marquis of Turrene, was at his side, and behind him four couple of noblemen (“signori”), all masked, and all wearing black velvet slippers on their feet, this being done, lest the King should be distinguished from the others, as from the hurt which he received lately on his left foot when playing at tennis (“allo palla”) he wears a black velvet slipper. They were all clad in tissue doublets, over which was a very long and ample gown of black satin, with hoods of the same material, and on their heads caps of tawney velvet. They then took by the hand an equal number of ladies, dancing with great glee, and at the end of the dance unmasked; whereupon the Princess with her companions again descended, and came to the King, who in the presence of the French ambassadors took off her cap, and the net being displaced, a profusion of silver tresses as beautiful as ever seen on human head fell over her shoulders, forming a most agreeable sight. The aforesaid ambassadors then took leave of her; and all departing from that beautiful place returned to the supper hall, where the tables were spread with every sort of confection and choice wines for all who chose to cheer themselves with them. The sun, I believe, greatly hastened his course, having perhaps had a hint from Mercury of so rare a sight; so showing himself already on the horizon, warning being thus given of his presence, everybody thought it time to quit the royal chambers, returning to their own with such sleepy eyes that the daylight could not keep them open.

As the Bishop of Tarbes is departing tomorrow morning in haste, I will not be more diffuse. He will be accompanied by Master Poyntz [Sir Francis Poyntz] and Clarencieux, king-of-arms, to do what I wrote in a former letter. On their departure each of the ambassadors received a gold cup from his Majesty.

London, 7th May 1527. Registered by Sanuto, 3rd June.

[Italian.]

Note 1. 6th May, according to the date of Spinelli's letter. In Hall's Chronicle (pp. 721, 722, ed. London, 1809), mention is made of the mass at Greenwich on Sunday, 5 May, and of the jousts, but of these last he does not state the precise date, giving, however, the names of the challengers, and adding that whilst they tilted “yt rained apace.”

Note 2. Namely. Sir Nicholas Carew (age 31), Sir Robert Jernyngham, Sir Anthony Browne (age 27), and Nicholas Harvy. (See Hall, as above.)

Note 3. [her mother] Catharine (age 41), and [her aunt] Mary Queen Dowager of France (age 31).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 [her father] Henry VIII (age 41) and [her step-mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (age 33).

The name and title which the [her father] King (age 41) wishes the [her mother] Queen (age 47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to princess Mary (age 17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the [her step-mother] Lady (age 32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the [her mother] Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the [her father] King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the [her step-mother] Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (age 17).

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 18) illegitimate and [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to [her father] King Henry VIII (age 42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Letters and Papers 1535. 01 Jan 1535. 1. The Princess (age 18) has been informed that, by virtue of the statute lately passed, which has been made more severe against those who refuse to swear and acknowledge the second marriage, after these holydays she must renounce her title and take the oath, and that on pain of her life she must not call herself Princess or her mother Queen, but that if ever she does she will be sent to the Tower. She will never change her purpose, nor the Queen either. The Council here, owing to what has been discovered in France touching the Zwinglian heresy, have prohibited a book printed here a year ago in English, which is full of the said heresy. I am told also that of late the Chancellor has caused 15 books of the New Testament in English to be burned. Booksellers have been forbidden to sell or keep a prognostication lately made in Flanders, which threatens the King with war and misfortune this year; and some of the leading men of the Council have said that, matters being as they are, nothing is wanted to set the realm topsy turvy but to translate and publish the said prognostication in English. The Governor and Burgomaster of Belguez (Berghes) have come with a good company to treat, as it is said, in anticipation of the "festes" which are held at Belguez. I am told the King and Council care little about their coming, giving the people to understand that they have come for fear the English take other measures, and that they would not obey the Emperor if he forbade intercourse. I am told a kinsman of Kildare made overtures to deliver him to the King's men; and Kildare, being informed of it, gave such a banquet to those who watched him as they intended to give him,—took 500 or 600 of them along with his said kinsman, and sent them to execution. I am inclined to think this true, because of late Cromwell has several times said that before many days the said Kildare would be brought hither prisoner. London, 1 Jan. 1535.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 5.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Feb 1535. Castelnau's Memoirs, i. 405. (Edit. Brussels, 1731.) 174. Palamedes Gontier to Admiral Chabot (age 43).

Was detained at Boulogne, as he wrote on Thursday night. Next day embarked at 4 a.m. Had a bad passage. The tide not serving to go up to Gravesend, went by Waterford (Canterbury?), and arrived on Sunday in London.

Passed the Thames near the house of Boidoval (Bridewell?), where he met Morette, who was very glad to see him, not daring to show himself to the King, who had spoken to him very sharply about the delay in Chabot's (age 43) answer. He sent to tell Norfolk and Cromwell of Gontier's arrival, and he was straightway conducted to Westminster to the King. After reading the Admiral's (age 43) letters and asking after his and the King's health, Henry drew him apart, and leaning on the sideboard heard what he had to say. Said that the Admiral (age 43) had not forgotten since his return to declare to Francis what Henry had charged him with, especially his entire good-will to preserve and increase the friendship and alliance between them, at which Francis was much rejoiced. As to the proposed marriage between the [her half-sister] Princess (age 1) and Mons. d'Angoulesme (age 13), Francis doubts not that having given her that name, Henry will assure it to her and treat her as his only heiress, so that the Crown of England may come to her on his death. The Admiral (age 43) says that his king thinks some means ought to be found to deprive Lady Mary (age 18) of any occasion or means of claiming the Crown.

Here the King explained to him what had been done by Parliament since the Admiral's (age 43) departure; that the Princess (age 1) had been proclaimed and an oath taken throughout the kingdom; that everyone takes Mary (age 18) for the bastard she is, and he will have no other heir but the Princess, with whom, and in his power (en sa main), now is and will be the said Mary; there is no chance of her becoming queen or claiming any right to the Crown. He went on to say that it was only required for Francis to cause the Pope to annul the invalid dispensation given for the first marriage, and then all doubts would cease. Went on to the other points of his instruction. He is willing to give up the title of France, to take away all occasion of ancient enmities, and declared to Chabot the means to bring it to pass. Spoke about the 50,000 cr. for the pension for life, and 10,000 cr. of salt, saowing him how obliged the King and the kingdom would be if he were to give them up, without mentioning that that would be enough to break off the interview of the two Queens. Henry took this ill, saying that he had done so much for Francis, his children and his kingdom, that it is not fair to ask him to give this up, which he knows is unwillingly paid and odious; it is an honour to his kingdom to have them; it was a strange recompense when he offered the heiress of a kingdom to a younger son; they ought rather to give him something than ask; that it made him think there was a practise going on elsewhere, considering the delay in giving him an answer. Said to him that he ought to take this proposal differently, as it was founded on an overture he had himself made to the Admiral; he would put the French king under the greatest obligation to him, and it would be more to his glory and profit in the future than the payment. As to the perpetual pension, he did not object to what was proposed. He objected to the idea of being included if a treaty were made between Francis and the Emperor; there must be no hope of a treaty. The Emperor had already offered to accept what had been done in England, both the second marriage and other things, and even that the Princess should be heiress and Mary succeed in case of her death. With regard to the article excusing Francis from commencing war against the Emperor, unless he declares himself in aid of Piedmont, Savona or Genoa, on which side he will be very glad to begin the war on account of the quarrels which he has, Henry asked him when he wished to begin. Replied that he had the authority to hasten or delay, as he wished, for Francis would act according to the answer sent back by Gontier. Meanwhile he was not losing a single hour in putting his forces in readiness.

Letters and Papers 1535. [08 Oct 1535]. Camusat, 21. 566. [The Bishop of Tarbes to the Bailly of Troyes.]1

He is to state to the King (Francis) that the Emperor's ambassador has sent word to the old Queen (Katharine) and her daughter that his master has commanded him to inform them that he will not re-enter his kingdom of Spain until he has restored them to their estates and rights. The people is so greatly devoted to them that in order to restore them it will join any prince who espouses their quarrel. This is common opinion among noblemen, the lower people, and the King's own servants. All the people is marvellously discontented; most of them, excepting the relations of the present [her step-mother] Queen (age 34), because of the old Queen and her daughter, others because of the subversion of religion. Others fear war, and foresee that commercial intercourse will cease, both within the realm and without, in Flanders, Spain, Italy, and other countries where the cloths, kerseys, hides, tin, lead, and other merchandise of this kingdom have been sold, and that navigation will be so dangerous that there will be no English merchant who will dare to transport merchandise into foreign countries without many ships equipped for war. The strangers of the lands of the Emperor, and those who will be his friends and under the obedience of the Pope, will be unable to traffic to the said country, nor any others without great danger of encountering the Emperor's troops and other enemies of England. The weather has been so bad the whole of the summer that not half of the necessary corn has been reaped. The King (Francis) should consult whether he ought to prohibit the exportation in order to prove to them how necessary to them is his aid and friendship. The lower people, in consequence of these things, are greatly exasperated against the Queen (age 34), saying concerning her a thousand ill and improper things, and also against those who support her in her enterprises, charging upon them all the inconveniences which they foresee will arise from war. It is held to be quite certain that if war takes place the people will rebel against the governors, from fear of what has been said above and from the affection which they bear to the old Queen and her daughter (age 19), and especially to the Princess (age 19), who has such a hold on the hearts of the people that, notwithstanding the laws made at the last Parliament, they do not cease to regard her as Princess, saying that the laws of Parliament cannot do away her being the King's daughter, and born during the marriage, and that the King and everyone so regarded her until that Parliament. Lately, when she was removed from Greenwich, a great troop of citizens' wives and others, unknown to their husbands, presented themselves before her, weeping and crying that she was Princess, notwithstanding all that had been done2. Some of them, the chiefest, were placed in the Tower, constantly persisting in their opinion. These things are so well known, and the fear of war so great, that many of the greater merchants of London have recommended themselves to the Emperor's ambassador, and said that if the Emperor make war, the people will surrender themselves to him.

Note 1. Printed by Camusat immediately after the paper No. 1479 in Vol. VI., with the heading: "Autre memoire non datte lequel semble avoir este escript peu apres le precedent." It appears to be a paper of instructions given by the bp. of Tarbes to the Bailly of Troyes on his return to France in Oct. 1535.

Note 2. In the margin: "Millor de Rochesfort et millord de Guillaume."

Letters and Papers 1535. [08 Oct 1535]. 566. You are aware of the quarrel which took place between her and her governess (age 59) when we went to visit her little [her half-sister] sister (age 2), and that we have been told how she was put almost by force into her chamber, in order that she should not speak to us, and how it was impossible to appease her and confine her to her chamber till the gentleman conducting us assured her that the King, her father, had commanded him to tell her not to show herself while we were there. You know also the conversations which the same gentleman had with you concerning her, and the charge which the Queen had given him: also that a person has endeavoured to cause her to send her will in writing. If the King (Francis) approved of the marriage it would be to unite two kingdoms, and the King would have the great honor of annexing "les deux Bretagnes" to the French crown. The King has good reason to take the matter up, for the marriage was made by consent of both parents, and half England desires it. If the Pope were advertised of the treaties which the king of England proposes to make with the King, he would suspect that he should lose the money of France, in the same way as he has lost the money of England, if war should take place; and therefore he would induce the Emperor to urge the King (Francis) to accomplish this marriage. I believe the Emperor would help it forward from the love which he bears to his niece. If the Emperor urge Francis the latter can then consult about informing the king of England of the Emperor's intention, and persuading him to consent to it in order to avoid war, seeing that the said Lord (Henry) does not deny that she is his daughter, and knows that the marriage is concluded. If the king of England do not approve because his wife persuades him to the contrary, he will fear to set Francis and the Emperor against himself solely through his affection for his wife, which is less than it has been, and diminishes day by day, because he has [her step-mother] new amours (age 26)1.

Item, to advertise the King of the maladies which are in "la rasse;" and that the Swedes in the King's pay, whom the Lubeckers had drawn into the Danish quarrel, have taken fourteen English ships, among which the Minion of the English king, the mistress of England2, has been broken to pieces.

Fr.

*** A translation of this letter is printed by Mr. Froude in his Appendix to "the Pilgrim" (p. 100) as a letter from Dinteville to M. de Tarbes, and dated in Oct. 1534.

Note 1. Margin: "Nota, qu'il ne sera pas paradventure fort malaisé à gaigner le Roy." ie. Note, that it will not be very difficult to win the King. The "new amours" may be a reference to Jane Seymour (age 26) especially in view of King Henry having stayed at Wolf Hall in Sep 1535.

Note 2. "Entre lesquelles a este mise en pieces la Mignone du Roy d'Angletrerre, qui estoi la maistresse d'Angleterre." ie. Between which was torn into pieces the Mignone of the King of England, the mistress of England. This is a reference to ship rather than a person!

Letters and Papers 1535. 24 Oct 1535. Add. MS. 28, 588, f. 31. B. M. 681. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Wrote last on the 8th. The Imperial Ambassador in London wrote on the 25th Sept., that the [her mother] Queen (age 49) and Princess (age 19) were in good health. On the 14th he had written that the Princess (age 19) had been ill and was getting better, and that the governess (age 59) of her household, la Ana's (age 34) aunt (age 59), had concealed her illness for 12 days, so that he could not provide her with physicians. Neither the Ambassador nor his servant are allowed to visit her, which shows the Queen (age 49) and Princess (age 19) have special need of God's protection. The state of England is getting more and more disorderly. It is publicly said that mass is a great abuse; that Our Lord is not in the Sacrament of the Eucharist, and only was so when He consecrated it; that saying the Ave Maria is folly; and that Our Lady cannot help those who pray to her and invoke her aid, for she is only a woman like others. Blasphemous words are said of images. The rents of many churches are taken away, and it is said that they will take away images, shrines (templos), and the principal temporalities of the Church. Is much grieved at the danger to the lives of the Queen and Princess, and begs the Empress to have continual prayer made on their behalf. Sees no remedy if nuestro Señor does not take them out of the kingdom.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Nov 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 47. B. M. 873. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Wrote on Sept. 1 and 8 and Oct. 24. The Ambassador in England wrote on the 14th Oct. that the Queen and Princess were well, and sent a servant of his here, who left on the 5th to go to the Emperor. He brought letters from the Queen, which she said she sent as her last testament, because, considering her present state and the orders made in the Parliament of this November, it appears likely that she and the Princess (age 19) will be sentenced to martyrdom, which she was ready to receive in testimony of the Holy Faith, as the cardinal of Rochester and other holy martyrs had done. She only grieves that her life has not been as holy as theirs, and she is in great sorrow for the multitude of souls who are daily condemned.

The Princess with only three women is in the same house as the daughter of the [her step-mother] Wench (age 34) ("la Manceba"), under the charge of the Wench's aunt (age 60). Formerly the Ambassador was allowed to send to her two days a week, but now this leave has been taken away. When she asked to be allowed to live with her mother she was refused, because it would make her more obstinate in disobeying the statutes, which was not safe in consequence of the penalty imposed by them. The King told his mistress that while he lived (viniere, error for viviere?) the Princess should not marry. She has told the King several times that it is the Princess who causes war, and that it will be necessary to treat her as the cardinal of Rochester has been treated. She has often said of the Princess "She is my death and I am hers; so I will take care that she shall not laugh at me after my death." When the Ambassador asked for certain money due to the Queen from the time she held the lands "de sus arras," it was refused, and he was told that he should see if the Queen would consent to live at less expense, and that the King bore her expenses.

Letters and Papers 1535. 30 Dec 1535. 1036. After I had taken leave of the King he recalled me by the Duke of Suffolk (age 51) to tell me news had just come that the [her mother] Queen (age 50) was in extremis, and that I should hardly find her alive; moreover, that this would take away all the difficulties between your Majesty and him. I think the danger cannot be so great, because the physician did not represent the case to me as so urgent; nevertheless I took horse at once. I asked leave that the Princess (age 19) might see the Queen (age 50) her mother,—which he at first refused, and on my making some remonstrance he said he would take advice on the subject.

The Princess had advised me to make this request. London, 30 Dec. 1535.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 6.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

On 07 Jan 1536 [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (age 50) died at Kimbolton Castle [Map] in the arms of her great friend Maria de Salinas Baroness Willoughby (age 46).

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (age 35).

The good [her mother] Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the [her father] King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his [her step-mother] concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His [her half-sister] bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the [her aunt] Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 141. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

You could not conceive the joy that the King and those who favor this concubinage have shown at the death of the good Queen, especially the earl of Wiltshire (age 59) and his son (age 33), who said it was a pity the Princess (age 19) did not keep company with her. The King, on the Saturday he heard the news, exclaimed "God be praised that we are free from all suspicion of war"; and that the time had come that he would manage the French better than he had done hitherto, because they would do now whatever he wanted from a fear lest he should ally himself again with your Majesty, seeing that the cause which disturbed your friendship was gone. On the following day, Sunday, the King was clad all over in yellow, from top to toe, except the white feather he had in his bonnet, and the [her half-sister] Little Bastard (age 2) was conducted to mass with trumpets and other great triumphs. After dinner the King entered the room in which the ladies danced, and there did several things like one transported with joy. At last he sent for his Little Bastard (age 2), and carrying her in his arms he showed her first to one and then to another. He has done the like on other days since, and has run some courses (couru quelques lances) at Greenwich.From all I hear the grief of the people at this news is incredible, and the indignation they feel against the King, on whom they lay the blame of her death, part of them believing it was by poison and others by grief; and they are the more indignant at the joy the King has exhibited. This would be a good time, while the people are so indignant, for the Pope to proceed to the necessary remedies, by which these men would be all the more taken by surprise, as they have no suspicion of any application being made for them now that the Queen is dead, and do not believe that the Pope dare take upon him to make war especially while a good part of Germany and other Princes are in the same predicament. Nevertheless, now that the Queen is dead, it is right for her honor and that of all her kin that she be declared to have died Queen, and it is right especially to proceed to the execution of the sentence, because it touches the Princess, and to dissolve this marriage which is no wise rendered valid by the Queen's death, and, if there be another thing, that he cannot have this woman to wife nor even any other during her life according to law, unless the Pope give him a dispensation; and it appears that those here have some hope of drawing the Pope to their side, for only three days ago Cromwell said openly at table that a legate might possibly be seen here a few days hence, who would come to confirm all their business, and yesterday commands were issued to the curates and other preachers not to preach against purgatory, images, or adoration of the saints, or other doubtful questions until further orders. Perhaps by this means and others they hope to lull his Holiness to sleep until your Majesty has parted from him, which would be a very serious and irremediable evil. I think those here will have given charge to the courier, whom they despatched in great haste to give the news of the Queen's death in France, to go on to Rome in order to prevent the immediate publication of censures.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 141. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

My man has sent me from Flanders, where the Queen has kept him some days, your Majesty's letters of the 13th ult., to which I must delay replying till his return. I thank you for writing that I shall not be forgotten when the time of distribution of benefices arrives. Must not omit to say that the enterprise mentioned in the said letters is becoming more difficult every day, especially since the death of the [her mother] Queen (deceased), as they have kept more company than before ("lon a tenu plus de court et en plus de regard que par avant"). I have also received your Majesty's letters of the 29th, with your most prudent discourse touching the perplexity of the affairs of the late good Queen (deceased) and of the Princess (age 19), the substance of which considerations, though not so well put, has been already at times communicated to the said ladies. Moreover, I added another point, viz., that what was chiefly to be feared, if they were compelled to swear all that the King wished (besides the bad effect mentioned in your Majesty's letters, that so many would lose heart and join the new heresy), the danger would be, not that the King would proceed by law to punish daily disobedience, but that, under color of perfect reconciliation, if he were to treat them well,—I don't suppose the King but the [her step-mother] Concubine (age 35) (who has often sworn the death of both, and who will never be at rest till she has gained her end, suspecting that owing to the King's fickleness there is no stability in her position as long as either of the said ladies lives), will have even better means than before of executing her accursed purpose by administering poison, because they would be less on their guard; and, moreover, she might do it without suspicion, for it would be supposed when the said ladies had agreed to everything that the King wished and were reconciled and favorably treated after they had renounced their rights, there could be no fear of their doing any mischief, and thus no suspicion would arise of their having received foul play.

The King and Concubine (age 35), impatient of longer delay, especially as they saw that proceedings were taken at Rome in good earnest, and that when your Majesty goes thither the provisions will be enforced, determined to make an end of the Queen's process, as you will see by what follows. It must have been very convenient for them that she died before the Princess, for several reasons, and, among others, because it was at her instance that proceedings were taken at Rome, and because they had less hope of being able to bring her over to their opinions, reckoning more upon her constancy by reason of age than on that of her daughter, especially because, not being naturally subject to their laws, they could not constrain her by justice as they could her daughter. Further, I think the cupidity which governs them has led them more to anticipate the death of the mother, as they will not be obliged to restore the dowry.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

On 29 Jan 1536 [her mother] Catherine of Aragon (deceased) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map] at a service for a Princess rather than Queen.

Bishop John Hilsey preached, alleging that, in the hour of death, she had acknowledged that she had never been Queen of England.

Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 17) was Chief Mourner. [her father] Henry VIII (age 44) refused their daughter Mary (age 19) permission to attend. On the same day [her step-mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) miscarried a child.

William Harvey (age 26) attended; the only officer of arms to do so.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress..

His last letter, announcing the death and martyrdom of the [her mother] Queen of England, was dated the 30th of January.

Since then he (Ortiz) has received one, dated the 19th of January, [from Chapuys?], informing him that the Princess (age 20) (Mary) was in good health. The Queen before dying showed well what her whole life had been; for not only did she ask for, and receive, all the sacraments ordained by the Church, but answered the questions put by the priest with such ardour and devotion that all present were edified. Some of those who were by her bedside, having suggested that it was not yet time to receive the sacrament of Extreme Unction, she replied that she wished to hear and understand everything that was said, and make fitting answers. She preserved her senses to the last, &c.

They say that when the [her father] king of England (age 44) heard of the death of his Queen, dressed in mauve silk as he was at the time, and with a white feather in his cap, he went to solace himself with the ladies of the palace. In fact it may well be said of him and of his kingdom what the Prophet Isaias says, cap. lvii., "Justus periet, et non est qui recogitet in corde suo, et viri misericordia colliguntur quia non est qui intelligat."

Her Highness the Queen was buried with the honors of a Princess [dowager], 18 miles from the place where she died, at an abbey called Yperberu [Map] (Peterborough), the King having only sent thither some ladies of his Court to attend the funeral. The King and the [her step-mother] concubine (age 35) were not in London, but at a place on the road called Octinton [Map] [Huntingdon].

Letters 1536. 10 Feb 1536. Vienna Archives. 282. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

The Princess (age 19) is well. She changed her lodging on Saturday last, and was better accompanied on her removal and provided with what was necessary to her than she had been before. She had an opportunity of distributing alms on the way, because her father had placed about 100,000 crowns at her disposal. It is rumoured that the King, as Cromwell (age 51) sent to inform me immediately after the Queen's death, means to increase her train and exalt her position. I hope it may be so, and that no scorpion lurks under the honey. I think the King only waited to summon the said Princess to swear to the statutes in expectation that the concubine would have had a male child, of which they both felt assured. I know not what he will do now. I have suggested to the Princess to consider if it be not expedient, when she is pressed to take the oath, if she be reduced to extremity, to offer that if the King her father have a son she will condescend to his will, and that she might at once begin throwing out some such hint to her gouvernante (age 60). I will inform you of her reply.

Letters 1536. 17 Feb 1536. Vienna Archives. 307. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

Two days ago some Gueldrois arrived, and came to the King. Will endeavour to discover the cause, and inform His Majesty both of that and of what takes place at this Parliament, in which nothing has yet been done that is worth writing. London, 17 Feb. 1535. Fr. From a modern copy1; pp. 5.

ii. Copy of the letter of the Concubine to Madame Chelton, her aunt.

[Before 29 Jan 1536]. Mrs. Shelton (age 60), my pleasure is that you do not further move the Lady Mary (age 19) to be towards the King's Grace otherwise than it pleases herself. What I have done has been more for charity than for anything the King or I care what road she takes, or whether she will change her purpose, for if I have a son, as I hope shortly, I know what will happen to her; and therefore, considering the Word of God, to do good to one's enemy, I wished to warn her before hand, because I have daily experience that the King's wisdom is such as not to esteem her repentance of her rudeness and unnatural obstinacy when she has no choice. By the law of God and of the King, she ought clearly to acknowledge her error and evil conscience if her blind affection had not so blinded her eyes that she will see nothing but what pleases herself. Mrs. Shelton, I beg you not to think to do me any pleasure by turning her from any of her wilful courses, because she could not do me [good] or evil; and do your duty about her according to the King's command, as I am assured you do, "et le devez estre aussi (qu. assuré?) que me trouverez vre. bonne dame quil ne (qu. quelque?) chose quelle face." Fr. From a modern copy, p. 1.

Note 1. There is another modern copy in Rymer Transcripts, Vol. 145, No. 6, but some important passages are omitted in it. A translation of the greater part of the letter will be found in Froude's "The Pilgrim," p. 108.

Letters 1536. 29 Apr 1536. Vienna Archives. 752. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

The Grand Ecuyer [Esquire], Mr. Caro (age 40), had on St. George's day the Order of the Garter in the place of the deceased M. de Burgain, to the great disappointment of Rochford (age 33), who was seeking for it, and all the more because the [her step-mother] Concubine (age 35) has not had sufficient influence to get it for her brother; and it will not be the fault of the said Ecuyer if the Concubine, although his cousin (quelque, qu. quoique? cousine) be not dismounted. He continually counsels Mrs. Semel [[her step-mother] Jane Seymour (age 27)] and other conspirators "pour luy faire une venue," [to make him a visit] and only four days ago he and some persons of the chamber sent to tell the Princess (age 20) to be of good cheer, for shortly the opposite party would put water in their wine, for the King was already as sick and tired of the concubine (age 35) as could be; and the brother of lord Montague told me yesterday at dinner that the day before the bishop of London (age 61) had been asked if the King could abandon the said concubine, and he would not give any opinion to anyone but the King himself, and before doing so he would like to know the King's own inclination, meaning to intimate that the King might leave the said concubine, but that, knowing his fickleness, he would not put himself in danger. The said Bishop was the principal cause and instrument of the first divorce, of which he heartily repents, and would still more gladly promote this, the said concubine and all her race are such abominable Lutherans. London, 29 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 [her father] Henry VIII (age 44) and [her step-mother] Jane Seymour (age 27) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map] by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 53). She by marriage Queen Consort England. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41) and Margaret Dymoke aka Mistress Coffin (age 36) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Jane Seymour (age 27).

Letters 1536. 1 June [1536]. Otho. C. x. 278. B.M. Hearne's Sylloge, 147. 1022. Princess Mary (age 20) to [Henry VIII.]

Begs as humbly as child can for his daily blessing—her chief desire in this world. Acknowledges all her offences since she had first discretion to offend till this hour, and begs forgiveness. Will submit to him in all things next to God, "humbly beseeching your Highness to consider that I am but a woman, and your child, who hath committed her soul only to God, and her body to be ordered in this world as it shall stand with your pleasure." Rejoices to hear of the marriage between his Grace and the [her step-mother] Queen (age 27) now being. Desires leave to wait upon the latter and do her Grace service. Trusts to Henry's mercy to come into his presence. As he has always shown pity, "as much or more than any prince christened," hopes he will show it to his humble and obedient daughter. Prays God to send him a prince. Hounsdon, 1 June.

Hol., mutilated.

Jun 1536. The Second Succession Act 1536 28 Hen 8 c7 annulled Henry VIII's marriages to [her mother] Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England and [her step-mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (deceased), and removed Princesses Mary (age 20) and [her half-sister] Elizabeth (age 2) from the Succession, declaring them both illegitimate.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. Vienna Archives. 1069. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On the 24th of this month, the Eve of Ascension Day, immediately on the arrival of the courier who was despatched to Pontremolo, Cromwell sent me the packet which your Majesty had forwarded to that place, begging that I would impart my news to him without delay. Shortly afterwards he sent to say that he would come and see me, but as, owing to his being so much occupied, he had failed in a like promise two days before, I, in order to put him under greater obligation, went to see him. On my arrival he told me that he had been to Court that morning, only to obtain audience for me, which the King had granted for next day. The said courier had brought letters from their ambassador, giving such news of the sincere goodwill your Majesty bore the King that Cromwell said he was better pleased than if he had gained 100,000 cr.; and he was sure I should find the King otherwise inclined than he had been before, both as regards the principal matter and also as to myself in particular, for I had greatly increased the affection he bore me on account of certain letters I had lately written to him, of which I send a copy to Grandvelle; also that by the death of the [her step-mother] Concubine (deceased) matters would be more easily arranged now than they had been. He said it was he who had discovered and followed up the affair of the Concubine (deceased), in which he had taken a great deal of trouble, and that, owing to the displeasure and anger he had incurred upon the reply given to me by the King on the third day of Easter, he had set himself to arrange the plot (a fantasier et conspirer led. affaire), and one of the things which had roused his suspicion and made him enquire into the matter was a prognostic made in Flanders threatening the King with a conspiracy of those who were nearest his person. On this he praised greatly the sense, wit, and courage of the said Concubine (deceased) and of her brother (deceased). And to declare to me further the hope of good success, he informed me in great confidence that the King, his master, knowing the desire and affection of all his people, had determined in this coming Parliament to declare the Princess (age 20) his heir; but by what he said afterwards, which I shall partly report, he left me in much greater doubt than before. For, besides requesting me in speaking to the King not to make any request on the Princess's behalf, and, if she were mentioned, not to speak of her as Princess, he also told me it was above all things necessary the Princess should write a letter to her father according to a draft that Cromwell had drawn up in the most honorable and reasonable form that could be, and that to solicit the Princess to do this he had, by the King's command, sent to her a very confidential lady; but, in any case, to avoid scruple, the King wished I would write to her, and send her one of my principal servants to persuade her to make no difficulty about writing the said letter, which he would have translated from English into Latin, that I might see that it was quite honorable. This translation he gave me next day as I left the Court; and since reading it I have not found the said Cromwell, to tell him my opinion of it, although I begged him the day before, when he spoke about it, to take care that it did not contain anything which could directly or indirectly touch her right, or the honor either of herself or of the late Queen, her mother, nor yet her conscience; otherwise she would not consent thereto for all the gold in the world, and the King's indignation against her would only be increased; and that he whom the said Princess regarded as almost a father, ought to take good care that the whole was free from danger and scruple. This, he said, he had done, as I should see by the tenor of the letter, of which I send your Majesty the very translation he delivered to me. Besides the evidence that letter contains that there is some bird catching attempted (quy y a de la traynee et pipe), this has been confirmed to me from a good quarter, and I have warned the Princess. I mean to get out of it (de me demesler) and dissemble the affair as much as I can, without speaking or writing of it till I have understood the intention of those here on the principal article of the negotiations. I shall excuse myself for not having sent to the Princess by saying that the messenger (icelluy) to whom I had committed the translation had lost it in returning from Court. When I have learned their intention I shall not fail to make the necessary remonstrances as to the unreasonableness of the letter, and seek all means possible to moderate such rigour; nevertheless your Majesty will be pleased to instruct me what to say and do in case the King insist on having the letter entirely written by the Princess, and that otherwise he means to punish her, as the lady sent by the King to the Princess has given a servant of mine to understand.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. On Whitsun eve, in the morning, Cromwell came to see me at my lodging, although I had sent to request him to wait for me at his own, and first told me, pour joyeuse entrée, that the King and the new [her step-mother] Queen (age 27) were wonderfully well pleased with the wise and prudent letters the Princess (age 20) had written (in which, nevertheless, there was nothing corresponding to the draft abovementioned, nor anything that could prejudice her), and that the King was resolved to make her his heir, which he supposed to be one of the principal articles of my charge on which the rest depended. Now, it is true that I had perceived some indications that there was a proposal to declare the Princess (age 20) heir without giving her the title of Princess, and she will remain excluded in case of a son or daughter being born. If this be so, and I see an opportunity to remedy it, I will speak about the subject. If not, I will not stick at it much, hoping that by the establishment of peace and augmentation of amity, with the great prudence and virtue the King will perceive in her, that she will be declared true and just princess,—although, according to the opinion of many, there is no fear of the occurrence of any issue of either sex. Coming to the principal subject, Cromwell said that he had repeated to the King his master the communications we had had together, and the King had given him patient audience, well noting and considering everything, and that he had since heard the French ambassadors, to whom he had made a brusque reply, first as to the marriage of the Dauphin with the Princess, that he knew not why they urged it, as at the meeting at Calais he had resolutely replied about it to the king of France, his brother, and as to the duke of Angoulême he was too young for the said Princess, who was of marriageable age. As to declaring himself against your Majesty, he saw no ground for it, and though they said that your Majesty had been and was his enemy, he did not see it; he had much greater occasion to complain of several who had called themselves his friends, and he could very well testify what they had done about the "privation" and other things; and as to the danger which they alleged to him, which was the sole motive they made use of, that your Majesty aspired to universal monarchy, and that you were revengeful of injuries—that the English, after feasting France, would have their St. Martin—there was not the slightest fear, for they knew the nature of your Majesty, and for other good reasons besides. As to assisting them with a contribution for the war, he also declined it for the same reason. As to the suggestion that he should take this affair in hand in order to bring to agreement your Majesty and the King their master, and that he would write to your Majesty to procure an abstinence of war while they were treating of peace, he replied that it was not reasonable that he should write such letters, for several reasons, especially as the amity between your Majesty and him was not well consolidated, but he would request me to write with diligence to your Majesty to consent, notwithstanding past matters, to an honorable peace, and used such arguments with me as he thought fit. But, considering everything, he had very little occasion to meddle with such matters, seeing that they had turned about on all sides in their negociations, even to his disadvantage, employing therein his principal enemy, the Pope, and without informing him of anything important, except at the end when the matter came to be broken off. For a compliment, they had asked him how he would be comprehended in the peace, in which matter your Majesty had acted more honorably and cordially, having told him by me that it was in his power to be the principal contrahent, and to comprehend those whom he pleased. At which words Cromwell said the King showed great delight, saying further, that the French, after so much trifling and making a thousand offers, which he repeated to the ambassadors, especially those that the cardinal of Lorraine had made to your Majesty, and seeing themselves deserted by everybody and in great danger of being completely baffled, now came to him and tried to make him stumble with them in the ditch into which they had blindly precipitated themselves, and that it was no wonder their affairs went so badly, considering the envy and dissension between the Grand Master and the Admiral, who were chief of the Council, and that they need not have made so much boast hitherto to lower their ears immediately after, and that your Majesty managed your affairs more honorably without so much fuss, and yet showed clearly that you were not in such need and poverty as the French had pretended. And here the King inveighed strongly against the cruel enterprise of the French against the duke of Savoy. Such was, as Cromwell affirmed, the King's reply to the French ambassadors, which he ended by telling them that if their master wished him to promote this peace, they must put aside passion and cupidity and submit to reason; which, in his opinion, suggested that a king of France should be satisfied with such a wealthy kingdom, without irritating the flies by which he might be provoked. And he desired that the ambassadors should write with diligence to learn the will of the King their master upon this matter, and have it set forth in articles.

Letters 1536. 08 Jun 1536. Otho. C. x. 280. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge. 149. 1083. Princess Mary (age 20) to [Henry VIII.]

Begs his daily blessing. Though she understands, to her inestimable comfort, that he has forgiven all her offences and withdrawn his displeasure long time conceived against her, her joy will not be full till she is allowed to come to his presence. Begs pardon for her continual suit and rude writing, for nature will suffer her to do no otherwise. Hopes God will preserve him and the [her step-mother] Queen (age 27), and send them a prince. Hownsdon, 8 June.

Hol. Mutilated.

Letters 1536. 10 Jun 1536 Otho, C. x. 261. B. M. St. P. i. 455. Hearne's Sylloge, 124. 1109. Princess Mary (age 20) to [Henry VIII.]

Begs his daily blessing. Has already, she trusts, obtained forgiveness on her suit, with licence to write to him; but hopes for some token or message of reconciliation, and that she may obtain her fervent desire of access to his presence. Excuses her importunity. Begs him to accept his penitent child, who henceforth puts her state and living in his mercy, next to Almighty God, under whatever conditions. Prays God preserve him and the Queen (age 27), and send them a prince. Hownsdon, 10 June. Hol. Mutilated.

Ib. f. 281. 2. Another copy, also holograph, dated like the preceding. Mutilated.

Ib. f. 264. 3. A third copy, also holograph, dated Hownsdon, 13 June. Mutilated. [No verbal differences can be traced in what remains of the text of this and the other two copies; but the reservation "next to Almighty God" was doubtless omitted in this copy. See her letter to Cromwell of this later date, 13 June.]

Letters 1536. 10 Jun 1536. Otho, C. x. 262 b. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge, 125. 1108. Princess Mary (age 20) to Cromwell.

I send by the bearer, my servant, "both the King's Highness' letter1, sealed, and the copy of the same, again to you." You will see I have followed your advice, and will do so in all things concerning my duty to the King, God and my conscience not offended; for I take you as one of my chief friends next his Grace and the Queen (age 27). I desire you, for Christ's passion, to find means that I be not moved to any further entry in this matter than I have done; for I assure you I have done the utmost my conscience will suffer me, and I neither desire nor intend to do less than I have done. "But if I be put to any more (I am plain with you as with my great friend) my said conscience will in no ways suffer me to consent thereunto." Except in this point, neither you nor any other shall be more desirous to have me obey the King than I shall be ready to do so. I had rather lose my life than displease him. I beg you to take this letter in good part. I would not have troubled you so much, but that the end of your letter caused me a little to fear I shall have more business hereafter. Hownsdon, 10 June.

Hol. Mutilated. Add.: [To my go]od Master Secretary.

Note 1. Meaning her letter to the King's Highness.

Letters 1536. 26 Jun 1536. Otho, C. x. 266. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge, 128. Burnet, V. 368. 1203. The Princess Mary to Henry VIII.

Most humbly lying at your feet, my most dear and benign father and sovereign, I have this day perceived your gracious clemency and merciful pity to have overcome my most unkind and unnatural proceedings towards you and your most just and virtuous laws. I cannot express my joy or make any return for your goodness, "but my poor heart which I send unto your Highness to remain in your hand, to be for ever used, directed, and framed, whiles God shall suffer life to remain in it, at your only pleasure." I beg you to receive it as all I have to offer. I will never vary from that confession and submission I made to your Highness in the presence of the Council. I pray God preserve you and the Queen and send you issue. Hounsdon, 26 June. Hol. Mutilated.

R. O. 1204. The Princess Mary (age 20) to [[her step-mother] Jane Seymour (age 27)].

I have received your letters, "no less full of motherly joy for my towardness of reconciliation than of most prudent counsel for my further proceeding therein," which of your goodness you promise to travel to bring to a perfection. Cannot express the comfort this has given her. Promises that from this day she shall neither be lacking in duty to her father, who has the whole disposition of her heart in his noble hand, nor in humble and obedient service to her Grace. Begs her, "with such acceleration as shall stand with your pleasure," to have in remembrance her desire to attain the King's presence.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: To the Queen's grace, my good mother. Endd.: My Lady Mary to the Queen's grace.

Letters 1536. 26 Jun 1536. Vatican Archives. 1212. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to [M. Ambrogio?].

Is informed by the English ambassadors that the Parliament was to end this month, in which it was expected that the true daughter (age 20) would be declared Princess, because the King was much softened, besides that she had powerful friends in Norfolk, Cromwell and others, and that she herself is universally loved; and it was hoped that after this would follow the King's return to the Church, though they have some fear of his avarice. The French are doing their best to bring him back, and their ambassador there gives me to understand he has good hope for it. This last wife [[her step-mother] Queen Jane Seymour (age 27)] is said to be much loved by the subjects, both because she is very gentle and good, and because she has five times thrown herself publicly at the King's feet, requesting him to send for his daughter and declare her Princess (age 20), a thing which has greatly moved the people. The ambassador Valo (Wallop) informs me that Reginald Pole at Padua, having been several times requested by his King to return, and having always replied that he would not come till the King had returned to the obedience of the Church, the King at last, eight months ago, desired him to write what he thought on such matters, especially de potestate Pontificis, and he has now sent him a book so much in favor of the Holy See, "che beato quel Re se lo gustara." The King now shows great tokens of kindness to his daughter. On the return of her governess to Court (who, they say, is Pole's mother), it being supposed that the Princess (age 20) was in her company, a crowd with 4,000 or 5,000 horses ran to meet her. The King, not knowing the cause, asked, "Why so many people?" and being told it was to see the Princess (age 20), answered that she was not there, but would soon come and they might see her.

Marseilles is strongly fortified; 25 well appointed galleys were in the port. They say the Emperor will not come into Provence. The Imperial ambassador, who was here, has intimated that if some one were sent to the Emperor for a forty days truce, matters might be accommodated; but here they will not trust the Emperor. It is clear they are sanguine of success. The English are beginning to make their meaning understood, and as to keeping the agreement say that they will not fail to do so, that King promising to go in person against the Emperor if the latter attack France. The Grand Master says it would have been worth 500,000 scudi to them if that King had not shown himself so dissatisfied with their adhesion to the Holy See. He expressed great devotion and respect for His Holiness, as also did the cardinal of Lorraine, who has lately returned from Rome.

The marriage of the king of Scots, which was considered as accomplished, is not yet so, but is very near it. The Admiral is in disgrace with the King, speaks little to him, and never comes when called to important business, but only Lorraine and the Grand Master. Every morning the Queen of Navarre proposes to go to Burgundy, but everyone opposes it. She is never likely to have again a third of her former influence.

Ital. Three modern extracts, pp. 5. Headed: Di Mons. di Faenza (age 36) de 26 di Giugno 1536 da Leon.

Add. MS. 8,715, f. 261. B. M. 2. Modern copy of the preceding letter. Pp. 8.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe [her half-brother] Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.

On 15 Oct 1537 [her half-brother] the future Edward VI was christened by Bishop John Stokesley (age 62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) were Godparents.

King Edward VI of England and Ireland was created Duke Cornwall, 1st Earl Chester.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long (age 43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52), Philip Boteler (age 45), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66) and John Gage (age 57) attended. Mary Scrope (age 61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried the canopy.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton (age 48) attended.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) was created 1st Earl Hertford.

Nicholas Carew (age 41), Francis Bryan (age 47), Anthony Browne (age 37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire (age 27), Edward Neville (age 66), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 29), Richard Long (age 43) and John Wallop (age 47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and Bishop John Bell attended.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 47) was created 1st Earl of Southampton. Mabel Clifford Countess Southampton (age 55) by marriage Countess of Southampton.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 25thd daie of October, being Moundaie, the [her half-brother] Prince was christened in the Kinges chappell at Hampton Court, the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 48) and the Duke of Norfoike (age 64) godfathers at the font, and my Ladie Maries grace (age 21), the Kinges daughter by Queene Katherin, godmotherb, and the Duke of Suffolke, godfather at the confirmation, the Princes name being Edwarde, proclaymed after his christning by the King of Haroldesa, "Edward, sonne and heire to the King of Englande, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester." The goodlie solempnitie of the lordes and ladies done at the christning was a goodlie sight to behoulde, everie one after their office and degree; the [her half-sister] Ladie Elizabeth (age 4), the Kinges daughter, bearing the chrisome on her breast, the Viscoumpt Beauchampe (age 37), brother to the Queeneb, bearing her in his armes, the Earle of Essex (age 52) bearing the salte, the Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 34) bearing the Prince to the church and home againe, the Duke of Norfolke (age 64) staying his head, as she bare him, and the Duke of Suffolke (age 53) at his feete.

Note d. Evidently a clerical error for the 15th, which was Monday, whereas the 25th would haye been Thursday.

Note e. It is cnrions to note the incongruity of the sponsors: these were Archbishop Cranmer (age 48), the head of the Protestant Reformers, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), leader of the lay Catholics, and the Princess Mary (age 21), a bigoted Catholic, who had been bastardised by her father.

Note a. Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux King-at-Arms.

Note b. Edward Seymour (age 37), elder brother of Queen Jane, and so brother-in-law of Henry VIII was created Viscount Beauchomp, of Hache, co. Somerset, 5th June, 1536. He was lineally descended from Sir Roger Seymour (temp. Edward III.) who married Cicely, sister and eldest coheir of John de Beauchamp, last Baron Beauchamp.

Funeral of Jane Seymour

Letters and Papers 1537. On Wednesday [01 Nov 1537], the vigil of All Saints, the great chamber and galleries leading to the chapel, and the chapel, were hung with black cloth and garnished with rich images. In the chapel was prepared a hearse, garnished with 8 banner-rolls of descents i.e. of the King, Queen, Prince, York, Normandy, Guienne, Ireland and Cornwall with "rachments and majestye." The same afternoon the corpse was conveyed to the chapel, the King's officers and servants standing in double rank from the chamber to the chapel with torches, not lighted, whilst the Bishop of Carlisle, her almoner, assisted by the Bishop of Chichester, dean of the Chapel and the subdean, entered the chamber and did the ceremonies, as sensing with holy water and De profundis. That done, torches were lighted and the procession formed; first the cross with priests, two and two, then gentlemen, esquires, pursuivants and heralds, then the noblemen, then Garter, then the Earl of Rutland (age 45), the Queen's chamberlain, and Duke of Norfolk (age 64), then the corpse, then the chief mourner, the lady Marquis of Exeter "in place of the Lady Mary as then accrased assisted by two noblemen as earls," then nine noble ladies, mourners. The corpse being received in the chapel by the prelates and placed under the hearse, Lancaster Herald said, with a loud voice, "Of your charity pray for the soul" &c. (words quoted). Then Dirige was sung and all departed to the Queen's chamber. Watch was kept every night in the chapel by priests, gentlemen-ushers and officers of arms who, in the morning, early, were relieved by ladies and went to breakfast, which was provided "as two chines of beef with bread ale and wine thereto sufficient." Then began Laudes; and at nine a.m. the Lady Mary (age 21), chief mourner, and the others proceeded to the chapel. Thursday, 1 Nov., was the offering mass (described) at which everyone offered a piece of gold. Then after dinner and consultation with the cofferer and other chief clerks of the Household about the provision to be made, Dirige was solemnly sung by the Bishop of Chichester. On Friday, 2 Nov., the Abbot of St. Albans said mass and conducted the service; Saturday, 3 Nov., the Abbot of Waltham did execute; Sunday, 4 Nov., the Abbot of Reading; Monday, 5 Nov., the Abbot of Stratford. On Tuesday, 6 Nov., were 3 solemn masses, (1) by the Abbot of Tower Hill at which were the chief mourner, the Countess of Rutland (age 42) and other ladies, nine in all, the train borne by Mrs. Bassett: (2) by the Abbot of Westminster (attended by the chief mourner, Countess of Oxford (age 19) and others): (3) by the Bishop of St. Tasse, Abbot of Bramsey (attended by the chief mourner, Lady Marquis of Exeter, Countess of Rutland (age 42) and Sussex and others; the train borne by lady Coffyn).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1537. 12 Nov 1537. This yeare, the 12th of November,1 being Mundaye, the corps of Queene Jane were, with great solemnitie, caried from Hampton Cowrte in a chariott covered with black velvett, with a picture of the sayde Queene richelye apparelled lyke a Queene, wiUi a riche crowne of golde on her head, lyinge above on the coffin of the sayde corps, and so was conveyed to Wyndsore with great lightes of torches, with a great multitude of lordes and gentlemen rydinge all in black gownes and cotes, the Ladye Marie (age 21), the Kinges daughter, beinge cheife mourner, with a great companye of ladies and gentleweomen waytinge on her, and ridinge all in blacke allso; and there, with great solemnities buried by the Archbishopp of Canterburie (age 48), with a great companye of bishopps and abbotts being there present in their mitres, with all the gentlemen and priestes of the Kinges chappell, which rode all the way in their surplesses, singinge the obsequie for the dead; and the morrowe after there was a solemne masse of requiem sunge by the Archbishopp of Canterburie; and the Bishop of Worcester, called Dr. Latimer (age 50), made a notable sermon; and at the offertorie all the estates offered ryche palls of clothe of golde; and after masse there was a great feast made in the Kinges pallace at Windsore for all the estates and other that had bene present at the same buriall.

Allso, the sayde 12th of Novembre, at afternoone, there was a solemne herse made at Powles in London, and a solemne dirige done there by Powles queere, the Major of London2 beinge there present with the alldermen and sheriffes, and all the major's officers and the sheriffes sergeantes, mourninge all in blacke gownes, and all the craftes of the cittie of London in their lyveries; allso there was a knyll rongen in everie parishe churche in London, from 12 of the clocke at noone tyll six of the clocke at night, with all the bells ringinge in everye parishe churche solemne peales, firom 3 of the clocke tyll the knylls ceased ; and allso a solempne dirige songen in everye parishe churche in London, and in every church of Friars, Monks, and Canons, about London; and, the morrow after, a solemn mass of requiem in all the said churches, with all the bells ringing, from 9 of the clock in the morning till noon; also there was a solemn masse of requiem done at Pauls, and all Pauls choir offering at the same masse, the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, and the wardens of every craft of the city of London; and, after the said mass, the mayor and aldermen going about the hearse sainge "De profundis," with all the crafts of the city following, every one after their degrees, praying for the soul of the said Queen.

Note 1. Stow agrees with the text, which would appear to be correct, being Wednesday, but Hall [Hall's Chronicle] has the eighth day of November, which was Saturday.

Note 2. Sir Richard Gresham, who, in a letter of the 8th Noyember to Cromwell, had suggested that such a solemn service should be celebrated; "yt shall please you to understand that, by the commanndement of the Ducke of Norfolke, I have cawssyd 1,200 masses to be sejde, within the cite of London, for the sowle of our moste gracious Qweene. And whereas the majer and aldyrmen with the commenors was lattely at Powlles, and ther gaye thanckes nnto God for the byrthe of our prynce, My Lorde, I doo think it, where convenient, that theer should bee also at Pauls a solemn dirge and masse; and that the mayor, aldermen, with the commoners, to be there, for to pray and offer for her Grace's soul. My Lord, it shall please you to move the King's Highness, and his pleasure known in this behalf, I am and shall be ready to accomplish his moste gracious pleasure, and if there be any alms to be given, there is many power people within the city." — State Papers, yol. L part ii. p. 574.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (age 48) and [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (age 24) were married by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 50) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Anne of Cleves (age 24) was crowned Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of John La Marck III Duke Cleves and Maria Jülich Berg Duchess Cleves. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (age 49) and [her step-mother] Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 [her father] Henry VIII (age 52) and [her step-mother] Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters Mary (age 27) and [her half-sister] Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

On 12 Nov 1543 [her future husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 16) and Maria Aviz (age 16) were married at Salamanca. She the daughter of John III King Portugal (age 41) and Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal (age 36). He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 43) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were double first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Feb 1544. The viij day of Feybruarij was commondyd by the quene (age 27) and the bysshope of London (age 44) that Powlles and evere parryche that thay shuld syng Te Deum Laudamus, and ryngyng for the good vyctory that the quen('s) (age 27) grace had aganst Wyatt (age 23) and the rebellyous of Kent, the wyche wher over-come, thankes be unto God, with lytyll blud-shed, and the reseduw taken and had to presun, and after wher dyvers of them putt to deth in dyvers places in Londun and Kent, and prossessyon evere wher that day for joy.

Around 26 Jan 1554 Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising against the marriage of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) and [her future husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 26) led by Thomas Wyatt (age 33) with the intention to replace them with Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 27) and [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20). George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 57) sided with the rebels. John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos (age 61) suppressed the rebellion.

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20) was interrogated.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1554. The sam day at after-non was a proclamasyon in Chepesyde, Ledyn-hall, and at sant Magnus [Map] corner, with harold of armes and on of the quen['s] trumpeters blohyng, and my lord mare, and my lord admerall (age 44) Haward, and the ij shreyffs, that ser Thomas Wyatt (age 33) was proclamyd traytur and rebellyous, and all ys fellowes, agaynst the Quen('s) mageste and her consell, and that he wold have the Quen in costody, and the Towre of London in kepyng; and thay convayd unto evere gatt gonnes and the bryge; and so evere gatt with men in harnes nyght and days. And a-bowt iij of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (age 37) grace cam rydyng from Westmynster unto yeld-hall with mony lordes, knyghts and lades, and bysshopes and haroldes of armes, and trompeturs blohynge and all the gard in harnes. [Then she declared, in an oration to the mayor and the city, and to her council, her mind concerning her marriage, that she never intended to marry out of her realm but by her council's consent and advice; and that she would never marry but all her true] sogettes [subjects] shall be content, [or else she would live] as her grace has don hederto. [But that her gr]ace wyll call a parlement [as] shortely as [may be, and] as thay shall fynd, and that [the earl of] Penbroke (age 53) shall be cheyffe capten and generall agaynst ser Thomas Wyatt (age 33) and ys felous in the [field,] that my lord admerall (age 44) for to be sosyatt with the [lord mayor] to kepe the cete from all commars therto. [After this] the Quen('s) grace came from yeld-hall [Map] and rod to the iij cranes [Map] in the vyntre, and toke her barge [to] Westmynster to her own place the sam day.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 02 Apr 1554. 02 Apr 1544. Munday the 2 of Aprill, 1554, the Parlement began at Westminster, which should haue bene kept at Oxforde, the Queens Majestie (age 28) ridinge in her Parlement robes from her pallace of Whitehall to St. Peters churche with all her Lordes spirituall and temporall in their robes, and there heard masse of the Holie Ghoete and a sermon. And that aftemoone the Common Howse did chuse Mr. Robert Brooke, esquier, and sergiant at lawe and Recorder of London, for their speaker in this Parlement.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 25 May 1554. 25 May 1544. Frydaye 25 Maii Sir Edward Courtney, Earle of Devonshire (age 17), was had out of the Tower [Map] at 3 of the clock in the morninge, Mr. Chamberlayne of Suffolke and Sir Tho. Tresham, knights, ridinge with him, with certeyne of the Queens garde and others, to Fodringay Castle [Map] in Northamptonshire, and he there to remayne under theyr custodie at the Queens pleasure.

This moneth allso divers persons both men and weomen were sett on the pillorie in Cheape for slaunderouse and seditiouse wordes speakinge against the Queene (age 28) and her Councell and had their eares nayled to the pillorie [Map].

Christening of Henry Wriothesley

On 24 Apr 1545 Henry Wriothesley, the future 2nd Earl Southamption, was christened at St Andrew's Church, Holborn [Map]. His godparents were [her father] Henry VIII (age 53), Henry's daughter Mary Tudor (age 29) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk (age 61).

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 [her father] Henry VIII (age 55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as [her half-brother] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9), Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 30) and [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne (age 46), Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 57), Anthony Denny (age 45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 45), Edward Montagu (age 61), Edward North 1st Baron North (age 50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 61), Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 46), Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton (age 41).

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 [her father] Henry VIII (age 55) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son [her half-brother] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) succeeded VI King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Thomas Wendy (age 46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King's last will and testament, for which he received £100.

Diary of Edward VI. 13 Jul 1550. Sir Jhon Gatis sent into Essex to stope the going away of the ladie Marie (age 34), bicause it was credibly informed that Scipperus4 shuld stele her away to Antwerp, divers of her gentlemen were there, and Scipperus a litle befor came to see the landing placis.

Note 4. Scipperus (mentioned again by the King under the dates of the 27th July and 14th August) must have been a naval commander in the emperor's service. Sir John Hayward, misinterpreting the present passage, translates it, "Divers of her gentlemen departed thither (to Antwerp) before, and certain shippers (as they are termed) were discovered to view the English coast." (Life and Reign of King Edward VI.) "The emperor privately sent to England in July a certain Scepper, one of his principal councillors, for the purpose of carrying away the King's eldest sister, Mary (age 34); but, by God's blessing, the thing was discovered and prevented. Unless God had watched over his people, it would have been all over with them." Martin Micronius to Henry Bullinger, from London, Aug. 18, 1550, in Zurich Letters, ui. 568.

Diary of Edward VI. 18 Mar 1551. The lady Mary (age 35) my sister came to me to Whestmuster1, wheare after salutacions she was called with my counsel into a chambre, where was declared how long I had suffered her masse against my will2 in hope of her reconciliation, and how now, being no hope, wich I perceived by her lettres, except I saw some short amendement, I could not beare it. She answerid that her soul was God('s), and her faith she wold not chaung, nor dissemble hir opinion with contrary doinges. It was said I constrained not her faith, but willed her (not as a king to rule, but3) as a subject to obey. And that her esaumple might breed to much inconvenience.

Note 1. "The XV. day of March the lady Mary rode through London unto Saynt John's [at Clerkenwell], her place, with fifty knights and gentlemen in velvet coats and chains of gold afore her, and after her fourscore gentlemen and ladies, every one having a pair of beads of black. She rode through Chepeside and through Smithfield. The xvij. day [not 18 as in the King's Journal] my lady Mary rode from Saynt John's through Fleet-street unto the court at Westminster, with many noblemen, of lords and knights and gentlemen, and ladies and gentlewomen; and at the court-gate she alighted, and was received by mr. Wingtield, the comptroller of the King's house, and many lords and knights, and so she was brought through the hall into the chamber of presence, and so she tarried there, and had a goodly banquet, two hom-s. And soon after she took her horse and rode unto Saynt John's; and there she lay all night; and on the morrow her Grace rode to New hall in Essex; and there bided in grace, with honour, thanked be God and the King her brother." — Machyn's Diary, p. 5.

Note 2. These words are struck through with the King's pen.

Note 3. These words are inserted above the line.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 May 1551. The xv day the Lady Mary (age 35) rode through London unto St. John's, her place, with fifty knights and gentlemen in velvet coats and chains of gold afore] her, and after her iiij [score gentlemen and ladies, every] one havyng a peyre of bedes [of black. She rode through] Chepe-syde and thrugh Smythfeld, -the v. K. E. vj.

Note. The lady Mary rode to St. John's, her place. That is, to the house of the late knights hospitallers at Clerkenwell. On the circumstances of the princess's visit to court at this time see her brother's diary in Burnet.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 May 1551. The xvij day my lade Marie (age 35) rod thrugh from Saynt [John's through] Flettstrett unto the court to Westmynster [with many] nobull men of lordes and knyghtes and gentyllmen and ladies and gentyllwomen, and at the court gatte she a-lyttyd, and M. [Wingfield] (age 64), the comtroller of the kynges howse, and mony lordes and [knights], and so she was browth thrught the halle unto the cham[ber of] pressens; and so she tared there and ade a goodly ba[nquet] ij owrs, and sone after she toke her horse and rod unto Sy[nt John's;] and ther she laie alle nyght, and on the morowe her [Grace] rod to Nuw Hall in Exsex, and ther byd yn grasse with honor, thanke be God and the kyng her brodur.

In Sep 1551 Edward Waldegrave (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] for refusing to carry out the Privy Council's ban on Princess Mary (age 35) her having mass said in her house.

In 1552 John Manuel Aviz Prince Portugal (age 14) and [her future sister-in-law] Joanna of Austria Princess Portugal (age 16) were married. She the daughter of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 51) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. He the son of John III King Portugal (age 49) and Catherine of Austria Queen Consort Portugal (age 44). They were double first cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Jun 1552. The xj day of Juin cam rydyng to London my lade Mare (age 36) grase through London unto Saynt Johns with a goodly compeny of gentyll men and gentyll women.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Jun 1552. The xiij day of Juin rod thrugh London unto the Towre warffe [Map] my lade Mare (age 36) grase, the kynges syster, and toke her barge to Grenwyche [Map] the kynges courte, and so cam agayn at vj a-cloke at nyght, and so landyd at the Towre, and so unto Saynt Johns beyond Smyth-feld.

In 1553 Thomas White (age 61) was elected Lord Mayor of London. He was knighted the same year by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 36).

In 1553 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) was knighted by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 36).

In 1553 Edward Hastings 1st Baron Hastings of Loughborough (age 32) was appointed Master of the Horse by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 36).

1533 Buggery Act

In 1553 the 1533 Buggery Act was repealed by Catholic Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 36) who preferred such matters to be dealt with by Ecclesiastical Courts.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1553. The vj day of Feybruary cam to London and rod thrughe London my lade Mare('s) (age 36) grasse, the kynges syster, with a grett nombur of lordes and knyghtes, and her grace a grett [number] of lades and jentyll women and jentyll men to the [number] of ij honderd horsse, and thrug Chepe unto Saynt J[ohn's].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1553. The x day of January [Note. Probably February] rod my lade Mare('s) (age 36) grasse from Saynt [John's] and thrugh Flettstrett unto the kyng at Westmynster, with a grett nombur of lords and knyghtes, and alle the [great] women lades, the duches of Suffoke (age 35) and Northumberland (age 44), my lade marqwes of Northamptun (age 26), and lade marqwes of Wynchester, and the contes of Bedfford (age 74), and the contes of Shrowsbere (age 53), and the contes of Arundelle, my lade Clynton (age 26), my lade Browne (age 24) and Browne [sic in manuscript], and many mo lades and gentyllwomen; and at the oter gatt ther mett her my lord of Suffoke (age 36) and my lord of Northumberland (age 49), my lord of Wynchester (age 70), my lord of Bedfford (age 68), and therle of Shrusbery (age 53), the therle of Arundell (age 40), my lord Chamburlayn, my lord Admerolle, and a gret nomber of knyghtes and gentyllmen, and so up unto the chambur of pressens, and ther the [her half-brother] Kynges (age 15) grace mett her and salutyd her.... owyn a-pon payne of presunmentt and a grett [penalty, as ye] shalle fynd in the actes in secund yere of kyng ... the perlementt tyme of the sayd yere, and nott to be ... plasse as taverns, alle-howses, ines, or wher ... for cummers and gestes, and has commandyd unto alle shreyffes and baylles, constabulls, justes of pesse, or any .. thay shall se truthe (and) justys as thay shalle [inform the] kyng and ys consell, and bryng them to pressun of ... sun or poyssuns as be the offenders ther off for ... her of odur.

Death of Edward VI

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 06 Jul 1553. [her half-brother] KING EDWARD (age 15) died at Greenwich, on the 6th July 1553, "towards night."a The event was kept perfectly secret during the next day;b but measures were taken to occupy and fortify the Tower of London [Map].c On "the 8. of July the lord maior of London was sent for to the court then at Greenwich, to bring with him sixe aldermen, as many merchants of the staple, and as many merchant adventurers, unto whom by the Councell was secretly declared the death of king Edward, and also how hee did ordaine for the succession of the Crowne by his letters pattents, to the which they were sworne, and charged to keep it secret."d

Note a. Letter of the council to sir Philip Hoby (age 48), ambassador with the emperor, printed in Strype's Memorials, 1721, ii. 430. It was not written until the 8th of the month, and is silent regarding the successor to the throne. Mary (age 37), in her letter to the lords of the council, dated from Kenynghall [Map] on the 9th of July (printed in Foxe's Actes and Monuments), also states that she had learned from some advertisement that the king her brother had died on Thursday (the 6th) at night last past.

Note b. Northumberland's (age 49) intention was to keep the death of the king (age 15) a secret, until he should have obtained possession of the person of the lady Mary (age 37), who had been summoned to visit her brother, and was at no further distance from London than the royal manor of Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But there were not wanting about the court those who from attachment to Mary, or from self-interest, ventured to incur the hazard of conveying to her this momentous intelligence; whereupon she immediately took alarm, and rode off towards the eastern coast, from which she might have escaped to the continent, had such a step become necessary. Many writers assert that it was the earl of Arundel (age 41) who made a private communication to her. I have not found any contemporary authority for this statement; but sir Nicholas Throckmorton (age 38), in his poetical autobiography (MS. Cole, vol xl. p. 272, verses 111, 112, 113, 114), claims the credit of having been the officious person. He had been a favourite servant of king Edward; and on his royal master's death,

"Mourning, from Greenwich I didd strayt departe

To London, to an house which bore our name.

My bretheren guessed by my heavie hearte

The King was dead, and I confess'd the same:

The hushing of his death I didd unfolde,

Their meaninge to proclaime queene Jane I tolde.

And, though I lik'd not the religion

Which all her life queene Marye hadd profest,

Yett in my mind that wicked motion

Right heires for to displace I did detest.

Causeless to proffer any injurie,

I meant it not, but sought for remedie.

Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,

How that her brother hee was dead and gone;

In post her goldsmith then from London went,

By whome the message was dispatcht anon.

Shee asked, ' If wee knewe it certainlie ? '

Whoe said, ' Sir Nicholas knew it verilie.'

The author bred the errand's greate mistrust:

Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.

Shee saide, ' If Robert had beene there shee durst

Have gag'd her life, and hazarded the happ.'

Her letters made, shee knewe not what to doe:

Shee sent them oute, butt nott subscrib'd thereto."

By "Robert" the lady Mary meant sir Robert Throckmorton, one of the four brothers.

Note c. See the Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 35. for 07 July 1553.

Note d. It appears most probable that this was the first intimation which the citizens had received of the existence of the letters patent: and that it was on this occasion that, being "sworn to them," they affixed their signatures, although the document had been previously executed on the 21st of June. No fewer than thirty-two signatures follow that of the lord mayor, but the parties were perhaps not all citizens, and from the arrangement of their names in the existing transcript (mentioned in the following note b ) it would be difficult to distinguish which were the aldermen, which the merchants of the staple, and which the merchant adventurers.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jul 1553. The x day of July was reseyvyd in to the Towre [the Queen Jane (age 17)] with a grett compeny of lords and nobulls of .... after the qwen, and the duches of Suffoke (age 35) her mother, bering her trayn, with mony lades, and ther was a shot of gunnes and chamburs has nott be sene oft be-tweyn iiij and v of [the clock]; by vj of the cloke be-gane the proclamasyon the same [after-]non (of) qwen Jane with ij harold(s) and a trompet blohyng, [declaring] that my lade Mare (age 37) was unlafully be-gotten, and so [went through] Chepe to Fletstrett, proclamyng qwen Jane; and ther was a yong man taken that tym for spykyng of serten wordes of qwen Mare (age 37), that she had the ryght tytle.

Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The xij th dale the lady Mary (age 37) sent to Norwich [Map] to be proclaymed, but they wolde not, because they were not certeyn of the kinges death; but within a daye after they dyd not only proclayme hir, but also sent men and weapons to ayde hir.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. The xiij th daie ther cam dyverse gentyllmen with ther powers to quene Maries (age 37) suckour.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. By this tyme worde was broughte to the quene (age 17) at the Tower [Map] that sir Edmonde Peckham (age 58), sir Edward Hastings (age 32), and the lorde Windsore (age 54), with others, were upp proclayming quene Mary (age 37) in Buckinghamshire.a

Note a. See the commissions addressed to several commanders to suppress the rebellion in Buckinghamshire, in the Catalogue of State Papers of the reign of queen Jane in the Appendix.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. About this tyme or therabouts the vj. shippes that were sent to lie befor Yarmothe [Map], that if she had fled to have taken hir, was by force of wether dreven into the haven, w(h)er about that quarters one maister Gerningham was ray sing power on quene Maryes (age 37) behalfe, and hering therof came thether. Wherupon the captaynes toke a bote and went to their shipes. Then the marynours axed maister Gernyngham what he wolde have, and wether he wolde have their captaynes or no; and he said, "Yea, mary." Saide they, "Ye shall have theym, or els we shall throwe theym to the bottom of the sea." The captaynes, seing this perplexity, saide furthwith they wolde serve quene Mary gladlie; and so cam fourthe with their men, and convayed certeyn great ordenaunce; of the which comyng in of the shipes the lady Mary and hir company were wonderfull joyous, and then afterwarde doubted smaly the duke's puisance. And as the comyng of the shipes moche rejoyced quene Mary's party, even so was it as great a hart-sore to the duke (age 49), and all his campe, whose hartes wer all-redy bent agaynst him. But after once the submyssyon of the shipes was knowne in the Tower [Map]a eche man then began to pluck in his homes; and, over that, worde of a greater mischief was brought to the Tower the noblemen's tenauntes refused to serve their lordes agaynst quene Mary. The duke he thought long for his succours, and writ somewhat sharplie to the counsayll here in that behalfe, aswell for lacke of men as munytion: but a slender answer he had agayn.

Note a. This passage, together with those that follow, shows that the Chronicler was still writing in the Tower of London.

On 18 Jul 1553 Thomas Tresham (age 53) proclaimed as queen Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) and accompanied her to London at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map].

On 19 Jul 1553 Lady Jane Grey (age 17) Abdicated I King England. Her first cousin once removed Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) succeeded I Queen England.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Jul 1553. The xix day of July was qwene Mare (age 37) proclamyd qwene of England, France, and Yrland, and alle domy(ni)ons, [as the] syster of the late kyng Edward the vj. and doythur unto the nobull kyng Henry the viij. be-twyn v and vj of the cloke at nyght, and ther wher at proclamasyon iiij trumpeters and ij harold(s) of armes, and the erle of Arundell (age 41), the erle of Shrossbery (age 53), th'erle Penbroke (age 52), my lord Tressorer (age 70), my lord of Preveselle, my lord Cobham (age 56), my lord Warden, master Masun, and my lord Mare, and dyvers odur nobull men; and thys was done at the crosse [Map] in Chepe, and from that plasse thay whent unto Powlls and ther was Te Deum Laudamus, with song, and the organes playhyng, and all the belles ryngyng thrugh London, and bone-fyres, and tabuls in evere strett, and wyne and bere and alle, and evere strett full of bonfyres, and ther was money cast a-way.

Note. Proclamation of queen Mary. A printed copy of the proclamation making known the title of queen Mary, is at the Society of Antiquaries.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1553. The xxj day of July was taken in Cambryg [Map] the duke of Northumberland (age 49), with dyvers lordes and knyghts; and that day qwen Mare (age 37) was proclamyd in Cambryg [Map], and [in-]contenent thrugh England.

On 24 Jul 1553 Robert Wingfield (age 40) hosted Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) during her journey to London to claim the throne from Lady Jane Grey (age 17) at Ipswich, Suffolk [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Jul 1553. The xxix day of July was a felow s[et in the pillory] for spykyng agaynst the good qwen Mare (age 37).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre [Map] the duke of Suffoke (age 36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my [her half-sister] lade Elssabeth (age 19) to Algatt, and so to the qwens (age 37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

Note. Rode through London my lady Elizabeth. Stowe relates that the lady Elizabeth went to meet the queen on the 30th, the day after her arrival in London: he states that she was accompanied with a thousand horse, as says our diarist, but "Camden 500, and so I have heard my mother from her grandmother, who was one of them, relate, and that queen Mary then kissed every gentlewoeman [that] came with her sister." MS. note by the Rev. John Lynge, vicar of Yalding in Kent, in a copy of Stowe's Annals; Retrospective Review, 2d Series, i. 341.

Note. P. 37. The royal livery. The passage relating to the princess Elizabeth's entry should conclude thus,—"all in green guarded with white, velvet, satin, taffety, and cloth, according to their qualities." Green and white formed the livery of the Tudors. At the marriage of Arthur prince of Wales the yeomen of the guard were in large jackets of damask, white and green, embroidered before and behind with garlands of vine leaves, and in the middle a red rose. In the great picture at Windsor castle of the embarkation at Dover in 1520, the Harry Grace à Dieu is surrounded with targets, bearing the various royal badges, each placed on a field party per pale white and green. The painting called king Arthur's round table at Winchester castle, supposed to have been repainted in the reign of Henry VII. is divided into compartments of white and green. The "queenes colours" are also alluded to in the following story of a rude jest passed on the new Rood in Saint Paul's:

"Not long after this (in 1554) a merry fellow came into Pauls, and spied the Rood with Mary and John new set up; whereto, among a great sort of people, he made low curtesie, and said: Sir, your Mastership is welcome to towne. I had thought to have talked further with your Mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the Queenes colours. I hope ye be but a summer's bird, in that ye be dressed in white and greene." (Foxe, Actes and Monuments, iii. 114.)

Among the attendants on queen Mary in p. 38, three liveries are mentioned, green and white, red and white, and blue and green. The men in red and white were the servants of the lord treasurer (see p. 12, where several other liveries are described), and the blue and green would be those of the earl of Arundel or some other principal nobleman. Blue and white was perhaps king Philip's livery (p. 79).

In p. 59 we find that in 1554 even the naval uniform of England was white and green, both for officers and mariners. In noted in that page for "wearing" read "were in," which, without altering the sense, completes the grammar.

The city trained bands were, in 1557, ordered to have white coats welted with green, with red crosses (see p. 164).

The lady Elizabeth, however, did not give green and white to her own men. From two other passages (pp. 57, 120) we find her livery was scarlet or fine red, guarded with black velvet; and from the description of her coronation procession in p. 186, it seems that red or "crimson" was retained for her livery when queen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The sam tyme cam to the Flett [Map] the yerle of Ruttland (age 26) and my lord Russell (age 68), in hold. The qwen('s) (age 37) grace mad [sir Thomas] Jarnyngham [Note. Thomas a mistake for Henry] vyce-chamburlayn and captayne of the garde, and ser Edward Hastyngs (age 32) her grace mad ym the maister of the horsse the sam tym.

Exeter Conspiracy

On 03 Aug 1553 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) was finally released from imprisonment after fifteen years by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) who was a close friend of his mother Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 50).

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the Queen (age 37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower [Map]; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (age 41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my [her half-sister] lade Elssabeth (age 19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (age 56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (age 50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.

On 03 Aug 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal entrance into London.

Strype's Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:

There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (age 80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (age 80) was put to death by [her father] King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (age 26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (age 70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (age 56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (age 26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (age 70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen's mother and had written in defense of King Henry's proceedings.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1553. The iij day of August, at Rychemond [Map], was my lord Cortnay (age 26) created the yerle of Denshyre of owre nobulle qwene Mare (age 37).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Aug 1553. [The Queen (age 37) released from prison the lord Courtenay (age 26), soon after created earl] of Denshyre, and odur moo.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Aug 1553. And the Qwene (age 37) grace mad ser Edward Hastyngs (age 32) master of the horse, and ser Thomas Jernyngham [Note. Mistake for Henry made before.] vysse-chamburlayne and captayn of the gard, and master Rochastur (age 59) master controller; my lord marqwes of Wynchaster (age 70) lord tresorer of England, and dyvers odur offeserse, and dyvers odur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1553. The xxviij day of September the Qwen('s) (age 37) grace removed from Sant James, and so to Whyt Hall, and ther her grace took her barge unto the Towre, and ther all the craftes and the mare and the aldermen in bargurs with stremars and mynstrells, as trum pets, wettes, shames, and regalls, and with a gret [shooting] of gunes tyll her grace cam in-to the Towr, and ...

Coronation of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Sep 1553. The xxix day of September the Qwuen('s) (age 37) grace mad knyghts of the Bathe xv; the furst was the yerle of Devonshyre (age 26), the yonge yerle of Surray (age 17), the iijde lord of Borgane, and lord Barkley, the lord Monjoye (age 20), lord Sowche (age 27), ser Wylliam Pallet, my lord Cardyff (age 52), the lord Wyndsore('s) (age 54) sune (age 21), sir Ryche('s) sune, sir Clynton, ser Pagett, ser Robart Rochaster, ser Hare Jernyngham (age 41), ser Edward Dormer.

Note. P. 45. The knights of the Bath made at the coronation of queen Mary were, Edward earl of Devonshire (age 26), Thomas earl of Surrey (age 17), William lord Herbert of Cardiff (age 52), Henry lord Bergavenny (age 23), Henry lord Berkeley (age 18), John lord Lumley, James lord Mountjoy (age 20), sir Robert Rochester (age 59), controller of the queen's house, sir Henry Jerningham (age 41), sir William Powlett (age 21), sir Henry Clinton, sir Hugh Rich, sir Henry Paget, sir Henry Parker, and sir William Dormer. The arms of these knights are beautifully tricked in the Cottonian MS. Claudius C. III.

Note. P. 45. Coronation of queen Mary. A document respecting the claims at this coronation has been printed in the Society's volume of Rutland Papers, p. 118: and, as there mentioned, a formulary of the ceremonial is in the library of the Society of Antiquaries.

On 30 Sep 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal journey from the Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. She was accompanied by Mary Roper (age 30).

Bishop George Day (age 52) preached.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the Qwuyen('s) (age 37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of Darbe (age 44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (age 41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (age 45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (age 26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (age 28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (age 53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (age 80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (age 41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (age 17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (age 27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (age 54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my [her half-sister] lade Elisabeth (age 20) and my [her step-mother] lade Anne of Cleyff (age 38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.

On 01 Oct 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) was crowned I Queen of England and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) carried the Sword of State.

John Gage (age 73) bore the queen's train. Edward Dymoke (age 45) attended as the Queen's Champion. James Blount 6th Baron Mountjoy (age 20) and Henry Parker 12th Baron Marshal 11th Baron Morley (age 20) were created Knight of the Bath. Thomas Hastings (age 38) and John Leigh (age 51) were knighted. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) and Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 28) attended.

[her step-mother] Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 38) took part in the procession.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1553. The ij day her grace (age 37) mayd lxxiiij knyghts [Note. the list has eighty-nine], the morowe after her crownnasyon, the wyche her be ther names folowyng: (not inserted by the Diarist)

Note. P. 46. Knights made the morrow after the Coronation. Their names were as follow, according to a list in the MS. Coll. Arm. I. 7. f. 74.

The morowe after the day of Coronation, beinge the seconde day of October, at the palys of Wystmister, were dobyd the knightes of the carpet foloinge in the presence of the quenes majestie in her chamber of presens under the clothe of estate by therl of Arundell, lord stuarde of the quenes housse, who had of her highnes commission to execute the same:

The lord Garratte, Sir Edward Walgrave, Sir Christofer Allen, The lord Borough, Sir John Bourne, secretary, Sir Richard Freston, The lord Dudley, Sir Raff Chamberlen, Sir William Kelloway, Sir Thomas Stanley, Sir John Tyrell, Sir Henry Garton, Sir Edmond Wyndsor, Sir John Hodlestone, Sir John Tregonell, Sir Henry Ratclyff, Sir Robert Peckham, Sir Ambrose Jermyn, Sir Thomas Hastings, Sir Harry Lea, Sir Leonard Chamberlen, Sir Thomas Gerarde, Sir Rychard Tate, Sir John Croftes, The lord chef baron, Sir Edmond Grene, Sir Edmond Mauleverer, The lord chef justyce, Sir Robart Lane, Sir Rychard Bruges, Sir George Gefforde, Sir Rychard Stapleton, Sir James FytzJames, Sir Thomas Packington, Sir William Damsell, Sir Thomas Verney, Sir Thomas Lovell, Sir John Chichester, Sir James Williams, Sir John Spencer, Sir Harry Crypes, Sir William Meringe, Sir William Fitzwilliam, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Edward Pylson, Sir Thomas Androus, Sir Henry Ashley, Sir Edward Fytton, Sir William Courtney, Sir Rychard Stranguishe, Sir William Warham, Sir William Gresley, Sir George Mathwe, Sir Thomas Whyte, lord, Sir Thomas Cave, Sir John Cotton, mayor, Sir Edward Lytelton, Sir John Pollarde, Sir Thomas Throgmerton, Sir Philip Parreys, Sir John Warburton, Sir Edward Grevell, Sir Thomas White, Sir John Fermer, Sir Henry Stafford, Sir Thomas Metham, Sir Thomas Berenger, Sir William Wygston, Sir Rychard Lasen, Sir John Constable, Sir Harry Jones, Sir Thomas Dawney, Sir George Stanley, Sir John Bruse, Sir Robart Wyngfelde, Sir Rouland Stanley, Sir Robart Whitney, Sir Thomas Knyvett, Sir Rauf Egerton, Sir Rychard Chudley, Sir Roger Woodhouse, Sir Rychard Molineux, Sir Thomas Baskerfelde, Sir Francis Stoner, Sir Thomas Heskett, Sir Thomas Tyndall, Sir John a Lye, Sir Thomas Wayman, Sir Rychard Wallwine.

The arms of these knights are beautifully tricked in the Cottonian MS. Claud. C. III. but they are differently arranged, and some made at other times are interspersed. On this authority some slight amendment of the orthography of the names has been made where it appeared necessary.

A commission dated 17 Oct. empowering the earl of Arundel "to make so many persons knightes, within the tyme of two daies next ensuinge the date hereof, as by us shall be named, or by hymselfe may be thoughte mete, so as he excede not in the hole the numbre of threescore," is printed in Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xv. p. 350: but qu. its date?

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1553. The v day of October the Qwuen('s) (age 37) grace rod unto Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse of the Holy-gost, and ther wher ij bysshopes; on delevered her the shepter and odur thyng. Her grace rod in her parlement robes, and all the trumpeters blohyng a-for them all; and so, after her grace had hard masse, they whent to the Parlement howsse all to-geyther, and the yerle of Devonshyre (age 26) bare the sworde, and the yerle of Westmorland (age 28) bare the cape of mayntenans.

On 15 Oct 1553 Thomas Saunders preached at Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map] warning the congregation that 'the errors of the popish religion' would be restored to the church by Queen Mary (age 37).

In 1554 Thomas Wendy (age 53) was appointed physician to Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37).

In 1554 Emmanuel Philibert Duke of Savoy (age 25) was appointed 333rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37).

Around 1554 Antonis Mor (age 37). Portrait of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1554. [The xv day of January, the lord mayor, and the] aldermen whent to Westmynster [to the court, and] my lord chanseler mad a protestacyon [to them, and to] othur pepyll, that the quen('s) (age 37) grace ys myndyd [to marry] with the [her future husband] prynche of Spayne (age 26), and the reme [realm] for to have [great] benefett commyng in to the rayme [realm]; and that he not [to meddle with the public affairs of the State] thyngs, butt her consell of thys reame sh ....

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (age 18) was beheaded at Tower Green [Map] by order of Queen Mary I (age 37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle 22 Feb 1554. 22 Feb 1554. The 22 of February certeyne of the rebells which lay in Newgate [Map], both the Counters, the Kings Benche [Map], the Marshallsie [Map], and Westminster, to the number of iiii C. and more, were ledd to Westminster to the Cowrte, coupled together with collers and halters abowte their neckes, and there in the Tylt-yeard kneeled afore the Queen (age 38) lookinge owt at the gallerie by the gate, and cried for meroye, who most gratiouslye gave to them their pardon.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 18 Mar 1554. 18 Mar 1554. The xviii of Marche, beinge Palme Sunday, the [her half-sister] Ladie Elizabeth (age 20) was had to the Tower from Westminster by water privelie, after the Queene (age 38) had gone a procession, which was about x of the clock in the forenoone.

The same Palme Sunday the old service after the use of Sarum in Latyn was begone agayne and kept in Paules and other parishes, within the Cittie of London, with allso bearinge of Palmes, and creepinge to the Crosse on Good Fridaye, with the Sepulcher lights and the Resurrection on Easter daye.

Allso the Scriptures written on Rood-lofts and about the churches in London, with the armes of England, was washed out againste the feast of Easter in moste parte of all the parishe churches of the diocesse of London. And Dr. Feknama was made Deane of Paules, and Dr. May putt owt, and the sacrament of the aulter hanged or sett on the aulter in everie parishe churche.

Note a. John Feckenham.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Feb 1554. The sam day alle the Kent men whent to the cowrt with halters a-bowt ther nekes, and bone with cordes, ij and ij to-gether, through London to Westmynster, and be-twyn the ij tyltes the powr presonars knelyd downe in the myre, and ther the Quen('s) (age 38) grace lokyd owt over the gatt and gayff them all pardon, and thay cryd owt 'God save quen Mare!' and so to Westmynster hall, and ther thay cast ther alters a-bowt the hall, and capes, and in the stretes, and cryd owt 'God save quen Mare!' as thay whent.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Feb 1554. The sam day the qwyn('s) (age 38) grace gaff pardon unto serten of mo men of Kentt, in Sowthwarke [Map]; ther they cryd "God save quen Mare!" and cast ther alters on hed in the stretes and a-bowt, that sum had iiij or v halters.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Apr 1554. The ij day of Aprell began the parlemente, and the Quen('s) (age 38) grace rod thedur in her robes, and bysshopes and lordes in parlement robes, and ther was a goody masse of the Holy-gost; and [so] to the parlement howsse.

On 08 Apr 1554 John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos (age 62) was given Sudeley Castle [Map] by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38).

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1554. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, her grace (age 38) whent unto the chapell and whent a prossessyon with all the kynghtes of the garter that was ther pressent [to St.] James in the Feld; ther wher creatyd the sam day knights of the garter, the [her future husband] prynsse of Spayne (age 26) one, and the yerle of Sussex (age 47).

On 23 Aug 1554 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38) created her new [her husband] husband (age 27) and the Earl of Sussex Garter Knights:

331st Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 27).

332nd Henry Radclyffe 2nd Earl of Sussex (age 47).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 May 1554. The iij day of May, at the cowrt of sant James, the quen('s) (age 38) grace whent a prossessyon within sant James with harolds and serjants of armes, and iiij bysshopes mytred, and all iij days thay whent her chapell a-bowt the feldes, first day to sant Gylles and ther song masse; the next day tuwyse-day to sant Martens in the feldes [Map], [and there] a sermon and song masse, and so thay dronke ther; and the iij day to Westmynster, and ther a sermon and then masse, and mad good chere; and after a-bowt the Parke, and so to sant James cowrt ther.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 May 1554. The xxix day of May the Queen (age 38) removed from St. James's, passing through the park, and took her barge at Whitehall, and so to Rychmond [Map], on her progress.

Note. Pp. 64, 69, 74, 75. Removes of king Philip and queen Mary. These are thus recorded in the churchwardens' accounts of St. Margaret's Westminster:

"Allso payde to the ryngers the xij day of August (1553) when the queenes grace wente to Richmonde; and the xxij day of September when she came from Richmonde to Westminster; and the xixth day of December, when her grace wente to Richemont, and the xxx day of December when her grace cam to Westminster xvjd.

"Item, payde to the ryngers when the queenes majestie went from Westminster to Rychmond the xxix of May [1554; see p. 64] iiijd.

"Item, payde the xvij. and xviij. day of August, when the kyng and the quene cam from Richemonde to Sowthwarke, and so from thens to Westmynster, for bread and drynk to the ryngers vjd.

"Item, the xxj. day when they came to the mynster, and allso the xxiij. day when they went to Hampton Coorte viijd.

"Item, payde to the ryngers the xviijti [read 28th] day of September, when the kyng and the queenes majestie cam to Westmynster [see p. 69] iiijd.

"Item, payde to the ryngers of the belles the xij. day of November, when the kyng and the queenes majesties cam to the mynster to the masse of the holy gost [see p. 74] iiijd.

"Item, payde to the ryngers on sayncte Andrewis day, when the kynges majestie came to the mynster iiijd.

See this last mentioned in p. 77, but without noticing that it was the feast of Saint Andrew.

Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Wriothesley's Chronicle 23 Jul 1554. 23 Jul 1554. The 23 of Julie the [her future husband] Prince of Spayne (age 27) came to Winchesterd about vi of the clock at night, accompanied with noblemen as well of England as of his owne countriea, with trumpetts blowinge and bells ringinge, and came to the Cathedrall [Map] churche, where he alighted. And there the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chauncellor (age 71), with 4 bishops more, with the priests, singinge-men, and children, receaved him with procession in riche copes and with iii crosses up into the quiere, where was a riche traves richlye hanged for him; and there he kneeled downe before the sacrament; and then the Lord Chauncellor began Te Deum, the organs playinge and the quier singinge the rest. This done he was brought out with torche light to his lodginge throughe the cloyster to the Deanes howsse, all the Queens garde standinge in their riche cotes all the waye. He was apparelled in a riche cote richlie imbroydered with goulde, and an hatt much like the same with a feather in it. The same night after he had supped, which was about x of the clock, certeyne of the Councell brought him to the Queen (age 38) by a secrett waye, where she receaved him right lovinglye and kissed him, and after halfe an howre they tooke their leave, eche kissinge the other, and so departed that night to his lodginge.

Note d. Philip lingered a few days at Southampton, where he disembarked, as if in order to ascertain the humour of the nation, as one of his ambassadors, the Count of Egmont (age 31), had been recently violently assaulted by the populace, who mistook him for his master.

Note a. He came well attended with a bodyguard and troops.

On 25 Jul 1554 Prince Philip of Spain (age 27) and Queen Mary (age 38) were married by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71) at Winchester Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland and Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England. He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 54) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John Gage (age 74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 25 Jul 1554. The 25 of Julie [1554], beinge Weddensdaye and St. James dayea, about xi of the clocke the [her husband] Kinge (age 27) and Queene (age 38) came from their lodgings towardes the churche all the way on foote, verie richelye apparelled in gownes of cloth of golde sett with riche stones, he with his gentle-men and garde and she with hers, eche of them havinge a sworde borne before them, the Earle of Darbye (age 45) bearinge the sworde before her Maiestie, and the Earle of Pembroke (age 53) before the Kinge; and when they were come into the churche he went into one traveys and the Queen to another richlye hunge, where they were shriven. This done they came forth of their traveys to the place appoynted for the marriage, where the Lord Chauncellor (age 71), beinge before with 5 other bishops assistinge him, used all thinges, both in the banes-byddinge and otherwise, as hath bene in all marriages of olde tyme, and spake it both in Latin and in Englishe, her Grace on the right syde standinge and the King on the left syde. Her marriage ringe was a rownd hoope of gould without anye stone, which was her desire, for she sayde she would be married as maydens were in the olde tyme, and so she was.

After the marriage knott thus knitt the King and Queen came hand in hand under a riche canopie, beinge borne over them with 6 knightes and 2 swordes before them, all the lordes both Englishe and strangers richelye apparelled goeinge afore them, the trumpetts then blowinge tyll they came into the quier, where all the priestes and singinge men all in riche copes began to singe a psalme used in marriages, the King and Queen kneelinge awhile before the aulter, eche of them havinge a taper afore them; then after her Majestic went into her traveys on the right syde, and the King into another on the left syde; after the gospell they came owt and kneeled before the alter openlye all the masse tyme, and the care-cloth was holden ouer them; and he kissed the bishopp at the Agnus and then her Majestie. The masse done the Kinge of Herroldes openlye in the churche, and in presence of the King, the Queen, the lordes and ladies, and all the people, solemnlye proclay'med their Maiesties Kinge and Queene, with their title and style, in manner as followeth:

Philippe and Marie, by the grace of God Kinge and Queene of The Kinge and Englande, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Irelande, Defenders of the Faythe, Princes of Spayne and Sicilie, Archdukes of Austriche, Dukes of Mylane, Burgundye, and Brabant, Countes of Aspurge,b Flaunders, and Tyrrole. Which proclamation ended, the trumpetts blue and other noyses playde. And then the Kinge and Queene came furthe hand in hand, with their lordes, ladies, and gentlemen way tinge on them, and 2 swordes borne afore them in manner aforesayde; and so went on foote to the courte, and there dined openlye in the hall, both together at one table.

Note a. The feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Note b. Haspurgi, Hapsburg.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 24 Jul 1554. The 24 of Julie [1554], aboute 3 of the clock in the afternoone, [her future husband] he came from his lodginge on foote, the Lord Steward, the Earle of Darbie (age 45), the Earle of Pembrooke (age 53), and divers other lordes and gentlemen, both Englishe and Spanishe, goeinge afore him to the Courte, where everie bodye might see him, and so was brought up into the hall where the Queene (age 38) was standinge upon a skaffold richelye hanged, she meetinge him halfe waye, receivinge him, and kissinge him in the presence of all the peopleb. And then she tooke him by the hand, she goeinge on his right hand out of the hall in her great chamber of presence. And there in the presence of all the lordes and ladies they stoode a quarter of an hower under the clothe of estate talkiuge together; and then after a while he toke his leave of her Grace and came forthe into the open cowrte, where all the pentioners stood in araye and the garde all alonge on both sides the waye in theyr riche cotes to the Court gates; and from thence the lords brought him to the Cathedrall churche to evensonge, and after to his loginge agayne.

The same night, about 12 of the clock, the [her future father-in-law] Emperor (age 54) sent a message to the Queen (age 38), declaringe to her that his sonne which should marrie with her was not then a Prince onelye but a Kinge; and that he was Kinge of Naples and Jerusalem before the marriage, and so did send his writings of the same under his great seale.

Note b. Mary took no pains to conceal her impatience, being enabled in her conscience to plead her anxiety for a legitimate Roman Catholic succession, as the only means of securing the faith in England.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 11 Aug 1554. 11 Aug 1554. The 11 of August the [her husband] King (age 27) and Queen (age 38) removed to Richmond [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 17 Aug 1554. 17 Aug 1554. The 17 of Augusta the [her husband] King (age 27) and Queen (age 38) came by water from Richmond in the after noone, and landed at my Lord Chancellors stayers in St. Marye Overies, and there had a banquett in the Lord Chauncellors (age 71) howsse [Map], and then passed throughe the parke to the howse at St. Georges, of which Sir John Gage, Lord Chamberlayne to the Queene (age 74), had the keepinge, and there lay that night and dyned there the next daye.

Note a. The authorities differ widely as to this date. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 91 ) says: "They came not unto London tyll it was the 18th day of Angnst, and then came hothe unto the place in Sothwarke, and lay there that nyght, and the 19th day came into London." And Stow (p. 625): "The 11 of August, the King and Queene remooued to Richmond, from thence by water to Southwarke, &c. And the next day, heing the 12 of August, they rode through Southwarke oner the bridge, and so through London, &c." While Baker's Chronicle reads: "The eleventh of August they remoued to Richmond, the seven-and-twentieth to Suffolk Place in Southwark, and the next day to London," &c. (p. 342).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 18 Aug 1554. 18 Aug 1554. Saterdaye the 18 of August, in the after-noone, the [her husband] King (age 27) and Queenes (age 38) Majesties rode throughe Sowthwerke, over the bridge [Map], and so throughe London; where they were with great provision receaved of the citizens, pageants in places accustomed, the crosse in Cheape [Map] new gilte, &c.

Memorandum: In the moneth of September the Duke of Norfolke (age 81) died at Framlingham [Map] in Norfolke, and there was honorablye buried [Map] amongst his auncestors.

Allso this moneth the Bishop of London (age 54) visited all his dioces, and had sermons in everie parishe and place where he satt, and sett owt divers goodlye articles in print for the true religion.

Allso he commaunded that the feast of everie saynte that was patrone of the churche, called Festum loci in everie parishe, should be kept holiedaye in everie parishe throughe his diocesse as a principall feast used in olde tyme, after the custome of the churche.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1554. The xxviij day of September the [her husband] Kyng (age 27) and the Quen (age 38) removyd from Hamtun court [Map] unto Westmynster tho her grace('s) plasse.

On 09 Oct 1554 William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 44) was appointed 334th Knight of the Garter by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1554. The xij day of November the [her husband] Kyng (age 27) and the Quen (age 38) rod unto Westmynster chyrche to the masse of the Holy-gost, and after masse to the parlement-howsse; and all the bysshopes and the lordes in ther parlement robes, with trompeters blohyng, and all the harolds in ther cote armurs, and the juges in ther robes; the yerle of Penbroke (age 53) bare the kyng('s) sword, and the yerle of Comberland (age 41) bare the quen('s) sword, and the yerle of Shrowsbery (age 54) bare the kyng('s) cape of mantenance, and the yerle of Arundell (age 42) bare the quen('s) cape of mantenance; and a-for them rod to-gether my lord chansheler (age 71) and my lord tressorer (age 71) in ther parlement robes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Nov 1554. [The same day cardinal Pole (age 54) came from Gravesend [Map] by water, with the earl of Shrewsbury (age 54), the lord Montagu (age 25), the bishops of Durham (age 80) and Ely (age 48), the lord Paget (age 48), sir Edward Hastings (age 33), the lord Cobham (age 57), and diverse] knyghts and gentyllmen, in barges, and thay all [did shoot the] bryge be-twyn xij and on of the cloke, and a-g[ainst] the steleard [Map] of Temes my lord chanseler (age 71) mett [them in his] barge, and my lord of Shrousbury (age 54) [had his] barge with the [talbot, all] ys men in bluw cotes, red-hosse, skarlett capes, [and white] fethers; and so to the cort gatt, and ther the [her husband] Kyng('s) (age 27) grace [met him] and inbrasyd hym, and so lad ym thrughe the kyng('s) hall;] and he had borne a-for hym a sylver crosse, and [he was arrayed in] a skarlet gowne and a sqware skarlett cape; and my lord [North] bare the swarde a-for the Kyng; and so they whent up unto the Quens chambur, and ther her grace (age 38) salutyd hym; and after he toke ys leyffe, and toke ys barge to ys plase at Lambeth [Map], that was the bysshope of Cantorberys, Crenmer (age 65), and so to dener.

In 1555 Edward Hastings 1st Baron Hastings of Loughborough (age 34) was appointed 335th Knight of the Garter by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38).

1555 Protestant Executions

On 20 Jan 1555 the statutes for burning heretics, originally enacted in 1401 to repress Lollardism, De heretico comburendo, and repealed in 1547, was re-enacted by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 38) to provide for the burning of Protestants.

The burning of Protestants wasn't new. During the reign of King Henry VIII sixty-three Protestants had been burned over a period of sixteen years. During the reign of Queen Mary, however, two-hundred and eighty four were burned in three and a half years.

Two days later Henry Machyn describes in his diary: "whent in-to Smythfeld to berne betwyn vij and viij in the mornyng v men and ij women

In a number of cases burnings were posthumous ie bodies were exhumed and burned.

Thereafter burning take place on a regular basis, weekly, at various places around the country, and continued for the whole of Queen Mary's reign, with the last being two days before Mary's death. Executions continued in Queen Elizabeth's reign albeit at a much reduced rate.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Apr 1555. The iiij day of Aprell the [her husband] Kyng('s) (age 27) grace and the Quen (age 39) removyd unto Hamtun [Map] cowrte to kepe Ester ther, and so her grace to her chambur ther.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1555. [The xxiijd day of April, being saint George's day, at Hampton Court [Map], the [her husband] King (age 27), with other lords and knights of the garter, went in their robes on procession, with three] crosses, and clarkes and prestes, and my lord chancellor, the cheyff menyster, metered [mitred ie wearing his mitre], and all thay in copes of cloth of tyssue and gold, syngyng Salva fasta dyes as thay whent a-bowt; the Quen('s) (age 39) grace lokyd owt of a cassement, that hundereds dyd se her grace after she had taken her chambur; and arolds gohyng a-bowt the Kyng('s) grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1555. The xvij day of Juin was the hersse fenyssyd at Powlles a-boyffe the qwyer with ix prensepalles garnyshyd, (the) goodlest that ever was sene, and all the prensepalles covered with blake velvett, and the mageste of taffata and the frynge [gold]; and all the qwyre and a-boyffe the qwyre and the sydes and ondur [foot] and the body of the chyrche one he hangyd with blake and armes, and with xxxvj dosen of pensells of sylke welvett with gold and selver, and xvj baners-rolles of armes, and iiij baners of whyt emages wroght with fyne gold; over-nyght durge, and the morow masse; and mony mornars, the forst a stranger and the yerle of Shrusbere (age 27), and yerle of Penbroke (age 54), my lord treysorer, ser Recherd Sowthwell (age 52), and mony mo as Englys as Spaneards; and a vij skore powre men havyng nuwe blake gownes, and evere man holdyng torchys; and after messe a grett dener at the bysshope of London('s) plasse, and gret plente.

Note. P. 90. Funeral of the queen of Spain at Saint Paul's. The full ceremonial of this is preserved in the College of Arms, I. 14, ff. 111–114; and see a letter of the lord treasurer to the bishop of London respecting preparations for the solemnity in Strype, Memorials, iii. 220. The deceased was Jane, the grandmother of king Philip (age 28), and the aunt of queen Mary (age 39), being the elder sister of queen Katharine. She was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand the Catholic by [her grandmother] Isabel queen of Castille; and having married Philip of Austria, they succeeded to the kingdom of Castille on the death of her mother in 1504. On the death of her father in 1516, her husband having previously died in 1506, she was from insanity unfit to reign, and her son Charles (age 55) (afterwards emperor) was acknowledged sovereign of all Spain.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1555. The iij day of August the Quen (age 39) and [her husband] Kynges (age 28) grace removyd from Hamtun Court [Map] unto Hotland [Map], a iiij mylles of: has her grace whent thrugh the parke for to take her barge, ther mett her grace by the way a powre man with ij chruches, and when that he saw her grace, for joy he thruw hys stayffes a-way, and rane after her grace, and sche commondyd that one shuld gyff ym a reward.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Aug 1555. The xxvj day of August cam from Westmynster, rydyng thrugh London unto Towrs-warff, the [her husband] Kyng (age 28) and the Quen (age 39), and ther thay toke ther barge unto Grenwyche [Map], and landyd at the long bryge, and reseyvyd by my lord chanseler (age 72), and my lord of Ely (age 49), and my lord vycont Montyguw (age 26), master comtroller, master Sowthwell (age 52), and dyvers mo, and the gard, and dyvers holdyn torchys bornynge, and up to the Frers, and ther thare graces mad ther praers, and at her grace('s) landyng received ix or x suplycasyon(s), and so bake agayn to the court with a c. torchys bornyng.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1555. The iiij day of September the Quen('s) (age 39) grace and my [her half-sister] lady Elsabeth (age 21), and all the court, dyd fast from flessh, and toke the Popes jubele and pardon grantyd to alle men.

On 17 Oct 1555 Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu (age 26) was appointed 336th Knight of the Garter by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 39).

England Re-established as Catholic

On 12 Nov 1555 Queen Mary (age 39) re-established England as a Catholic country.

Dudley Plot against Mary I

In early 1556 Henry Dudley (age 29) attempted to replace Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 39) on the throne with [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 22) to then marry her to Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 29).

Around 1556 Hans Eworth (age 36). Portrait of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 39).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1556. The Sonday xxij day of Marche was at the Gray-ffrers at Grenwyche was my lord cardenall Polle (age 56) was consecratyd, with x byshopes mytyred-the iij yer of the quen Mare.

Note. P. 102. Consecration of Cardinal Pole. An account of this ceremony, at which the queen (age 40) was present, will be found in Strype, Memorials, iii. 287.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jul 1556. The xxj day of July the Quen('s) (age 40) grace removyd from sant James in the ffelds unto Heltem [Map] thrugh the parke and thrugh Whyt-alle, and toke her barge, and so to Lambeth unto my lord cardenoll('s) place; and there here grace toke here charett, and so thrugh sant Gorge('s) ffeld unto Nuhyngton, so over the feldes to-wherd Eltem at v of the cloke at after-none; and ther wher of pepull a-boyff x m. pepull to se her grace; and my lord cardinoll (age 56) rod with her, and my lord of Penbroke (age 55) and my lord Montyguu (age 27) and dyvers lordes and knyghtes and mony lades and gentyll women a grett nombur rod with her grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Sep 1556. The xix day of September dyd the Quene('s) (age 40) grace remove from Croydun the bysshope of Canthurbere('s) plasse unto sant James in the feld be-yond Charyng-crosse, her own plasse, with my lord cardenall (age 56) and (unfinished).

Note. P. 114. The Queen's return from Croydon. "Item, payde for ryngyng of the belles at the cumyng of the queenes majestie from Croydyn to Westminster the xxjth of September iiijd." This entry, from the accounts of St. Margaret's Westminster, differs two days from our Diarist.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Dec 1556. [The xx day of December the Queen (age 40) rode in her chariot through the park from] Santt James unto the galere, and so [took] her barge unto Westmynster, and landyd [at the palace,] and so in-to the abbay, and ther her grace hard [even song], and my lord cardenalle (age 56) and my lord Montyguw (age 28), [and my] lord Darse of Essex (age 59) dyd bere the sword a-for [her grace], and my lade Montyguw (age 18) bare up the quen ['s train].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1556. The xxij day of Desember the Quen('s) (age 40) grace [removed] from Sant James thrugh the parke, and toke [her barge] unto Lambyth unto my lord cardenalles (age 56) place, [where] her grace dynyd with hym and dyvers of the [council]; and after dener her grace toke her gornay to Grenwyche [Map], to kepe her Cryustynmus ther.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Jan 1557. The xx day of January at Grenwyche parke the quen (age 40) grace('s) pensyonars dyd mustur in bryth [bright] [harness] and mony barbe horsses; and evere pensyonar had iij men in grene cottes gardyd with whytt; so thay rod a-bowt [the park,] iij in ranke apone grett horssys with spers in ther handes pentyd whyt and grene, and a-for rod trumpeters blohyng; and next a man of armes bayryng a standard of red and yelowe, in the standard a whytt hart, and on the thodur syd a blake eygyll with goldyd leges; and be-twyn ij and iij of the cloke thay cam downe and mustered a-for the Quen('s) (age 40) grace a-for the parke gatt, for ther stod the Quen('s) grace on he, and my lord cardenall (age 56), and my lord admerall (age 47), and my lord Montyguw (age 28), and dyvers odur lordes and lades; and so a-for the pensyoners rod many gentyll-men on genetes and lyght horsses, butt spesyalle ther rod on gentyll-man, ys nam ys master (blank), apon the lest mulle thatt evere I say; and so thay rod to and fro a-for the Quyne; and ther cam a tumbeler, and playd mony prate fettes a-for the Quen and my lord cardenalle, that her grace dyd layke hartely; and so her grace dyd thanke them alle for ther peyne; and so after they partyd, for ther wher of the pensyonars 1. and mo, besyd ther men of armes; and ther wher of pepulle of men and vomen a-boyff x m. pepulle and mo.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Feb 1557. [The vijth day of February master Offley (age 57), the lord mayor, and divers aldermen, taking their barge, went to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the Queen's (age 40)] grace, and ther she mad ym [knight, he] behyng mayre, and master William Chester (age 48), altherman, mayd hym knyght the sam tyme and day.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Mar 1557. The xvij day of Marche cam rydyng from kyng Phelype (age 29) from be-yond the see unto the court at Grenwyche [Map], to owre quen (age 41), with letters in post, my lord Robart Dudley (age 24), and after master Kemp of the preve chambur, that the kyng (age 29) wold com to Cales [Map] the xvij day of Marche; and the sam day dyd pryche a-for the quen the nuwe bysshope of Lynckolne doctur Watsun (age 42).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1557. The xxj day of Marche the [her husband] Kyng (age 29) and the Quen (age 41) [went] thrugh the galere unto ther closett, and ther thay [heard mass]; and ther was ij swordes borne a-for them, on by lord Cobham (age 60), and the thodur (by) my lord admerall (age 47); [and from] ther closett bake to dener, boyth the Kyng and the Quen together, and ther my lord chanseler (age 56) was ther and dyvers [other lords.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Mar 1557. The xxiij day of Marche was a commondement cam that the [her husband] Kyng (age 29) and the Quen (age 41) wold ryd from the Towre-warff [Map] thrugh London with the nobuls of the rayme, boyth lordes and lades; and at the Towre-warff my lord mayre (age 57) mett ther gracys boyth, and thrugh London my masters the althermen and the shreyffes and alle the crafftes of London in ther leveres, and ther standynges set up of evere craft of tymbur, and the strett and the trumpettes blohyng with odur enstrementtes with grett joye and plesur, and grett shutyng of gones at the Towre, and the waytes plahyng on sant Peter's [Map] ledes [leads ie roofs] in Chepe; and my lord mayre (age 57) bare the septer a-for the Kyng and the Quen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1557. The sam day the [her husband] Kyng (age 29) and the Quen (age 41) removyd from Grenwyche [Map] unto Westmynster, a-ganst sant [George's day.]

1557 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1557 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 41) appointed three new Garter Knights:

337th Thomas Radclyffe 3rd Earl of Sussex (age 32).

338th William Grey 13th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 48).

339th Robert Rochester (age 63).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1557. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant George('s) day [the [her husband] King's (age 29)] grace whent a pressessyon at Whyt-halle [through the hall] and rond abowt the court hard by the halle; and so [certain of] the knyghts of the garter as they whent in ther [robes] of the garter; the bysshope of Wynchaster (age 47) dyd exsecute the masse with ys myter; the furst as they whe[nt the lord] Montyguw (age 28), my lord admerall (age 47), ser Antony Sely[ger, the] lord Cobham (age 60), the lord Darce (age 60), ser Thomas Chenne, [the lord] Pagett (age 51), the lord of Penbroke (age 56), the lord of Arundel (age 45), [the] lord tressorer (age 74), and secretore Peter in a robe of cremesun velvett with the garter brodered on ys shuder, and [one bare] a rod of blake, and a docthur bare a boke; and [then went all] the harodes, and then my lord Talbott (age 29) bare the sword, then sergant(s) of armes, and the Kyng('s) grace [came next], and Quen('s) (age 41) grace lokyng owt of a wyndow [beside] the cowrt on the garden syde.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 May 1557. The iiij day of May dyd ryd a-for the [her husband] Kyng (age 29) and Quen (age 41) in her grace('s) preve garden ser James Garnado, and so the bridle bytt dyd breke, and so the horsse rane aganst the wall, and so he brake ys neke, for ys horsse thruw ym agane the wall and hys brauns rane owtt.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 May 1557. The xxvij day of May, the wyche was the Assensyon day, the [her husband] Kynges (age 30) and the Quen('s) (age 41) grace rod unto Westmynster with all the lords and knyghtes and gentyllmen, and ther ther graces whent a prossessyon abowt the clowster, and so thay hard masse.

Note. P. 137. Celebration of Ascension day. On this occasion in the preceding year (1556) the church wardens of St. Margaret's Westminster made the following payments: "Item, payde for breade, wyne, ale, and beere, upon th'Ascension evyn and day, agaynst my lord abbot and his covent cam in procession, and for strewyng erbes the same day, vijs. jd."

On 07 Jun 1557 William Harvey (age 47) was sent to France to declare war on behalf of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 41).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jun 1557. The vij day of Juin was a proclamassyon in London by the quen('s) (age 41) grace, of the latt duke of Northumberland was supported and furdered by Henry the Frenche kyng (age 38) and ys menysters, and by the heddes of Dudley, Asheton, and by the consperacy of Wyatt and ys trayturs band; and the sayd kynges mynysters dyd secretly practysse and gyff, and they favorabulle; with trumpeters blohyng, and a x harroldes of armes, and with my lord mayre (age 57) and the althermen; and by the lat Stafford (deceased) and with odur rebelles whom he had interteynyd in ys rayme, and dyver odur mo, the wyche be ther yett on-taken.

Note. P. 138. Proclamation of war with France. A transcript (from the printed copy) of this Proclamation may be found in Starkey's collections, MS. Harl. 353, f. 184. See also Holinshed, 1st edit. p. 1767; Stowe's Chronicle, 1631, p. 631.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1557. The x day of Junij the [her husband] Kyng (age 30) and the Quen (age 41) toke ther jorney toward Hamtun [Map] courte for to hunt and to kyll a grett hartt, with serten of the consell; and so the howswold tared at the Whytthalle, tylle the Saterday folowhyng they cam a-gayne to Whytthalle.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1557. [The xvij day of June, being Corpus Christi day, the [her husband] King (age 30) and Queen (age 41) went in procession at Whitehall] thrughe the halle and the grett cowrtt-gate; [attended with as goodly] synging as ever was hard; and my (unfinished)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Jul 1557. The iij day of July the [her husband] Kyng (age 30) and the Quen (age 41) toke ther gornay [journey] toward Dover, Kent [Map], and lay all nyghtt at Syttyngborne [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1557. The xv day of July the Quen('s) (age 41) grace dynyd at Lambeth [Map] with my lord cardenall Polle (age 57), and after dener removyd to Rychmond [Map], and ther (her) grace tares ther her plesur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Nov 1557. The Sonday, the xxj day at November, the quen('s) (age 41) grase [did] sett a crowne of master Norrey('s) (age 47) hed kyng at armes, [and] created hym Clarenshus, with a cup of [wine], at Sant James, her grace('s) place.

Note. P. 158. Coronation of Norroy king of arms. The instrument of the creation and coronation of Laurence Dalton to be Norroy king of arms, by letters patent dated 6 Sept. 1557, is printed in Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xv. p. 477; and that for William Harvey to be Clarenceux, dated the next day, in the following page.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1557. The sam day the Quen('s) (age 41) grace and my lord cardenell (age 57) cam from Sant James unto Whytt-halle, and ther they hard masse; and after masse done, and ther wher all the byshopes and the juges and sergantes of the lawe, and ther wer creatyd ser Thomas Tressam (age 57) lord of sant John's of England, and iiij knyghtes of the Rodes made; and the sam tyme my lord abbot whent a prossessyon in ys myter, and all the monkes and clarkes syngyng Salve festa dies; and rond abowt the abbay, and my lord abbott (age 42) sange the masse.

Surrender of Calais

On 07 Jan 1558 the English surrendered Calais to the French following a one week siege. It had been in English hands since 1347. At 6am Thomas Wentworth (age 33), Governor of Calais, surrendered Calais [Map] to François de Lorraine-Guise, 2nd Duke of Guise (age 38), after a seven-day siege. Calais was the last English owned territory in France. The loss was a huge blow for Queen Mary I (age 41) and it is said that upon hearing the news she stated "When I am dead and opened, you shall find 'Philip' and 'Calais' lying in my heart" although the source for this is unknown.

Edward Grimston (age 50) was captured and imprisoned at the Bastille [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Mar 1558. The x day of Marche the Quen('s) (age 42) grace removyd unto Grenwyche [Map], in lentt, for to kepe ester.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Mar 1558. The xvj day of Marche my lord mare and the althermen wher commondyd unto Yeld-halle [Map], for thay had a commondement by the qwyen (age 42) that thay shuld lend the quen a (blank) of H.; for ther sat my lord stresorer (age 75), my lord preve-saylle (age 52), and the bysshope of Elly (age 52) as commyssyonars, and my lord chanseler (age 57), with odur of the conselle.... with ij whyt branchys and xij torchys .... great tapurs, and after a grett dener within the ....

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Mar 1558. The xix day of Marche my lord mayre and the althermen whent unto Yeld-halle [Map], and ther all the craftes in London browth in the bylles what ther compene wold lend unto the quen('s) (age 42) grace for to helpe her in her fa ... toward the wars.

Note. P. 168. Loan from the city to the queen. A loan was then called a "prest," which is probably the word our diarist could not remember. The amount of this prest was 20,000l. and it was to bear interest at 12 per cent. (Stowe.)

On 21 Sep 1558 [her father-in-law] Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 58) died at the Monastery of Yuste. His son [her husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 31) succeeded II King Spain.

Death of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Nov 1558. The xvij day of November be-twyn v and vj in the mornyng ded quen Mare (age 42), the vj yere of here grace('s) rayne, the wyche Jhesu have mercy on her solle! Amen.

On 17 Nov 1558 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 42) died at St James's Palace [Map]. Her half sister [her half-sister] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) succeeded I Queen England. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 31) was deputed with informing [her husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 31).

Thomas Wendy (age 58) attended the Queen as physician; the third monarch's death he attended.

After 17 Nov 1558 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 42) was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Dec 1558. The x day of Desember was browth do[wn from] her chambur in-to her chapel quen Mare (deceased), [with all the heralds,] and lordes and lades and gentyllmen and gentyllwomen, [hir] offesers and servands, all in blake, with (unfinished)

Funeral of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Dec 1558. [The xiij day of December, the corpse of the late Queen (deceased) was brought from St. James's, in a cha]rett, with the pyctur of emages [images] lyke [her person], adorned with cremesun velvett and her crowne on her hed, her septer on her hand, and mony goodly rynges on her fyngers; up the he-way [went] formett [foremost] [the] standard with the Faucon and [the Hart]; then cam a grett compene of morners; and after anodur godly standard of the Lyon and the Faucon; and then her houshold servandes, ij and ij together, in blake gownes, [the] haroldes rydyng to and fro to se them go in order; and after cam the iij standard with the Whyt Grahond and the Faucon; and then cam gentyllmen in gownes, morners; and then cam rydyng sqwyrs, bayryng of baners of armes; and then cam my lord marques of Wynchester (age 75) on hors-bake, bayryng the baner of the armes of England in-brodered with gold; and then cam after Chester the harold (age 60), baryng the helm and the crest and mantyll; then cam master Norroy (age 48), bayryng the targett with the garter and the crowne; and then cam master Clarenshus (age 48) bayreng the sword and after cam Garter (age 48), bayryng her cot-armur, on hors-bake they all; and baners borne abowt her, with knyghts, lords, and baners a-bowt the corse; with iiij harolds bayryng on horss-bake iiij whyt baners of santes wroth with fyne gold, master Samersett, master Lanckostur, master Wyndsor, and master Yorke; and then cam the corse, with her pyctur lyung over her, and the corse covered with cloth of gold, the crosse sylver, and then cam iij (blank) with the cheyff morners; and then lades rydyn, alle in blake, trapyd to the grond; and the charett that the quen was in rode the pages of honor with baners in ther handes; and a-for the corse her chapell, and after all the monkes, and after the bysshopes in order; and so by Charyng-crosse to Westmynster abay; and at the grett dore of the chyrche evere body dyd a-lykt of ther horse; and then was gentyll-men rede [ready] to take the quen owt of her charett, and so erles and lordes whent afor her grace to the herse ward, with her pyctur borne betwyn men of worshype; and at the cherche dore met her iiij byshopes, and the abbott (age 43), mytered, in copes, and sensyng the body; and so she lay all nyght under the herse, and her grace was wachyd. [And there were an hundred poor men in good black gowns] bayryng longe torchys, with [hoods on their heads, and arms] on them; and a-bowt her the gard bayryng [staff-torches] in blake cottes; and all the way chandlers [having] torchys, to gyffe them that had ther torchys [burnt out].

Note. P. 182. Funeral of queen Mary. The ceremonial is in the College of Arms, I. 14, ff. 19—30, and again in ff. 202—214; and the painters' charges at f. 198.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Dec 1558. The xiiij day of Desember [was] the quen('s) (deceased) masse; and [all the lords] and lades, knyghtes and gentyll women, dyd offer. [And there was] a man of armes and horse offered; and her cotarmur, and sword, and targett, and baner of armes, and iij [standards]; and all the haroldes abowt her; and ther my lord bysshope of Wynchester (age 48) mad the sermon; and ther was offered cloth of gold and welvet, holle pesses, and odur thynges. [After the] masse all done, her grace was cared up [to the chapel [Map]] the kyng Henry the vij byldyd, with bysshopes [mitred;] and all the offesers whent to the grayffe [grave], and after [they] brake ther stayffes, and cast them in-to the grayffe; in the mayn tyme the pepull pluckt [down] the cloth, evere man a pesse that cold caycth [catch] [it,] rond a-bowt the cherche, and the armes. And after[wards,] my lord bysshope of Yorke (age 57), after her grace was [buried,] he declaryd an colasyon [collation], and as sone as he had made an end, all the trumpetes bluw a blast, and so the cheyff morners and the lords and knyghtes, and the bysshopes, with [the] abbott (age 43), whent in-to the abbay to dener, and all the offesers of the quen('s) cott [court].

On 01 Jan 1559 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland ordered her officers to collect arms and armour from Cawarden's house to counter Wyatt's rebellion.

Henry II of France Dies Francis and Mary "Queen of Scots" Succeed

On 20 Jul 1559 [her former husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 32) and Elizabeth Valois Queen Consort Spain (age 14) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain. She the daughter of King Henry II of France (deceased) and Catherine Medici Queen Consort France (age 40). He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1570 [her former husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 42) and Anna of Austria Queen Consort Spain (age 20) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Spain. The difference in their ages was 22 years. She the daughter of Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 42) and Maria of Spain Holy Roman Empress (age 41). He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were uncle and niece. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 13 Sep 1598 [her former husband] Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 71) died. His son Philip III King Spain (age 20) succeeded III King Spain.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Nov 1665. After dinner Captain Cocke (age 48) and I about some business, and then with my other barrel of oysters home to Greenwich, Kent [Map], sent them by water to Mrs. Penington, while he and I landed, and visited Mr. Evelyn (age 45), where most excellent discourse with him; among other things he showed me a ledger of a Treasurer of the Navy, his great grandfather, just 100 years old; which I seemed mighty fond of, and he did present me with it, which I take as a great rarity; and he hopes to find me more, older than it. He also shewed us several letters of the old Lord of Leicester's, in Queen Elizabeth's time, under the very hand-writing of Queen Elizabeth, and Queen Mary, Queen of Scotts; and others, very venerable names.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1666. I did this afternoon get Mrs. Michell to let me only have a sight of a pamphlet lately printed, but suppressed and much called after, called "The Catholique's Apology"; lamenting the severity of the Parliament against them, and comparing it with the lenity of other princes to Protestants; giving old and late instances of their loyalty to their princes, whatever is objected against them; and excusing their disquiets in Queen Elizabeth's time, for that it was impossible for them to think her a lawfull Queen, if Queen Mary, who had been owned as such, were so; one being the daughter of the true, and the other of a false wife: and that of the Gunpowder Treason, by saying that it was only the practice of some of us, if not the King (age 36), to trepan some of their religion into it, it never being defended by the generality of their Church, nor indeed known by them; and ends with a large Catalogue, in red letters, of the Catholiques which have lost their lives in the quarrel of the late King and this. The thing is very well writ indeed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1667. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 58), and there, meeting Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), he and I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked; among other things, of the treaty: and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) his crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a caball with some discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing the desires of the King (age 36) in all his matters in that House; and endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons' House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords. And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity calculated; which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower about it; which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held treason, and people died for it; but by the Statute of Treasons, in Queen Mary's times and since, it hath been left out. He tells me that this silly Lord hath provoked, by his ill-carriage, the Duke of York (age 33), my Chancellor (age 58), and all the great persons; and therefore, most likely, will die. He tells me, too, many practices of treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils; which the King (age 36) knows very well, and hath yet pardoned him1.

Note 1. Two of our greatest poets have drawn the character of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) in brilliant verse, and both have condemned him to infamy. There is enough in Pepys's reports to corroborate the main features of Dryden's (age 35) magnificent portrait of Zimri in "Absolom and Achitophel". "In the first rank of these did Zimri stand; A man so various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's epitome; Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong; Was everything by starts, and nothing long, But, in the course of one revolving moon, Was chymist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon; Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking, Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking, * * * * * * * He laughed himself from Court, then sought relief By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief". Pope's facts are not correct, and hence the effect of his picture is impaired. In spite of the duke's constant visits to the Tower, Charles II still continued his friend; but on the death of the King (age 36), expecting little from James, he retired to his estate at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, to nurse his property and to restore his constitution. He died on April 16th, 1687, at Kirkby Moorside, after a few days' illness, caused by sitting on the damp grass when heated from a fox chase. The scene of his death was the house of a tenant, not "the worst inn's worst room" ("Moral Essays", epist. iii.). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Letters. Queen Mary I of England and Ireland to Lord Chandos

Whereas John Hooper, who of late was called Bishop of Worcester and Gloucester, is, by due order of the laws ecclesiastic, condemned and judged for a most obstinate, false, detestable heretic, and committed to our secular power, to be burned accord- ing to the wholesome and good laws of our realm in that case provided: forasmuch as in those cities and the diocese thereof, ho hath in times past preached and taught most pestilent heresies and doctrine to our subjects there. We have, therefore, given order, that the said Hodper, who yet persisteth obstinate, and hath refused mercy, when it was graciously offered, shall be put to execution in the said city of Gloucester, for the example and terror of others, such as he hath there seduced and mistaught, and because he hath done most harm there; and will that you, calling unto you some of reputation, dwelling in the shire, (such as you think best) shall repair unto our said city, and be at the said execution, assisting our mayor and sheriffs of the same city, in this behalf.

And forasmuch also as the said Hooper is, as heretics be, a vain-glorious person, and delighteth in his tongue, and, having liberty, may use his said tongue to persuade such as he hath seduced to pei^ sist in the miserable opinion that he hath sown amongst them; our pleasure is, therefore, and we require you to take order that the said Hooper be, neither at the time of his execution nor in going to the place thereof, suffered to speak at large, but thither to be led, quietly and in silence, for eschewing of further infection, and such inconvenience as may otherwise ensue in this part. Whereof fail you not, as you tender our pleasure.

Endorsed — "A true copy of an old paper in my custody, which seems to be the first draught of a letter from the queen to the lord Chandos, &c., who went to see execution done on Bishop Hooper. Thom. Tanner."

[COTTON. MS., CLEOPATRA, E. T., FOL. 380.]

Note. The character of "bloody Queen Mary," as she has so kog heen designated, has been the subject of much dispute and mispresentation. Protestant zeal in the reign of Elizabeth heaped upon her every epithet of opprobrium, and represented her as alike hideous in mind and person; while the latitudinarian charity of modem days, anxious to do justice to one so greatly wronged, has represented her as all that is mild and noble, generous and highminded. The truth seems to lie between the two. Mary's natural disposition was firm but amiable, and the sorrows of her early life had exercised a softening influence over it; but such was the fearful influence of the £uth which she professed, and to which she conscientiously adhered, that it urged her on to deeds of cruelty and blood, from which a woman's heart might well have shrunk. During her brief reign, 277 persons, including five bishops, suffered martyrdom, and nearly as many died in prison through hunger and other cruelties.a

The Harleian MS., 424, contains a doggerel poem in 33 stanzas, addressed by a Protestant to Queen Mary, on the 1st of October 1553, commencing, "O lovesome rose, most redolent," and containing in the first few stanzas some complimentary allusions, but soon diverging to the main business of the poem, which is an earnest remonstrance against the restoration of popish idolatry.

O noble queen, take heed, take heed,

Beware your own intent;

Look ere you leap, then shall you speed,

For haste hute maketh many shent (lost).

What great presumption doth appear,

Thus, in a week or twain,

To work more shuame than in 7 year

Can be redressed again.

That miserable masking mass,

Which all good men doth hate,

Is now by you brought in again,

The root of all debate.

Poor ministers that loveth God's word,

They feel this bitter rod;

Woo are robbed from house and goods,

As though there were no God.

Hath God thus high you,

And set you in a crown!

That you should prison and deface

His flock that maketh moan !

The Lord, who doth his dock defend,

As the apple of an eye,

Of these will quickly make an end—

And banish cruelty.

Therefore, my counsel if you take,

And think thereof no scorn,

You shall find it the best counsel,

You had since you were born.

These miserable rhymes contain the exposition of the sentiments of the greater part of Mary's subjects; but which, in her zeal, she little regarded.

The following (preceding; this not is moved below the letter) is the mandate for the execution of the Protestant Bishop Hooper, which took place on the second of February 1 554.

Note a. Harleian Miseellany, Yol. i. p. 212.

Calendars. The Princess, thanks to God, is doing well. She changed her lodgings last Saturday, and on her journey to her new residence was better attended and provided with money and every necessary than she has been for a long time past. That came very apropos, for she was thus enabled to distribute alms on the road, the King, her father, having sent her one hundred crs. or thereabouts to expend as she pleased. There is a rumour, as Master Cromwell sent me word immediately after the Queen's demise, that the King intends increasing the Princess' household and estate. May it be so, and may God, forbid that tit ere should be a snake in the grass, or any other danger to her. It seems to me as if the King had only been waiting for his mistress' confinement. Had she been delivered of a son, as both were almost sure would be the case, he would, certainly have summoned, the Princess to swear to the statutes. I do not know what he may do now. I have warned the Princess to consider whether, in case of her being much pressed to take the oath and thereby reduced to extremities, it would not be expedient for her to offer, the very moment the King, her father, had a son, to accede to his wishes, and in the meanwhile begin from this day to flatter and, make herself agreeable to the governess. As soon as I get an answer to my message I shall not fail to apprize Your Majesty.

Queen Mary I of England and Ireland 1516-1558 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York 1411-1460

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472

Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504

King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Royal Ancestors of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland 1516-1558

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King Gwynedd King Powys

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 3 Grand Daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France

Ancestors of Queen Mary I of England and Ireland 1516-1558

Great x 4 Grandfather: Tudur ap Goronwy Tudor

Great x 3 Grandfather: Maredudd Tudor 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Marged verch Thomas 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Owen Tudor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Charles V of France 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joanna Bourbon Queen Consort France 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Stephen "Magnificient Fop" Wittelsbach III Duke Bavaria 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabeau Wittelsbach Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Taddea Visconti Duchess Bavaria

GrandFather: King Henry VII of England and Ireland 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Beaufort 1st Marquess Somerset and Dorset Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Holland Duchess Clarence 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Bletsoe 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Beauchamp 3rd Baron Beauchamp Bletsoe 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Stourton 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Edith Stourton Baroness Beauchamp Bletsoe 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Father: King Henry VIII of England and Ireland Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Mortimer 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward IV of England 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster

GrandMother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England Daughter of King Edward IV of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Woodville

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Woodville

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Bittelsgate

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Bittelsgate

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Beauchamp

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Luxemburg Count St Pol 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Peter Luxemburg I Count Saint Pol 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Brienne

Great x 2 Grandmother: Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Francesco Baux 1st Duke Andria

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margherita Baux 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sueva Orsini 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Queen Mary I of England and Ireland Daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John I King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Juana Manuel Queen of Castile 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ferdinand I King Aragon 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter IV King Aragon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Barcelona Queen Consort Castile 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Barcelona Queen Consort Aragon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John II King Aragon 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Sancho Alfonso Ivrea 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Guzman

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor of Alberquerque Queen Consort Aragon 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter I King Portugal 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Beatrice Burgundy 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Inês Castro

GrandFather: Ferdinand II King Aragon 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Fadrique Alfonso Ivrea 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alfonso Enríquez Enríquez 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Fadrique Enríquez Count Melgar Count Rueda 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Juana Mendoza

Great x 1 Grandmother: Juana Enríquez Queen Consort Aragon 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Diego Fernández Lord Baena

Great x 2 Grandmother: Mariana Fernández Countess Melgar

Great x 3 Grandmother: Inés Ayala

Mother: Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry "Fratricide" II King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John I King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Juana Manuel Queen of Castile 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry III King Castile 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter IV King Aragon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Barcelona Queen Consort Castile 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Barcelona Queen Consort Aragon 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John II King Castile Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Catherine of Lancaster Queen Consort Castile Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Constance of Castile Duchess of Lancaster 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maria Padilla

GrandMother: Isabella Queen Castile 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Peter I King Portugal 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King John I of Portugal 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Inês Castro

Great x 2 Grandfather: Prince John Aviz Constable Portugal Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Portugal Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella Aviz Queen Consort Castile 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King John I of Portugal 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Afonso Aviz I Duke Braganza 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ines Peres

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella of Braganza 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Nuno Álvares Pereira

Great x 3 Grandmother: Beatriz Pereira de Alvim

Great x 4 Grandmother: Leonor de Alvim