Biography of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland 1533-1603

Paternal Family Tree: Tudor

Maternal Family Tree: Emma de Dinan 1136-1208

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1534 First Act of Succession

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Coronation of Mary I

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1556 Dudley Plot against Mary I

1558 Death of Mary I

1559 Coronation of Elizabeth I

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

1560 Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

1561 Creation of Garter Knights

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

1533 Buggery Act

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

1564 Elizabeth I's visit to Cambridge University

1566 Murder of David Rizzio

1566 Elizabeth I's visit to Oxford University

1567 Murder of Lord Darnley

1568 Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England

1571 Ridolphi Plot

1571 Triple Wedding

1583 Somerville Plot

1586 Babington Plot

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1591 Elizabeth's Royal Progress

1593 Creation of Garter Knights

1596 Sack of Cádiz

1596 Death of Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon

1599 Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

1600 Wedding of Henry Somerset and Anne Russell

1600 East India Company Chartered

1601 Essex Rebellion

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

1603 Funeral of Elizabeth I

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

On 28 Jun 1491 [her father] Henry VIII was born to [her grandfather] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34) and [her grandmother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall.

In 1494 [her father] Henry VIII (age 2) was created 1st Duke York.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 [her father] Henry VIII (age 12) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 24) was created Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson (age 54) was knighted.

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 [her grandfather] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace [Map]. His son [her father] Henry VIII  (age 17) succeeded VIII King England. Duke York and Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 11 Jun 1509, one month after the death of his father, [her father] Henry VIII (age 17) and [her step-mother] Catherine of Aragon (age 23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map]. She had, eight years before, married his older brother Prince Arthur Tudor - see Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 57) and Isabella Queen Castile. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 [her mother] Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with [her father] Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

[her grandfather] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 [her father] Henry VIII (age 41) and [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 07 Sep 1533. Memorandum, the viith daie of September, 1533, being Sonndaie, [her mother] Queene Anne (age 32) was brought to bedd of a faire daughterc at three of the clocke in the after noune;d and the morrowe after, being the daie of the Nativitie of Our Ladie, Te Deum was songe solempnlie at Powles, the Major and Aldermen being present, with the head craftes of the Cittie of London.

Note c. The Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of England.

Note d. Between three and four of the clock at afternoon. — Stow, p. 569.

On 07 Sep 1533 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 42) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32).

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 10 Sep 1533. And the Wednesdaie next followinge,a the most honorable yonge ladie was christened at Greenewychb in the Friers Church, all the noble lordes and ladies doing service about the christening in their Elizabeth. offices after their degrees, which was a goodlie sight to see, and their shee had geaven her to name Elizabeth; my Lord Thomas Cranmer (age 44), Archbishopp of Canterberie, godfather; the old Dutchesse of Northfolke (age 56),c wydowe, my Ladie Marques of Dorcett (age 46), widowe, godmothers at the fonte, and my Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 30) godmother at the bishoppinge;d and the morrowe after their was fiers made in London, and at everie fire a vessell of wyne for people to drinke for the said solempnitie.

Note a. September 10.

Note b. Compare this with the accomit of the maimer of the chrifltening "of the Lady Elisabeth" in MS. Harleian. Cod. 643, fol. 128-80.

Note c. The Dowager Duchess (age 56) of Norfolk carried the infant, in a mantle of purple velvet, with a long train furred with ermine. Hall's "Chronicle" ed. 1809, p. 806.

Note d. Immediately after the christening the Archbishop (age 44) confirmed the infant princess, the Marchioness of Exeter (age 30) being godmother.

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map].

Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 30), Walter Blount, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk (age 56). Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 24), [her grandfather] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 38) and [her uncle] George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 30) supported the train of the mantle.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60), William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 23), Thomas Howard (age 22) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 68) carried the canopy.

In 1534 [her father] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42), [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 33) and Princess Elizabeth visited Chenies Manor House, Buckinghamshire [Map].

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made [her half-sister] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 18) illegitimate and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to [her father] King Henry VIII (age 42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Feb 1535. Castelnau's Memoirs, i. 405. (Edit. Brussels, 1731.) 174. Palamedes Gontier to Admiral Chabot (age 43).

Was detained at Boulogne, as he wrote on Thursday night. Next day embarked at 4 a.m. Had a bad passage. The tide not serving to go up to Gravesend, went by Waterford (Canterbury?), and arrived on Sunday in London.

Passed the Thames near the house of Boidoval (Bridewell?), where he met Morette, who was very glad to see him, not daring to show himself to the King, who had spoken to him very sharply about the delay in Chabot's (age 43) answer. He sent to tell Norfolk and Cromwell of Gontier's arrival, and he was straightway conducted to Westminster to the King. After reading the Admiral's (age 43) letters and asking after his and the King's health, Henry drew him apart, and leaning on the sideboard heard what he had to say. Said that the Admiral (age 43) had not forgotten since his return to declare to Francis what Henry had charged him with, especially his entire good-will to preserve and increase the friendship and alliance between them, at which Francis was much rejoiced. As to the proposed marriage between the Princess (age 1) and Mons. d'Angoulesme (age 13), Francis doubts not that having given her that name, Henry will assure it to her and treat her as his only heiress, so that the Crown of England may come to her on his death. The Admiral (age 43) says that his king thinks some means ought to be found to deprive [her half-sister] Lady Mary (age 18) of any occasion or means of claiming the Crown.

Here the King explained to him what had been done by Parliament since the Admiral's (age 43) departure; that the Princess (age 1) had been proclaimed and an oath taken throughout the kingdom; that everyone takes Mary (age 18) for the bastard she is, and he will have no other heir but the Princess, with whom, and in his power (en sa main), now is and will be the said Mary; there is no chance of her becoming queen or claiming any right to the Crown. He went on to say that it was only required for Francis to cause the Pope to annul the invalid dispensation given for the first marriage, and then all doubts would cease. Went on to the other points of his instruction. He is willing to give up the title of France, to take away all occasion of ancient enmities, and declared to Chabot the means to bring it to pass. Spoke about the 50,000 cr. for the pension for life, and 10,000 cr. of salt, saowing him how obliged the King and the kingdom would be if he were to give them up, without mentioning that that would be enough to break off the interview of the two Queens. Henry took this ill, saying that he had done so much for Francis, his children and his kingdom, that it is not fair to ask him to give this up, which he knows is unwillingly paid and odious; it is an honour to his kingdom to have them; it was a strange recompense when he offered the heiress of a kingdom to a younger son; they ought rather to give him something than ask; that it made him think there was a practise going on elsewhere, considering the delay in giving him an answer. Said to him that he ought to take this proposal differently, as it was founded on an overture he had himself made to the Admiral; he would put the French king under the greatest obligation to him, and it would be more to his glory and profit in the future than the payment. As to the perpetual pension, he did not object to what was proposed. He objected to the idea of being included if a treaty were made between Francis and the Emperor; there must be no hope of a treaty. The Emperor had already offered to accept what had been done in England, both the second marriage and other things, and even that the Princess should be heiress and Mary succeed in case of her death. With regard to the article excusing Francis from commencing war against the Emperor, unless he declares himself in aid of Piedmont, Savona or Genoa, on which side he will be very glad to begin the war on account of the quarrels which he has, Henry asked him when he wished to begin. Replied that he had the authority to hasten or delay, as he wished, for Francis would act according to the answer sent back by Gontier. Meanwhile he was not losing a single hour in putting his forces in readiness.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Jun 1535. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 80 b. B. M. 910. Bishop of Faenza to M. di Fossumbrone, Papal Nuncio with the Emperor.

The Admiral (age 43), who was at Calais with the Duke of Norfolk (age 62), returned six days ago without having concluded the marriage of the duke of Angoulême with the last daughter (age 1) of the King, which was spoken of as certain on both sides, or anything else that one can hear of; but the capitulation and the old friendship remain. The cause was the exorbitant demand of the English that the French king should bind himself to maintain Henry's marriage against the Pope and any determination of the Council; and finally they wished him to act in Church matters as had been done in England. They are very anxious about Fisher (age 65). The English who were at Calais say that he will not come out of prison; that he is 90 years of age, and very ill, giving him 25 years more than he has; and that he cannot live more than a month; so that it is easily seen that in this their actions correspond with the others. The cardinal of Paris set out four days ago for Rome. * * *

Ital., pp. 2, modern copy. Headed: A Mons. di Fossumbrone, Nuntio di Sua Santita all a Maesta Casarea. D'Amien, alli 22 di Giugno 1535.

Letters and Papers 1535. [08 Oct 1535]. 566. You are aware of the quarrel which took place between [her half-sister] her and her governess (age 59) when we went to visit her little sister (age 2), and that we have been told how she was put almost by force into her chamber, in order that she should not speak to us, and how it was impossible to appease her and confine her to her chamber till the gentleman conducting us assured her that the King, her father, had commanded him to tell her not to show herself while we were there. You know also the conversations which the same gentleman had with you concerning her, and the charge which the Queen had given him: also that a person has endeavoured to cause her to send her will in writing. If the King (Francis) approved of the marriage it would be to unite two kingdoms, and the King would have the great honor of annexing "les deux Bretagnes" to the French crown. The King has good reason to take the matter up, for the marriage was made by consent of both parents, and half England desires it. If the Pope were advertised of the treaties which the king of England proposes to make with the King, he would suspect that he should lose the money of France, in the same way as he has lost the money of England, if war should take place; and therefore he would induce the Emperor to urge the King (Francis) to accomplish this marriage. I believe the Emperor would help it forward from the love which he bears to his niece. If the Emperor urge Francis the latter can then consult about informing the king of England of the Emperor's intention, and persuading him to consent to it in order to avoid war, seeing that the said Lord (Henry) does not deny that she is his daughter, and knows that the marriage is concluded. If the king of England do not approve because his wife persuades him to the contrary, he will fear to set Francis and the Emperor against himself solely through his affection for his wife, which is less than it has been, and diminishes day by day, because he has [her step-mother] new amours (age 26)1.

Item, to advertise the King of the maladies which are in "la rasse;" and that the Swedes in the King's pay, whom the Lubeckers had drawn into the Danish quarrel, have taken fourteen English ships, among which the Minion of the English king, the mistress of England2, has been broken to pieces.

Fr.

*** A translation of this letter is printed by Mr. Froude in his Appendix to "the Pilgrim" (p. 100) as a letter from Dinteville to M. de Tarbes, and dated in Oct. 1534.

Note 1. Margin: "Nota, qu'il ne sera pas paradventure fort malaisé à gaigner le Roy." ie. Note, that it will not be very difficult to win the King. The "new amours" may be a reference to Jane Seymour (age 26).

Note 2. "Entre lesquelles a este mise en pieces la Mignone du Roy d'Angletrerre, qui estoi la maistresse d'Angleterre." ie. Between which was torn into pieces the Mignone of the King of England, the mistress of England. This is a reference to ship rather than a person!

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good [her step-mother] Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the [her father] King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.


No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his [her mother] concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the [her grandfather] earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his [her uncle] son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the [her half-sister] Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the [her aunt] Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.


The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. 141. You could not conceive the joy that the King and those who favor this concubinage have shown at the death of the good Queen, especially the [her grandfather] earl of Wiltshire (age 59) and his [her uncle] son (age 33), who said it was a pity the [her half-sister] Princess (age 19) did not keep company with her. The King, or the Saturday he heard the news, exclaimed "God be praised that we are free from all suspicion of war"; and that the time had come that he would manage the French better than he had done hitherto, because they would do now whatever he wanted from a fear lest he should ally himself again with your Majesty, seeing that the cause which disturbed your friendship was gone. On the following day, Sunday, the King was clad all over in yellow, from top to toe, except the white feather he had in his bonnet, and the Little Bastard (age 2) was conducted to mass with trumpets and other great triumphs. After dinner the King entered the room in which the ladies danced, and there did several things like one transported with joy. At last he sent for his Little Bastard (age 2), and carrying her in his arms he showed her first to one and then to another. He has done the like on other days since, and has run some courses (couru quelques lances) at Greenwich.From all I hear the grief of the people at this news is incredible, and the indignation they feel against the King, on whom they lay the blame of her death, part of them believing it was by poison and others by grief; and they are the more indignant at the joy the King has exhibited. This would be a good time, while the people are so indignant, for the Pope to proceed to the necessary remedies, by which these men would be all the more taken by surprise, as they have no suspicion of any application being made for them now that the Queen is dead, and do not believe that the Pope dare take upon him to make war especially while a good part of Germany and other Princes are in the same predicament. Nevertheless, now that the Queen is dead, it is right for her honor and that of all her kin that she be declared to have died Queen, and it is right especially to proceed to the execution of the sentence, because it touches the Princess, and to dissolve this marriage which is no wise rendered valid by the Queen's death, and, if there be another thing, that he cannot have this woman to wife nor even any other during her life according to law, unless the Pope give him a dispensation; and it appears that those here have some hope of drawing the Pope to their side, for only three days ago Cromwell said openly at table that a legate might possibly be seen here a few days hence, who would come to confirm all their business, and yesterday commands were issued to the curates and other preachers not to preach against purgatory, images, or adoration of the saints, or other doubtful questions until further orders. Perhaps by this means and others they hope to lull his Holiness to sleep until your Majesty has parted from him, which would be a very serious and irremediable evil. I think those here will have given charge to the courier, whom they despatched in great haste to give the news of the Queen's death in France, to go on to Rome in order to prevent the immediate publication of censures.

Letters 1536. 05 May 1536. 908. Three days after the Concubine's imprisonment the Princess removed, and was honorably accompanied both by the servants of the Little Bastard (age 2) and by several gentlemen who came of their own accord. Many of her old servants and maids upon these news went to her, and although her gouvernante (age 60) allowed them to remain, she was warned by me not to accept or retain anyone but those given her by the King her father. What I most fear as regards her is, that when the King is asked by Parliament to restore her to her rights, he will refuse his consent unless the Princess first swears to the statutes invalidating the first marriage and the Pope's authority. To this, I think, she will not easily yield, although I should advise her to acquiesce in everything as far as she can without prejudice to her conscience and her own rights. Desires to know the Emperor's opinion.

Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

On 19 May 1536 [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and [her illegitimate half-brother] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map].

Letters 1536. 24 May 1536. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 252. B. M. 956. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to Mons. Ambrogio.

According to information from England, received by the King yesterday, on the 15th inst. the [her mother] Queen (deceased) was degraded, and the following day was to be executed,—either burnt or beheaded; but first her [her uncle] brother (deceased), four gentlemen, and an organist (deceased), with whom she had misconducted herself, were to be quartered in her presence. It is not true that her [her grandfather] father (age 59) and mother were imprisoned, but the former (age 59), being on the Council, was present at his daughter's (deceased) sentence. All was done in the presence of the French ambassador only. It is said that the King has been in danger of being poisoned by that lady (deceased) for a whole year, and that her daughter (age 2) is supposititious, being the child of a countryman (villano); but these particulars are not known for certain, according to what the King said today. The discovery was owing to words spoken by the organist (deceased) from jealousy of others. They are expecting now the declaration of the true daughter to reinstate her and annul what was done in favor of the other. Has not omitted to show what may be done on this occasion for the honor of God, &c. The French king answered that he ardently desired to bring back Henry to the Church, and that he would not fail in endeavouring to do so. He knows that the Imperialists have offered the king of England the queen of Hungary as a wife, but it is thought he will not take her, as she is in bad health, and not fit to bear children. He has today sent a person to his Ambassador about these affairs. He thinks it would be easy to bring back the King if it were not for his avarice, which is increased by the profit he draws from Church goods. The English ambassadors here are in very great joy. Knowing that one of them was a good man, and a friend of his, caused the opportunity and advantage of the King's coming back to the Pope to be shown to him; and that he should be neutral, and give the Emperor and (French) king to understand that he would oppose whoever refused peace; that there was not a better opportunity of wiping out the stains on his character, and making himself the most glorious King in the world; that every one should do his duty, and they would find in the Pope that true piety and goodness which ought now to be known to all the world. The Ambassador, and Winchester also, who is the other, thanked him, saying, with many tears, that this was their only desire, and they would do their part, so that they hoped we should soon embrace each other.

Ital., modern copy, pp. 6. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio, Da Lione, li 24 Maggio 1536.

Letters 1536. 26 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 281. B. M. 973. [Hannaert] to Charles V.

There is news from England that the so-called [her mother] Queen (deceased) was found in bed with her organist (deceased), and taken to prison. It is proved that she had criminal intercourse (hazia el maleficio a si mismo) with her [her uncle] brother (deceased) and others, and that the daughter (age 2) supposed to be hers was taken from a poor man. The English ambassador says that she and her brother are condemned to be burnt, and a valet (camarero) of the King's, who was very intimate with him, and three others, to be beheaded, for conspiring the death of the King. The King has sent for the Princess, made much of her, and given her many jewels belonging to the unjust Queen. De Leon Solarrona (Lyon sur le Rhone), 26 May 1536.

Sp., pp. 5. Modern copy.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 [her father] Henry VIII (age 44) and [her step-mother] Jane Seymour (age 27) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map] by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 53). She by marriage Queen Consort England. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41) and Margaret Dymoke (age 36) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Jane Seymour (age 27).

Jun 1536. The Second Succession Act 1536 28 Hen 8 c7 annulled Henry VIII's marriages to [her step-mother] Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England and [her mother] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (deceased), and removed Princesses [her half-sister] Mary (age 20) and Elizabeth (age 2) from the Succession, declaring them both illegitimate.

In 1537 Katherine "Kat" Champernowne (age 35) became the governess of the future Elizabeth I (age 3). Sources state that she accustomed the little girl to the "elaborate code of politeness and respect to her elders". In addition, she taught her charge pursuits such as needlework, embroidery, dancing, and riding. By the age of six, Elizabeth was able to sew a beautiful cambric shirt as a gift for her younger half-brother. Evidently, Katherine had been well educated for she effectively taught the precocious princess mathematics, geography, astronomy, history, French, Italian, Flemish, and Spanish. Elizabeth herself praised Katherine's early devotion to her studies by stating that Kat (as the future Queen calle her governess) took "great labour and pain in bringing of me up in learning and honesty".

Birth and Christening Edward VI

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 25thd daie of October, being Moundaie, the [her half-brother] Prince was christened in the Kinges chappell at Hampton Court, the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 48) and the Duke of Norfoike (age 64) godfathers at the font, and my [her half-sister] Ladie Maries grace (age 21), the Kinges daughter by Queene Katherin, godmotherb, and the Duke of Suffolke, godfather at the confirmation, the Princes name being Edwarde, proclaymed after his christning by the King of Haroldesa, "Edward, sonne and heire to the King of Englande, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester." The goodlie solempnitie of the lordes and ladies done at the christning was a goodlie sight to behoulde, everie one after their office and degree; the Ladie Elizabeth (age 4), the Kinges daughter, bearing the chrisome on her breast, the Viscoumpt Beauchampe (age 37), brother to the Queeneb, bearing her in his armes, the Earle of Essex (age 52) bearing the salte, the Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 34) bearing the Prince to the church and home againe, the Duke of Norfolke (age 64) staying his head, as she bare him, and the Duke of Suffolke (age 53) at his feete.

Note d. Evidently a clerical error for the 15th, which was Monday, whereas the 25th would haye been Thursday.

Note e. It is cnrions to note the incongruity of the sponsors: these were Archbishop Cranmer (age 48), the head of the Protestant Reformers, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), leader of the lay Catholics, and the Princess Mary (age 21), a bigoted Catholic, who had been bastardised by her father.

Note a. Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux King-at-Arms.

Note b. Edward Seymour (age 37), elder brother of Queen Jane, and so brother-in-law of Henry VIII was created Viscount Beauchomp, of Hache, co. Somerset, 5th June, 1536. He was lineally descended from Sir Roger Seymour (temp. Edward III.) who married Cicely, sister and eldest coheir of John de Beauchamp, last Baron Beauchamp.

On 12 Mar 1539 [her grandfather] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 62) died. He was buried at St Peter's Church, Hever. His monument has a brass. He is depicted dressed in full robes wearing the insignia of a Knight of the Garter, with the Badge on his left breast and the Garter around his left knee. His head rests on a helm surmounted by a crest of a falcon displayed (his daughter's heraldic badge) and his feet rest on a griffin. The inscription reads: Here lieth Sir Thomas Bullen, Knight of the Order of the Garter, Erle of Wilscher and Erle or Ormunde, which decessed the 12th dai of Marche in the iere of our Lorde 1538. Earl Wiltshire, Earl Ormonde and Viscount Rochford extinct. His considerable wealth and properties were inherited were his grand-daughter Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 5) and his daughter [her aunt] Mary Boleyn (age 40).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (age 48) and [her step-mother] Anne of Cleves (age 24) were married by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 50) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Anne of Cleves (age 24) was crowned Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of John La Marck III Duke Cleves and Maria Jülich Berg Duchess Cleves. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 [her father] Henry VIII (age 49) and [her step-mother] Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 [her father] Henry VIII (age 52) and [her step-mother] Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters [her half-sister] Mary (age 27) and Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

Around 1546. William Scrots (age 29). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 12) before her accession painted for her father.

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 [her father] Henry VIII (age 55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as [her half-brother] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9), [her half-sister] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 30) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne (age 46), Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 57), Anthony Denny (age 45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 45), Edward Montagu (age 61), Edward North 1st Baron North (age 50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 61), Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 46), Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton (age 41).

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 [her father] Henry VIII (age 55) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son [her half-brother] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) succeeded VI King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Thomas Wendy (age 46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King's last will and testament, for which he received £100.

After 1549 Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 5) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 15).

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 18 Jan 1549 agents were sent to interrogate co-conspirators including Princess Elizabeth (age 15). The regency council was sure of her complicity with Thomas, and sought to bully an easy confession from her. She was interrogated for weeks.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Mar 1552. The xvij day of Marche rod thrugh London unto [St.] James in the feld, the kyng('s) plase [Note. palace], the kynges syster my [lady] Elsabeth (age 18), with a grett compeny of lordes and knyghtes and gentyll men, and after her a grett nombur of lades and gentyllwomen to the nombur of ij C. on horsse-bake, and yomen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Jul 1553. The sam day cam rydyng thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (age 19) grace, and thrugh Fletstrett, and so to my [lord of] Somersett('s) place that was, and yt ys my lade grasys [place; attended] with ij Ml. horse, with speres and bowes and gunes, and odur .... and spesyall sir John Wylliam, sir John Brygys, master Chamb[urlain,] all in gren gardyd with whytt welvett saten taffaty ...

Note. Arrival of the lady Elizabeth. In this passage read, "and odur [weapons,]" and add to it, "and cloth, according to their qualities." (Strype.) The "green garded with white" was then the royal livery.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 29 Jul 1553. "The lady Elizabethes (age 19) grace came the 29. of July to Somerset place, well accompanyed with gentlemen, and others, righte strongly, and theare she rested a nighte, and the morowe ensuinge she went throwghe Cheapside to meete the queenes grace to London-wardes, who is loked for the 3. or 4. of Auguste.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre [Map] the duke of Suffoke (age 36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (age 19) to Algatt, and so to the [her half-sister] qwens (age 37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

Note. Rode through London my lady Elizabeth. Stowe relates that the lady Elizabeth went to meet the queen on the 30th, the day after her arrival in London: he states that she was accompanied with a thousand horse, as says our diarist, but "Camden 500, and so I have heard my mother from her grandmother, who was one of them, relate, and that queen Mary then kissed every gentlewoeman [that] came with her sister." MS. note by the Rev. John Lynge, vicar of Yalding in Kent, in a copy of Stowe's Annals; Retrospective Review, 2d Series, i. 341.

Note. P. 37. The royal livery. The passage relating to the princess Elizabeth's entry should conclude thus,—"all in green guarded with white, velvet, satin, taffety, and cloth, according to their qualities." Green and white formed the livery of the Tudors. At the marriage of Arthur prince of Wales the yeomen of the guard were in large jackets of damask, white and green, embroidered before and behind with garlands of vine leaves, and in the middle a red rose. In the great picture at Windsor castle of the embarkation at Dover in 1520, the Harry Grace à Dieu is surrounded with targets, bearing the various royal badges, each placed on a field party per pale white and green. The painting called king Arthur's round table at Winchester castle, supposed to have been repainted in the reign of Henry VII. is divided into compartments of white and green. The "queenes colours" are also alluded to in the following story of a rude jest passed on the new Rood in Saint Paul's:

"Not long after this (in 1554) a merry fellow came into Pauls, and spied the Rood with Mary and John new set up; whereto, among a great sort of people, he made low curtesie, and said: Sir, your Mastership is welcome to towne. I had thought to have talked further with your Mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the Queenes colours. I hope ye be but a summer's bird, in that ye be dressed in white and greene." (Foxe, Actes and Monuments, iii. 114.)

Among the attendants on queen Mary in p. 38, three liveries are mentioned, green and white, red and white, and blue and green. The men in red and white were the servants of the lord treasurer (see p. 12, where several other liveries are described), and the blue and green would be those of the earl of Arundel or some other principal nobleman. Blue and white was perhaps king Philip's livery (p. 79).

In p. 59 we find that in 1554 even the naval uniform of England was white and green, both for officers and mariners. In noted in that page for "wearing" read "were in," which, without altering the sense, completes the grammar.

The city trained bands were, in 1557, ordered to have white coats welted with green, with red crosses (see p. 164).

The lady Elizabeth, however, did not give green and white to her own men. From two other passages (pp. 57, 120) we find her livery was scarlet or fine red, guarded with black velvet; and from the description of her coronation procession in p. 186, it seems that red or "crimson" was retained for her livery when queen.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the [her half-sister] Queen (age 37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower [Map]; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (age 41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my lade Elssabeth (age 19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (age 56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (age 50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.

Coronation of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the [her half-sister] Qwuyen('s) (age 37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of Darbe (age 44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (age 41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (age 45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (age 26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (age 28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (age 53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (age 80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (age 41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (age 17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (age 27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (age 54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my lade Elisabeth (age 20) and my [her step-mother] lade Anne of Cleyff (age 38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Around 26 Jan 1554 Wyatt's Rebellion was a popular uprising against the marriage of [her half-sister] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) and Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 26) led by Thomas Wyatt (age 33) with the intention to replace them with Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 27) and Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20). George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 57) sided with the rebels. John Brydges 1st Baron Chandos (age 61) suppressed the rebellion.

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20) was interrogated.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip. Thus God performed a miracle. At present there is no other occupation than the cutting off of heads and inflicting exemplary punishments Jane of Suffolk (deceased), who made herself Queen, and her husband (deceased), have been executed; Courtenay (age 27) is in the Tower; and this very day we expect the Lady Elizabeth (age 20) to arrive here, who they say has lived loosely like her mother and is now with child.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1554. The same tyme and day be-twyne iiij [and v of the] cloke at nyght my lade Elssabeth('s) (age 20) grase c[ame riding] to London thrught Smythfeld unto West[minster] with a C. welvett cottes a-for her grace. A[nd her] grace rod in a charett opyn of boyth sydes. [And with] her grace rydyng after her a C. in cotes of [scarlet and] fyne red gardyd with velvett, and so thrught Fletstret unto the cowrt thrught the qu[een's] garden, her grace behyng syke.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 18 Mar 1554. The xviii of Marche, beinge Palme Sunday, the Ladie Elizabeth (age 20) was had to the Tower from Westminster by water privelie, after the [her half-sister] Queene (age 38) had gone a procession, which was about x of the clock in the forenoone.

The same Palme Sunday the old service after the use of Sarum in Latyn was begone agayne and kept in Paules and other parishes, within the Cittie of London, with allso bearinge of Palmes, and creepinge to the Crosse on Good Fridaye, with the Sepulcher lights and the Resurrection on Easter daye.

Allso the Scriptures written on Rood-lofts and about the churches in London, with the armes of England, was washed out againste the feast of Easter in moste parte of all the parishe churches of the diocesse of London. And Dr. Feknama was made Deane of Paules, and Dr. May putt owt, and the sacrament of the aulter hanged or sett on the aulter in everie parishe churche.

Note a. John Feckenham.

On 22 May 1554 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20) was imprisoned at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Mar 1554. The xviij day of Marche was kared to the Towre of London [Map] my lade Elsabeth('s) (age 20) grace, the quen('s) (age 38) syster, a-for none.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 19 May 1554. The xixth of May, beinge Saterday and the eeven of the feast of the Holie Trinitie, Ladye Elizabeth (age 20) was had out of the Tower [Map] and went thorowe London Bridge in her barge at 3 of the clock in the afternoone, lyeinge at Richmond [Map] that night; and from thence conveyed to Woodstock [Map], Mr. Benyfield (age 45)b, Lorde Williams of Tame, and Sir Leonard Chamberlayne, waytinge on her, with iic horsemen, there to remayne at the Queenes pleasure.

Note b. Sir Henry Bedingfield (age 45), the recently appointed Constable of the Tower.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 May 1554. The xx day of May my lade Elsabeth (age 20) the quen('s) (age 38) syster cam owt of the Towre, and toke her barge at Towre warfe [Map], and so to Rychemond [Map], and from thens unto Wyndsor [Map], and so to Wodstoke [Map].

On 10 Jun 1554 Walter Hungerford (age 27) and Anne Bassett (age 34) were married. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 20) attended.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1555. The iiij day of September the [her half-sister] Quen('s) (age 39) grace and my lady Elsabeth (age 21), and all the court, dyd fast from flessh, and toke the Popes jubele and pardon grantyd to alle men.

Dudley Plot against Mary I

In early 1556 Henry Dudley (age 29) attempted to replace [her half-sister] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 39) on the throne with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 22) to then marry her to Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 29).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1556. The xxviij day of November came rydyng thrugh Smythfeld and Old Balee and thrugh Fletstrett unto Somesset place my good lade Elisabeth('s) (age 23) grace the quen('s) syster, with a grett compene of velvett cottes and cheynes, her graces gentyllmen, and after a grett compene of her men all in red cottes gardyd with a brod gard of blake velvett, and cuttes; and ther her grace dyd loge at her place; ther her grace tared (blank) days till the iij day of Dessember or her grace dyd remowyffe.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Dec 1556. The iij day of Desember cam rydyng from her plasse my lade Elizabeth('s) (age 23) grace, from Somersett place downe Fletstreet, and thrugh Old Bayle, and thrugh Smyth-field, with a grett compene; and her servandes alle in red gardyd with velvett; and so her grace toke her way toward Bysshope Atfeld [Map] plasse.

In 1558 Nicholas Bacon 1st Baronet (age 18) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 24) in Norwich, Norfolk [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Feb 1558. The xxv day of Feybruary cam rydyng to London my lade Elsabeth (age 24) the quen('s) (age 42) syster, with a gret compene of lordes and nobull men and nobull women, to here plasse calyd the Somersettplasse [Map] beyond Stron-bryge.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Mar 1558. The iiij day of Marche a' for-non my lade Elsabeth('s) (age 24) grace toke her horss and red to her plasse at, with mony lordes, knyghtes, and lades, and gentyllwomen, with a goodly compene of horsse.

Death of Mary I

On 17 Nov 1558 [her half-sister] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 42) died at St James's Palace [Map]. Her half sister Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) succeeded I Queen England. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 31) was deputed with informing Philip "The Prudent" II King Spain (age 31).

Thomas Wendy (age 58) attended the Queen as physician; the third monarch's death he attended.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1558. [The xxviijth day of November the Queen (age 25) removed to the Tower from the lord North's] plasse, (which) was the Charter Howsse. [All] the stretes unto the towre of London was newe gravelled. Her grace rod thrugh Barbecan and Crepulgat [Map], by [London-wall] unto Bysshope-gate [Map], and up to Leden-halle [Map] and thrugh Gracyus strett [Map] and Fanchyrchestrett [Map]; and a-for rod gentyllmen and [many] knyghtes and lordes, and after cam all the trumpetes blohyng, and then cam all the haroldes in a-ray; and my lord of Penbroke (age 57) [bare the] the quen('s) sword; then cam here Grace (age 25) on horsbake, [apparelled] in purpull welvett with a skarpe [scarf] abowt her neke, and [the serg]anttes of armes abowt here grace; and next after rod [sir] Robart Dudley (age 26) the master of her horse; and so the gard with halbards. [And] ther was shyche shutyng of gunes as never was hard a-for; so to the towre, with all the nobulles. And so here Grace lay in the towre [Map] unto the v day of Dessember, that was sant Necolas evyn. And ther was in serten plasses chylderyn with speches and odur places, syngyng and playing with regalles.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1558. The v day here Grace (age 25) removyd by water undur the bryge unto Somersett plase [Map], with trumpetes playng, and melody and joye and comfortt to all truw Englys-men and women, and to all pepulle.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 Dec 1558. The ix day of Desember was creatyd at Somersett plasse [Map], wher the quen('s) (age 25) grace lys, master Rychmond Norroy, and Rysbanke creatyd Bluw-mantyll.

In 1559 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 31) entertained Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) at Cobham Hall, Kent [Map].

Coronation of Elizabeth I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1559. The xij day the Qwen('s) (age 25) grace toke her barge at Whytt-halle toward the Towre, and shott the bryge, and my lord mare (age 50) and the althermen, and all the craftes, in barges with stremars and baners of ther armes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jan 1559. [The xiv day of January the Queen (age 25) came in a chariot from] the Towre [Map], with all the lordes and ladies [in crimson] velvet, and ther horses trapyd with the sam, and [trumpeters in] red gownes blohyng, and all the haroldes in ther cottes armur, and all the strettes stroyd with gravell; and at Grasyus strett [Map] a goodly pagantt of kyng [Henry] the viij and quen Ane ys wyff and of ther lenege, and in Cornelle [Map] a-nodur goodly pagantt of kyng Henry and [her half-brother] kyng Edward the vjth; and be-syd Soper lane in [Cheap a]nodur goodly pagantt, and the condyth pentyd; [and] at the lytylle condutt a-nodur goodly pagant of a qwyke tre and a ded, and the quen had a boke gyffyn her ther; and ther the recorder of London and the chamburlayn (age 38) delevered unto the quen a purse of gold fulle to the waluw of (blank); and so to the Flett strett to the condyt, and ther was a-nodur goodly pagantt of the ij chyrchys; and at Tempylle bare was ij grett gyanttes, the one name was Goott-magott [Gogmagog] a Albaon and the thodur Co(rineus.)

On 15 Jan 1559 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) was crowned I King England by Bishop Owen Oglethorpe (age 52) at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk (age 19) carried the train. Archbishop Nicholas Heath (age 58) censed. Edward Dymoke (age 51) attended as the Queen's Champion. Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 22), Francis Talbot 5th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59), Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel (age 46), Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter (age 16) and William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 58) attended.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1559. The xv day was the crounasyon of quen Elsabeth (age 25) at Westmynster abbay [Map], and theyr all the trumpettes, and knyghtes, and lordes, and haroldes of armes in ther cotte armurs; and after all they in ther skarlett, and all the bysshopes in skarlett, and the Quen, and all the fottmen waytyng a-pone the quene, to Westmynster hall; ther mett all the byshoppes, and all the chapell with iij crosses, and in ther copes, the byshoppes mytered, and syngyng Salve festa dyes; and all the strett led with gravell, and bluw cloth unto the abbay, and raylled on evere syd, and so to the abbay to masse, and ther her grasse was crounyd; and evere offeser rede against she shuld go to dener to Westmynster hall [Map], and evere offeser to take ys offes at serves a-pone ther landes; and my lord mare (age 50) and the althermen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Feb 1559. The xxiij day dyd pryche afor the quen (age 25) Gryndalle (age 40).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1559. The xxj of Marche the quen('s) master cokes and odur her offesers, and at Mylle-end [Map] ther they dynyd, [with] all maner of mett and drynke; and ther was all maner of artelere, as drumes, flutes, trumpetes, gones, mores pykes, halbardes, to the nomber of v C.; the gonners in shurtes of maylle and .... pykes in bryght harnes, and mony swardes and v grett pesses of gones and shot in ... the wyche dyd myche hurt unto glass wy[ndows;] and cam a grett gyant danssyng, and after [that a] mores dansse dansyng, and gones and mor[es pikes]; and after cam a cart with a grett wyth and ij [bears?] with-in the cartt, and be-syd whent a gret .... of grett mastes; and then cam the master cokes rydyng in cottes in brodere, and chynes of gold, and mony of the quen('s) (age 25) servandes in ther levery, to the cowrt, and ther they shott ther pesses, and with-in the parke was ij C. chamburs gret and smalle shot, and the Quen('s) (age 25) grace standyn in the galere; and so evere man whent in-to the parke, showhyng them in batell ray, shutyng and playhyng at bowt the parke; and a-for the quen (age 25) was on of bayres [one of the bears.] was bated, and after the mores dansers whent in-to the cowrt, dansyng in mony offeses.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Apr 1559. The viij day of Aprell ther was a proclamasion of pesse [peace] betwyne the Quene('s) (age 25) grace and Hare the French kyng (age 40), and Dolphyn the kyng of Skottes (age 15), for ever, boyth by water and land; and ther was vj trumpeters and v haroldes of armes, master Garter and master Clarenshux, proclamyd yt, and Lankoster, Ruge Crosse, and Bluwmantyll, and my lord mayre (age 50) and all the althermen in skarlett; and Bluw-mantyll dyd proclaymyd that no players shuld play no more tyll a serten tyme of no mans players; but the mare or shreyff, balle [bailiff], constabull, or odur offesers take them, lay them in presun, and the quen('s) commondement layd on them.

Note. P. 193. Peace with France. See Hayward's Elizabeth, p. 36; Hayward dates the proclamation the 7th instead of the 8th April. The treaty, which was signed by Elizabeth at Westminster on the 20th Jan. and by Henry at Chateau-Cambray on the 2d April, is printed by Rymer, Fœdera, vol. xv. pp. 505–516.

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1559. [The xxiij day of April, being saint George's day, the Queen (age 25) went about the hall, and all the knights of the] Garter that [went singing in proces]syon, and a-bowt the cowrt; the sam day at after [noon were] knyghtes electyd of the Garter the duke of Norfok (age 23), the marques of Northamtun (age 47) [Note. Restored since he had been degraded in 1553], the erle of Rutland (age 32), and my lord Robard Dudley (age 26), the master of the quen('s) horse.

On 23 Apr 1559 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) created Garter Knights:

340th Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 23).

341st Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 32).

342nd Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 26).

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 47) was restored 312th. He had been degraded in 1553.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Apr 1559. The xxv day of April, was sant Markes day, the Quen('s) (age 25) grace supt at Beynard castyll [Map] at my lord of Penproke('s) (age 58) P[lace,] and after supper the Quen('s) grace rowed up and downe Temes, and [a] C [100] bottes [boats] at bowte here grace, with trumpettes and drumes and flutes and gones, and sqwybes horlyng on he [high] to and fro, tyll x at nyght, or her grace depertyd, and all the water-syd st ... with a M [1000] pepull lokyng one here grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 May 1559. The furst day of May ther was ij [4] pennys [pinnaces] was dekyd with stremars, baners, and flages, and trumpetes and drumes and gones, gahyng a Mayng [going a Maying], and a-ganst the Quen('s) plasse at Westmynster, and ther they shott and thruw eges [eggs] and oregns [against] on a-gaynst a-nodur, and with sqwybes, and by chanse on fell on a bage of gune-powdur and sett dyvers men a'fyre, and so the men drue to on syd of the penus [pinnaces], and yt dyd over-swelmed the pennus [pinnaces], and mony fell in the Temes, butt, thanke be God, ther was but on man drownyd, and a C [100] bottes [boats] abowtt here, and the Quen('s) (age 25) grace and her lordes and lades lokyng out of wyndows; thys was done by ix [4] of the cloke on May evyn last.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 May 1559. The x day of May the parlement was endyd, [and the] Quen('s) (age 25) grace whent to the parliament howsse.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 May 1559. The xxv day they wher browt to the cowrt with musyke to dener, for ther was gret cher; and after dener to b[ear] and bull baytyng, and the Quen('s) (age 25) grace and the embassadurs stod in the galere lokyng of the pastym tyll vj at nyght; and after they whent by water unto Powll wharff, and landyd, and contenent unto ther logyng to the byshope of London('s) to soper, for ther wher gorgyus aparell as has bene sen in thes days.

Note. P. 197. Arrival of French ambassadors. These were, Charles cardinal of Lorraine, Anne due de Montmorenci, Jacques Marquis de Fronsac, Jehan de Morvillier bishop of Orleans, and the chevalier Claude de l'Aubespiere (see Rymer, xv. 503.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Jun 1559. The sam nyght abowtt viij of the cloke at nyght the Quen('s) (age 25) grace toke her barge at Whyt hall, and mony mo barges, and rod a-longe by the banke-syd by my lord of Wynchaster('s) place, and so to Peper alley, and so crost over to London syd with drumes and trumpetes playhyng ard be-syd, and so to Whyt hall agayne to her palles.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Jun 1559. The xxv day of June the sam May-gam whent unto [the palace?] at Grenwyche, playng a-for the Quen (age 25) and the consell, and the ... thay whent by land, and cam (back by water?)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Jul 1559. The furst day of July all the craftes of London send owt a (blank) men of armes, as well be-sene as ever was when owt of London, boyth waffelers in cott of velvet and cheynes, with gunes, mores-pykes, and halbardes, and flages, and in-to the duke of Suffoke('s) parke in Sowthwarke, and ther they mustered a-for my lord mayre (age 50); and ther was a howsse for bred and dryng [drink], to gyffe the sawgyars [soldiers] to ett and drynke, and they then after thay lay and mustered in sant Gorges ffeld tyll x of the cloke. [The next morning they removed towards Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the court there, and thence into Greenwich park, where they tarried] tyll viij of the cloke, and then thay [marched] to the lawne, and ther thay mustered in harnes, [and the gunners] in shurttes of maylle, and at v of the cloke at nyght the Quen (age 25) [came] in to the galere of the parke gatt, and the inbassadurs and lordes [and ladies, to a] grett nombur, and my lord marques, and my lord admerall (age 49), and my [lord Robert Dudley (age 27), and] dyvers mo lordes and knyghtes, and they rod to and fro [to view them, and] to sett the ij batelles in a-ray; and after cam trumpeters bluwing [on] boyth partes, and the drumes and fluttes; and iij ansettes [onsets] in evere bat[elle]; so thay marchyd forward, and so the gunes shott and the morespykes [en]contered to-gether with gratt larum, and after reculyd bake [again]; after the towne army lost ther pykes and ther gunes and bylle .. rely, and contenent they wher sturyd with a-larum; and so evere man toke to ther weypons agayne; by and by the trumpetes and the drumes and gones playd, and shott, and so they whent to-gether as fast as they could. Al thys wyll the Quen('s) grace and the inbasadurs and the lordes and lades be-held the skymychsyng; and after they reculyd bake agayn; and after master chamburlayn and dyvers of the commenars and the wyffelers cam to the Quen, and ther the Quen('s) grace thankyd them hartely, and all the cette [city]; and contenent ther was the grettest showtt that ever was hard, and hurlyng up of capes [caps], that her grace was so mere [merry], for ther was a-buyff above lyk M [1000] pepull besyd the men that mustered; and after ther was runyng at the tyltt, and after evere [man] home to London and odur plasses.

Note. P. 202. Muster before the queen in Greenwich park. Stowe has described this muster at some length. The Grocers' company were, by a precept from the lord mayor, required to contribute to it "190 personnes, apte and picked men; whereof 60 to be with calyvers, flaskes, touche-boxes, morions, swordes, and daggers; 95 to be in corselettes, with halbertes, swordes, and daggers, for a shewe at Greenwich." Heath's Hist, of the Grocers' Company, p. 65.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Jul 1559. The xj day of July ther was mad a plasse [for the queen's] pensyoners to rune with-owt a tyltt with spayrers [spears]. [There were three] chalengers, my lord of Urmon (age 27), and ser John Paratt (age 30), and master [North], and ther wher (blank) deffenders boyth with spares [spears] and sw[ords.] Abowt v [5] of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (age 25) grace [came,] and the inbassadurs, and dyver lordes and lades stode [over the] gatt for to se; and after thay rane one chassy[ng the other], and after the Quen('s) grace cam down in-to the parke [and] toke her horse, and rod up to the bankett howse, [with] the inbassadurs and the lordes and lades, and so to soper [and] a maske, and after a grett bankett, and after grett castyng [of fire] and shutyng of gunes tyll xij [12] at nyght.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Jul 1559. The xvij day of July the Quen('s) (age 25) grace removyd from Grenwyche [Map] of her prograsse unto Darford [Map] in Kent; so the next day removyd unto Cobham [Map], my lord Cobham('s) (age 31) plasse, and ther her grace had grett chere.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Aug 1559. The v day of August the Quen('s) (age 25) grace removyd from Eltham [Map] unto Non-shyche [Map], my lord of Arundell('s) (age 47), and ther her grace had as gret cher evere nyght, and bankettes [banquets]; but the sonday at nyght my lord of Arundell('s) howse mad her a grett bankett [banquet] at ys cost, the wyche kyng Henry the viij byldyd, as ever was sene, for soper, bankett, and maske, with drumes and flutes, and all the mysyke that cold be, tyll mydnyght; and as for chere has nott bene sene nor hard. [On monday] the Quen('s) grace stod at her standyng [in the further park,] and ther was corse [coursing] after; and at nyght the Quen .... and a play of the chylderyn of Powlles and ther master Se[bastian], master Phelypes, and master Haywod, and after a grett bankett as [ever was s[ene, with drumes and flutes, and the goodly banketts [of dishes] costely as ever was sene and gyldyd, tyll iij in mornyng; and ther was skallyng of yonge lordes and knyghtes of the ....

Note. P. 206. Master Sebastian, Phdips, and Haywood. "Sebastian scolemaister of Powles" gave queen Mary on new-year's day 1557 "a book of ditties, written." (Nichols's Progresses, &c. of Q. Elizabeth, 1823, vol. i. p. xxxv.) Mr. Collier supposes his surname to have been Westcott (Annals of the Stage, i. 155).—Robert Phelipps was one of the thirtytwo gentlemen of the chapel to king Edward VI. (Hawkins's History of Music, vol. iii. p. 481.—Of John Heywood as an author of interludes and master of a company of "children" players various notices will be found in Mr. Collier's wor

Note. P. 206. The Queen's grace stood at her standing in the further park. "Shooting at deer with a cross-bow (remarks Mr. Hunter in his New Illustrations of Shakespeare) was a favourite amusement of ladies of rank; and buildings with flat roofs, called stands or standings, were erected in many parks, as in that of Sheffield, and in that of Pilkington near Manchester, expressly for the purpose of this diversion." They seem to have been usually concealed by bushes or trees, so that the deer would not perceive their enemy. In Shakspere's Love-Labours Lost, at the commencement of the fourth Act, the Princess repairs to a Stand—

Then, Forester my friend, where is the bush

That we must stand and play the murtherer in?

Forester. Here-by, upon the edge of yonder coppice,

A Stand where you may make the fairest shoot.

Mr. Hunter further remarks that they were often made ornamental, as may be concluded from the following passage in Goldingham's poem called "The Garden Plot," where, speaking of a bower, he compares it with one of these stands—

To term it Heaven I think were little sin,

Or Paradise, for so it did appear;

So far it passed the bowers that men do banquet in,

Or standing made to shoot at stately deer.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1559. The x day of August, the wyche was sant Laurans day, the Quen('s) (age 25) grace removyd from Non-shyche [Map] unto Hamtun cowrte [Map].

Note. P. 206. Nonsuch. A memoir by the present writer on the royal palace of Nonesuch will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for August 1837, New Series, vol. VIII. pp. 135–144. The earl of Arundel, as lord steward of the household, had obtained an interest in it, which seems almost to have amounted to an alienation, but it reverted to the Crown in 1591. His first dealings with it were resisted by sir Thomas Cawarden, (the subject of the following Note,) who had been the previous keeper.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1559. The xv day of August the Quen('s) (age 25) grace returned from Hamtun cowrte [Map] unto ( ... ) my lord [admiral's] (age 49) place; and ther her had grett cher, for my lord [admiral] byldyd a goodly banketthowsse [banquet house] for her grace; [it was] gyldyd rychely and pentyd, for he kept a gret [many] of penters [painters] a grett wylle in the contrey.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Oct 1559. The xij day of October whent by water unto the court the kyng of Sweythen('s) (age 63) sune (age 25), and ys gard, and ther he was honorabull reseyvyd with mony honorabull men at the hall-dore, wher the gard stod in ther ryche cottes, unto the quen('s) chambur, and ther he was reseyvyd of the Quen('s) (age 26) grace, and after he had grett chere as cold be had.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Dec 1559. The sam day at nyght at the quen('s) court ther was a play a-for her grace (age 26), the wyche the plaers plad shuche matter that they wher commondyd to leyff off, and contenent the maske cam in dansyng.

In 1560 Duke Adolph Oldenburg of Holstein-Gotorp (age 33) was appointed 343rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 26). It isn't entirely clear why he was awarded the Garter. He was a thirty-four years old, unmarried younger son of the King of Denark. He may have been pursuing a marriage to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 26).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Jan 1560. The xxj day of January by ix of the cloke my lord mare (age 64) and the althermen whent by water to the cowrt in skarlett, and ther he was mad knyght by the quen (age 26).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Mar 1560. The furst day of Marche was a proclamasyon by the quen('s) (age 26) grace and the consell that no man nor woman, nor they that kepys tabulles, shuld ett no flese in lentt nor odur tyme in the yere that ys commondyd by the chyrche, nor no bucher kyll no flese, but that they should pay a grett fyne, or elles vj ours [2 hours] on the pelere, and in-presoment x [10] days.... and after taken downe and cared .... knyght marshall('s) servandes unto the nuw pet .... Cornhylle and ther a serten tyme.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Mar 1560. [The xv day preached at court] master (blank) the wyche he mad a nottabull sermon that the quen('s) (age 26) grace gayff hym th[anks] for hys payne, butt sum men wher offendyd.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1560. The xj day of Aprell the Quen('s) (age 26) grace kept her monde [Maundy] in her halle at the cowrt at afternon, and her grace gayff unto xx [20] women so many gownes, and on woman had her best gowne, and ther her grace dyd wosse ther fett [wash their feet], and with a nuw whyt cupe her grace dronke unto evere woman, and they had the cupe, and so her grace dyd leyke-wyse unto all, and evere woman had in money (blank). [The same afternoon she gave unto pore men, wo]men, and chylderyn, both holle [whole] and lame, in sant James('s) parke ij d. a-pese, a [thousand people and upwards.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1560. The xxiij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge day, the Quen('s) (age 26) grace and the knyghtes of the Garter whent a prossessyon with all her chapell in copes of cloth of gold, a xxviij copes, and the Quen and all the knyghtes wore ther robes, rownd a-bowt the hall to the cowrt-y[ard,] and all the haroldes of armes in ther cottes of armes.

Note. P. 232. Procession of knights of the garter. This paragraph must not be passed without calling to remembrance a very curious print which exists representing queen Elizabeth accompanying the procession of the order of the garter, which was designed by Marcus Gerrard, and set forth by Thomas Dawes, Rouge-croix pursuivant, and of which there is a copy by Hollar in Ashmole's Order of the Garter, p. 515. It is, however, of a later date than the present Diary, namely the 20th year of the queen's reign, 1578.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Apr 1560. The xxiv day of Aprell was bered at sant Magd[alene's] master Hansley a grocer, and he had a dossen of skochyons of armes, and ther was the masturs of the compene of the Grocers, and prestes and clarkes syngyng, and master Juelle (age 37) the byshope of Saylbere dyd pryche, and he gayff (blank) gownes unto pore men; and ther was at ys berehyng all the masters of (the) hospetalle with ther gren stayffes in ther handes.... the Queen (age 26) with the lord Russelle (age 33) whent downe unto Depford .... shype and her nuw galley, and dynyd in the s[hip] and ther my lord admerall (age 50) mad her grett ch[eer, and] after wher serten brygendar wher red [ready] with [furniture of] ware [war]; and ther wher iiij lytyll pennys de .... hordenanse, and gayff grett sawtt [assault] unto the breg[antine] and shott grett ordenanse and fowth [fought] were ser .... all maner of artelere, and ther youe shuld [have] sene men sthrone [thrown] in-to the water, and horlyng stones and mores pykes; and ther was grett fythe [fight] be-twyne the bryg dendar [and the] pennys, and as grett shutyng as cold be; ther wher a-boyff iiij thowsand of pepull [on the water] and the land.

Henry Machyn's Diary. May 1560. The sam nyght cam the Quen('s) (age 26) grace came from Westmynster in her barge, and dyvers odur barges, with drumes and fluttes and trumpettes blohyng, and odur musyke, downe on London syd, and over the water to the thodur syd, and so up and downe to the cowrt with (unfinished)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 May 1560. The xiiij day of May the Quen('s) (age 26) grace removyd from Westmynster by water unto Grenwyche [Map], and as her grace was gohyng by water not so farre as ..., cam by water to her grace master Henry Perse (age 28) owt of F[rance,] with serten tydynges.

On 20 May 1560 Bishop William Alley (age 50) was elected Bishop of Exeter on the recommendation of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 26). Henry Machyn in his diary of 02 Apr 1560 refers to Bishop William Alley (age 50) as being 'bishop elect of Exeter'.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Jul 1560. The xxix day of July the Quen('s) (age 26) grace removyd from Grenwyche [Map] on her grace('s) progresse, and at Lambeth [Map] she dynyd with my lord of Canturbere (age 55) and her consell; and after [took her] gorney towhard Rychmond [Map], and her grace lay ther v [5] days; and after to Ottland [Map], and ther So[nday and] Monday dener, and to Suttun to soper.

Death of Amy Robsart wife of Robert Dudley

On 08 Sep 1560, the day of the Abingdon Fair, Amy Robsart (age 28) died from falling down stairs at Cumnor Place Abingdon [Map]. She was married to Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 28), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27), who was with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27) at Windsor Castle [Map] at the time. Foul play was suspected but not proven. The event was regarded as suspicious by many. The Queen's reputation being tarnished she could not risk a marriage with Dudley.

The inquest into her death concluded ...

Inquisition as indenture held at Cumnor [Map] in the aforesaid county [Oxfordshire] on 9 September in the second year of the reign of the most dread Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God queen of England, France, and Ireland, defend of the faith, etc., before John Pudsey, gent, a coroner of the said lady queen in the aforesaid county, on inspection of the body of Lady Amy Dudley, late wife of Robert Dudley, knight of the most noble order of the garter, there lying dead: by oath of Richard Smith, gent., Humphrey Lewis, gent., Thomas Moulder, gent., Richard Knight, Thomas Spyre, Edward Stevenson, John Stevenson, Richard Hughes, William Cantrell, William Noble, John Buck, John Keene, Henry Lanlgey, Stephen Ruffyn, and John Sire: which certain jurors, sworn to tell the truth at our request, were adjourned from the aforesaid ninth day onwards day by day very often; and finally various several days were given to them by the selfsame coroner to appear both before the justices of the aforesaid lady queen at the assizes assigned to be held in the aforesaid county and before the same coroner in order there to return their verdict truthfully and speedily, until 1 August in the third year of the reign of the said lady queen; on which day the same jurors say under oath that the aforesaid Lady Amy on 8 September in the aforesaid second year of the reign of the said lady queen, being alone in a certain chamber within the home of a certain Anthony Forster, esq., in the aforesaid Cumnor, and intending to descend the aforesaid chamber by way of certain steps (in English called 'steyres') of the aforesaid chamber there and then accidentally fell precipitously down the aforesaid steps to the very bottom of the same steps, through which the same Lady Amy there and then sustained not only two injuries to her head (in English called 'dyntes') - one of which was a quarter of an inch deep and the other two inches deep - but truly also, by reason of the accidental injury or of that fall and of Lady Amy's own body weight falling down the aforesaid stairs, the same Lady Amy there and then broke her own neck, on account of which certain fracture of the neck the same Lady Amy there and then died instantly; and the aforesaid Lady Amy was found there and then without any other mark or wound on her body; and thus the jurors say on their oath that the aforesaid Lady Amy in the manner and form aforesaid by misfortune came to her death and not otherwise, as they are able to agree at present; in testimony of which fact for this inquest both the aforesaid coroner and also the aforesaid jurors have in turn affixed their seals on the day.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Dec 1560. The x day of Desember cam tydans to the quen('s) (age 27) grace and to the consell that the Frenche kyng (deceased) was ded-the yonge kyng.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Feb 1561. The furst sunday prychyd a-for the quen (age 27) master Sandys (age 42), the bysshope of Wossetur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Feb 1561. The iij yere of quen Elezabeth (age 27) the xviij day of [February] was sant Gorge fest; how all the knyghtes of the garter stod that day in order, the furst

On the Quen['s side.]

The Quen('s) grace (age 27).

The kyng Phelype (age 33).

The constabulle of France (age 67).

The yerle of Arundell (age 48).

The yerle of Darbe (age 51).

The duke of Northfoke (age 24).

The lord Pagett (age 55).

The yerle of Westmerland (age 36).

The lord chamburlayn, Haward (age 51).

The yerle of Shrowsbere (age 33)

The lord Montyguw-Browne (age 32).

The lord Gray of Wyltun (age 52).

On the Emperowre('s) syd.

The emperowre Ferna[ndo.] (age 57)

The prynse of Pyamont (age 32).

The duke Vanholtt (age 35).

The markes of Wynchester, tresorer (age 78).

The yerle of Penbroke (age 60).

The lord admerall Clynton (age 49).

The maques of Northamtun-Pare (age 49).

The yerle of Rutland-Rosse (age 34).

The yerle of Sussex (age 36).

The lord of Lugborow (age 40).

The lord Robart Dudley (age 28).

The lord of Hunsdon-Care (age 34).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Feb 1561. The xix day of Feybruary dyd pryche a-for the quen (age 27) master Nevell (age 44), the [dean of Saint Paul's,] and he mad a godly sermon, and gret [audience].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Feb 1561. The xxj day of Feybruary dyd pryche a-for the quen (age 27) and the consell master Skamler (age 41), the new bishop of Peterborow in ys chymner and ys whyt rochet.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1561. The xxvj day of Feybruary dyd pryche at the cowrt master Samsun a-for the quen (age 27).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1561. The xxviij day of Feybruary dyd pryche at the cowrt master Pylkyngtun (age 41) electyd pyshope of Durram a-for the quen('s) (age 27) grace, and made a godly sermon, and grett audyens.... the Marsalsay [Map] to be cared into the co[untry ...] men that was cast in Westmynster hall for robere done the last day of terme.

Henry Machyn's Diary. Mar 1561. The sam day at after-none was a great .... playd a-for the Quen('s) (age 27) grace with all the masters [of fence;] and serten chalengers dyd chalenge all men, whatsumever they be, with mores pyke, longe sword, and .... and basterd sword, and sword and bokeler, and sword and dager, [and] crosse staffe, and stayffes, and odur wepons; and the next [day] they playd agayne, and the quen('s) grace gayf serten ...

1561 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1561. [The xxiij of April, saint George's day, was kept] holy at the quen['s court , . ] her halle in copes to the nombur of XXX, with [O God^ the father of Hewyn, have merce on .. • . and the owtter cowrt to the gatt, and rond abowt st [rewed with rushes;] and after cam master Garter (age 51), and master Norres (age 51), and master dene of the ch[apel, in copes] of cremesun saten, with a crosse of sant Gorge red, and [eleven knights] of the garter in ther robes, and after the Quen('s) (age 27) grace in [her robes, and] all the garde in ther ryche cottes; and so bake to the [Chapel,] after serves done, bake thruge the hall to her graces chambur, and that done her grace and the lord(s) wh[ent to dinner,] and her grace wher goodly servyd; and after the lordes [sitting on one] syd, and servyd in gold and sylver 5 and after dener [there were] knyghtes of the Garter electyd ij, my lord of Shrewsbere (age 33) [and my] lord of Hunsdon (age 35); and ther wher all the haroldes in ther cote armurs afor the quen('s) grace, master Clarenshux (age 51), Lanckostur, Rychemond, Wyndsor, Yorke, Chastur, Blumantyl, .

On 23 Apr 1561 at a lavish ceremony Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27) appointed two new Garter Knights ...

344th George Talbot 6th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 33).

345th Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 35).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (age 27) came by water] unto the Towre of London [Map] by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (age 35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (age 49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll [Map] unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [Map] [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (age 65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (age 35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Jun 1561. The sam nyght the Quen('s) (age 27) grace whent from the Charterhowse by Clarkyne-welle over the feldes unto the Sayvoy unto master secretore Sysselle (age 40) to soper, and ther was the consell and mony lordes and knyghtes and lades and gentyll-women, and ther was grett chere tyll mydnyght, and after here grace ryd to my lord North('s) (age 65) to bed at the Charter-howse.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1561. The xxiiij day of June, was Mydsomer-day, at Grenwyche was grett tryum(ph) of the rever, a-gaynst the cou[rt; there] was a goodly castylle mad a-pone Temes, and men of armes with-in ytt, with gones and spers, for to deffend [the same,] and a-bowt ytt wher serten small pynnes with ... and grett shottyng of gonnes and horlyng of ba[lls of] wyld fyre, and ther was a barke with ij tope [castles ?] for the Quen('s) (age 27) grace to be in for to se the passe-tyme, the wyche was vere latt or yt was done.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jul 1561. The xiiij day of July was nuw graveled with sand from the Charterhowse through Smyth feld [Map], and under Nuwgate, and through sant Nycolas shambull [Map], Chepe-syd, and Cornhyll, unto Algatt and to Whyt-chapell, and all thes plases where hangyd with cloth of arres and carpetes and with sylke, and Chepe-syd hangyd with cloth of gold and cloth of sylver and velvett of all colurs and taffatas in all plases, and all the craftes of Londun standyng in ther leverey from sant Myghell unto Algatt, and then cam mony servyng-men rydyng, and then the pensyonars and gentyll men, and then knyghtes, and after lordes, and then the althermen in skarlett, and the serjant(s) of armes, and then the haroldes of armes in ther cottes armurs, and then my lord mare (age 52) bayryng here septer; [then the lord Hunsdon (age 35) bearing the sword; and then came the Queen's (age 27) grace, and her footmen richly habited; and ladies and gentlemen; then] all lordes' men and knyghtes' [men in their masters' liveries; and at] Whytt-chapell my lord mare and the althermen [took their leave of] here grace, and so she toke her way to-ward [her pro]gresse.

On 06 Aug 1561 John Knox Minister (age 47) wrote to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 27):

Grace from god the father throught our Lord Jesus with perpetuall Encrease of his holie spiritt.

May it please your majestie that it is heir [here] certainlie spoken that the Quen of Scotland traveleht [travails, or is attempting] earnestlie to have a treatiss intitilled the ferst blast of the trompett [con]futed by the censure of the learned in divers realmes, and father that she lauboreht to inflambe the hartes of princess against the writer And becaus that it may appear that your majestie hath interest, that she myndeht [mindeth] to travall with your grace, your graces counsall, and learned menn for Judgement against such a common enemey to womenn and to thare regiment. It were but foolishnes to me to prescribe unto your majestie what is to be donn in any thing, but especiallie in such thinges as men suppos do tuoch [touch] my self…'

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 Aug 1561. The ix day of August the quen('s) (age 27) grace has commondyd that all chathredalles and coleges and studyans places that they shuld putt ther wyffes from them owt of the serkutt [circuit] of evere [every] colege.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Sep 1561. The sam day the Quen('s) (age 28) grace removyd from Hatford castyll [Map] in Hatford-shyre unto Enfeld [Map] within x mylle of London.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Sep 1561. The xxij day of September the Quen('s) (age 28) grace cam from Enfeld [Map] unto Sant James beyond Charyng crosse, and from Ellyngtun [Map] unto Sant James was heges and dyches was cutt done the next way, and ther was a-boyff x M. pepull for to se her grace, butt yt was nyght or her grace cam over beyond Sent Gylles in the feld by Colman('s?) hege.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1561. The x day of October [the] quen('s) (age 28) grace dyd gret cost at Westmynster boyth with-in here plase, and pavyng from the end of the Tyltt rond abowt the sydes, and closyd in the tylt.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1561. The xxviij day of October, the wyche was sant Symon and Jude day, was at Whyt-hall [Map] grett baytyng of the bull and bere for the in-bassadurs of Franse that cam owtt of Scottland, the wyche the Quen('s) (age 28) grace was ther, and her consell and mony nobull men.

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1562 the New Years Gift Giving was held. Those who gave gifts provide an interesting who's who of the Elizabethan Court soon after Elizabeth I's Coronation. Queen Elizabeth (age 28) was present since a number are described as "With the Qene her Majestie."

For 'dimy' read 'demi' ie half-sovereigns.

Neweeyeur's Gyftes gevon to the Quene her Majestie by those Parsons whose Names hereafter ensue, the first of January, the Yere above wrytten.

By the Lady Margaret Strainge (age 22), a little round mounte of golde to conteyne a pomaunder in it. With the Qene her Majestie. Note. Lady Margaret Strange married Henry Stanley Lord Strange (age 30) on 07 Feb 1555. In 1561 he had not succeeded to Earldom of Derby and was known by the courtesy title Lord Strange. She is listed first since she was one of the few remaining direct descendants of [her grandfather] Henry VII, being a great-granddaughter by his daughter [her aunt] Mary Tudor. Margaret Clifford (age 22) was first in line to succeed in 1568 but died in 1596 before Elizabeth I.

Dukes, Marquises and Earls.

By the Duke of Norfolke (age 25), in a purse of purple silke and golde knit, in sundry coynes of golde £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Winchester (age 79), High Threasourer of Englande, in a purse of crymsen satten, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Northampton (age 50), in a purse of crymsen silke and gold knit, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Arundell (age 49), Lord Steward, in a paper, in angels, £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Shrewesburye (age 34), in a red silke purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Darbye (age 52), in a purse of crymsen satten, embraudered with golde, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Pembroke (age 61), in a purse of black silk and silver knit, in new angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Bedforde (age 35), in a purse of black silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Rutlande (age 35), in a purse of red silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraigns and angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Huntingdon, in a red silk purse, in angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Westmerlande (age 37), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Oxforde (age 46), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Northumberlande (age 34), in a purse of black silke and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d. With the Quene her Highness.

By the Earle of Warwike (age 32), a smocke wrought with black silk, a peire of slevis, and a partelett wrought with gold, silver, and black silke. Delivered to the Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Viscounte Mountague (age 33), in a purse of cloth of golde, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Bishops. The list of Bishops ends with "With her said Majestie"; unclear whether this refers to all the Bishops listed.

By the Archbusshop of Caunterbury (age 57), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £40 0s 0d.

By the Archbusshop of York (age 61), in soveraigns £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Duresme (age 42), in a purse of crymson silk and gold knytt, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Ely (age 69), in a red vellat purse, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Wynchester (age 52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt and set with pearles, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of London (age 43), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Salisbury (age 39), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Worcester (age 43), in a black vellat purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lyncoln (age 42), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chychester (age 64), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Norwich (age 50), in a blew silk purse £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Hereforde (age 52), in a green silk purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lychfield and Coventry (age 48), in a red satten purse, in angells £13 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Rochester (age 48), in a red purse, in gold £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Saint Davies (age 55), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Bathe, in a purse of red silk, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Exetour, in a blew silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Peterborowe, in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chester, in a red purse, in angells and soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Duchesses and Countesses.

By the Duchess of Norfolke (age 22), in a prse of crymsen silk and gold knyt, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Duchess of Somerset (age 65), in a purse of silver and black silk, in royalls and ducketts £14 0s 0d. Probably the Dowager Duchess of Somerset since her husband Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset had been executed in 1552, and their children disinherited as a result.

By the Countess of Surrey, in a purse of tawny silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Dowager since her husband Henry Howard 1516-1547, by courtesy Earl Surrey, had been executed in 1547.

By the Countess of Pembroke (age 38), in a cherry bag of crymsen satten, in new angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Bedford (age 36), in a purse of crymsen silk and silver knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Darby (age 51), in a purse of crymson sattin embrodred with gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Oxford (age 36), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury, Dowager (age 62), in a purse of black silk knytt, in dimy soveraignes £12 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury (age 37), in a red silk purse knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon, Dowager (age 51), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon (age 24), in a red purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Northumberland (age 24), in a purse of black silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Rutland (age 29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

Viscountesses.

By the Vicountess Hereford, Dowager (age 42), six hankercheffes edged with gold delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Vicountess Mountague (age 24), in a purse of cloth of gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Lordes.

By the Lorde Keeper of the Great Seale, Bacon (age 51), in a purse of silver knytt, in angells £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Pagett (age 56), in a greene purse in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Clynton, Lord Admyrall (age 50), in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Riche (age 65), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde North (age 66), in a purse of purple silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Lumley (age 29), in a paper, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Hastings of Loughboro (age 41), in a red silk purse, in French crowns £13 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Stafford (age 60), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Windsor (age 30), in a purse of crymsn silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

by Lorde John Graye (age 38), a haunce pott of allabaster garnished with silver gilt. Delivered in charge to John Asteley, Esq Master and Threasourer of her Highnes Jewels and Plate. Lord John Grey assumed to be a courtesy title his father being Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset.

By the Lorde Barkeley (age 27), in a red purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Mountejoye (age 29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Abergavennye (age 36), in a purse of red silke, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Scrowpe (age 28), in a purse of blak silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Caree of Hundesdon (age 35), in a purse of crymsen silk, in double ducketts £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Strainge (age 30), in a purse of red silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Lord Strange being the courtesy title for the Earldom of Derby. He wouldn't inherit until 1572.

By the Lorde Darcey of Chichey (age 30), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes, £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shefild (age 24), in a red silk purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shandowes (age 40), in a blak silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Ladyes.

By the Baroness Howarde (age 47), in a purse of crymsen silk and knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Clinton (age 35), a peire of sleevis of gold, pulled out with lawne. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Baroness Genevillet, in gold £6 13s 4d.

By the Lady Barkeley (age 24), Lord Barkeley's wife, in gold £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Mountejoye (age 30), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Abergavenny, in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Caree of Hundesdon (age 33), in a blak purse knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Taylboyes, Sir Peter Carewe's (age 48) wyfe, in a purse of blak silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Cobham (age 23), a partelett and a peire of sleeves of sypers wrought with silver and blak silke. Re-delivered to herself.

By the Lady Dakers (age 21), a warming ball of gold, per oz. 3 oz. dim. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shefilde (age 20), a paire of sleeves wrought with fringe of blak silk and lozeng of gold. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Margaret Baroness Scrope (age 18), in a purse of blak silk and silver, in angells £7 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shandowes (age 38), a peire of sleeves and a partlett of gold and silver knytt, cawle fashion. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Lady Knowlles (age 38), a feyne carpett of needleworke, theverende frienged and buttoned with gold and silk. Delivered to John Torneworth, Groom of the Privy Chamber.

By the Lady Butler, in a little white purse, in French crowns £6 0s 0d. With her said Majestie. Unclear as to who Lady Butler refers to.

By the Lady Raclyef, a peire of sleeves of cameryk, all over sett with purle, and two sweet bags. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1562. The xv day of January the Quen('s) (age 28) grace cam to Beynard Castyll [Map] to the yerle of Penbroke (age 61) to dener, and mony of here consell, and tared soper, and at nyght there was grett chere and a grett bankett [banquet], and after a maske, and here grace tared all nyght.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1562. The x day of February, was Shrowse tuwsday, [was a just] at Westmynster agaynst the qwyne('s) (age 28) grase plase; the chalengers the duke of Northfoke (age 25) and the yerle of Westmoreland (age 37).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Feb 1562. The xj day of February, was Aswednysday, dyd pryche a-for the quen (age 28) master Nowelle (age 45) the dene of [saint Paul's.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Feb 1562. The fryday after dyd pryche a-for the quen (age 28) at the cowrt the dene of Westmynster master Goodman (age 33).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Mar 1562. The furst day of Marche, the wyche was the iij sonday (in Lent,) dyd pryche at after-none at the cowrte a-for the quen (age 28) master Allen (age 52) the byshope of Exsetur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Mar 1562. The viij day of Marche dyd pryche a-for the quen('s) (age 28) grace, the iiij sonday in Lentt, called Mydlent sonday, master Horne (age 52), the byshope of Wynchaster.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Mar 1562. The xxvij day of Marche dyd pryche at after-non a-for the quen (age 28), that was Good-fryday, the byshope of London (age 43).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1562. The xxiij day of Aprell was sant Gorge's day, a[nd at Whiteh]alle the Quen('s) (age 28) grase whent from her chapell with xii. knyghtes of the Garter in robes with colars of gold with garters, [and] xx of here chapelle, in copes of cloth of gold, to the of[fering, s]yngyne the Englys presessyon from the chapell rond [about the] halle and bake agayne to the chapelle syngyng; and master [dean of] her chapell bare a boke and a robe, and master Norres (age 64) [bare the] blake rod in a robe, and master Garter (age 52), all iij in cremesun saten; [and] the byshope of Wynchester (age 52) warre ys robe of red (blank); and ser William Peter, master Clarenshux (age 52), Somersett, Yorke, Lanckaster, Rychemond, and Chaster, , and R[ouge-croix, Port-] colles, Blumantyll, Wyndsor.

Henry Machyn's Diary. After 25 May 1562. [The .. day of May was the funeral of lady Cheyne, late wife of ser Thomas Cheyne councillor to] kyng Edward the vj and unto quen Mary and queen Elesabett (age 28) tyll he ded, and she was beried at Toddington [Map] with mony mornars; master Garter (age 52) and master Norrey (age 64) [were] the haroldes, and (the) dene of Powlles (age 45) dyd pryc[h the sermon,] for ther was grett chere, and a grett dole [as ever] in that contrey sene-iij mylles from Donstabull.

Note. P. 282. Funeral of lady Cheney. See the note on sir Thomas Cheney in p. 369. There is an effigy of the lady at Toddington; see the Topographer, 1846, vol. i. p. 156.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Jun 1562. The v day of June the Quen('s) (age 28) grace removyd from Westmynster unto Grenwyche [Map] by water, and ther was grett shutyng of gones at the Tower [Map] as her grace whentt, and in odur places.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jun 1562. The xiiij day of June whent unto the quen (age 28) at Greenwich [Map] the sam prophett that men calle hym Helyas Hall; and master (blank) dyd pryche - master Pylkyntun (age 42), and declared of hym and off ys levyng.

Note. P. 284. Helyas Hall. The real name of this prophet was Elizeus Hall: many particulars respecting him will be found in Strype, Annals, chap. 25.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Nov 1562. The viij day of November the Quen('s) (age 29) grace removyd from Hamtun cowrt [Map] toward London, and be-twyn iij and [iiij o'clock] cam by Charyng-crosse [Map], and so rod unto Some[rset plac]e with mony nobull men and women, and with har[olds of a]rmes in ther cotte armurs; and my lord Thomas [Howard bare] the sword a-for the quen to Somersett plase [Map], and the [Queen will abide] ther tyll Criustynmas, and then to Whyt-halle.

1533 Buggery Act

In 1563 the 1553 repeal of the 1533 Buggery Act was rescinded by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 29).

Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 29).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jan 1563. [The xij day of January the Queen's second Parliament began to sit at Westminster, and the] lordes and byshopes rod in ther [parliament robes, and] the Quen('s) (age 29) grase in cremesun welvett, [and the earl of] Northumburland (age 35) bare the sword a-for the quen; [all the] haroldes of armes in ther cotte armurs, and all the trumpettes [blowing], and lythe at owre lade of Grace chapell, and they [went in]to the abbay, and ther was a sermon (by Nowell (age 46), dean of Saint Paul's.)

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

On 24 Apr 1563 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 29) created two new Garter Knights:

346th Thomas Percy 7th Earl of Northumberland (age 35).

347th Ambrose Dudley 3rd Earl Warwick (age 33).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jun 1563. The xiiij day of June the Quen('s) (age 29) grace removyd from Whythall by water toward Grenwyche [Map], and a-bowt Ratclyff [Map] and Lymhowse [Map] capten Stukely dyd shuwe here grace the pleysur that cold be on the water with shuttyng of gones after lyke warle with plahhyng of drumes and trum[pets.]

In 1564 Henry Sidney (age 35) was appointed 350th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 30).

In 1564 Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 37) was appointed 349th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 30).

On 03 Mar 1564 Elizabeth Howard Countess Carrick was born to Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 28) and Katherine Carey Countess Nottingham (age 14) at Effingham, Surrey [Map]. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 30) was her Godmother.

On 14 May 1564 Charles IX King France (age 13) was appointed 348th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 30).

Elizabeth I's visit to Cambridge University

In Aug 1564 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 30) visited Cambridge University accompanied by William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 54) and William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 43). William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 43) was created Master of Arts: Cambridge University.

John Astley (age 57) was created Master of Arts: Cambridge University.

On 10 Aug 1564 Edward Manners 3rd Earl of Rutland (age 15) was created Master of Arts: Cambridge University.

On 09 Aug 1564 Anthony Mildmay (age 14), whilst being educated at Peterhouse College, Cambridge University [Map], delivered an oration to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 30) with much success during her visit to the college.

In 1565 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 31) was entertained at Blackfriars Friary, Stamford [Map] by William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 44).

In 1565 Thomas Heneage (age 33) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 31).

In 1566 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32) visited St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map]. Upon discovering the tombs of her Yorkist ancestors were damaged and exposed to the elements following the destruction of the choir in the Reformation. The remains of Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle were reburied in newly consytucted tombs. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York. Presumably the remains of his wife Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York and their son Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland were also reburied.

In 1566 John Lyttelton of Frankley (age 46) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I (age 32) at Kenilworth Castle [Map].

Murder of David Rizzio

On 09 Mar 1566 at eight o'clock in the evening David Rizzio (age 33) was murdered in the presence of the six months pregnant Mary Queen of Scots (age 23) and her half-sister Jean Stewart Countess Argyll (age 33) at Holyrood Palace [Map] by rebels led by Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven. Rizzio was dragged through the bed chamber into the adjacent Audience Chamber and stabbed an alleged 57 times. Mary's husband Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart (age 20) was suspected of being one of the murderers.

On 15 Mar 1566 Mary Queen of Scots (age 23) writes to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32):

As first hes takin our houss slane our maist [most] speciall servand (age 33) in our awin [own] presence & thaireftir haldin our propper personis captive tressonneblie, quhairby [whereby] we war constrainit to escaipe straitlie about midnyght out of our palice of halliruidhouss [Map] to the place quhair [where] we ar for the present, in the grittest danger feir of our lywis & ewill [ill] estate that evir princes on earth stuid [stood] in.

We thotht to have writtin to you this letter with oure awin [own] hand, that therby ye myght have better onestand all our meaning & takin mair [more] familliarlie therewit. Bot of trewt [truth] we ar so tyrit [tired] & ewill [ill] at eass [ease], quhat [what] throw rydding of twenty millis [miles] in v [5] horis [hours] of the nyght as wit the frequent seikness & weill dispositioun be th'occasioun of our child/that we could not at this tyme as we was willing to have done…

Your richt [right] gud sister and cusignes [cousin] Marie R.

Jean Stewart Countess Argyll: Around 1533 she was born illegitimately to King James V of Scotland and Elizabeth Bethune. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland. In 1553 Archibald Campbell 5th Earl Argyll and she were married. She by marriage Countess Argyll. She the daughter of King James V of Scotland and Elizabeth Bethune. He the son of Archibald Campbell 4th Earl Argyll and Helen Hamilton Countess Argyll. They were third cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland. On 07 Jan 1588 Jean Stewart Countess Argyll died.

Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven: He was born to William Ruthven 2nd Lord Ruthven and Janet Halyburton Lady Dirletoun. Before 1551 Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven and Janet Douglas were married. She the daughter of Archibald Douglas 6th Earl Angus. After 1551 Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven and Janet Stewart were married. His second marriage, her fourth. She the daughter of John Stewart 2nd Earl Atholl and Janet Campbell Countess Atholl. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. On 13 May 1566 Patrick Ruthven 3rd Lord Ruthven died.

Elizabeth I's visit to Oxford University

Around Aug 1566 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32) visited Oxford University. William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 45) was created Master of Arts: Oxford University.

On 12 Aug 1566 Edmund Brudenell (age 45) received Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32) at Deene Park, Northamptonshire [Map].

In Sep 1566 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote (age 41) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32) at Rycote, Oxfordshire [Map].

Around 1567 Bess of Hardwick (age 40) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 33).

In 1567 Maximilian Habsburg Spain II Holy Roman Emperor (age 39) was appointed 351st Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 33).

Murder of Lord Darnley

On 24 Feb 1567 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 33) wrote to her cousin Mary Queen of Scots (age 24) regarding the murder of Mary's husband Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart (deceased) as follows:

Madam (age 24),

My ears have been so astounded and my heart so frightened to hear of the horrible and abominable murder of your husband (deceased) and my own cousin that I have scarcely spirit to write: yet I cannot conceal that I grieve more for you than him. I should not do the office of a faithful cousin and friend, if I did not urge you to preserve your honour, rather than look through your fingers at revenge on those who have done you that pleasure as most people say. I counsel you so to take this matter to heart, that you may show the world what a noble Princess and loyal woman you are. I write thus vehemently not that I doubt, but for affection. [Translated from the French; extract - lines 1-12]

In 1568 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote (age 43) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 34) at Rycote, Oxfordshire [Map].

Mary Queen of Scots escapes to England

On 16 May 1568 Mary Queen of Scots (age 25) escaped across the Solway Firth into England. The following day, 17 May 1568 she wrote to her cousin Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 34) from Workington Hall [Map]. The letter states ...

describes the treasonable actions of her enemies, who 'have robbed me of everything I had in the world' and expresses her confidence in Elizabeth 'not only for the safety of my life, but also to aid and assist me in my just quarrel'. Describing herself as Elizabeth's 'very faithful and affectionate good sister, cousin and escaped prisoner, Mary begs for an audience; 'I entreat you to send to fetch me as soon as you possibly can', for 'I am', she bemoans, 'in a pitiable condition, not only for a queen, but for a gentlewoman, for I have nothing in the world but what I had on my person when I made my escape, travelling sixty miles across the country the first day, and not having since ever ventured to proceed except by night, as I hope to declare before you if it pleases you to have pity, as I trust you will, upon my extreme misfortune.''

In 1569 William Sandys 3rd Baron Sandys Vyne (age 24) was visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 35) at The Vyne, Sherbourne St John [Map].

Before 15 Jan 1569 Catherine Carey (age 45) was appointed Chief Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 35).

In 1570 William Somerset 3rd Earl of Worcester (age 44) was appointed 353rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 36).

In 1570 Henry Hastings 3rd Earl Huntingdon (age 35) was appointed 352nd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 36).

In 1570 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote (age 45) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 36) at Rycote, Oxfordshire [Map].

Around 1570 Hans Eworth (age 50). Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 36).

In Jan 1570 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl of Cumberland (age 53) died. His son George Clifford 3rd Earl of Cumberland (age 11) succeeded 3rd Earl of Cumberland, 13th Baron de Clifford, 13th Lord Skipton. Being underage his wardship went to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 36) who gave it to Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 43) whose daughter George subsequently married.

Ridolphi Plot

Around Mar 1571 the Ridolphi Plot was a Catholic plan to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 37) and replace her with Mary Queen of Scots (age 28) would would marry Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 34). Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 37) and Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 34) were cousins through their Great Grandmother Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey.

On 28 Oct 1571 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 59) died at Warwick Priory [Map]. He was buried in the Chancel of St Mary's Church, Warwick [Map]. His funeral was paid for by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38). Marquess Northampton and Baron Parr of Kendal extinct.

1571 Triple Wedding

On 16 Dec 1571 a triple wedding was celebrated at Whitehall Palace [Map] ... with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38) present ...

Edward Dudley 4th Baron Dudley (age 46) and Mary Howard Baroness Dudley (age 23) were married. She by marriage Baroness Sutton of Dudley. The difference in their ages was 23 years. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 21) and Anne Cecil Countess of Oxford (age 15) were married. She by marriage Countess of Oxford. He the son of John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford and Margery Golding Countess of Oxford.

Edward Somerset 4th Earl of Worcester (age 21) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess of Worcester (age 25) were married. She by marriage Countess Worcester. She the daughter of Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon and Catherine Pole Countess Huntingdon (age 60). He the son of William Somerset 3rd Earl of Worcester (age 45) and Christina North Countess of Worcester. They were third cousin once removed.

Before 1572 Katherine Carey Countess Nottingham (age 22) was appointed First Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38).

In 1572 Edmund Brydges 2nd Baron Chandos (age 50) was appointed 358th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38).

In 1572 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote (age 47) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38) at Rycote, Oxfordshire [Map].

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard (age 25) became portrait painter to Elizabeth I (age 38).

In 1572 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 51) was appointed 356th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38).

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard (age 25) painted the "Phoenix Portrait" of Elizabeth I (age 38).

Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Pelican Portrait.

In 1572 Nicholas Hilliard (age 25) painted the "Pelican Portrait" of Elizabeth I (age 38).

The Pelican being the pendant hung from her necklace of pearls; pearls a symbol of virginity. Pelicans traditionally used as sign of self-sacrifice since the Pelican was believed to peck at her own breast to feed her young; the symbolism meaning Elizabeth had sacrificed herself for England.

Other details include the highly decorated armlet above her elbow and many jewels over her red velvet gown and headress. The two cherries tucked into her right ear possibly refer to her virginity; possibly an over-interpretation of the modern use of cherry.

Research in 2010 found the painting used wood from the same tree used for the Phoenix Portrait.

In 1572 Arthur Grey 14th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 36) was appointed 357th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38).

In 1572 Francis Montmorency (age 41) was appointed 354th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38).

On 17 Jun 1572 Walter Devereux 1st Earl Essex (age 30) was appointed 355th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38).

In 1574 Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 35) was appointed 360th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 40).

In 1574 Henry Stanley 4th Earl of Derby (age 42) was appointed 359th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 40).

In 1575 Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 39) was appointed 362nd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 41).

In 1575 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 41) stayed at the White Hart Inn [Map].

In 1575 Richard Knightley (age 42) entertained Queen Elizabeth I (age 41) at Fawsley Hall, Northamptonshire [Map]. The Queen stayed in the Jane Skenard Room at Fawsley Hall, Northamptonshire [Map].

In 1575 Henry III King France (age 23) was appointed 361st Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 41).

In 1576 Elizabeth Howard Countess Carrick (age 11) was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 49) which position she held until 1583.

On 24 Apr 1576 Elizabeth Carey was born to George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon (age 29) and Elizabeth Spencer Baroness Hunsdon and Eure (age 23). She was baptised on the 07 Jun 1576 at St Dunstan's Church, Hunsdon; her godmothers were Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 42) and Elizabeth Tailboys Countess Warwick.

In 1577 Nicholas Hilliard (age 30) was provided with a stipend of 200 livres by Francis Valois Duke Anjou (age 21), a suitor of Elizabeth I (age 43).

In 1577 Mary Grey (age 32) was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 43).

In 1577 George Clifford 3rd Earl of Cumberland (age 18) and Margaret Russell Countess Cumberland (age 16) were married. She being the daughter of Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 50) who had been given George's wardship by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 43). She by marriage Countess of Cumberland. She the daughter of Francis Russell 2nd Earl Bedford (age 50) and Margaret St John Countess Bedford. He the son of Henry Clifford 2nd Earl of Cumberland and Anne Dacre Countess Cumberland (age 56). They were third cousins.

In 1578 Frederick II King Denmark (age 43) was appointed 364th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 44)..

In 1578 Rudolf II Holy Roman Emperor (age 25) was appointed 363rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 44).

On 21 Sep 1578 Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 46) and Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 34) were married secretly much to the anguish of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 45) who developed a deep hatred of Lettice Knollys Countess Essex (age 34). She by marriage Countess of Leicester. Roger North 2nd Baron North (age 48) was present. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland.

In 1579 George Gower (age 39). The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 45).

In 1579 John Casimir Palatinate Simmern (age 35) was appointed 365th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 45).

In 1580 Thomas St Paul was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 46) at Richmond, Surrey [Map].

Around 1580 Elizabeth Trentham Maid of Honour Countess of Oxford was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 46).

In 1580 Anne Vavasour (age 20) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth (age 46).

In 1581 George Gower (age 41) was appointed Serjeant to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 47).

On 23 Mar 1581 Edward de Vere was born illegitimately to Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 30) and Anne Vavasour (age 21). Both parents were imprisoned in Tower of London [Map] the by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 47) as a consequence. Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 30) was released several months later but banished from court until 1583.

On 22 May 1582 Edward Hoby (age 22) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 48).

1583 Somerville Plot

In Dec 1583 John Somerville (age 23) committed suicide by hanging himself in his cell in which he was imprisoned for plotting the assassination of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 50).

On 20 Dec 1583 Edward Arden (age 50) was hanged, drawn and quartered at Smithfield [Map] for having plotted against Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 50) with his son-in-law John Somerville (deceased) who had implicated him during torture. He was tried by Christopher Wray (age 59).

In 1584 Richard Drake (age 49) was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 50).

In 1584 Henry Scrope 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 50) was appointed 368th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 50).

In 1584 Edward Manners 3rd Earl of Rutland (age 34) was appointed 366th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 50).

On 01 Aug 1584 Emanuel Scrope 1st Earl of Sunderland was born to Thomas Scrope 10th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 17) and Philadelphia Carey Baroness Scrope Bolton. He was baptised at St Dunstan's Church, Hunsdon on the 26 Aug 1584 with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 50) as his Godmother.

Around 1585 William Segar (age 31). Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 51).

After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 51).

On 14 Apr 1585 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 57) was appointed 367th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 51).

In Jul 1585 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 59) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 51).

In 1586 Thomas Heneage (age 54) sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 52) to the Low Countries.

Babington Plot

On 06 Jul 1586 Anthony Babington (age 24) wrote to Mary Queen of Scots (age 43), telling her that he and a group of friends were planning to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 52).

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 01 Feb 1587 Queen Elizabeth I (age 53) signed the Death Warrant of Mary Queen of Scot's (age 44) (her first cousin once-removed). Elizabeth gave orders of Mary's jailor Amyas Paulett to complete the task. He refused.

Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy. [Possibly Richard Wigmore?]

A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the great hall at Fotheringhay [Map], with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution..

THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (age 44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.

First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (age 54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (age 46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Hall [Map], at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (age 44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (age 44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (age 44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.

Then she turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (age 54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do.".

Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (age 54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted.".

"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion.".

Then the Earl of Kent (age 46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (age 53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (age 53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-removed], and descended from the blood of [her grandfather] Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married Francis II King France King Consort Scotland], and the anointed Queen of Scotland.".

Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.

After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (age 54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (age 46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall [Map], with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (age 46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.

Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (age 44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (age 46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (age 44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (age 53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.

Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (age 42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (age 42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (age 42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (age 42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (age 59) and the Earl of Kent (age 46), perceiving her so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (age 42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion.".

Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (age 42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (age 44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (age 44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (age 42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (age 53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She confessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (age 46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins.".

Her prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.".

Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (age 44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.

This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (age 44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.

Then Mr. Dean (age 42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (age 46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.".

Then one of the executioners pulling off her garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (age 46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.

Around 1588 Christopher Hatton (age 48) was appointed 371st Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 54).

In 1588 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 22) was appointed 369th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 54).

In 1588 Thomas "Black Tom" Butler 10th Earl Ormonde 3rd Earl Ossory (age 56) was appointed 370th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 54).

After 09 Sep 1588 Thomas "The Navigator" Cavendish (age 27) paraded his treasure laden ship up the River Thames on his return from his two years and forty nine days trip around the world. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 55) who was invited to dine aboard.

In Nov 1588 Mary Dudley was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 55).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Nov 1588. [The same] day, be-twyne a xj and xij a' fornoon, the lady Elizabeth was proclamyd quen Elsabeth (age 55), quen of England, France and Yrland, and deffender of the feyth, by dyvers haroldes of armes and trumpetors, and dukes, lordes [and knights,] the wyche was ther present, the duke of Norfoke, [the] lord tresorer, the yerle of Shrousbere, and the yerele of Bedford, and the lord mayre and the althermen, and dyver odur lordes and knyghtes.'

Note. P. 178. A proclamation of queen Elizabeth, dated 18 November, declaring the date of her accession to have been "from the beginning of the xvijth," will be found in The Egerton Papers, p. 28.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Nov 1588. The sam day, at after-non, all the chyrches in London dyd ryng, and at nyght dyd make bonefyres and set tabulls in the strett, and ded ett and drynke and mad mere [merry] for the newe quen Elsabeth (age 55), quen Mare('s) syster.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1588. The xxiij day of November the quen Elsabeth('s) (age 55) grace toke here gorney from Hadley be-yond Barnett toward London, unto my lord North('s) plase [Map], with a M. and mor of lordes, knyghtes, and gentyllmen, lades and gentyllwomen; and ther lay v days.... cote armur and pennon of armes and .... with ij whytt branchys and xij torchys and iiij gret tapurs.

Note. P. 179. The queen's coming to London. See a note by Mr. Bruce on this subject in Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth, p. 9.

In 1589 Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset (age 53) was appointed 373rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 55).

Around 1589 Margaret Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall (age 16) was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 55). Elizabeth (age 55) had become enamoured of her when she and her twin brother Alexander Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall (age 16) were arrived at Court. The arrival of the two young Person so wondrously alike in their striking physical beauty created something of a mild sensation. She soon became chief among Elizabeth's ladies.

In 1589 Henry Radclyffe 4th Earl of Sussex (age 57) was appointed 372nd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 55).

In 1590 Henry IV King France (age 36) was appointed 374th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 56).

In 1590 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 23) was appointed 375th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 56).

In 1591 Walter Raleigh (age 37) and Elizabeth Throckmorton (age 25) were married in secret she probably being pregnant with their first child. When Queen Eizabeth (age 57) found out they had married without permission she placed them underhouse arrest then sent them to Tower of London [Map].

1591 Elizabeth's Royal Progress

On 02 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 57) left at Nonsuch Palace [Map] to commence her Royal Progress. She travelled south to Mansion House Leatherhead, Surrey [Map]; the home of Edmund Tilney (age 55).

After 02 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 57) arrived at East Horsley, Surrey [Map] where she stayed with Thomas Cornwallis 1518-1604.

On 15 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 57) arrived at Cowdray House [Map] the home of Anthony Browne 1st Viscount Montagu (age 62) and Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 53). She was welcomed by a breakfast for some 300 guests. George Browne (age 36) was knighted. Henry Browne organised the hunting. Elizabeth stayed until the 21 Aug 1591.

On 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 57) arrived in Chichester [Map] as a guest of John Lumley 1st Baron Lumley (age 58).

After 22 Aug 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 57) arrived in Titchfield, Hampshire [Map] as a guest of Henry Wriothesley 2nd Earl of Southampton.

On 22 Oct 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58) arrived in Elvetham Hall, Hampshire [Map] where she was entertained in magnificent style by Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford (age 52).

On 26 Oct 1591 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58) arrived in Oatlands Palace, Surrey [Map].

Before 1592 Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet (age 47) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58).

Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts (age 30). The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58).

In 1592 Giles Brydges 3rd Baron Chandos (age 44) entertained Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58).

In 1592 George Clifford 3rd Earl of Cumberland (age 33) was appointed 377th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58).

In 1592 Gilbert Talbot 7th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 39) was appointed 376th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58).

In Sep 1592 Henry Lee of Ditchley (age 59) and Anne Vavasour (age 32) were visisted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58) at their home in Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire [Map].

In Sep 1592 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote (age 67) visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 58) at Rycote, Oxfordshire [Map].

In 1593 Edward Somerset 4th Earl of Worcester (age 43) was appointed 379th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 59).

In 1593 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet (age 45) was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 59).

1593 Creation of Garter Knights

On 23 Apr 1593 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 59) created three new Garter Knights ...

380th Thomas Burgh 9th Baron Cobham 7th Baron Strabolgi 3rd Baron Burgh (age 35).

381st Edmund Sheffield 1st Earl Mulgrave (age 27).

382nd Francis Knollys (age 81).

On 26 Jun 1593 Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl of Northumberland (age 29) was appointed 378th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 59).

Around 1595 Mary Fitton (age 16) was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 61). Her father Edward Fitton (age 47) recommended her to the care of the married William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury (age 51) who developed a crush on her to the amusement of the court. In Jan 1599 she left court.

Sack of Cádiz

On 13 Jun 1596 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 30) departed from Plymouth, Devon [Map] with a fleet of 150 English and Dutch ships divided into four squads with 6,360 private soldiers, 1,000 English volunteers, and 6,772 sailors.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 60) was admiral in command. Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 30) commanded the land forces. Edward Conway 1st Viscount Conway (age 32) commanded a foot Regiment.

Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 34), Walter Raleigh (age 42), Francis de Vere (age 35) each commanded a squadron.

Anthony Ashley 1st Baronet (age 35) represented Queen Elizabeth (age 62).

Toby Caulfeild 1st Baron Caulfeild (age 30) was present.

Death of Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon

On 23 Jul 1596 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 70) died at Somerset House [Map]. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 62) was present. She, apparently, proposed he be made Earl of Wiltshire. He refused saying ... "Madam, as you did not count me worthy of this honour in life, then I shall account myself not worthy of it in death". His son George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon (age 49) succeeded 2nd Baron Hunsdon. Elizabeth Spencer Baroness Hunsdon and Eure (age 44) by marriage Baroness Hunsdon.

In 1597 Frederick Württemberg I Duke Württemberg (age 39) was appointed 383rd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63).

In 1597 Henry Lee of Ditchley (age 63) was appointed 387th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63).

In 1597 Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire (age 34) was appointed 386th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63).

In 1597 Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk (age 35) was appointed 384th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63).

On 23 Apr 1597 George Carey 2nd Baron Hunsdon (age 50) was appointed 385th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63).

Around 03 Jul 1597 Henry Norreys 1st Baron Norreys Rycote (age 72) received a letter from Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63) offering condolences on the death of his son John.

On 02 Sep 1597 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 63) granted licence to the executors of Sir Rowland Hayward to sell King's Place [Map] in the Hackney in north London to Elizabeth Trentham, her brother Francis Trentham of Rocester (age 33), her uncle Ralph Sneyd (age 70), and her cousin, Giles Yonge (age 43). The acquisition of King's Place by Elizabeth Trentham and her relatives placed it 'beyond the reach of Oxford's creditors'.

In 1599 Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 25) was appointed 388th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 65).

In 1599 Thomas Scrope 10th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 32) was appointed 390th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 65).

In 1599 Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham (age 34) was appointed 389th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 65).

In 1599 Nicholas Hilliard (age 52) secured an annual allowance from Elizabeth I (age 65) of £40.

On 05 Aug 1599 Alexander Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall (age 26) died of wounds and fever in Ulster while campaigning with the Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 33) during the unsuccessful attempt to bring Ireland under English control. The Queen (age 65) herself informed his twin sister of her brother's death.

In Sep 1599 when the Queen (age 65) moved her Court to Nonsuch Palace [Map]. Margaret Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall (age 26) returned to her childhood home of Ordsall Hall [Map] where her condition continued to deteriorate.

Robert Devereux Earl Essex loses the Plot

On 28 Sep 1599 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 33) presented himself to Elizabeth (age 66) in her bedchamber at Nonsuch Palace [Map] where he found the queen newly up, the hair about her face. Elizabeth had just a simple robe over her nightdress, her wrinkled skin was free of cosmetics and, without her wig. Essex saw her bald head with just wisps of thinning grey hair 'hanging about her ears'. The Queen confined the Earl to his rooms with the comment that "an unruly beast must be stopped of his provender.".

On 10 Nov 1599 Margaret Radclyffe of Ordsall Hall (age 26) died at Richmond Palace [Map]. She had never recovered from the news of her twin brother Alexander's death earlier in the year. Margaret was buried in St Margaret's Church, Westminster [Map] with all the ceremonies of a great lady's obsequies. Elizabeth I (age 66) ordered the Court into mourning. A magnificent monument was erected over her grave at the Queen's expense, and Ben Jonson wrote the inscription for it:

Marble weep, for thou dost cover.

A dead beauty underneath thee,.

Rich as nature could bequeath thee:

Grant, then, no rude hand remove her.

All the gazers on the skies.

Read not in fair heaven's story.

Expresser truth or truer glory,.

Than they might in her bright eyes.


Rare as wonder was her wit;.

And like nectar ever flowing:

Till time, strong by her bestowing,.

Conquered have both life and it.

Life whose grief was out of fashion.

In these times. Few have so rued.

Fate in a brother. To conclude,.

For wit, feature, and true passion.

Earth, thou hast not such another.

The Monument is no longer extant.

In 1600 Samuel Backhouse (age 45) was High Sheriff of Berkshire during which time he was visited by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 66).

Letters from Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew Section 8 XVII. 05 Feb 1600. Court. To George Carew 1st Earl Totnes (age 44).

We have no news but that there is a misfortune befallen Mistris Fitton (age 21) for she is proved with child, and the E. of Pembroke (age 19) being examyned confesseth a ffact, but utterly renounceth all marriage. I fear they will both dwell in the Tower [Map] awhyle, for the Queen (age 66) have vowed to send them thether.

When you thing fit you may send over 1076 [Desmond] but retain his patent with yourself. You shall not need to send to know her Ma'ties further pleasure. In many wayes lett not Cashell come over. The more excpectation which 1076 leaveth behynd him o returne the better construction wilbe made of his departure.

Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury (age 36).

Wedding of Henry Somerset and Anne Russell

On 16 Jun 1600 Henry Somerset 1st Marquess Worcester (age 23) and Anne Russell 2nd Marchioness Worcester (age 22) were married. He the son of Edward Somerset 4th Earl of Worcester (age 50) and Elizabeth Hastings Countess of Worcester (age 54).

Mary Fitton (age 21) led a Masque in celebration at the Blackfriars residence of Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham (age 35) with Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 66) and William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke (age 20) attending. She, Mary soon afterwards became the mistress of William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke (age 20) and soon became pregnant.

On 30 Oct 1600 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 34) was refused the renewal of his lucrative monopoly on Sweet Wine by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 67) effectively bankrupting him.

East India Company Chartered

On 31 Dec 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 67) granted a Royal Charter to the Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies aka the East India Company led by George Clifford 3rd Earl of Cumberland (age 42) by which they received a monopoloy on trade with the East Indies. Thomas Smythe (age 42) was appointed first Governor of the East India Company.

In 1601 William Stanley 6th Earl of Derby (age 40) was appointed 391st Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 67).

In 1601 Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter (age 58) was appointed 392nd Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 67).

Essex Rebellion

After 08 Feb 1601 Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton (age 27) was sentenced to death during the Essex Rebellion. Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 67) on the advice of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury (age 37) commuted the punishment to life imprisonment.

Before 1603 Michael Stanhope (age 54) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 69).

Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (age 69) died at Richmond Palace [Map] around three in the morning. Her first cousin twice removed King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.

Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth (age 43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 36) arriving at Holyrood Palace [Map] late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew and Thomas Lake (age 35) were sent by the Council to formally inform James of her death.

Funeral of Elizabeth I

On 28 Apr 1603 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (deceased) was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton (age 54) was Chief Mourner in the procession since Arabella Stewart (age 28) refused to take part. She was supported by Thomas Cecil 1st Earl Exeter (age 60) and Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 67).

George Bourchier (age 68) carried the Standard of the Dragon.

Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 18) carried the Standard of the Greyhound.

Thomas Somerset carried the Standard of the Lyon.

William Segar (age 49) carried the Sword of State as Norrey King of Arms.

Admiral Richard Leveson (age 33) was one of the six knights who carried the canopy.

George Bourchier: George Bourchier and Martha Howard were married. The difference in their ages was 20 years. He the son of John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and Eleanor Manners Countess Bath. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. In 1535 he was born to John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath and Eleanor Manners Countess Bath. In 1605 George Bourchier died.

Thomas Somerset: He was born to Henry Somerset 1st Marquess Worcester and Anne Russell 2nd Marchioness Worcester. On 30 Dec 1648 Thomas Somerset died at Dunkirk.

On 04 Mar 1605 Maximilian Colt (age 30) signed an agreement with the lord treasurer, Sir Robert Cecil (age 41), to carve a monument above the grave of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland in the King Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey [Map] for 600l. The work was completed at the end of 1606.

In 1613 Francis Palmes of Lindley (age 59) as sheriff, received Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland at Silchester, Hampshire [Map] and escorted her to Basingstoke, Hampshire, where she knighted him.

In 1617 Elizabeth I gave Nicholas Hilliard (age 70) £400 for having made a second Great Seal.

On 18 Apr 1621 Bridget Chaworth (age 79) died. Monument in St Andrew's Church, Ufford [Map]. Marble with Corinthian Columns and reclining effigy. Corinthian Columns. Jacobean Hooded Monument.

The inscription reads "Dame Bridget, Lady Carr, widow, daughter of Sir John Chaworth of Wiverton, Nottingham, late wife to Sir William Carr of Old Sleaford in the county of Lincoln, who served the late Queen Elizabeth of most famous memory, being one of the gentlewomen of her Majesty's Privy Chamber for the space of five and twenty years, and afterwards served the most renowned Queen Anne, wife to our most gracious sovereign, King James, for the space of 14 years, being the residue of her life, and died the 18th day of April being of the age of 79 years, the which said Lady Carr, out of her love to her dear sister Katherine, the wife of George Quarles of this town of Ufford, esquire, hath caused her body to be here interred 1612". The date a mistake given she died in 1621.

Bridget Chaworth: In 1542 she was born to John Chaworth and Mary Paston. Around 1590 William Carr and she were married.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1652. Came old Jerome Lennier, of Greenwich, a man skilled in painting and music, and another rare musician, called Mell. I went to see his collection of pictures, especially those of Julio Romano, which surely had been the King's (age 22), and an Egyptian figure, etc. There were also excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, and Tintoretto. Lennier had been a domestic of Queen Elizabeth, and showed me her head, an intaglio in a rare sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me was exceedingly like her.

Before 16 Jun 1685 Elizabeth Sands was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Ambrose Willoughby was appointed Esquire to the Body to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Henry Knollys was appointed Esquire to the Body to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

A History of the County of Buckingham: Volume 3: Parishes: Chenies. He entertained Queen Elizabeth at Chenies [Map] on 19 July 157050 and she thought of returning there in August 157651.

Note 50. Nichols, Queen Elizabeth's Progresses, i, 274.

Note 51. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vii, App. 629; Pepys MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com.), 179.

Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Frances Radclyffe was appointed Maid of Honour to Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland 1533-1603 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472

King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Royal Ancestors of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland 1533-1603

Kings Wessex: Great x 15 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King Gwynedd King Powys

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 3 Grand Daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France

Ancestors of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland 1533-1603

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: King Henry VII of England and Ireland 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Father: King Henry VIII of England and Ireland Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward IV of England 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England Daughter of King Edward IV of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland Daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Boleyn

GrandFather: Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Butler 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Mother: Queen Anne Boleyn of England 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England