On this Day in History ... 23 April

23 Apr is in April.

871 Battle of Marton

1016 Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

1016 Coronation of Edmund Ironside

1287 Battle of the Counts

1344 Creation of the Order of the Garter

1366 Creation of Garter Knights

1369 Creation of Garter Knights

1376 Creation of Garter Knights

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

1445 Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

1483 Edward V leaves Ludlow

1502 Death of Prince Arthur

1525 Creation of Garter Knights

1526 Creation of Garter Knights

1541 Creation of Garter Knights

1543 Creation of Garter Knights

1552 Creation of Knights of the Garter

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

1557 Creation of Garter Knights

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

1561 Creation of Garter Knights

1593 Creation of Garter Knights

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1666 Great Plague of London

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1702 Queen Anne Accession

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 725. This year died Wihtred (age 55), King of Kent, on the ninth day before the calends of May, after a reign of thirty-two winters. His pedigree is above; and he was succeeded by Eadbert. Ina (age 55) this year also fought with the South-Saxons, and slew Ealdbert, the etheling, whom he had before driven into exile.

On 23 Apr 725 King Wihtred of Kent (age 55) died. His son King Eadbert I of Kent succeeded King of Kent. He may have eigned with his brothers King Æthelbert II of Kent and King Alric of Kent.

On 23 Apr 771 Childebert III King of the Franks (age 92) died. His son Dagobert III King of the Franks succeeded King of the Franks.

Battle of Marton

On 23 Apr 871 King Æthelred of Wessex (age 24) died possibly as a result of wounds received at the Battle of Marton which took place a month earlier.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1016. This year came King Knute (age 21) with a marine force of one hundred and sixty ships, and Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia with him, over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade, Wiltshire [Map]; whence they proceeded to Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered therein, and burned, and slew all they met. Then began Edmund the etheling (age 26) to gather an army, which, when it was collected, could avail him nothing, unless the king (age 50) were there and they had the assistance of the citizens of London. The expedition therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home. After this, an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to the king (age 50) in London, and besought him to come to meet the army with the aid that he could collect. When they were all assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before; and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and returned again to London. Then rode Edmund the etheling (age 26) to Earl Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would collect an army King Knute (age 21); but they went into Stafforddhire, and to Shrewsbury [Map], and to Chester [Map]; and they plundered on their parts, and Knute (age 21) on his. He went out through Buckinghamshire to Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford [Map]. Thence into Lincolnshire. Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria toward York [Map]. When Utred understood this, he ceased from plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he was nevertheless slain by the advice of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, and Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him. After this, King Knute (age 21) appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came, before Easter, to the ships. Meantime Edmund Etheling (age 26) went to London to his father (age 50): and after Easter went King Knute (age 21) with all his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred (age 50) died ere the ships came. He ended his days on St. George's day; having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as long as his life continued.

Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

On 23 Apr 1016 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 50) died. His son King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) succeeded I King England although tthe Witan meeting at Southampton chose King Canute of England (age 21).

Coronation of Edmund Ironside

After 23 Apr 1016 King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) was crowned I King England by Archibishop Ælfstan aka Lyfing. His reign lasted seven months.

On 23 Apr 1038 Liudolf Brunonids Margrave Frisia (age 35) died.

On 23 Apr 1124 Alexander "Fierce" I King Scotland (age 46) died. His brother King David I of Scotland (age 40) succeeded I King Scotland. Maud Queen Consort Scotland (age 50) by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

On 23 Apr 1151 Adeliza of Louvain Queen Consort England (age 48) died. She was buried at Reading Abbey [Map].

Battle of the Counts

On 23 Apr 1287 Guy Montfort Count Nola (age 43) was captured during the Battle of the Counts.

On 23 Apr 1323 John St John Lagenham 2nd Baron St John Lagenham (age 42) died at Basing. His son John St John Lagenham 3rd Baron St John Lagenham (age 15) succeeded 3rd Baron St John Lagenham.

Creation of the Order of the Garter

On 23 Apr 1344. The date somewhat unclear; it may have been before. King Edward III of England (age 31) formed the Order of the Garter. The date is somewhat unclear. The first reliable record occurs in autumn of 1348 when the King's wardrobe account shows Garter habits being issued. The Order may have been formed before then with some traditions such as the mantle, and the garter and motto, possibly being introduced later. The Garter refers to an event at Wark Castle [Map] at which King Edward III of England (age 31) picked up the Countess of Salisbury's fallen garter and saying to the crowd "Honi soit qui mal y pense" ie Shame on him who thinks badly of it, or possibly, he brings shame on himself who thinks badly of it. The Countess of Salisbury could refer to his future daughter-in-law Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 15) or her former mother-in-law Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 40). The event has also been drescribed as taking place at @@Calias.Creation of the Order of the Garter

Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury: Around 1304 she was born to William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison (age 42) and Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison at Ashford. Around 1320 William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury (age 19) and Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 16) were married. She by marriage Baroness Montagu. On 23 Nov 1349 Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury (age 45) died at Bisham Abbey.

On 23 Apr 1344 King Edward III of England (age 31) created the Order of the Garter. The date nominal as there are different accounts; some sources say 1348.

1 Edward "Black Prince".

2 Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster.

3 Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick.

4 Jean Grailly.

5 Ralph Stafford 1st Earl Stafford.

6 William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury.

7 Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March.

8 John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle.

9 Bartholomew "The Younger" Burghesh 2nd Baron Burghesh.

10 John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Warwick.

11 John Mohun 2nd Baron Mohun of Dunster.

12 Hugh Courtenay.

13 Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent.

14 John Grey 1st Baron Grey.

15 Richard Fitzsimon.

16 Miles Stapleton.

17 Thomas Wale.

18 Hugh Wrottesley.

19 Neil Loring.

20 John Chandos.

21 James Audley.

22 Otho Holland.

23 Henry Eam.

24 Sanchet Abrichecourt.

25 Walter Paveley 4th Baron Burghesh.

On 23 Apr 1362 John Sully (age 79) was appointed 39th Knight of the Garter by King Edward III of England (age 49).

1366 Creation of Garter Knights


1369 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1369 King Edward III of England (age 56) created new Garter Knights

46th John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby (age 32).

47th Robert Dampierre (age 46).

48th John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 21). Some sources say 1370 but that would be inconsistent with the numbering?

49th Thomas Grandison 4th Baron Grandison (age 30).

50th Guy de Bryan (age 50). Possibly on 31 Dec 1369?.

Around 23 Apr 1371 John Tuchet 4th Baron Audley, 1st Baron Tuchet was born to John Tuchet (age 21) and Maud Abrichecourt.

On 23 Apr 1374 Bogislaw V Duke of Pomerania (age 56) died. His son Wartislaw Griffins VI Duke Pomerania (age 29) succeeded 6th Duke Pomerania.

1376 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1376 King Edward III of England (age 63) created a number of new Garter Knights ...

54th John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 37).

55th Thomas Banastre (age 42).

56th William Ufford 2nd Earl Suffolk (age 37).

57th Hugh Stafford 2nd Earl Stafford (age 40).

58th Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent (age 26). He the son of Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 47) whose second husband was Edward III's son Edward "Black Prince" (age 45).

59th Thomas Percy 1st Earl of Worcester (age 33) was appointed 59th. He the son of Mary Plantagenet Baroness Percy daughter of Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster who was the first cousin of Edward III's father King Edward II of England.

60th William Beauchamp 1st Baron Bergavenny (age 33).

1377 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1377 King Edward III of England (age 64) created three new Garter Knights:

61st Richard of Gloucester (age 10) (the future Richard III).

62nd Henry Bolingbroke (age 10) (the future Henry IV).

63rd John Burley (age 52).


On 23 Apr 1381 John Holland 1st Duke Exeter (age 29) was appointed 68th Knight of the Garter by King Richard II of England (age 14).

On 23 Apr 1394 Hugh Calverley (age 70) died. He was probably buried in St Boniface's Church, Bunbury [Map]. Monument Early Plate Bascinet Period. Finely carved Calf's Head on the breastplate representing Hugh Calveley's canting arms. Calf's Head Crest. Hip Belt. Basinet with unusual decorated Orle.

Hugh Calverley: Around 1324 he was born to David Calverly of Lea. On 26 Mar 1351 thirty English and thirty French knights fought in an arranged battle at Guillac known as Battle of the Thirty. Hugh Calverley (age 27) fought, was captured and ransomed. On 29 Sep 1364 Battle of Auray decided the Breton Succession in favour of John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 25). The Breton and English army was commanded by John Chandos (age 44) and included William Latimer 4th Baron Latimer of Corby (age 34), Miles Stapleton (age 44) and Hugh Calverley (age 40). Charles "Saint" Chatillon Duke Brittany (age 45) was killed. Bertrand Geusclin (age 44) surrendered. Effigy of Sir Hugh Calveley. SIR HUGH CALVELEY, or Calverley, of Lea, in Cheshire, was a most eminent soldier in the reign of Edward the Third, and his successor Richard the Second. In 1350 we find him one of the combatants in the celebrated pitched trial of arms, or combât-à-l'outrance fought between thirty men-at-arms on the English side, and thirty on that of the Bretons, called, in allusion to the number of the champions on either party, the Battle of Trente. Sir Richard Brembre commanded the English hand, and Marshal Beaumanoir the French. Among the companions of the valiant Calveley (twenty of whom were English, the rest foreigners) were, Sir Robert Knolles, also a most distinguished knight, Croquart the Freebooter, the gigantic Hulbitee, and Thomelin de Billefort, so called from his wielding an enormous weapon of the axe kind. Sir Richard Brembre was slain fighting hand-in-hand with the famous Bertram du Guesclin; Calveley, Knolles, and Croquart, the poor remains of the English party, were taken prisoners to the Castle of Josselina.

On 23 Apr 1408 John de Vere 12th Earl of Oxford was born to Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 22) and Alice Sergeaux Countess Oxford at Hedingham Castle [Map].

On 23 Apr 1416 Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 65) was appointed 122nd Knight of the Garter by King Henry V of England (age 29).

Marriage of Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou

On 23 Apr 1464 Joan Valois Queen Consort France was born to Louis "Father of the People" XI King France (age 40) and Charlotte Savoy Queen Consort France (age 22). Coefficient of inbreeding 2.65%.

Edward V leaves Ludlow

On 23 Apr 1483 King Edward V of England (age 12) left Ludlow [Map] with his uncle Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 43).


After 23 Apr 1485. St Andrew's Church Blickling [Map]. Memorial brass to Isabella Boleyn (deceased).

Isabella Boleyn: William Cheney and she were married. Henry Aucher and she were married. In 1434 she was born to Geoffrey Boleyn (age 28) and Ann Hoo (age 9) at Blickling. On 23 Apr 1485 Isabella Boleyn (age 51) died at Blickling.

Death of Prince Arthur

On 23 Apr 1502 Prince Arthur's (deceased) funeral was held at St Laurence's Church, Ludlow [Map] presided over by Bishop William Smyth (age 42). George Grey 2nd Earl Kent (age 48), George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 34), Richard Grey 3rd Earl Kent (age 21), John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Powis (age 17) and Richard Pole (age 40) attended. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 59) was Chief Mourner. Edward Howard (age 26) and Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 19) carried The Canopy.NOTEXT

John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Powis: John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Powis and Margaret Dudley Baroness Grey Powis were married. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry IV King England. In 1485 he was born to John Grey 1st Baron Grey of Powis (age 25) and Anne Herbert Baroness Grey Powis. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry IV King England. In 1497 John Grey 1st Baron Grey of Powis (age 37) died. His son John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Powis (age 12) succeeded 2nd Baron Grey of Powis 1482. Margaret Dudley Baroness Grey Powis by marriage Baroness Grey of Powis 1482. In 1504 John Grey 2nd Baron Grey of Powis (age 19) died. His son Edward Grey 3rd Baron Grey of Powis (age 1) succeeded 3rd Baron Grey of Powis 1482.

Richard Pole: In 1462 he was born to Geoffrey Pole (age 32) and Edith St John (age 32) at Isleworth. Around 1491 Richard Pole (age 29) and Margaret York Countess of Salisbury (age 17) were married. She the daughter of George York 1st Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. On 15 Jan 1504 Richard Pole (age 42) died.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 23 Apr 1522. THE King (age 30) this yere kept the day of S. George with great solemnity, at his manor of Richemond [Map], where were elected to the Order of the Garter, Don Ferdinando (age 19) brother to the Emperor (age 22), and Archduke of Austria, and Sir Richard Wingfield (age 53) knight by the Emperor’s means, to the which the Emperor had given two hundred pound pension, out of the house of Burgundy, which Sir Edward Poynings before had of the Emperors gift.


1525 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1525, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1525, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) created four new Knights of the Garter:

285th. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 49).

286th. Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 33).

287th. Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 5).

288th. Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 26).

1526 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1526, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1526, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34) created four new Knights of the Garter:

289th. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 48).

290th. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 36).

291st. Henry Guildford (age 37).

292nd. King Francis I of France (age 31).

Hall's Chronicle 1533. After which divorce sued, many wise men said, that the king was not well counselled, to marry the lady Anne Boleyn (age 32), before the divorce were adjudged, for by marrying before the first marriage was dissolved, they said, that the second marriage might be brought in question, and verily they said true, for so it was in the month of May, three year following, as you shall here after, when I come to the time. Of this divorce every man spoke, as his discretion and wisdom was, for wise men said that it was Godly and honourably done, for the discharge of the King’s conscience, and profitable for the surety of the realm, and that God loved this marriage, considering that the new Queen, was so soon with child. Other said that the bishop of Rome, would curse all Englishmen and that the emperor and he, would invade the realm, and destroy the people, and especially the Spaniards boasted much, but thanks be to God, their doings were much less than their words: but after every man had talked enough, there was no more communing of the matter, but all was in peace.


1541 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1541, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1541, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 49) created four new Knights of the Garter:

306th. Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 41).

307th. Henry Howard (age 25).

308th. John Gage (age 61).

309th. Anthony Wingfield (age 54).

1543 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1543, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1543, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 51) created three new Knights of the Garter:

310th. John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 39).

311th. William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 60).

312th. William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31).


1552 Creation of Knights of the Garter

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1552. The xxiij day of Aprell, the wyche was sant Jorge day, the Kyng('s) grace, behyng at Westmynster at ys plase, dyd where ys robes of the garter, and the yong yerle of Warwyke beyryng of the kynges sword afor hym thrugh the halle unto the chapell; and ys grase dyd offer, and the resyduw .... evyngsong, and w ... Kynges grace dyd chuysse in the sted of the [earl [Note. Duke!] of Som]ersett the yerle of Westmorland (age 27), and sir Andrew [Dudley,] (age 45) captayne of Gynes, was chosen of the garter the ...

Note. Election of the earl of Westmerland of the garter. In the privy council 10 May 1552. A warrante to the Exchequer to paye unto sir Gilberte Dethicke (age 42) knighte, alias Garter principall kinge at armes, beinge presently to be sente by the kinges majestie to the earle of Westemerlande with the order of the Garter, the some of twentye poundes.

"A comissyon for the said sir Gylberte Dethicke to take upe v. poste horses for himselfe, his servantes, and guide." (MS. Harl. 352, f. 228 b.)

The following entry may here also be added:

"22 Apr 1553. A warrante to sir John Williames to pay unto sir Gilberte Dethicke knight, alias Garter principall kinge at armes, the some of xxj. poundes for schucheones by him sett upp in an°. 4° et 5° of the kinges [and queenes] majesties raigne at Grenewich, at the feaste of the order of the Garter, accordinge to a bill therof included in the same letter." (f. 250.)

On 23 Apr 1552 King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 14) created two new Garter Knights:

329th. Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 27)

330th. Andrew Dudley (age 45).

1554 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1554. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, her grace (age 38) whent unto the chapell and whent a prossessyon with all the kynghtes of the garter that was ther pressent [to St.] James in the Feld; ther wher creatyd the sam day knights of the garter, the prynsse of Spayne (age 26) one, and the yerle of Sussex (age 47).


Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1555. [The xxiijd day of April, being saint George's day, at Hampton Court [Map], the King (age 27), with other lords and knights of the garter, went in their robes on procession, with three] crosses, and clarkes and prestes, and my lord chancellor, the cheyff menyster, metered [mitred ie wearing his mitre], and all thay in copes of cloth of tyssue and gold, syngyng Salva fasta dyes as thay whent a-bowt; the Quen('s) (age 39) grace lokyd owt of a cassement, that hundereds dyd se her grace after she had taken her chambur; and arolds gohyng a-bowt the Kyng('s) grace.

1557 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1557 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 41) appointed three new Garter Knights:

337th Thomas Radclyffe 3rd Earl of Sussex (age 32).

338th William Grey 13th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 48).

339th Robert Rochester (age 63).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1557. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant Gorge('s) day [the King's (age 29)] grace whent a pressessyon in ys robes of the garter; lord Talbott (age 29) bare the sword a-for the Kyng, and master (blank) bare the rod; and doctur (blank) bare the boke of the record; and the bysshope of Wynchaster (age 47) ware ys myter, and song masse that day; and x knyghtes of the Garter be-syd the Kyng; and secretere Peter ware a robe of cremesun velvett with the Garter; and after the Kyng and odur lordes and knyghtes of the garter whent to evyngsong; and ther was the duke of Muskovea was in chapell at evyngsong, and after he whent and toke ys barge and whent to London, and after wher iij knyghtes of the garter chossen, furst my lord F(itz)uater (age 32), my lord Gray of Wylton (age 48), and ser Robart Rochaster (age 63); thes iij wher mad of the order.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1557. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant George('s) day [the King's (age 29)] grace whent a pressessyon at Whyt-halle [through the hall] and rond abowt the court hard by the halle; and so [certain of] the knyghts of the garter as they whent in ther [robes] of the garter; the bysshope of Wynchaster (age 47) dyd exsecute the masse with ys myter; the furst as they whe[nt the lord] Montyguw (age 28), my lord admerall (age 47), ser Antony Sely[ger, the] lord Cobham (age 60), the lord Darce (age 60), ser Thomas Chenne, [the lord] Pagett (age 51), the lord of Penbroke (age 56), the lord of Arundel (age 45), [the] lord tressorer (age 74), and secretore Peter in a robe of cremesun velvett with the garter brodered on ys shuder, and [one bare] a rod of blake, and a docthur bare a boke; and [then went all] the harodes, and then my lord Talbott (age 29) bare the sword, then sergant(s) of armes, and the Kyng('s) grace [came next], and Quen('s) (age 41) grace lokyng owt of a wyndow [beside] the cowrt on the garden syde.NOTEXT

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1559. [The xxiij day of April, being saint George's day, the Queen (age 25) went about the hall, and all the knights of the] Garter that [went singing in proces]syon, and a-bowt the cowrt; the sam day at after [noon were] knyghtes electyd of the Garter the duke of Norfok (age 23), the marques of Northamtun (age 47) [Note. Restored since he had been degraded in 1553], the erle of Rutland (age 32), and my lord Robard Dudley (age 26), the master of the quen('s) horse.NOTEXT

On 23 Apr 1559 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) created Garter Knights:

340th Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 23).NOTEXT

341st Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 32).

342nd Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 26).

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 47) was restored 312th. He had been degraded in 1553.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1560. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, the Quen('s) (age 26) grace and the knyghtes of the Garter whent a prossessyon with all her chapell in copes of cloth of gold, a xxviij copes, and the Quen and all the knyghtes wore ther robes, rownd a-bowt the hall to the cowrt-y[ard,] and all the haroldes of armes in ther cottes of armes.

Note. P. 232. Procession of knights of the garter. This paragraph must not be passed without calling to remembrance a very curious print which exists representing queen Elizabeth accompanying the procession of the order of the garter, which was designed by Marcus Gerrard, and set forth by Thomas Dawes, Rouge-croix pursuivant, and of which there is a copy by Hollar in Ashmole's Order of the Garter, p. 515. It is, however, of a later date than the present Diary, namely the 20th year of the queen's reign, 1578.

PAINTINGS/SCROTS/Elizabeth_I.jpg PAINTINGS/MEULEN/Elizabeth_I.jpg PAINTINGS/EWORTH/Elizabeth_I_Hans_Eworth.jpg PAINTINGS/HILLIARD/Queen_Elizabeth_I.jpg PAINTINGS/HILLIARD/Phoenix.jpg PAINTINGS/GOWER/George_Gower_Elizabeth_Sieve_Portrait.jpg PAINTINGS/SEGAR/Elizabeth_I.jpg PAINTINGS/UNKNOWN/Elizabeth_I.jpg PAINTINGS/GHEERAERTS_YOUNGER/Queen_Elizabeth_I_The_Ditchley_portrait_Marcus_Gheeraerts_the_Younger.jpg

1561 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1561. [The xxiij of April, saint George's day, was kept] holy at the quen['s court , . ] her halle in copes to the nombur of XXX, with [O God^ the father of Hewyn, have merce on .. • . and the owtter cowrt to the gatt, and rond abowt st [rewed with rushes;] and after cam master Garter (age 51), and master Norres (age 51), and master dene of the ch[apel, in copes] of cremesun saten, with a crosse of sant Gorge red, and [eleven knights] of the garter in ther robes, and after the Quen('s) (age 27) grace in [her robes, and] all the garde in ther ryche cottes; and so bake to the [Chapel,] after serves done, bake thruge the hall to her graces chambur, and that done her grace and the lord(s) wh[ent to dinner,] and her grace wher goodly servyd; and after the lordes [sitting on one] syd, and servyd in gold and sylver 5 and after dener [there were] knyghtes of the Garter electyd ij, my lord of Shrewsbere (age 33) [and my] lord of Hunsdon (age 35); and ther wher all the haroldes in ther cote armurs afor the quen('s) grace, master Clarenshux (age 51), Lanckostur, Nicholas Narboone Officer of Arms, Wyndsor, Yorke, Chastur, Blumantyl, William Colbarne Officer of Arms.

On 23 Apr 1561 at a lavish ceremony Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27) appointed two new Garter Knights ...

344th George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 33).

345th Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 35).


Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1562. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant Gorge's day, a[nd at Whiteh]alle the Quen('s) (age 28) grase whent from her chapell with xii. knyghtes of the Garter in robes with colars of gold with garters, [and] xx of here chapelle, in copes of cloth of gold, to the of[fering, s]yngyne the Englys presessyon from the chapell rond [about the] halle and bake agayne to the chapelle syngyng; and master [dean of] her chapell bare a boke and a robe, and master Norres (age 64) [bare the] blake rod in a robe, and master Garter (age 52), all iij in cremesun saten; [and] the byshope of Wynchester (age 52) warre ys robe of red (blank); and ser William Peter, master Clarenshux (age 52), Somersett, Yorke, Lanckaster, Rychemond, and Chaster, William Colbarne Officer of Arms, and R[ouge-croix, Port-] colles, Blumantyll, Wyndsor.

1593 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1597 George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon (age 50) was appointed 385th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63).


On 23 Apr 1603 Anthony Markham of Sedgebrook (age 26) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 36) at Belvoir Castle [Map].

On 23 Apr 1619 Anne Bayning Viscountess Bayning was born to Paul Bayning 1st Viscount Bayning (age 31) and Anne Glemham Viscountess Bayning.

After 23 Apr 1623. Monument to George Manners (deceased) and Grace Pierrepont (age 48) at All Saint's Church, Bakewell, Derbyshire [Map]. Jacobean Kneeling monument representing them and their nine children, four boys (one died an infant) on the left, five girls on the right.

The armorials include: Manners Augmented Arms Manners Augmented with a Crescent difference.

Their son John 8th Earl Rutland (age 18) was married to Frances Montagu Countess Rutland (age 9).

Their daughter Dorothy Manners (age 13) married Thomas Lake (age 28).

Their daughter Frances (age 23) was married to Nicholas Saundeson 2nd Viscount Castleton.

Their daughter Eleanor (age 23) was married to Lewis Watson 1st Baron Rockingham (age 35).

Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. But, above all, was these three Lords, Northumberland (age 58), and Suffolk (age 42), and the Duke of Ormond (age 50), coming before the courses on horseback, and staying so all dinner-time, and at last to bring up [Dymock] the King's Champion, all in armour on horseback, with his spear and targett carried before him. And a Herald proclaims "That if any dare deny Charles Stewart to be lawful King of England, here was a Champion that would fight with him1;" and with these words, the Champion flings down his gauntlet, and all this he do three times in his going up towards the King's table. At last when he is come, the King drinks to him, and then sends him the cup which is of gold, and he drinks it off, and then rides back again with the cup in his hand.NOTEXT

Note 1. The terms of the Champion's challenge were as follows: "If any person of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay our Soveraigne Lord King Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, Sonne and next heire to our Soveraigne Lord Charles the First, the last King deceased, to be right heire to the Imperiall Crowne of this Realme of England, or that bee ought not to enjoy the same; here is his champion, who sayth that he lyeth and is a false Traytor, being ready in person to combate with him, and in this quarrell will venture his life against him, on what day soever hee shall be appointed".

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On 23 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston (age 44), Francis Fane (age 23) and Edward Hungerford (age 28) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Francis Godolphin (age 55) was knighted.

Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland (age 16) attended.

James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 42) was appointed Earl Marshal.NOTEXT

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (age 30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster [Map]; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (age 30) and his Nobility went to the Tower [Map], I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (age 34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (age 30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1663. St. George's day and Coronacion, the King (age 32) and Court being at Windsor, at the installing of the King of Denmark (age 17)1 by proxy and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14).

Note 1. TT. Christian V King Denmark and Norway (age 17) didn't become King until 1670.


Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1666. Being mighty weary last night, lay long this morning, then up and to the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 65), Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I met, and toward noon took coach and to White Hall, where I had the opportunity to take leave of the Prince (age 46), and again of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57); and saw them kiss the King's (age 35) hands and the Duke's (age 32); and much content, indeed, there seems to be in all people at their going to sea, and [they] promise themselves much good from them. This morning the House of Parliament do meet, only to adjourne again till winter. The plague, I hear, encreases in the towne much, and exceedingly in the country everywhere.

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On 23 Apr 1680 Richard Edgecumbe 1st Baron Edgcumbe was born to Richard Edgecumbe (age 40) and Anne Montagu.

After 23 Apr 1681. Monument at St Mary the Virgin Church, Overton to Edward Philips of Gwernhayled in Flintshire and his son William who died on 30 Aug 1683.

Coronation James II and Mary

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1685. Was the Coronation of the King (age 51) and Queene (age 26). The solemnity was magnificent, as is set forth in print. The Bp. of Ely (age 47) preach'd; but, to the greate sorrow of the people, no Sacrament, as ought to have ben. However the King begins his reigne with greate expectations, and hopes of much reformation as to the late vices and prophanenesse both of Court and Country. Having ben present at the late King's Coronation, I was not ambitious of seeing this ceremonie.


On 23 Apr 1691 Thomas Parker 1st Earl Macclesfield (age 24) and Janet Carrier Countess Macclesfield (age 30) were married.

On 23 Apr 1692 Edward Howard 2nd Earl Carlisle (age 45) died. His son Charles Howard 3rd Earl Carlisle (age 23) succeeded 3rd Earl Carlisle 3C 1661. Anne Capell Countess Carlisle (age 18) by marriage Countess Carlisle.NOTEXT

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On 23 Apr 1698 Thomas Coningsby 1st Earl Coningsby (age 41) and Frances Jones Countess Coningsbury (age 25) were married. She the daughter of Richard Jones 1st Earl Ranelagh (age 57). They were second cousins.


On 23 Apr 1700 Hugh Boscawen 1st Viscount Falmouth (age 20) and Charlotte Godfrey Viscountess Falmouth were married.

Queen Anne Accession


Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries. 23 Apr 1718. It was unanimously order that a drawing of a horn presented to the Church of York [Map] by Ulphus Prince of Deira, in possession of Mr Samuel Gale be printed. (the first time).

On 23 Apr 1740 John Ker 3rd Duke Roxburghe was born to Robert Ker 2nd Duke Roxburghe (age 31) and Essex Mostyn Duchess Roxburghe. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.13%.

On 23 Apr 1744 William Gage 7th Baronet (age 49) died unmarried. His first cousin Thomas Gage 1st Viscount Gage (age 43) succeeded 8th Baronet Gage of Firley in Sussex.

On 23 Apr 1751 Gilbert Elliot 1st Earl Minto was born to Gilbert Elliot 3rd Baronet (age 28).

On 23 Apr 1770 Brownlow Cecil 9th Earl Exeter (age 44) and Anne Maria Cheatham Countess Exeter (age 20) were married. She by marriage Countess Exeter. The difference in their ages was 24 years. He the son of Brownlow Cecil 8th Earl Exeter.

On 23 Apr 1789 Bernard Howard 12th Duke of Norfolk (age 23) and Elizabeth Belasyse Duchess Norfolk (age 19) were married. She the daughter of Henry Belasyse 2nd Earl Fauconberg (age 47) and Charlotte Lamb Countess Fauconberg (age 46).NOTEXT

On 23 Apr 1824 Francis Nathaniel Conyngham 2nd Marquess Conyngham (age 26) and Jane Paget Marchioness Conyngham (age 25) were married. She the daughter of Henry William Paget 1st Marquess Anglesey (age 55) and Caroline Elizabeth Villiers Duchess Argyll (age 49). He the son of Henry Conyngham 1st Marquess Conyngham (age 57) and Elizabeth Denison Marchioness Conyngham (age 55).


On 23 Apr 1831 Leicester FitzGerald Charles Stanhope 5th Earl of Harrington (age 46) and Elizabeth Green Countess Harrington (age 22) were married at St James' Church, Piccadilly. The difference in their ages was 24 years. He the son of Charles Stanhope 3rd Earl of Harrington and Jane Fleming Countess Harrington. He a great x 3 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 23 Apr 1831 Edward Lenox Dutton 4th Baron Sherborne was born to James Henry Legge Dutton 3rd Baron Sherborne (age 26) and Elizabeth Howard Baroness Sherborne (age 28). Coefficient of inbreeding 6.25%.


On 23 Apr 1840 William Charles Evans 8th Baron Carbery (age 28) and Sophia Sherard Lady Whichcote (age 44) were married. She the daughter of Philip Sherard 5th Earl Harborough.

Before 23 Apr 1846 Henry Hucks Gibbs 1st Baron Aldenham (age 26) and Louisa Anne Adams Baroness Aldenham (age 27) were married.

On 23 Apr 1846 Alban Gibbs 2nd Baron Aldenham was born to Henry Hucks Gibbs 1st Baron Aldenham (age 26) and Louisa Anne Adams Baroness Aldenham (age 27).

On 23 Apr 1850 Philip Sidney 2nd Baron De Lisle and Dudley (age 22) and Mary Foulis (age 23) were married. He a grandson of King William IV of the United Kingdom. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 23 Apr 1852 Christopher Furness 1st Baron Furness was born to John Furness of West Hartlepool and Averill Eastor Wilson.

On 23 Apr 1873 Charles Sackville-West 6th Earl De La Warr (age 57) committed suicide by drowning himself in the River Cam. His brother Reginald Windsor Sackville 7th Earl De La Warr (age 56) succeeded 7th Earl De La Warr, 7th Viscount Cantalupe, 13th Baron De La Warr 2C 1570. Constance Mary Elizabeth Baillie-Cochrane Countess De La Warr (age 27) by marriage Countess De La Warr.

On 23 Apr 1879 James Innes-Kerr 6th Duke Roxburghe (age 62) died. His son James Henry Robert Innes-Kerr 7th Duke Roxburghe (age 39) succeeded 7th Duke Roxburghe.

On 23 Apr 1885 Robert Disney Leith Alexander 16th Baron Cobham was born to Reginald Gervase Alexander (age 38).

Before 23 Apr 1907 Ferdinando Dudley William Lea Smith 12th Baron Dudley (age 35) and Sybil Augusta Coventry were married.

On 23 Apr 1910 Charles Moore 11th Earl of Drogheda was born to Henry Moore 10th Earl of Drogheda (age 26) and Kathleen Pelham Burn Countess Drogheda (age 23).

After 23 Apr 1918. St Michael's Church, Coxwold [Map]. Grave of Private William Cornforth. Killed in Action, Zeebrugge, Belgium.

On 23 Apr 1935 Dudley Marjoribanks 3rd Baron Tweedmouth (age 61) died. Baron Tweedmouth of Edington in Berwickshire extinct since the heir presumptive Edward Marjoribanks had committed suicide three years previously.

On 23 Apr 2011 Geoffrey Russell 4th Baron Ampthill (age 89) died.