Biography of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1473-1554

Paternal Family Tree: Howard

Maternal Family Tree: Emma de Dinan 1136-1208

Descendants Family Tree: Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1473-1554

1483 Richard III Rewards his Supporters

1485 Marriage of Ralph Scrope and Cecily York

1495 Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

1511 Birth and Death of Prince Henry

1513 Battle of Flodden

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1525 Battle of Pavia

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1532 Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

1533 Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

1536 Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

1536 Arrest of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

1536 Neville Triple Wedding

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Funeral of Jane Seymour

1538 Execution of Friar John Forest

1540 Arrest and Attainder of Thomas Cromwell

1541 Executions

1542 Battle of Solway Moss

1547 Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1553 Coronation of Mary I

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

In 1466 Humphrey Bourchier (age 31) and [his mother] Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 22) were married. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 30 Sep 1472 [his father] Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 29) and [his mother] Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 28) were married. He the son of John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 47) and Katherine Moleyns. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

In 1473 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk was born to Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 30) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 29).

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward of that name the Fourth (age 40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, Edward the Prince (age 12), thirteen years of age; Richard Duke of York (age 9), two years younger; [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth (age 17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (age 26), and mother unto the Eighth; [his future sister-in-law] Cecily (age 14) not so fortunate as fair; [his future sister-in-law] Brigette (age 2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford [Map], a house of cloistered Nuns; [his future wife] Anne (age 7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (age 10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and [his future sister-in-law] Katherine (age 3), who long time tossed in either fortune-sometime in wealth, often in adversity-at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

Richard III Rewards his Supporters

On 05 Jul 1483 [his grandfather] John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) was created 1st Duke Norfolk by King Richard III of England (age 30). Margaret Chedworth Duchess Norfolk (age 47) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

His son [his father] Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) was created 1st Earl Surrey. [his mother] Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 39) by marriage Countess Surrey.

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 58) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 57) were heirs to the vast Mowbray estates that had been inherited by Anne Mowbray 8th Countess Norfolk who had been married to Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9).

Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York 1473-'s father King Edward IV of England had legislated that in the event of Anne's death his son Richard would continue to benefit from the inheritance; she died in 1481.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 27) was created 1st Viscount Lovell. Anne Fitzhugh Viscountess Lovell by marriage Viscountess Lovell. [Note. Some sources place his created on 01 Jan 1483 although the source for that is unknown. ]

Marriage of Ralph Scrope and Cecily York

Before 07 Aug 1485 Ralph Scrope 9th Baron Scrope Masham and [his future sister-in-law] Cecily York, daughter of Edward IV (age 16) were married. The marriage had been arranged by King Richard III of England (age 32). There had been rumours that the King was going to marry one of his nieces, [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 19) or Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 16) so this marriage quelled those rumours. The marriage was annulled after the Battle of Bosworth as "as not being in the interests of the dynasty" [Note. No sources for this information.] The date of the marriage is unknown. However, see Mary Anne Everett Green Live of the Princesses of England Volume 1 Cecilia Third Daughter of Edward IV. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 48). They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

In Dec 1487 John Welles 1st Viscount Welles (age 37) and [his future sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 18) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Welles. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 50). He the son of Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset. They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Edward IV's Daughter's Marriages

On 04 Feb 1495 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 22) and Anne York (age 19) were married. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England. He the son of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 52) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 51).

On 04 Apr 1497 [his mother] Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey (age 53) died.

On 17 Aug 1497 [his father] Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 54) and [his step-mother] Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 20) were married some four months after the death of his first wife. She by marriage Countess Surrey. She, Agnes, was a first cousin of his former wife [his mother] Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey for which he was given dispensation on 17 Aug 1497. The difference in their ages was 34 years. He the son of John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk and Katherine Moleyns. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Around 1503 Thomas Kymbe and [his sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 33) were married. The marriage and their issue were not recognised by the Crown. She was banished from court and deprived of the possessions inherited from her second husband's will. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England.

On 24 Aug 1507 [his sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 38) died.

In 1510 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 37) was appointed 268th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 18).

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

In Feb 1511 Henry VIII (age 19) celebrated the birth of his son by holding a magnificent tournament at Westminster [Map]. The challengers included Henry VIII (age 19) who fought as Cuere Loyall, Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 15) as Bon Vouloir, Edward Neville (age 40) as Joyeulx Penser, Thomas Knyvet (age 26) as Valiant Desyr and Thomas Tyrrell.

On Day 1 of the tournament the Answerers included: William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 28), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 16), Thomas Cheney (age 26), Richard Blount and Robert Morton.

On Day 2 of the tournament the Answerers included: Richard Tempest of Bracewell (age 31), Thomas Lucy, Henry Guildford (age 22), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 27), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 34), Richard Grey, Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane (age 32), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 38), [his brother] Edmund Howard (age 33) and Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 32).

On 12 Nov 1511 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle (age 47) and Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 31) were married. He the son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Waite.

On 23 Nov 1511 [his wife] Anne York (age 36) died.

Letters. Grants in 1513.

1. Commission of the Peace. See Appendix. Berks.-Knoll, 4 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 1, m. 7d. [3640.]

2. Commission of the Peace. See Appendix. Gloucestershire.-Knoll, 5 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 1, m. 7d. [3641.]

3. John Crossewell, of Odyam, Hants, clothier. Protection for one year; going with Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 61), Deputy of Calais. Del. Knoll, 5 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20. [3642.]

4. William Poullain, clk., and Julian Souchet, natives of Normandy. Denization, for life. Del. Knoll, 5 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20. [3643.]

5. Henry Rowt, chaplain. Grant of the perpetual chantry in the chapel of the manor of Eltham, Kent, vice William Wrigh, clk., deceased. Del. Westm., 26 (sic) Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 14. [3682.]

6. John Wetewod, clk., minister of the Chapel. Presentation to the church of Badisworth, dioc. of York, void by death. Del. Westm., 8 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20. [3644.]

7. John Scotte. To be chief baron of the Exchequer, during good conduct, in reversion after William Hody, who holds by patent 29 Oct. 2 Henry VII. Westm., 8 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20. [3645.]

8. Robert Hall. Grant of the ferry of Paddistowe, with "le Haven Cathe" of the port of St. Ives, Cornw. Greenwich, 30 Dec. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 8 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 7. [3646.]

9. John Jenkynson, of Newland, York, butcher. Pardon for killing Th. Megson, of Newland, yeoman, in self-defence; according to inquest before Th. Maners, coroner. Westm., 10 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 7. [3650.]

10. Gaol Delivery.

Gaol of the Abbot of Ramesey.-Commission to Sir Rob. Rede, William Mordaunt, John Woode, Th. Lowth, John Tayllard, William Grace, and Th. Dunholt. Westm., 12 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20d. [3652.]

11. Thomas Emson. Inspeximus and exemplification, at the request of Thomas, s. and h. of Sir Richard Emson, of an Act of Parliament 4 Henry VIII. reversing and annulling the attainder of the said Sir Richard. Westm., 12 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 1. [3653.]

12. [his father] Thomas Earl of Surrey (age 70), Treasurer of England, Thomas Lord Howard (age 40), Sir [his brother] Edward Howard (age 37), and Sir Thomas Bulleyn (age 36). Pardon and release of all arrears, from Mich. 23 Henry VII. to the present date, of an annual rent of £292 5s. 4¼d. from Mich. 23 Henry VII., subject to which they hold, by patent 10 Nov. 1 Henry VIII., the possessions of John Grey late Viscount Lisle, and of Joan late wife of Sir Humphrey Talbot, to the use of Sir Thomas Knyvet and [his sister] Mercella his wife, Viscountess Lisle, during the minority of Elizabeth Grey (age 7), daughter and heir of the said Viscount. Greenwich, 7 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 12 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20. [3655.]

13. Edmund Denny (age 56) and John Smyth, clerk in the office of Treasurer's remembrancer of the Exchequer. Grant, in survivorship, of the office of Treasurer's remembrancer; on surrender of patent, 3 June 20 Henry VII., granting the same to Denny, vice Sir Robert Lytton, dec. Del. Westm., 12 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. (filed on 12 Dec. 1512). Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 10. ii. Warrant to the Lord Chancellor, dated 22 Dec. 4 Henry VIII., to cancel the patent of Jasper Fyloll of the reversion of the above office ("remembrancer of our Tresoury within our Eshequier"), the King being now informed that the said Jasper has not sufficient experience and learning. S.B. (attached to the above). [3656.]

14. Thomas Holden, yeoman of the Queen's chamber, and John Hunt, master-cook for the King's mouth. To be keepers, in survivorship, of the Royal Household in Westminster Palace, with 6d. a day since Michaelmas last. Del. Westm., 12 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. [3657.]

15. John Westowe, the King's gunner (bumbardus), To be, for life, searcher of the port of Bristol. Greenwich, 31 Dec. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 13 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 16. [3660.]

16. Thomas Payne of Salisbury, merchant. Protection for one year; going in the suite of Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 61), Deputy of Calais. Greenwich, 7 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 17 Jan. P.S. (injured). Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3665.]

17. John Bradley, yeoman of the Guard. To be ranger of the Isle of Purbeke, vice Thomas Prichit. Greenwich, 11 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 17 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3666.]

18. John Prowde, haberdasher of London. Protection for one year; going in the suite of Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 61), Deputy of Calais. Del. Westm., 17 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3667.]

19. George Frauncesse, gentleman usher of the Queen's chamber. To be steward, during pleasure, of the lordship of Orwel, Camb., lately held by William Denton, deceased; and lease of the office of feodary and bailiff of the honor of Richmond, in Camb., Herts, Suffolk, and Essex, from Christmas, 4 Henry VIII., for 30 years, at the annual rent of £20 10s. Del. Westm., 17 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3668.]

20. William Towers, usher of the Hall, and Nicholas Hornecliffe, yeoman of the Vestry. Grant, in survivorship, of the offices of bow-bearer of Arkylgarthdale, under-steward of Middelham and Richemonte, and one of the foresters of Coverdale, co. Richmond, lately held by John Conyers, Gilbert Metcalf, and William Forster. Westminster, 17 Dec. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 18 Jan. P.S. (in English). Pat, 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3669.]

21. John Wodlesse, yeoman of the Crown. Annuity of £20 for life. Greenwich, 20 Dec. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 18 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3670.]

22. Robert Crumwell or Cromwell, vicar of Batersey. Protection for one year; going in the suite of Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 61), Deputy of Calais. Greenwich, 22 Dec. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 19 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3671.]

23. John Tollas, sherman of London. Protection for one year; going in the suite of Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 61), Deputy of Calais. Greenwich, 19 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 20 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3672.]

24. Sir Maurice Berkeley (age 46), knight for the Body. To be keeper of the park of Sodbury alias Sodbury, Glouc., with herbage and pannage, and wages of 2d. a day; on surrender of patent granted by Henry VII. to William Denys, esquire for the Body. Del. Westm., 21 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 12. [3673.]

25. John Boston, clk., m.A. Presentation to the church of Milsted, Canterbury dioc., void by death of John Guyllary, clk. Greenwich, 21 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 23 Jan. P.S. [3674.]

26. John Wheler, for services to the Queen. To be keeper of the park of Biflete, Surrey, for life. Greenwich, 20 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 23 Jan. P.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m 14. [3675.]

27. Scotch Commissioners. Safe conduct, at the request of the King of Scots, by letters signed and sealed, for one year, to John Lord Drummond, Sir Robert Lawder of Basse, Sir John Ramsey of Trarinzeane, Sir William Scotte of Balverley. and John Henryson, clerk of justiciary, commissioners of James king of Scots, with 100 persons. Westminster, 24 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Scotch Roll, 4 Henry VIII. m. 12. Rymer, Xiii. 346. [2069, 3676.]

28. Pewterers of London. Inspeximus and conf. of:-

Pat. 19 March, 20 Henry VII., conf.:

Pat. 20 Jan. 13 Edward IV. (p. 2, m. 5). Westm., 24 Jan. [4 Henry VIII.]. Conf. roll 48, No. 8.

29. Roger Salesbury, yeoman of the Guard. To have the fee of the Crown, being 6d. a day, held by John Whityngton, deceased. Greenwich, 27 Dec. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 25 Jan. P.S. (in English). [3677.]

30. Leonard Fryscobalde, gentleman usher of the Chamber. Annuity of 50 marks for life. Greenwich, 17 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 26 Jan. P.S. (in English). Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 14. [3679.]

31. William Porter. Licence to export so much broadcloths, kerseys and other woollen cloths, tin, hides and other merchandise (except wools and woolfells) as will in custom and subsidy yield 1,000 mks., and import as much; custom and subsidies to be payable at the end of six years after shipment. Greenwich, 20 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 26 Jan. P.S. [3680.]

32. Peter Warton and John Ketilby. To be bailiffs, during pleasure, of the lordship of Salwarppe, Worc., from Easter last; with keepership, in survivorship, of the park there, 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 26 Jan. P.S. (fragment only). Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 30. [3681.]

33. Henry Rowte, chaplain. To be priest of the chapel in the manor of Eltham, Kent, with 10 marks a year out of the manor; as held by John Sweteman of Pentriche, chaplain therein Edward III.'s time; on surrender of invalid patent 6 Jan. 4 Henry VIII., granting him the chantry in the said chapel formerly held by William Wright (sic). Del. Westm., 26 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 33. [3683.]

34. Walter Devereux Lord Ferrers (age 25). To be keeper of the park of Nethewode, Heref., for life, with 4d. a day, vice William Thomas. Del. Westm., 27 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 20. [3684.]

35. Sir Robert Brandon (age 53). Wardship and marriage of John, son and heir of John Carewe, dec. Del. Westm., 28 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. S.B. (in margin: "Ad instantiam Karoli Brandon, militis"). [3685.]

36. Commission of the Peace. See Appendix. Herefordshire.-Westm., 28 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 1, m. 7d. [3686.]

37. Edward Guldeford, squire of the Body. Inspeximus and exemplification of Act of Parliament, 3 Henry VIII. [c. xix.], reversing the attainder of Edm. Dudley, and conditionally reinstating John Dudley, his son, and appointing Guldeford guardian of the said John, during his minority. Westm., 28 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 31. [3687.]

38. Invasion. Writs of precept to the sheriffs, viz.:-

Kent.-For the sheriff to make proclamations that all males between sixty and sixteen shall prepare arms and be ready at an hour's warning to resort to such place in the said county as shall be assigned by the King's commissioners, and specially in Kent the Lord Bergevenny, who is deputed to lead the shire to resist the French King, who has prepared "a great and a strong navy" to invade England in February next. Beacons to be in readiness. Westm., 28 Jan. 4 Henry VIII.

Norfolk and Suffolk.-The Earl of Oxford (age 13).

Essex.-The Earl of Oxford and Lord Fytzwater.

Cornwall.-Edward Willoughby, Sir John Arundell, and Sir Piers Eggecombe.

Devon.-Lord Broke.

Somerset and Dorset.-Lord Fytzwaren.

Sussex.-The Earl of Arundell.

Hants and Wilts.-Sir John Lysle and Sir William Sandes.

S.B. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 9d. [3688.]

39. William Rogiers, chaplain. Presentation to the church of Great Bylling, Linc. dioc., void by death of Thomas Harteley. Greenwich, 26 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 28 Jan. P.S. [3689.]

40. John Cristoferson, m.D., native of Scotland. Denization, for life. Westminster, 4 Feb. 1 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 29 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. p.S. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 30. [3690.]

41. Gaol Delivery. Norfolk Circuit.-Commission to Sir John Fyneux, Sir Robert Rede and William Mordaunt. Westm., 29 Jan. York, City and Castle.-Commission to William Fayrfax, John Erneley, Robert Henrison and Th. Stray. Westm., 29 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 15d. [3691.]

42. John Bristall alias Burstall, fishmonger, of London. Protection for one year; going in the suite of Sir Gilbert Talbot, Deputy of Calais. Greenwich, 20 Jan. 4 Henry VIII. Del. Westm., 31 Jan. P.S. [3693.]

43. William Hill, of Becclys alias Bexlys, Suff., yeoman. Reversal of outlawry in co. (blank); sued for debt by Roger Dade of Wheybrede, Suff., husbandsman. Westm., 31 Jan. Pat. 4 Henry VIII. p. 1, m. 4.

In 1513 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 16) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 34) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham. He the son of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 70) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 04 May 1513 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 40) was appointed Lord High Admiral.

Battle of Flodden

On 09 Sep 1513 at the Battle of Flodden was fought at the Branxton, Northumberland [Map]. the English army was commanded by [his father] Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 70), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 40), [his brother] Edmund Howard (age 35), Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 45), Edward Stanley 1st Baron Monteagle (age 51) and Marmaduke Constable (age 56).


The English army included: Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford (age 59), William Conyers 1st Baron Conyers (age 44), Thomas Berkeley 5th Baron Berkeley (age 41) and Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 45).

Randall Babington, John Bigod (age 38) and Thomas Fitzwilliam (age 39) were killed.

Marmaduke Constable (age 33), William Constable (age 38), George Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Aston (age 16), Edmund Walsingham (age 33), Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 25) and Walter Stonor (age 36) were knighted by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 40).

Christopher Savage, Thomas Venables (age 44) and Brian Tunstall (age 33) were killed.

Bryan Stapleton of Wighill (age 55) was killed. (Some reports have him dying in 1518).

John Booth (age 78) was killed.

Father and son Ralph ellerker of risby in yorkshire and Ralph Ellerker were knighted by Thomas Howard Earl of Surrey (age 70).


The Scottish army suffered heavy casualties:

King James IV of Scotland (age 40) was killed. His body ws taken to London, then to Sheen Priory, Richmond; thereafter it dissappeared. His son King James V of Scotland (age 1) succeeded V King Scotland.

Alexander Stewart ArchBishop of St Andrews (age 20) was killed.

David Kennedy 1st Earl Cassilis (age 43) was killed. His son Gilbert Kennedy 2nd Earl Cassilis (age 18) succeeded 2nd Earl Cassilis. Isabel Campbell Countess Cassilis by marriage Countess Cassilis.

William Sinclair 2nd Earl Caithness (age 54) was killed. His son John Sinclair 3rd Earl Caithness succeeded 3rd Earl Caithness.

Matthew Stewart 2nd Earl Lennox was killed. His son John Stewart 3rd Earl Lennox (age 23) succeeded 3rd Earl Lennox.

William Hay 4th Earl Erroll was killed. His son William Hay 5th Earl Erroll (age 18) succeeded 5th Earl Erroll.

John Douglas 2nd Earl Morton was killed. His son James Douglas 3rd Earl Morton succeeded 3rd Earl Morton, 6th Lord Dalkeith.

Adam Hepburn 2nd Earl Bothwell was killed. His son Patrick Hepburn 3rd Earl Bothwell (age 1) succeeded 3rd Earl Bothwell.

Alexander Stewart 4th of Garlies (age 32) was killed. His son Alexander Stewart 5th of Garlies (age 6) succeeded 5th Lord Garlies.

Alexander Elphinstone 1st Lord Elphinstone was killed. His son Alexander Elphinstone 2nd Lord Elphinstone (age 3) succeeded 2nd Lord Elphinstone.

Thomas Hay, George Hepburn Bishop Isles (age 59), Adam Hepburn Master (age 56), Thomas "Younger of Cushnie" Lumsden

William Douglas 6th Lord Drumlanrig was killed. William "Younger" Douglas 7th Lord Drumlanrig succeeded 7th Lord Drumlanrig.

George Seton 5th Lord Seton was killed. His son George Seton 6th Lord Seton succeeded 6th Lord Seton.

John Hay 2nd Lord Hay of Yester was killed. His son John Hay 3rd Lord Hay (age 23) succeeded 3rd Lord Hay of Yester. Elizabeth Douglas Lady Hay by marriage Lord Hay of Yester.

Robert Keith Master of Marischal (age 30), Guiscard Harbottle (age 28), John Erskine, David Home (age 22), Andrew Stewart 1st Lord Avondale (age 43), Archibald Campbell 2nd Earl Argyll (age 64), Robert Douglas of Lochleven (age 89) were killed.

Henry Sinclair 3rd Lord Sinclair (age 48) was killed. His son William Sinclair 4th Lord Sinclair succeeded 4th Lord Sinclair.

James Stewart 1st Lord of Traquair (age 33) was killed. His son William Stewart 2nd Lord Traquair (age 7) succeeded 2nd Lord Traquair.

John Maxwell 4th Lord Maxwell (age 57) was killed. His son Robert Maxwell 5th Lord Maxwell (age 20) succeeded 5th Lord Maxwell.

William Murray (age 43), Colin Oliphant (age 26), William Ruthven (age 33), George Douglas (age 44) and William Douglas (age 42) were killed.

George Home 4th Lord Home and John Stewart 2nd Earl Atholl (age 38) fought.

Brothers David Lyon of Cossins, William Lyon and George Lyon were killed.

William Graham 1st Earl Montrose (age 49) was killed. His son William Graham 2nd Earl Montrose (age 21) succeeded 2nd Earl Montrose.

Robert Erskine 4th Lord Erskine 16th Earl Mar was killed. His son John Erskine 17th Earl Mar (age 26) de jure 17th Earl Mar, Lord Erskine.

Thomas Stewart 2nd Lord Innermeath (age 52) was killed. His son Richard Stewart 3rd Lord Innermeath succeeded 3rd Lord Innermeath.

Walter Lindsay of Arden and Walter Lindsay (age 33) were killed.

William Keith of Inverugie (age 43) was killed.

David Wemyss of Wemyss (age 40) was killed.

John Somerville 1st of Cambusnethan (age 55) was killed.

Robert Crichton 2nd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar (age 41) was killed. His son Robert Crichton 3rd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar (age 22) succeeded 3rd Lord Crichton of Sanquhar

Father and son William Rollo (age 59) and Robert Rollo 5th of Duncrub (age 34) were killed.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter XXXII. 16 Sep 1513. Queen Catherine (age 27) to King Henry VIII (age 22)th, after the Battle of Flodden Field. A. D. 1513.

[MS. COTTON. VESP. F. in. fol. 15. Orig.]

Sir

MY Lord Howard (age 70) hath sent me a Lettre open to your Grace, within oon of myn, by the whiche ye shal see at length the grete Victorye that our Lord hath sent your subgetts in your absence; and for this cause it is noo nede herin to trouble your Grace with long writing, but, to my thinking, this batell hath bee to your Grace and al your reame the grettest honor that coude bee, and more than ye shuld wyn al the crown of Fraunce; thankend bee God of it: and I am suer your Grace forgetteth not to doo this, which shal be cause to send you many moo suche grete victoryes, as I trust he shal doo. My husband, for hastynesse, wt Rogecrosse I coude not sende your Grace the pece of the King of Scotts (deceased) cote [coat] whiche John Glyn now bringeth. In this your grace shal see how I can kepe my premys, sending you for your baners a Kings cote. I thought to sende hymself (deceased) unto you, but our Englishemens herts wold not suffre it. It shuld have been better for hym to have been in peax than have this rewards. Al that God sendeth is for the best.

My Lord of Surrey (age 40), my Henry, wold fayne knowe your pleasur in the buryeng of the King of Scotts (deceased) body, for he hath writen to me soo. With the next messanger your grace pleasur may bee herin knowen. And with this I make an ende: prayng God to sende you home shortly, for without this noo joye here can bee accomplisshed; and for the same I pray, and now goo to our Lady at Walsyngham [Map] that I promised soo long agoo to see. At Woborne [Map] the xvj. day of Septembre.

I sende your grace herin a bille founde in a Scottisshemans purse of suche things as the Frenshe King sent to the said King of Scotts to make warre against you, beseching your a to sende Mathewe hider assone this messanger commeth to bringe me tydings from your Grace.

Your humble wif and true servant

KATHERINE (age 27).

In 1516 [his son] Henry Howard was born to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 43) and [his wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 19) at Hunsdon, Hertfordshire [Map].

In 1517 [his former sister-in-law] Bridget York (age 36) died at Dartford Priory, Kent [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 29 Jul 1518. aThis yeare, on a Thursday, the 29th day of Julie, a legat (age 43)b came from the Pope, and was receaved into London at after-noone. And there receaved him at the Black Heath [Map] the Bishop of Dunham (age 46), Bishop of Ely, the Duke of Northfolke (age 45),c with divers other great lordes and knightes, and all the orders of friers, channons, moncks of Stratforde and Tower Hill, with all parsons and priestes of all the parishe churches in London, stoode all in coopes with crosses, candlestickes, and sensors, from St. Georges barre in Southwark to Leaden Hall comer. And ever as the legatt passed by them they sensed him; and so was he receaved thorowe the Cittie; he havinge borne before him 2 pillers of sylver and guylt, and he himselfe ridinge in redd chamlett,d with his cardinalls hatt on his heade, and the Major and Aldermen, with all the crafts of the Cittie, standinge in Cheepe-syde in their best liveries. And when he came before the Major and Aldermen yonge Mr. More (age 40) made there to him a proposition for the Cittie,e and so he rode thorowe Paules Churche yeard. And when he came at the west dore of Powles the Bishop of London,f with all Powles quier, receaved him with procession in copes of cloth of golde, and a riche canopie of cloth of golde borne over his heade, and so brought him to the highe alter, where he saide his devotions and offered; and that done, he rode to the Bishopp of Bathes place at Temple barre, which was prepared for him, and so there remayned.

Note a. This is the first instance in which onr Chronicler gires a nrach fuller account of the proceedings than is to be found in Arnold's Chronicle, which ends in the jear following.

Note b. Cardinal Campeggio (age 43), called also Laurence Campeins.

Note c. Thomas Howard (age 45), Earl of Surrey, had the title of Duke of Norfolk restored to him for the great victory gained by him at Flodden, 1513, Sept 9.

Note d. Whilst delaying at Calais for the return of the papal bull Wolsey (age 45)s had snpplied him with red cloth to clothe his servants, who, at their first coming, were but meanly apparelled. Hall, ed. 1809, p. 692.

Note e. Sir Thomas More (age 40) made a brief oration to him in the name of the City. — Hall's Chronicle, cd. 1809, p. 693.

Note f. Richard Fitz-James.

In 1519 [his daughter] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset was born to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 46) and [his wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 22).

On 16 Feb 1519 [his brother-in-law] Henry Stafford 1st Baron Stafford (age 17) and Ursula Pole (age 15) were married. He the son of Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Around Jun 1519 George Neville 5th and 3rd Baron Bergavenny (age 50) and [his sister-in-law] Mary Stafford Baroness Bergavenny (age 24) were married. She by marriage Baroness Bergavenny. The difference in their ages was 26 years. She the daughter of Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham. They were second cousin twice removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Around 1520 [his son] Thomas Howard 1st Viscount Howard Bindon was born to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 47) and [his wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 23).

On 10 Mar 1520 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 47) was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 [his father-in-law] Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London [Map]. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 43) and Henry Guildford (age 32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 51), Anthony Poyntz (age 41) and Edmund Walsingham (age 41) as jurors.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 25 Jan 1522. The Lord Thomas Howard (age 49) Earl of Surrey, came out of Ireland to the court the twenty-fifth day of January, when he had been there the space of twenty months in great travail and pain, and often times sore troubled by the wild Irish, howbeit by his nobleness and manhood he brought the Lords of Ireland to the King’s due obeisance, and had of them many victories to his perpetual laud and praise.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 02 Feb 1522. The second day of February, the King (age 30) being at Greenwich, came thither the Cardinal with a Legation from Leo bishop of Rome, and also his ambassador, on who waited many a nobleman, the King met them at his chamber door welcoming them as though they had both come from Rome. Then said the Cardinal, high and victorious King it hath pleased our Lord God to indue your grace with a great multitude of manifold graces as a King elect in favour of the high heaven, and so appears presently by your noble person, so formed and figured in shape and stature with force and pulchritude, which signifies the present pleasure of our Lord God wrought in your noble grace. And further he praised his wisdom, prudence and learning, with many other goodly words in the praise of his most noble grace. And finally, the Cardinal declared how the said Bishop of Rome had sent his highness an Act in Bull under lead, declaring therein his grace to be the Defender of the Christian Faith, and his successors for evermore.

And when his grace had received the said Bull and caused it to be read and published, he went to his chapel to hear Mass accompanied with many nobles of his realm and also with Ambassadors of sundry princes, the Cardinal being requested to sing masse, the Erle of Essex brought the Bason with water, the Duke of Suffolk (age 38) gave the assay, the Duke of Norfolk (age 49) held the towel, and so preceded to Masse. And that done gave to all them that heard the masse clean remission and blessed the King and the Queen and all the people: then was the Bull eftsoons declared, and trumpets blew, the shalmes and saggebuttes played in honour of the King’s new style. Thus, his highness went to dinner in the midst whereof the King of Heralds and his company began the larges, crying Henricus dei gratia rex Anglie, and Francie, defensor fidei; and dominus Hibernie thus ended the dinner, with much abundance of vittels and wine, to all manner of people.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. Mar 1522. The King like a prince which forsees all things, saw what war was likely to ensue, caused the Earl of Surrey (age 49) his high Admiral, to put in readiness his navy, both for the conducting of the Emperor (age 22) into England, and also for the defence of his subjects, which were daily robbed and spoiled on the sea, which Lord Admiral took such diligence with the help of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 32) his Vice Admiral, that all the ships by the beginning of April, were rigged and trimmed, and in especial the Henry Grace of God, the King’s great ship, was brought out of the river of Thames into the Downs, ready to sail whether God and the King would.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter LXXXII. Nov 1522. Lord Surrey (age 49) to King Henry the Eighth (age 31).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. B. VI. fol. 304. Orig.]

Plesith it your Highnes to be advertised that upon Satirdaye at night the Duke of Albany (age 38) with a greate puysance brought his ordynaunce unto Werk [Map], on the fer side of Twede, upon Scotland side, and began to shote right sore upon Sondaye by the breke of daye, and So contynued all that daye and Mondaye. At whiche tyme I being at Holy Island, vij. myles from Berwike, was advertised of the same at seven a clok at night the said Sondaye; and incontynente sent Lettres to my lord Cardynalls company, my lord of Northumberland, my lord of Westmoreland at Sainte Cutberts baner lying at Anwike and thereabouts, and in likewise to my lord Dacre and other lords and gentilmen lying abrode in the countre, too mete me at Barmer wood, fyve myles from Werk on Mondaye, who so ded. And the seid Monday at iij, a cloke at aftir none, the water of Twede being soo high that it could not be riden the Duke sent over ij M. Frenche men in bootisa to gif assault to the place, who with force entred the bas courte, and by Sir William Lizle (age 35) captain of the Castell with a hundred with him were right manfully defended by the space of one houre and an half, without suffring theym t'entre the Inner Ward ; but fynally the seid Frenchemen entred the Inner warde, whiche perceived by the seid Sir William and his company frely set upon theym, and not onely drove theym oute of the Inner warde, but alsoo oute of the Uttir warde, and slewe of the seid Frenche men x. personys. And so the seid Frenche men wente over the water ; and incontynent the seid Sir William advertised me of the said assaulte, desiering too have reskue this daye, or els the place wold be no lenger kepte : whereof I being advertised by thre a clok this mornyng, avaunced foreward with the hole army by the breke of daye. And the Duke hering that I cam towards hym toke away his ordynance, and in likewise departed hymself with his hoole company, but as yet I cannot advertise your Grace of trouth howe fer he is goon, but tomorrowe I doubte not I shall knowe the certentie. Sir I doubte moche that if he here that I breke this army that he woll retorne with his ordynance unto Werk, whiche I feare woll not hold long againste hym ; for and if I had not made newe fortifications of bulwerks of erthe, it had not be tenable one half daye. I wold it were in the See, for I knowe not how to get men to remayne in it. Sir undoubtedly ther was never man departed with more shame nor with more feare than the Duke hath doon this daye : and notwithstanding the greate Assemble that he hath made in Scotland he hath not doon x s . worth of hurte within your Grace's realme, nor never durste hymself entre the same. Sir I feare me it shall not be possible for me to kepe this Army no longer togidder ; for suche as come oute of the bisshopriche, this contre, and other places, at their own costs, have spent all that they have; and with moche difficulte and faire words have kepte theym here thus long. Notwithstanding I shall doo my beste to kepe theym togidder unto the tyme that I shall knowe the Duks army bee perspoiled. Assuering your Grace that maister Magnus hath but iij. M. marks lefte; and if th'army shuld be discharged tomorrowe next, I think x M. marks woll not paye that is owing and conduyte money home. And considering howe paynefully and with howe good will they have served, it were pitie they shuld departe withoute having that was promysed theym, wherfore mooste humble I beseche your Highnes that convenyent money maye be sente hither with diligence. And if it come not bifore the departing hens of th'army, to tlVentente they shuld not goo hens groudging and speking shrodly, I shall delyver theym asmoche as is here with asmoche more as I maye borowe. And also I shall bynd myself by my bill signed with myn hand to paye theym asmoche as shalbe due for the reste; mooste humble besechyng your Highnes to see me dischardged of the same with convenyente diligence, or els I shalbe uttirly undoon for ever. Also I beseche your Grace to send thankfull lettres to suche as have doon good servyce at this tyme, whos names be conteyned in a bill herein closed : also Ix. iiij x . x blanks to be written here to suche as I doo not remembre the names of : assuering your Grace that in all my lif I never sawe somany Englishmen in none army nor so well willed as thees were fro the higheste to the loweste, nor never was gentilman so moche bounde as I have been this Jorney to all noblemen, gentilmen, and souldiors ; whiche favor they have shewed me for the greate love they bere to your Highnes, and the desierous myende they have to doo your Grace service. Written in the Campe ij. myles from Wark this Tuysday at night.

Your most humble subject and servant

T. SURREY.

To the Kings most noble Grace.

Note a. boats.

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter LXXXIII. 12 Nov 1522.King Henry the Eighth (age 31) to the Earl of Surrey (age 49).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. B. i. fol. 30?. Grig.]

Henry R. By the King.

RIGHT trusty and right welbiloved Cousin we grete you wel; and have receyved your Lettres bearing date the iija and iiijth dayes of this instant moneth, the first mencyonyng the siege laide by the Duke of Albany (age 38) unto the Castel of Werke [Map] with the assaulte geven unto the same, and the valiant defence therof by Sir William Lisle (age 35) capitain of that place ; and how, upon knowlege geven to the said Duke that ye with our hole armye was coming to the rescue, he shamefully and cowardly removed his siege and fled, but to what place ye then knewe not. By the ijde Lettre apperith upon the reaporte of the Priores of Calstreme howe that on Tuesday at nyght last past about mydnyzt the said Duke being then at Eccles informed that our armye passed the Ryver after hym, removed from thens, toke his ordenance away, and is clerely departed ; the truthe wherof ye doubted not to be advertised from diverse wayes by the next daye: at whiche tyme uppon the more knowlege had, ye wolde assemble al the noble men to divise and determyne what ye and they sholde further do, desiring that after the Duks army skaled, we in consideration of your desease and seknes wolde discharge you, geving you licence to retourne: and thinking the lord Dacres aswel for his strenght as experience in those parties most mete to take the charge of offyce of wardyn til suche tyme as that we shal appoint som other therunto; and finally requiryng that bothe money and our lettres of Thanks may be sent, as in the said lettres is conteyned more at large. As herunto we signifie unto you, like as thancked be almyzty God, thise newes be right good, comfortable, and honorable unto us and this our Realme ; so they be and shalbe unto the said Duke of Albany's perpetual reproche, shame, and losse of reputacion bothe in Fraunce, Scotland, and elliswhere, and to the no little abashement and discorage of the Frenche King, besids the alienation percace of the mynds of the Lords of Scotland more facily then afore from the faction of France unto our devotion. And for the grete travaile, labor, studie, payn, and diligence by you with al effect right actively, valiauntly, and with perfite corage, discrecion, and good conduyte taken and used by many substancial, discrete, and politique wayes for resistence of the said Duke of Albany, with deliberation and intent to have geven hym bataile in cace he durst have abyden the same we geve unto you our most cordial and herty thanks; assuring you that amongs many your high and notable^ service done unto us, we shal have this in our contynual and perfite remembrance to your weale, exaltation, honor, and profite as your merits and deserts condignely and worthely do requyre. Praying you also to geve on our behalf special thanks unto all the lords, capitains, and other whiche to their grete payn and travaile have right towardly, benivolently, and conformably served us under you in this Jorney, for whose more corage and comforte, we at this tyme sende suche lettres of thanks as ye desire.

Over this we having tendre respect unto your helthe and comfort, have resolved and determyned that upon advertisement receyved from you of skalinga of the said duks armye, and aunswer therupon geven unto you, with ordre for establishing of suche garnisons and other direction to be taken there as for the suretie and weale of that countrey slialbe thought expedient, ye shal then have our Lettres of discharge of your office there and retorne unto us accordingly ; being myndyd according to your advice and opynyon that our right trusty counsaillor the Lorde Dacres whom we thinke most mete and able therfor, shal exercise also th'office of Wardeyn of our Est and Myddel Marches for a season, to whom we shall then with our lettres sende sufficient commyssion accordingly. Having no doubte but that by suche direction as our most entierly welbeloved counsaillour the Lord Legate Cardinal Archebisshop of Yorke and our Chauncelor hathe advertised you, ye be before this tyme sufficiently furnished of money for defraying of that our Armye as shal appertayn.

Yeven under our Signet at our manor of Woodstok the xijth day of November.

To our right trusty and right welbeloved Cousin and Counsaillor th'Erle of Surrey our Treasorer and Admiralle of England.

Note a. dispersing.

On 04 Dec 1522 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 49) was appointed Lord Treasurer.

In 1523 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Arthur Plantagenet (age 58) was created 1st Viscount Lisle. Elizabeth Grey Viscountess Lisle (age 43) by marriage Viscountess Lisle.

On 21 May 1524 [his father] Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 81) died at Framlingham Castle, Suffolk [Map]. He was buried at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and subsequently reburied at the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. His son Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 51) succeeded 3rd Duke Norfolk, 2nd Earl Surrey. [his wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 27) by marriage Duchess Norfolk.

Battle of Pavia

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 09 Mar 1525. This yeare, the 9th day of Marche,c tidinges were brought to the Kinge (age 33) that Francis (age 30), the French King, was taken prisoner before the cittie Pavie, in Italie, by the Duke of Burbon (age 35), capteyn of the Emperoures (age 25) hoste,d and 14,000 French men slayne at the same feild.

And the Archbishop of Yorke (age 52), cardinall and legatt de latere, songe masse the same tyme in Paules churche [Map], in his "pontificalibus,"e and 11 bishopps and abbotts, with their miters, beinge present, the Duke of Northfolke (age 52) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 41), with all the nobles of the realme. And the saide Cardinall (age 52) grawnted the same to all manner of persons, beinge within the precinct of the churche in the tyme of the masse, plenary remission of their synnes, à pœná et culpá; and, after masse, Te Deum was sunge for the sayde victorie,a the Major,b Aldermen, with the head craftes of the cittie standinge in the bodie of the churche in theyr liveries; and that night great fiers were made in divers places of the cittie, with vessells of wyne at everie fier for the people to drincke.

Note c. Francis I was made prisoner on the 24th February.

Note d. Charles Duke of Bourbon (age 35), Constable of France, being persecuted by Francis I for refusing to marry Louisa of Savoy (age 48), the French King's (age 30) mother, sought the protection of the Emperor Charles V (age 25) by whom he was appointed his lieutenant in Italy.

Note e. After Wolsey (age 52) had been invested by Pope Leo X with the sole legatine power in England, he was wont to say mass on state occasions after the manner of the Pope himself.

Note a. The victory gained by the Imperialists over the French before Pavia so changed the aspect of affairs on the continent that Henry at first entertained a project forinvading France, and asserting his claim to that crown.

Note b. Sir John Allen.

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 [his future son-in-law] Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. [his sister] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

Around 1526 [his son] Thomas Howard 1st Viscount Howard Bindon (age 6) and [his daughter-in-law] Elizabeth Marney Viscountess Howard Bindon were married. She by marriage Viscountess Howard Bindon. He the son of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 53) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 29).

In 1529 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle (age 64) and Honor Grenville Viscountess Lisle (age 35) were married. She by marriage Viscountess Lisle. The difference in their ages was 29 years. He the son of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Waite.

In 1529 John Gostwick (age 49) bought Willington Manor from Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 56).

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Oct 1529. And this yeare, in October 1529, Sir Thomas More (age 51), Chauncellor of the Dutchie, was made Chauncellor of Englande, and sworne in the Chauncerie the first day of Michaellmasse terme; the Duke of Northfolke (age 56) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 45) leadinge him thorowe Westminster Hall up into the Chauncerie.

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

On 17 Oct 1529 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 56) surrendered the Great Seal to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 56) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 45).

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Bradford, 256. 6026. Chapuys (age 39) to Charles V (age 29).

On the receipt of your letter on Thursday the 21st, dated Piacenza, I sent to Windsor to ask for an audience. As the administration has fallen principally into the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56), and the communication is more agreeable to him than that of the marriage, I hastened to visit him. The Cardinal (age 56), who was dis-evangelised on the day of St. Luke the Evangelist (18 Oct.), has been deprived of his offices. I was received by the Duke with great distinction, and expressed to him the regard in which you had always held him for his goodwill. He seemed highly pleased, and said that he and his family had always been attached to the house of Burgundy; that no one more lamented the late disagreements than himself, but that all the evil and misunderstanding ought to be attributed to those who formerly directed the King's councils, acting by their own will and authority, with which the King himself was often dissatisfied.

In reply to his remark that he should like to serve your Majesty against the Turk, I praised his virtuous feelings, and told him that was the main object of my communication; but for the better security of peace, which the King had done so much to establish, one unhappy difference between himself and the Queen remained to be settled. I told him that, however strongly he might feel from family considerations, he could not but feel as a true knight, nor act otherwise than if it had been his own daughter, and as conscience directed; and that your Majesty was convinced that he had not been the promoter of this step. He replied that he would sooner have lost one of his hands than that such a question should have arisen; but it was entirely a matter of law and conscience, and he had never been appealed to; that it had been submitted to ecclesiastics and doctors, who had pronounced against the validity of the marriage; that if the dispensation you held was illegal, the King would consider himself the most abused prince in Christendom; and that if you had not declared yourself in it so openly, it might have sooner been brought to a satisfactory issue. I explained to him the constraint under which you acted; and that, as to the king of England not having declared himself a party in the matter, it was clear that he had done so from the proceedings of the English ambassadors at Rome. Finding he remained thoughtful, I changed the subject. Shortly after he turned to me with a laugh, and said, "How glad the Emperor will be to hear of this fall of the Cardinal (age 56), and his loss of office?" I answered, I thought you would, but not from any hatred you had to the Cardinal (age 56); and that he could have done neither good nor ill to you, and was not of such importance as that you would care to be avenged, or trouble yourself about his disgrace; but what you rejoiced at was, that the king of England would now learn who had been his evil counsellors, and leave the management of affairs to men who from birth and circumstances were more competent. I told him that I was the first who had broken through the chain of paying court to the Cardinal (age 56), and addressed myself to him. He thanked me for my good intentions, and said that the government was managed not by an individual but by the Council, where he usually assisted, and would promote Your Majesty's interests.

In order to please the Duke (age 56) I asked him what I should do, although I had already sent one of my secretaries to the King. He told me that the King had ordered that application should be made direct to himself, before any other person was acquainted with the communication. He followed me to the hall, using very courteous language.

On the 22nd my secretary returned from Windsor, stating that the King would be at Greenwich on Saturday, and I was to go the day after. On my reaching Greenwich [Map] I found a civil gentleman, named Poller (Bollen?), sent by the King to conduct me to the palace. There I found the bishop of London (age 55), who led me to the King's antechamber, where the Court was assembled, and was received by two dukes and the archbishop of Canterbury (age 79). I conversed with these lords, waiting for the King to go to mass; and we talked of the conference at Bologna. The King, on going to mass, came directly to me, and taking me by the sleeve said, with the utmost graciousness, "You have news from my brother the Emperor." On answering Yes, he asked the date, and then said your Majesty was very careful to give him information. I assured him that you were anxious to make him partaker of all affairs, and thus show your brotherly affection. I then presented your letters, and, as to the particulars of my credentials, he said that the ambassadors in your court were authorised to treat about them. Speaking of your going into Italy I bespoke his good offices.

On his return from mass, he came up to me again, and resumed the subject. When we talked of the necessity of resisting the Turk, and of the Pope's arrival at Bologna on the 5th, I said I thought it advisable that he should commission his ambassadors with the Pope to treat; and I combated his remark that he could do but little against the Turk, seeing he was wealthy, and as absolute in his dominions as the Pope. He urged that this affair was chiefly yours, and if you wished to accomplish it you must make peace with the princes of Italy. I assured him you had never ceased from efforts in this direction. The conversation then turned on the duke Francesco Sforza; and I urged, in opposition to his remark, that your proceedings were as favorable to the Duke as could be. He objected to the cession of Pavia and Alexandria, alleging the cruelties which had taken place at Sienna. I told him Pavia was out of dispute, as it was already given up. "Between ourselves," said he, "I think it is a great shame that whilst the Turk is in Austria, the patrimony of the Emperor, he should not rescue it, but make war upon Christians." On my urging the danger that might be expected from Sforza and the Venetians if your troops were withdrawn, he urged that neither could do anything. Shortly after, changing his tone, he said, with some emphasis, "My brother the king of France has made your Emperor a marvellous offer." This he repeated three times. I said, if it were so, he had now done a virtuous part, and kept his professions. After various other topics it grew late. Not a word was said of the Queen. After dinner he asked me if I had anything more to say.

All here are satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. As for the observance of it, the Queen, as I have already written, has expressed her doubt of its duration. It is supposed to have cost this King 800,000 ducats. He is not therefore likely to break it. People here are not very anxious to repeat the dose, as it is not to their taste. At present they seem on good terms with the French. The ambassador has been only once at court with his brother since my arrival. He has been commanded to deliver his message to the Council, and abstain from communication with the Cardinal; at which he was greatly vexed. Various ambassadors are here. The most in favour is the Milanese, on whom the King has spent money. Those who are now in most credit are the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45). There is not a single person about the King who is not saturated with French money; and though they profess great affection to you, their affection for money is much stronger. I have submitted the proposition to the King respecting the sea being kept free from pirates. He has ordered a good reception for Mons. Rosymbez.

The downfall of the Cardinal (age 56) is complete. He is dismissed from the Council, deprived of the Chancellorship, and constrained to make an inventory of his goods in his own hand, that nothing may be forgotten. It is said that he has acknowledged his faults, and presented all his effects to the King. Yesterday the King returned to Greenwich by water secretly, in order to see them, and found them much greater than he expected. He took with him "sa mye" (his darling-Ann Boleyn (age 28)), her [his sister] mother (age 49), and a gentleman of his chamber (Norris?) The Cardinal, notwithstanding his troubles, has always shown a good face, especially towards the town, but since St. Luke's Day all has been changed to sighs and tears night and day. The King, either moved by pity, or for fear if he should die the whole extent of his effects would not be found, sent him a ring for his comfort. He has withdrawn with a small attendance to a place ten miles off. They have sent for his son from Paris. People say execrable things of him, all which will be known at this Parliament. But those who have raised the storm will not let it abate, not knowing, if he returned to power, what would become of them. The ambassador of France commiserates him most. It was feared the Cardinal (age 56) would get his goods out of the country, and therefore a strict watch was kept at the ports, and the watch insisted on opening the coffers of cardinal Campeggio (age 54), notwithstanding his passport, and, on his refusal, broke open the locks. He said they had done him great wrong to suppose that he could be corrupted by the Cardinal, since he had been proof against the innumerable presents offered him by the King.

The Chancellor's seal has remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56) till this morning, when it was transferred to Sir Thomas More (age 51). Every one is delighted at his promotion, because he is an upright and learned man, and a good servant of the Queen. He was Chancellor of Lancaster, an office now conferred on the Sieur Villeury (Fitzwilliam). Richard Pace, a faithful servant of your Majesty, whom the Cardinal had kept in prison for two years, as well in the Tower of London as in a monastery (Syon House), is set at liberty. Unless his mind should again become unsettled, it is thought he will rise in higher favour at Court than ever.

There is a young man here, sent by the duke of Saxony, who has much business with the King and the bishop of London (age 55).

Of the King's affair there is nothing new to communicate, except what the bishop of London (age 55) has told me, that Dr. Stokesley (age 54) had been sent to France to consult the doctors of Paris. The Queen begs your Majesty will send some respectable person there to do the same, for without some definitive sentence the King will remain obstinate in his opinions. She thinks that delay will be more dangerous than profitable, and therefore we have thought it desirable not to consent to the postponement demanded. To avoid creating suspicion in the mind of the King, she thinks I had better cease to visit her, but she will provide means for my speaking with her in private. London, 25 Oct. 1529.

P.S.-Two days after I had written the above, the Cardinal (age 56) was definitively condemned by the Council, declared a rebel, and guilty of high treason for having obtained a legatine bull, whereby he had conferred many benefices in the King's patronage. He has been deprived of his dignities, his goods confiscated, and himself sentenced to prison until the King shall decide. This sentence was not given in his presence, but to his two proctors. This he will not find easy of digestion, but worse remains behind (mais encoures ne serat il quicte pour le prix).

In or before 1530 [his son-in-law] Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 20) and [his daughter] Katherine Howard Countess Derby were married without the King's permission. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 56) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 32). He the son of Thomas Stanley 2nd Earl of Derby and Anne Hastings Countess Derby (age 44). They were third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Letters and Papers 1530. 06 Feb 1530. 6199. The Cardinal has been ill, and some say feigned illness, in the hope that the King might visit him. He has not done so, but sent him instead a promise of pardon, on the news of which the Cardinal recovered. He will receive his patent today, retain the archbishopric of York, and a pension of 3,000 angels on the see of Winchester, for which he is to resign all other benefices. Besides 10,000 angels the King has given him tapestry and plate for five rooms. All the rest the King retains. His house in town has been taken by the King, who gives another in place to the see of York. Russell told me that in consequence of some words he had spoken to the King in favor of the Cardinal the lady (age 29) had been very angry, and refused to speak with him. Norfolk (age 57) told him of her displeasure, and that she was irritated against himself, because he had not done as much against him as he might. After this he asked Russell whether he thought the Cardinal had any expectation of returning to favor; and Russell told him such was the courage and ambition of the Cardinal, that he would not fail, if he saw a favorable opportunity; and that this was not unlikely if the King should require his advice. Then the Duke (age 57) began to swear very loudly that, rather than suffer this, he would eat him up alive. To prevent such a contingency, the Cardinal has been forbidden to approach the Court within seven miles.

Letters and Papers 1530. 07 Jun 1530. Add. MS. 28,580, f. 125. B. M. 6437. Mai to Charles V (age 30).

The Pope has told me more plainly what I wrote to your Majesty that he knew very well, namely, that owing to the death of a lady to whom the Duke of Norfolk (age 57) had married, or intended to marry, his son, they have treated to marry the same son to the princess of Wales; for which reason Boleyn (age 53) has lost much hope of the marriage of Mrs. Anne (age 29) with the King; and the King has spent much money in buying goods and lands for the support of the Lady (age 29). This is thought to be evidence that he begins to give up hope of his suit, because, if he meant to make her Queen, she would have no need of these things. Rome, 7 June 1530.

Letters and Papers 1530. 14 Jun 1530. Add. MS. 28,580, f. 145. B. M. 6452. Mai to Charles V (age 30). Arguments used to the Pope against delay. They say it is the Duke of Norfolk's (age 57) daughter-in-law who is dead, and that Boleyn desires to marry his (the Duke's) son to Mistress Anne (age 29),-which may be believed as being good for all parties; first, for her, as she cannot marry the King, that she should marry the greatest lord in the realm; and secondly, to the King, as he cannot marry her. This is the third version of the story; I hope the true one at last. Yesterday the auditor of the Chamber and Benet asked brother Felice de Prato to write for the King, and he refused, neither would he show them what he had written on our behalf. Rome, 14 June 1530.

Note. Unclear as to who the Duke of Norfolk's daughter-in-law is since his son [his son] Henry Howard (age 14) appears to have only married [his future daughter-in-law] Frances Vere Countess of Surrey (age 13) who survived until 1577.

Letters and Papers 1530. 22 Jun 1530. S. B. 6469. PARLIAMENT.

Authority to Sir Tho. More (age 52), chancellor, Thomas duke of Norfolk (age 57), treasurer, Robert earl of Sussex (age 47), and John bishop of Carlisle to prorogue the Parliament from this present day, Wednesday, to the 1st of October next, on account of the pestilence in London and its suburbs. Del. Westm., 22 June 22 Hen. VIII.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 29 Oct 1530. This yeare, the morrowe after Simon and Jude,c which was the Majors feast, there dyned in the Guylde hall [Map] at the said feast the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (age 52), the Duke of Northfolke (age 57), the Duke of Suffolke (age 46), and 9 Earles and a Bishopp, sittinge all at one table, prepared in the Majors courte in the Guyld hall [Map], and two other side tables sittinge with lordes and knightes.

Note c. October 29.

In 1532 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59) was appointed Knight of the Order of St Michael.

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

[his daughter] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother [his wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 11 Oct 1532. I1 will certyfye you of our newes in the partyes of Calais. Fyrst the xj. day of October whiche was Fryday in the mornyng at. v. of the clocke the kynges grace toke his Shyppe called the Swallowe and so came to Caleys by. x. of the clocke. And there he was receyved with processyon and with the mayre and the lorde delite and all the speres [knights] and the sowdyours in araye with a greate peale of gonnes and laye in Caleys tyll the Sondaye seuenyght after. And on the. xvj. day of October my lorde of Norffolke (age 59) accompanyed with my [his former son-in-law] lord of Darby (age 23) and a great nombre of gentilmen besydes mette with the great mayster of Fraunce vj. myles fro Calays at the englysshe pale the sayd great mayster hauynge two greate lordes in his company of theyr ordre and a hondred gentylmen attendynge vpon them. And there my lorde of Norffolke (age 59) and the greate mayster deuysed the place where the two kynges sholde mete whiche was at Sandyngfelde. And that done they wente bothe to Caleys with theyr companyes. And the sayd greate mayster with dyuerse other straungers dyned that daye with ye Kynge. And after dyner my lorde of Norffolke brought them forth on theyr way a myle or two and so departed for that tyme (age 59).

Note 1. In the Second Edition, the text begins with:

The names of the noble men of Fraunce.

Fyrst the frensshe Kynge.

The kynge of Nauerne [Henry d'Albret, King of Navarre (age 29)]

The Dolphyn Duke of Brytayne Frauncys (age 14).

The duke of Orlyaunce Henry (age 13).

The duke of Angoulesme Charles (age 10).

The duke of Vendosme Charles (age 43).

The duke of Guyse (age 35).

The duke of Longouille (age 22).

The cardynall of Burbon.

The cardynall of Lorrayne (age 34)

The Legate and cardynall chaunceler of Fraunce Antony de prayt (age 69).

The cardynal tournon.

The cardynal gramond (age 46).

The marques of Lorayne de pont.

The marques of Rochelyne.

The two sonnes of the duke of Vendosme.

The sone of the duke of Guyse conte damualle. [D'Aumale]

The conte of saynt Poule Frauncys ile Burbon.

The conte of Neuers.

The conute [sic] Loys de Neuers conte danseore.

The lorde marshal! seigneur de Floraynge.

The lorde myrepois marshall de la foy. [A descendant of Guy de Lews, -who -was elected marshall of the Crusaders "who marched against the jilbigenses ; hence his successors -were all called Marec/iaux de la Foi. He received the lands of Afire foix, in Languedoc, in return for hit services. The family became very illustrious, and tve refer readers ivho have the time and patience to study a very curious piece of family history, to tlie turnings of Carrier and Lognac.]

The conte de porsean.

The conte de bresne.

The conte de tonnore. [The Comte de Tonnerre.]

The conte de sensare.

The conte de grant pre.

The conte d'apremont.

The lorde greate mayster Anne de Momerancy (age 39).

The lorde admarald Philyp Schabbot (age 40).

The lorde grand esquyer Galliot.

The prynce of molse.

The conte de tande. [This is undoubtedly Honorat, son of Pillars, Comte de Tende, natural son of Philip, duke of Sairoy. Villars had been killed at Pavia in 1525. Honorat's daughter married the great duke de Mayenne.]

The conte de villars. [Andre de Brancas, contte de Villars.]

The conte de estampes Johan de la berre. [Jean de Berri, ccmte d'Etampes,]

The conte de chambre. [Chambery?]

The lorde canamples.

The lorde barbeluiez.

The lorde hummeres. [Probably Henry de Cre'vant d'Humieres, ancestor of the celebrated marechal d' Humiercs.]

The lorde roche piot.

The lorde of saynt Andrews.

The lorde montigeu.

The lorde roche guyon.

The lorde piennes.

The lorde pontremy.

Monsieur de longe.

Monsieur de belley. Probably Martin du Bel/ay, prince a" T-vetot.

The archebysshop of Roan.

The archebysshop of Vienne.

The bysshop of Lyseures.

The bysshop of Langres.

The bysshop of Charttres.

The bysshop of Lymoges.

The bysshop of beauuoys.

The bysshop of Auuergne.

The bysshop of Macon.

The bysshop of Castres.

The bysshop of Paris.

The bysshop of Angoulesme.

And as concernynge the nobles and ryall states of this realme it necleth not to expresse by name.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 28 Oct 1532. And vpon sondaye both the kynges herde masse in theyr lodgynges. And at after-noone the kynge of Englande went to Staple hall to the frensshe kynge and there was bothe bere baytynge and bulbayting tyll nyght. And at nyght the frensshe kynge souped with our kynge and there was greate bankettynge. And after souper1 there came in a maske my lady marques of Penbroke (age 31) my lady Mary (age 33) my lady [his half-sister] Darby (age 21) my lady [his half-sister] Fitzwater (age 26) my lady Rocheford (age 27) my lady Lislie (age 38) and my lady Wallop gorgyously apparayled with visers on theyr faces and so came and toke the frensshe kynge by the hande and other lordes of Fraunce and daunced a daunce or two. And after that the kynge toke of theyr visers and than they daunced with gentylmen of Fraunce an houre after. And than they departed to theyr lodgynges. And as for the apparayle of the frensshe lordes my tongue can not expresse it and in especyal the frensshe kyng his apparayle passed1 my penne to wryte for he had a dublet ouer set all with stones and rychc diamondes whiche was valued by discrete men at a hondred thousand pounde they passed ferre our lordes and knyghtes in apparayle and rychesse. They had greate chere in Caleys and louynge also and all at our kynges costes and charges. Also the same daye that the kynges came from Bulleyn the frensshe kynge made the duke of Norffolke (age 59) and the duke of Suffolke (age 48) of the ordre of saynt Mighill2.

Note 1. The Second Edition reads "passeth" for "passed."

Note 2. Saint Michael.

Annales of England by John Stow. 11 Oct 1533. The eleuenth of October King Henrie landed at Calleis, with the [his future son-in-law] Duke of Richemonde (age 14) hys bastarde sonne, the Duke of Norffolke (age 60) Lord Treasurer of England, the Duke of Suffolke, the Marquesse of Excester, the Erles of Darby, Arundale, Ox∣forde, Surrey and Rutlande, the Vicount Lisle King Edwarde the fourth his bastarde sonne, the Lord Matrauers, the Lord Sands Lorde Chamberlaine of the Kings house, the Lorde William Hawarde, the Lorde Bray, the Lorde Montague, the Lorde Cobham, the Lorde Mordant, the Lorde Dawb∣ney, the Lorde Grey, the Lord Clinton, the Lorde Vaux, the Lorde Mountegle, the Lorde Rocheford, wyth diuers o∣ther Lordes: the Bishoppes of Winchester, London, Lincolne, and Bathe: sir William Fitz William treasourer of the kings house, sir William Pawlet Comptroller, sir William King∣stone Capitaine of the Guarde, sir Iohn Page, sir Iames Bo∣leine, sir Anthony Browne, sir Edwarde Neuell, sir Thomas Cheyney▪ sir Iohn Russell, sir Richard Page, sir Ralph Elder∣care, sir Edward Baynton, sir Edwarde Santener, sir Griffyth Deene, sir Iohn Dudley, sir Iohn Femer, sir Henry Long, sir Anthony Hungerforde, sir Iohn Brudges, sir Arthur Hoptō, sir Anthony Wingfielde, sir William Paston, sir Edmonde Bedingfielde, sir Thomas Strange, sir William Hawte, sir Ed∣warde Wotton, sir William Askewe, sir Iohn Marleant, sir William Barington, sir William Essex, sir Giles Strangweis, sir Edwarde Chamberlaine, sir Giles Caple, sir Iohn Sent-Iohn, sir Walter Hungerforde, sir William Gascoine, sir Lio∣nel Norrice, sir Edwarde Boloine, sir Thomas Lisle, sir Iohn Ashton, sir Thomas Palmer, sir William Boloine, sir Willi∣am Finche, sir William Pellam, sir Thomas Rotherham, sir Iohn Norton, sir Richarde Sandes, sir Iohn Neuell, and thyr∣tie Esquiers, with manye Gentlemenne, and all theyr traines.

Letters and Papers 1533. 26 Jan 1533. Close Roll, 24 Hen. VIII. m. 24 d., Rym. XIV. 446. 73. The Great Seal.

Memorandum that on the 26th Jan., "anno predicto," about 3 p.m., in a chamber near the oratory at East Greenwich, in presence of Thomas duke of Norfolk (age 60), Thomas Cranmer, elect of Canterbury, Thomas earl of Wiltshire (age 56), Stephen bishop of Winchester, Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam, treasurer of the Household, Sir Wm. Poulet, comptroller of the Household, Thomas Crumwell, Ralph Paxhall, John Croke, and John Judd, the King took the Great Seal from the custody of Thomas Audeley, and, after holding it a quarter of an hour, returned it to the custody of the same Thomas Audeley, appointing him Chancellor of England. Thereupon the said Chancellor sealed a subpœna upon one John Gilbert, in presence of the King and nobles, and returned the Great Seal into its bag, which he sealed with his own seal.

Letters and Papers 1533. 27 Jan 1533. Vienna Archives. 89. Chapuys to Charles V.

Three days ago received the Emperor's letters of the 27th ult., concerning the visit of the Emperor and the Pope to Bologna, and the exploit of the prince of Melphi. Communicated part of it to the duke of Norfolk (age 60), to be reported to the King, who was in the country. The Duke was pleased with the news, and thanked me for my good offices, saying they would be as agreeable to the King as to himself. I told him your Majesty was very desirous to preserve friendship, and had such confidence in the King that you would not conceal any of your affairs; you were pleased to hear that the two Cardinals were coming to Italy at the King's instance, and had put off treating with the Pope until their arrival. Said this partly on account of their refusal to allow ambassadors at the interview at Calais, but chiefly because the French ambassador had said that your Majesty wished to settle everything before the Cardinals arrived, but the Pope refused. Norfolk praised your intention, and said the Cardinals had already arrived at Bologna, and were honourably received. He spoke of the sumptuousness of their train, and wondered how they could assemble so great a company in so short a time, as it was agreed by the Kings that they should only take 24 horses between them. When I tried to find out the cause of their mission, he excused himself as before by his illness, which prevented him from attending to business. He said he wished the Emperor had been at St. Omer at the same time, for then the interview would not have been without his presence. I replied, that I thought they did not want many witnesses, as they prevented ambassadors from coming. He said the reason of this was that the object was not to make treaties, but only enjoyment, and it was not worth while to give ambassadors the trouble of coming, but that the presence of your Majesty's would have been the cause of proposing many important matters. I suggested that, perhaps, the Cardinals had orders to put forward what the Kings had wished to treat with your Majesty, and, if it was feasible, they might remedy your Majesty's absence at the inverview. The Duke hoped this would happen, and said that though the Cardinals were good men, and privy councillors of the French king, they only knew the outside of affairs, and everything was in the hands of the Chancellor, Grand Master, and Admiral, all of whom he praised, but especially the Admiral. The Grand Master he liked least of the three.

Letters and Papers 1533. 09 Feb 1533. Vienna Archives. 142. Chapuys to Charles V.

Wrote last on the 29th. Though the Nuncio was put off eight days for an answer, he returned to the duke of Norfolk (age 60) the day I wrote last, and was with him a long time, though he told me nothing of it. Early the next morning he went to Greenwich, and was nearly all day with the King and Council, going from one to the other. Heard of this from a servant of the Queen, and went to the Nuncio to find out the mystery; but he would not repeat what had passed, as he had been accustomed to do, and concealed having spoken to the King and Council. When I said to him that since he had been put off to a certain day for his answer, as the nature of these people is to go further back the more they are pressed, he might injure his business instead of advancing it, he replied that he was a poor gentleman, living by his service, and it was right for him to act thus. I do not quite understand what he meant by this, unless that he pretended he could mend the affair somehow (que ainsi faisant il pourroit a quelque fin que tombat l'affere amender de ceulx cy.) He says that for a year they have made him large offers, if he would favor the divorce. Could get nothing out of him but that he had gone to Greenwich to find the man who had fixed the term of eight days for his answer, and being there did not omit to visit the duke of Norfolk. It seems probable from this dissimulation that the Nuncio was the promoter of these practices. Yesterday morning the King sent for him to give him his answer, and to take him to Parliament. The King went by water, and during the journey praised the Nuncio for his conduct, and thanked him for the affection and goodwill which he showed to his service. He asked him not to take it in bad part, if he gave him no other answer about the proposal he had made to him; the reason was not distrust, but because it would be a useless waste of time, as the whole must be referred to the Pope, and he would send his ambassadors full instructions and powers. The Nuncio told him that as the affair would not admit of delay, if the instructions and powers were not in proper form the Pope would be constrained to proceed to the sentence; for this reason it would be well to communicate the whole to him, and to cause the Queen to send a similar power. To this the King would not consent. The Nuncio told him that if this agreement took effect he must recall the Queen, and treat her more cordially. The King replied that he had already given him an answer about this, and he would do nothing of the kind, and for good reasons, her disobedience and extreme severity to him.

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Feb 1533. 160. The Lady (age 32) within the last eight days, dining in her chamber, has said several times she felt it as sure as death that the King would marry her shortly; and her father (age 56) told the earl of Rutland two days ago that the King did not mean to be so dilatory (respectif) as he had been, but would complete the marriage with his daughter, which being once done by the authority of Parliament, they could pacify objectors more easily than now. And on his asking the Earl whether, if it were set forth in Parliament, he would oppose the King, he being the King's kinsman, the Earl replied that the affair was spiritual, and could not be decided in Parliament. The father (age 56) on this attacked him with abusive language (rechargea de grosses parolles), as if he had uttered some great blasphemy, and compelled him to say that he would consent to whatever the King wished; of which things the said Earl sent to inform me immediately, in order that some remedy might be found, without trusting that any of the Parliament would dare to contradict. The Lady's father (age 56) has not declared himself until the present time; but, as the duke of Norfolk (age 60) has told me several times, has rather dissuaded the King from it than otherwise. This thing throws the Queen into great doubt, connected with other appearances, as that of a new Chancellor whom the King has made, suited to his purpose; and for this reason the King has required that three bishops who held the Queen's side should be excused from it, and he has deputed as proctors those who pleased him; of which the Queen has charged me to write to you.

Letters and Papers 1533. 26 Feb 1533. Camusat, 123 b. 184. Wm. Du Bellay [Lord Of Langey], Beauvoys, and Dinteville to Francis I.

Yesterday the king of England sent for Dinteville to show him certain news from Italy; and Langey, who had news to communicate to him from France, and Beauvais, who had just returned from Scotland, accompanied him. He was pleased with Langey's charge, and agreed with Francis, even about the interview, to which he will send some one whom he trusts, either the duke of Norfolk (age 60) or the Earl of Wiltshire (age 56). He desired them to write and say that he wished Francis would desire the cardinals Tournon and Grammont to cause the Pope to do nothing in his affair meanwhile. Langey told him that it would be to their common advantage if he would compose his differences with the Scotch king. He replied, as he had done previously to Montpesat and Dinteville, that any means the King could find would be good for him. Beauvais then told him what he had done in Scotland. He was greatly pleased therewith, especially when he heard that Francis hoped to arrange an interview between him and his nephew. Will not write more, as Langey and Beauvais leave in three or four days, and there is danger of letters being intercepted at sea. London, 26 Feb. Fr.

Letters and Papers 1533. 01 Mar 1533. R. O. 197. Trial Of The Pix.

Assay of silver made in the Star Chamber at Westminster, 1 March 24 Hen. VIII., in presence of Sir Thomas Audeley, chancellor, Thos. duke of Norfolk (age 60), treasurer of England, Thos. earl of Wiltshire (age 56), keeper of the Privy Seal, John lord Huse, Sir John Fitzjames, chief justice of the King's Bench, Sir Ric. Lyster, chief baron of the Exchequer, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, justice of the Common Pleas, Sir Ric. Weston, sub-treasurer of the Exchequer, Sir Ric. Sacheverell, and Sir John Daunce. On opening the pix there were found 30 "sinchiæ," containing £28 5s. 7d. in silver groats, half-groats, pence, halfpence, and farthings, taken out of 40,405 lbs. 1 oz. of silver weight coined and delivered out of the Exchange in the Tower of London since 20 May 22 Hen. VIII., in the time of John Copynger, keeper of the Exchange aforesaid, and William Blount lord Mountjoy, master of the Mint. Lat., p. 1.

Letters and Papers 1533. 08 Mar 1533. 212. On the 23rd the Nuncio received from the Pope the briefs to be presented to the King for summoning the Council. He was at Court to present them; but as it was a day when the Lady (age 32) gave a banquet the King would not give him audience, but deputed Norfolk (age 60) to hear his charge. Since then he has asked many times for an audience and for an answer, and after waiting from day to day he was told yesterday that the King was busy, and it was no use for him to wait, for the King would write in three days to his ambassadors at Rome.

Letters and Papers 1533. 08 Mar 1533. Vienna Archives. 212. Chapuys to Charles V.

I wrote on the 23rd ult. On the 24th I received your Majesty's letters of the 28th Jan. The same day Langez arrived from France, and a French gentleman named Beauvoix from Scotland, who have been, as usual, well received, and dined at the King's table with the other Ambassador the day after their arrival, which was Shrove Tuesday, when the Lady (age 32) took the place usually occupied by the Queen; and there were present the duke of Norfolk (age 60) and other great masters, except Suffolk, although he had been expressly called to come with the order of France. The said Langez and Beauvoix were here but four days, and were every day in Court and in communication with the King and Council, "mays non poinct fort griemant;" and it seems that their hasty despatch was either because Langez could not arrange anything important, or to hasten the settlement of their dispute with Scotland. I think one of the chief objects of Langez's coming has been to take resolution with those here about the Council, which both parties desire to prevent. I am led to think this, because, in talking with Langez, he suddenly said to me that your Majesty had obtained your desire, viz., the said Council, and that the Pope had no mind to refuse you anything since he had been punished by your Majesty by imprisonment and otherwise. And on my declaring to him the displeasure you had felt at his Holiness's imprisonment, and his sudden deliverance as soon as you were informed of it, he intimated that a ransom had been paid for the said deliverance, although it was more honorable and gracious than his Holiness deserved. This I could not allow to pass after declaring the respect you had always felt for his Holiness, and showed that the Pope had done more for his master than for your Majesty, pointing out also the necessity of the said Council, which the Pope must have promoted without being asked. On this Langez retracted what he had said. He told me his master had written to the Pope that a Council was reasonable and necessary, but that two conditions ought to be observed: first, that it must be in a suitable place where all could attend, and if it were held in Italy he should have the right of bringing as many forces as you had brought; and (2) that it should treat of nothing but what concerned the Faith, and enter into no particular quarrels. He did not enter fully into the said conditions, for Brian had just come for him and the other Ambassadors to conduct them to Court, taking no particular pleasure in my conversation with him. Suggests reasons for these conditions; among others, the fear they have lest it should be proposed to restore to the Empire the temporalities now held by the Pope, doubting that your Majesty would grow too great thereby.

Langez proceeded to justify the course he had taken at Paris about the divorce, saying he had not done any bad turn there, as people thought, and that he no more desired the divorce than I did. And he said that last year, when he was in Germany, he had found certain of your ministers very little inclined to the preservation of peace with his master; for that they said that his master had promoted the coming of the Turks. Further, in the course of conversation he said that you had used certain words at an assembly at Ratisbon not honorable to the King his master, stating that when he had been asked for succour against the Turk he had replied that he would not hazard his people.

In consequence of their hurry to go to Court, I had no leisure to treat with the gentleman who returned from Scotland. Conversation with Langez on the peace there, who professed ignorance of what this gentleman has done. Asked Norfolk (age 60), but could get no information. He told me that Langez had talked to the King and his Council, as he had done to me, but did not say much, as Suffolk and Wiltshire (age 56) were standing by while he had to go to the King, who had sent for him already three times. I hope I shall find out some of the particulars of Langez's charge. As to the other, I have learned that since the Scotch king received the Order (of the Golden Fleece) from your Majesty, the Scots are no longer inclined to France, and have proceeded so far as to beat down the arms of France, and put up the Imperial arms in their room. On being informed of this, the French king had sent him to James, explaining that he had not put off giving his daughter in marriage to him. To which the Scotch king made a gracious and prudent answer, expressive of his affection for France; and as to the reception of the Order, he had merely acted in conformity [with your liberality], of which he could not repent; and he spoke much in praise of you.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Around 08 Apr 1533. And the Wednesdaie before the good Queene Katherinf was deposed at Hanthill [Map]a by the Duke of Norfolke (age 60), the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and Lord Marques of Exceter (age 37), my Lorde of Oxforde (age 62), Lord Chamberlaine of the Kinges howse, Mr. Treasorer and Mr. Controwler of the Kinges howse. And from that dale after to be called Ladie Catherin, wife of Prince Arthur, dowarie of Englande,b she to have by yearelie pencion for her dowarie eight thousand poundes sterlinge.

Note f. The general opinion in England was distinctly adverse to the divorce. See Calendar of State Papers preserved in the Archives of Venice, vol. iv. 1532-3.

Note a. Ampthill [Map], in Bedfordshire, to which place Queen Katharine retired while the question of her dirorce was under discussion. This castle had been erected by Lord Fanhope, and reverted with the manor to the Crown in the reign of Edward IV, by whom it was conferred on Lord Grey of Ruthin, Earl of Kent, from whose descendants it passed again to the Crown about 1530, and became a palace of Henry VIII (age 41).

Note b. Princess Dowager of Wales, which designation was displeasing to the ex-queen, who refused to resign herself to the judgment passed. She went so far as to obliterate with her own pen the words "Princess Dowager" whererer they had been written by her Chamberlain, Mountjoy (age 55), in his report to the King (age 41).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Saturday, the eve of Easter, Lady Anne (age 32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the [his daughter] daughter (age 14) of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), betrothed to the [his future son-in-law] Duke of Richmond (age 13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church [Map] with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former Queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of Queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (age 41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new Queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (age 41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (age 43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the Queen (age 47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (age 41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Tuesday the 7th inst., having been informed of the strange and outrageous conduct and proceedings of this king (age 41) against the Queen (age 47), whereof I have written to Your Majesty, I went to Court at the hour appointed for the King's audience, that I might there duly remonstrate against the Queen's treatment. I took with me Mr. Hesdin, who by the consent of the Queen [of Hungary] is now here to claim the arrears of his pension, in order that he might be present, and hear the remonstrances I had to address the King (age 41), hoping also that if I had to use threatening language the King (age 41) might not be so much offended if uttered in the presence of the said Hesdin. On my arrival at Greenwich [Map] the earl of Vulchier (age 56) (Wiltshire) came to meet me, and leading me to the apartments of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), who had just gone to see the Queen (age 47), said to me that the King (age 41) being very much engaged at that hour had deputed him to listen to what I had to say, and report thereupon. My answer was that my communication was of such a nature and so important that I could not possibly make it to anyone but to the King (age 41) in person. Until now he had never refused me audience, or put me off, and I could not think that he would now break through the custom without my having given him any occasion for it, especially as the King (age 41) knew that Your Majesty most willingly received the English ambassadors at all hours, whatever might be their errand or business. The Earl (age 56) repeated his excuses, and seemed at first disinclined to take my answer back to the King (age 41), until at last, perceiving my firm determination, he went in and came back saying the King (age 41) would see me immediately, though he still tried to ascertain what my business was, and advised me to put off my communication until after the festivals. It was settled at last that I should see the King (age 41) on Thursday in Holy Week, on which day having about me a copy of my last despatch [to Your Majesty], I took again the road to Court, accompanied as before by the said Master Hesdin, and was introduced to the Royal presence by the same earl of Wiltshire (age 56). The King (age 41) received us graciously enough. After the usual salutations and inquiries about Your Majesty's health, the King (age 41) asked me what news I had of your movements. I answered that the letters I had received last were rather old, but that I had reason to believe you had already embarked to return to Spain at the beginning of this present month. This statement the King (age 41) easily believed, and was rejoiced to hear (such is his wish to see you fairly out of Italy). I added that the weather for the last days could not have been more favourable, and therefore that it was to be hoped Your Majesty had reached Spain in safety. Having then asked me whether I had other news to communicate, I told him that your brother, the king of the Romans (age 30), had made his peace with the Turk, and that the latter had sent an embassy, at which piece of intelligence the King (age 41) remained for some time in silent astonishment as if he did not know what to answer.

Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the Princess (age 17).

Letters and Papers 1533. 18 May 1533. Vienna Archives. 508. Chapuys to Charles V.

Although the King's Council had promised me an answer to my letters within three days, they delayed to call me for more than six. On Tuesday last the duke of Norfolk (age 60) and others invited me to dinner, which I thought it right to decline under the circumstances, especially not to increase the suspicion that your Majesty has consented to this detestable proceeding. After dinner I went to them; and there, for innumerable reasons, they wished to persuade me that I ought not to interfere with the jurisdiction of the archbishop of Canterbury, both on account of their late law, and also for the insufficiency of my power, against which they raised several objections. Having fully replied to them on these matters, they, instead of answering me, begged me to consider the little good, and, on the other hand, the danger, that would arise from what it was proposed to do. I showed them again the utility of it, and the necessity which compelled me to proceed according to my charge; and both on this and on the other matters we had a long conversation, of which it is needless to report the tenth part, as all the points depended one upon another.

Letters and Papers 1533. 18 May 1533. 508. Tomorrow the duke of Norfolk's (age 60) horses and some of his company will leave this. He himself will follow in six days, to be at Nice at the beginning of July. As for news, the Pope's agent, who was here about the convocation of the Council, was referred from the court of France to this court for an answer to this charge, and the English have sent him back to the said court, remitting everything to the will of the French king. The King's Council say that the Pope is only trifling in this matter, and has no more wish for a Council than they have. The Pope's agent has been very well received with a present of 300 cr. They made court some days to the Nuncio to give the people to understand the intelligence they had with the Pope. They had the Nuncio here resident for this and other matters quite at their command, and he has done very poor service in the Queen's affair. Nothing is known yet to have been done by the French ambassador, who has gone to Scotland for the peace. Since he left here, he has received many letters from his own court; which, I suspect, is owing to the urgency of the English, who desire peace very much. There have been here, for eight days, two young Frenchmen, who, the day before yesterday, returning from court, where one was made a knight, came to visit me with the French ambassador. They are sent hither by the grand master and admiral of France to be installed in the Chapel of the Order of the Garter at Windsor, in the name of those lords.

On 28 May 1533 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was appointed Earl Marshal.

Letters and Papers 1533. 29 May 1533. Vienna Archives. 556. Chapuys to Charles V.

The duke of Norfolk (age 60), who was to have left on the 26th, the date of my last letters, has, by the King's command, remained two days longer; and this, I think, partly to negotiate with me on matters I shall report hereafter. The day before yesterday he sent to me, early in the morning, an honest man to desire that I would immediately send my most confidential servant to communicate with him on some matters; and considering that on every account my own going would be better than sending any of my servants, I repaired to him immediately, but in disguise and secretly, for the consideration which, as I wrote, prevented me from going to bid him adieu.

After thanking me for the trouble I had taken in coming to him, he said he was going to this meeting of two as great princes as there were in Christendom, where, if it had pleased God that your Majesty had been present, he was sure it would not have been your fault if a most perfect peace and amity were not concluded; of which matter he said your Majesty held the keys, and everything depended upon it, and that since there was no hope of your being personally present, the greatest good that could come would be by your sending ministers well inclined to union. And, either for a joke, or as an acknowledgment of my trouble, or, as the phrase goes, to offer a candle to the enemy, he was pleased to say that he would like much that I were one of the said ministers; wishing also, but with better cause, that the Nuncio here were with his Holiness. To this I replied that it never was owing to your Majesty, nor would be, that Christendom was not perfectly united, declaring the intolerable labors and expenses you had sustained for that end, and that your Majesty desired nothing more than to increase the amity with the King his master, as all the world could easily see. And as it appeared that the union of which he spoke depended on the matter of this cursed marriage, he must not say that your Majesty held the key, but if the King his master would allow it to be determined by an impartial tribunal like the Pope [that would be sufficient]. For this cause he ought to desire that his master should be present at the interview in order that they might urge him to act in this manner, which was all that your Majesty demanded, and which could not be refused to the least person in the world. As to the ministers of your Majesty with his Holiness and the most Christian King, after I had declared their sufficiency, he was satisfied; praying me, nevertheless, that I would write to them by all means to show themselves tractable and do their duty at the said meeting. He added, that he wished your Majesty would send again plenty of ambassadors thither, of whom some should be men of authority, as his master was sending thither many persons, and not among the least persons of the kingdom, and it would be necessary that some one should be there who knew the importance of the common interests of your Majesty's countries and this kingdom. The end of his talk was, that no one was more fit than De Praet, whose appointment he begged me to solicit; and on my saying I did not think you would send more ambassadors without being desired by the Pope, and that I was astonished he had been so long in giving me notice, he answered as to the first that he fully believed that your Majesty had been long ago apprised by the Pope, who would not have dared to treat of this without your consent; and as to not having informed me sooner, it was because the French king had requested his master to keep it as secret as possible, and to disclose it to no one but him and one other. This was about three months ago; since which time the French king had renewed his request several times, that an ambassador should be nominated to go to the said meeting, which charge he desired to perform even at the loss of one of his fingers. He told me afterwards that the King his master had taken in very good part the warnings I had given to Cromwell to avoid occasions of irritating your Majesty; that he had been very much grieved that the arms of the Queen had been not only taken from her barge, but also rather shamefully mutilated; and that he had rather roughly rebuked the Lady's chamberlain, not only for having taken away the said arms, but for having seized the barge, which belonged only to the Queen, especially as there are in the river many others quite as suitable. I praised the King's goodwill touching the arms, and for the rest I said there was no need of excuse, for what belonged to the Queen was the King's still more; adding that I was now encouraged to hope that the King would see to the honorable treatment of the Queen and Princess; for, as I said to Cromwell, the pretence of a scruple of conscience could not extend to their treatment; and if they were ill-used, besides the displeasure of God, he would incur blame from all the world, and greatly irritate your Majesty. On this he spoke as highly of both of them as could be, and said he was very sure your Majesty loved the Princess naturally, but that he thought he loved her more. He mentioned, among other virtues of the Queen, the great modesty and patience she had shown, not only during these troubles, but also before them, the King being continually inclined to amours. And as to the said treatment, he was sure the King would not diminish her dower, of about 24,000 ducats, assigned to her in the time of prince Arthur, if she would content herself with the state a widow princess ought to keep. To this I said I thought the King so wise and humane that, in consideration of the virtue of the Queen, the long and good service she had done him, and also of her kindred, he would not diminish anything of what she had had till then, and I begged him to use his influence to that effect. He swore by his faith "quil avoit bachier (?) plus de 10,000 escuz" that I had spoken to him on this subject; for unless I had opened this door to him, he would not have dared to moot the question for all the gold in the world, but after our communications he would urge the affair to the end, and do his very best, in accordance with my suggestions to Cromwell. He said the King had also taken very well my suggestion that he should write a letter to your Majesty in defence of what he has done in this matter. I protested to him, as I had done to Cromwell, that what I had said was not as ambassador, but as one devoted to the service of the King, and anxious for peace; and as to the said letter, if it did not produce all the effect that the King desired, I hoped he would not reproach me for having solicited it, as it pleased him once to tell me touching the mission of the earl of Wiltshire. Norfolk said there was no fear of this, and begged that I would communicate (fere tenir) the said letter to his Majesty's ambassador, which would be in a packet which he would send me for the said ambassador. This I promised. Nevertheless, I have not yet received the packet.

On this, not wishing to wait dinner, though he desired me, I returned with the intention of sending to him later a servant of mine, which I did. By him and also by Brian Tuke he sent to me to say that he had determined to come to me tomorrow early at my lodging; but as his departure was to be so abrupt, the King would not let him move a step further from him in order to discuss the affairs of his charge, and therefore he begged me very urgently that I would go there, and that he hoped that we should do or at least begin some good work. Next morning I went secretly to see him in his chamber, when he replied to me, as to writing for the despatch of the persons above mentioned, that if your Majesty desired the peace and union to be accomplished, there was no excuse from the shortness of time, for you could receive my letters in 15 days; and as the meeting was not to begin till about the 5th July people could leave Barcelona in time for it, and be there quite as soon as he. He therefore begged me diligently to write, although I put before him the reasons already alleged, and also to see that the King's packet for his ambassador should go along with mine. As to the treatment of the Queen (age 47), he said that the King by their laws was no longer bound to the Queen with respect to the dower she had by Prince Arthur; and moreover that by virtue of the Act passed in this last Parliament, as the Queen would not obey it, the King might use rigour and diminish even the dower she has. Nevertheless, for the reasons which I had mentioned on the previous day and for others, the King would treat her honorably, not indeed so liberally as when she was Queen, unless she would submit to the sentence of divorce which the archbishop of Canterbury [had given]; and he thought I had so much influence with her that I might induce her to do so, by which I should acquire inestimable glory, and be the cause of as great a benefit as could be done not only to this kingdom but to Christendom, which remained disunited simply on this account; also that this way would be more effectual than any other, for if your Majesty would enter into war on this account, it would be the greatest calamity to Christendom. Moreover that it was impossible to fly into this kingdom (que lon ne peult vouler dans ce royaulme), and that, being there, they would find people to talk to, and very difficult to subdue or even to injure; and as to making war upon them by the sea, they, having the aid of France, of which they were as much assured as of their own people, would fear no power whatever. Further he ventured to affirm that if you attempted to make war upon this kingdom you would not be without anxiety to guard your own countries from their friends and allies, who were neither few nor unimportant. For, besides the king of France, who was most constant to them, they had the king of Scotland entirely at their command; who, since the one year's truce made with the King, was anxious for nothing but the conclusion of a peace; and he dared affirm that the Scotch king would come here before 10 months, when a marriage would be concluded between him and the daughter of the king of France. Moreover, they had the friendship of a great part of Germany, and Italy was not so well affected to your Majesty as you might think. He doubted not that the Spaniards, for their courage, and the sake of their reputation, and for the glory of previous victories, would stimulate your Majesty to war; but he trusted your Majesty was too prudent and regardful of ancient friendship and good offices done to you and your predecessors to lend an ear to such advisers, especially considering the arrogance of the Spaniards, who for want of payment have lately mutinied against you.

I answered as to this last, that I knew nothing of it, and, if true, it was not of much importance, for it had happened to many valiant commanders. As to the rest, although there were sufficiently apparent reasons by which to answer him, and also about the injustice done to the Queen, yet as I had come to hear something else, and in order to let him understand that I did not make very much of the terrors which he wished to raise up, I said as little as possible, merely remarking by way of joke that your Majesty was much bound to those who had greater consideration for your injuries than for their own, and that all the world knew your Majesty would not make war, even against those from whom you had received no favor, without being compelled by a very just quarrel; and that in such a case, with the help of God, in whom you placed your trust, you could manage your own affairs; and, moreover, there was no prince in the world who, in my opinion, had better means of obtaining friendships. With this reply I should have left him in a sweat without going further, but I begged him that we might not speak as if war would take place, but rather how to avoid occasion of it; which would never be given on the part of your Majesty. As to what he said of the justice of the Queen, since argument was to no purpose, I made no reply to him; but as to the first point, if he wished me to induce the Queen to submit to the sentence of the archbishop of Canterbury, I denied that I had any influence over her; and, to speak frankly, if I had I would not use it to that effect for all the gold in the world, unless your Majesty should command me; and though I was sure you would never consent to anything except what justice would ordain, yet, to gratify the King, I would write to you about all this, and if perhaps I received your commandment to enter upon such a course, which I did not expect, I would show the King the desire I had to do him service, and help in the preservation of amity. On this the Duke swore by the faith he owed to God that I spoke like an honest man, and that he could not press me further, but begged me to do in this and all else the best I could. Your Majesty will see to what they are reduced when they address themselves to me, when they know very well, as the King once told me, and as I have written to your Majesty, that I have always been and am most devoted to the right of the Queen; so that it must be said either that they are in very great fear, or think me mad, or are themselves altogether blind. And in order to play the part of a corsair among corsairs (pour jouer avec eulx de courssaire a courssaires), I have a little dissembled with the Duke about the treatment of the said ladies, in accordance with your Majesty's commands, awaiting your determination for the remedy of this matter. I have written the said conversations of the Duke in plain writing, because he uttered them in order that I might inform your Majesty; and if, perhaps, he spoke them of himself without command of the King or his Council, I might have given greater faith to what he said to me of their friendships and intelligences, because by nature he is no great dissembler or inventer. And not to speak of the rest, as to the Scots, whatever confidence they have here to have the said Scots at their command, I know for certain that since the date the truce is said to have been concluded, the said Scots have taken several ships at different times, the last being not ten days ago, when they took seven very rich vessels. The Duke, as to what I had said, that the presence of his master would be very desirable at the said meeting, answered that it would be of no use; for if the Pope, the king of France, and all the world were to attempt it, they could not persuade the King to take back the Queen,—such was the scruple of his conscience, joined to the despair of having issue by her; and that it was in vain for the Pope to give sentence, for they will make no account of it or of his censures. No doubt it would give them some trouble, but for that they cared not; and if, perhaps, by reason of the said censures, Spain and Flanders would cease intercourse with the English, the others would share in the injury, and they would send part of their merchandize to Flanders and the rest to Calais, where your subjects to their great inconvenience would be compelled to get their wools, which were indispensable to them, as he said. To this I made no reply, but smiled. After this he began to excuse himself that he had not been a promoter of this marriage, but had always dissuaded it; and had it not been for him and her father, who pretended to be mad to have better means of opposing this marriage, it would have been done secretly a year ago; on which account the Lady was very indignant against both of them. In confirmation of this, I have learned from a very good authority, and from one who was present, that eight days since, the Lady having put in a piece to enlarge her gown, as ladies do when in the family way, her father told her she ought to take it away, and thank God to find herself in such condition; and she, in presence of Norfolk, Suffolk, and the treasurer of the household, replied by way of announcement, that she was in better condition than he would have desired. On departure, the Duke made me many gracious offers of his person and goods, recommending the sending of the said packet, and great care in writing to send personages to the said meeting, and above all to make his recommendations to your Majesty, to whom, after the King his master, he desires most to do service. This he said several times in the presence of the whole Council. I have not been with them since.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map].

Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 30), Walter Blount, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) escorted the [his step-mother] Dowager Duchess of Norfolk (age 56). Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) carried the Salt. [his wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

[his former son-in-law] Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 24), Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 38) and George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 30) supported the train of the mantle.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60), [his half-brother] William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 23), [his half-brother] Thomas Howard (age 22) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 68) carried the canopy.

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [his son-in-law] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 14) and [his daughter] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 14) were married. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36). He the son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 35). They were third cousins.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 09 Jul 1534. Memorandum: the Lord Dakers (age 41),c of the North Countrie, was pechid of highe treason, and sett in prison in the Tower of London [Map], and all his goods and landes were seised into the Kinges handes, which was great riches, and the 9th of Julye, 1534, he was arreigned at Westminstre, the Duke of Northfolke (age 61) sittinge then as high judge,d and there he discharged himselfe of all that his accuserse coulde alledge againste him, and so there he was quitt by a jurie of Lordes, and by the lawe allso.

Note c. William Dacre (age 41), third Lord Dacre, of the North.

Note d. Being Lord High Steward.

Note e. Sir Ralph Fenwick (age 64) and Nicholas Musgrave (age 37), who brought in their false Scotes for witnesses. — Stow. [Note. Nicholas Musgrave proably a mistake for William Musgrave (age 37).]

Letters and Papers 1535. 01 Jan 1535. 1. I doubt not he will be very glad to hear that the Earl of Northumberland (age 33) is not too well pleased either with the King or with his ministers, as the said Earl's physician informed me two days ago, declaring that his master had said the whole realm was so indignant at the oppressions and enormities now practised, that if the Emperor would make the smallest effort, the King would be ruined. The King's only hope was in the Turk, of whose strength those here shamefully boast. The Earl then began to enlarge on the arrogance and malice of the King's lady (age 34), saying that lately she had spoken such shameful words to the Duke of Norfolk (age 62) as one would not address to a dog, so that he was compelled to quit the chamber. In his indignation he declared himself to one to whom he did not generally show good-will, and uttered reproaches against the said Lady (age 34), of which the least was to call her "grande putain1".

Note 1. great whore.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Feb 1535. 174. On the Monday following at 8 a.m. declared his charge to Cromwell; the Admiral's hope that he would help to bring matters to a good issue, and Francis' satisfaction on hearing that such a virtuous and wise person had the ear of the King. To this Cromwell replied with thanks and expressions of affection that I cannot write. He alone has more influence with his master than any other; the late Cardinal of York had not more. He spoke much of his master's prosperity and authority and the quiet of the kingdom. He has increased his revenue by 500,000 cr., for since the Admiral's departure Parliament has given him the ordinary tenths, besides which he will take this year the annates of bishopries, abbeys, and other benefices, of which the possessors are bound to take from the King new bulls and provisions, and give up those from the Pope as null, and to swear to hold their benefices of the King. He showed me a copy of the oath sworn by the bishops. He says that by a little writing, from himself alone, he can be obeyed and summon all princes and lords for his master's service.

Cromwell then took him to Westminster, where he presented his letters to Norfolk (age 62). He asked much about the Admiral, as did "Messieurs de Suffolck (age 51) et Fischer" (Fitzwilliam?). After dinner, was taken by Cromwell to the King in the matted gallery, where the Admiral (age 43) spoke with the King the first time. He asked a copy in writing of what Gontier had said to him, and put it in his sleeve without looking at it. He then began to walk about, and talked for three hours.

He complained of the practises on the side of Spain for the marriage of the Emperor's daughter with the Dauphin, and not long ago the Imperial ambassador had been for a long time shut up with the French queen; that three despatches had been made towards Spain since the Admiral's return, and he saw now that the delay in Gontier's coming was to wait for a reply. He said they wished to accomplish (joindre) the marriage of the Dauphin and also at the same time that of his daughter the Princess, so as to be supported on both sides. Unless these practises are broken he must be careful of speaking, showing that he has great suspicions, for this was not the language that Francis used both by mouth and in writing. He remembered also one day Francis saying to his children that they must never forget the inhuman treatment of the Emperor to him and to them, and if they did not avenge it after his death, if he could not himself, as he hoped, he gave them his curse. He accused the Emperor of deceit and breaches of faith, and of trying to disturb by false offers the friendship between them, repeating what he had said the previous evening, that he had made him offers, and he could be on good terms with him if he liked, but any reconciliation on this side would be too dangerous. He had kept his promise, and never been engaged in any practises, and he complained of what had been done at Marseilles, of which he had no knowledge nor participation till afterwards. He said the French Council governed as if their only object was to lose good friends, and he wished Francis would take the management of his affairs more into his own hands. In consequence of having supported France he had lost the Emperor's friendship, who called him son bon pere, and had often written and promised that he would do nothing contrary to what he ought as a son. France would find herself deceived, whatever promises he had made; even the surrender of Milan would not be accomplished when the time came. His only intention was to show to England and others that there was no reliance upon Francis' friendship. He would find himself cut out in Italy if he did not advance soon, for the Emperor would be there first, speaking also of the league agreed to by all the potentates and signories of Italy. As to the Pope, Francis ought to act quite differently, and get out of him what he had.

Letters and Papers 1535. 25 Feb 1535. 263. Today the Duke of Suffolk (age 51) leaves secretly for Suffolk, I know not for what purpose. Norfolk (age 62) withdrew to his house 15 days ago very ill-pleased. The day before he left he complained to lord Montague (age 43) that he was held in no esteem, "et par avant avoit nulle choses de la dame du Roy1." The Marquis has been [word omitted] and only regrets that he has no opportunity of shedding his blood in the service of the Queen and Princess; "sil estoit question de quelque chose il ne seroit des derniers, et unyroit petite suyte2." The young lady who was lately in the King's favor is so no longer. There has succeeded to her place a cousin german of the concubine (age 34), daughter [either Margaret "Madge" Shelton, Anne Shelton or Mary Shelton (age 25)] of the present gouvernante (age 59) of the Princess. The Queen has been informed on good authority that the Waywode's man was seeking the marriage of the Princess with his master; but there is no great probability that he will succeed either in this or in obtaining money. I will inform your Majesty hereafter of whatever I may hear about this and about a gentleman lately come from the Duke of Holstein. I am informed letters have come from Gregory de Casale, who says the Pope told him that if the King would replace matters of the Church as they were, other things could be arranged; but all that is lost labor. So great is the obstinacy and avarice of the King, that he would sooner take back the Queen than restore what is due to the Church, from which he has taken, within the last month, 50,000 ducats, "emolument d'eslus"3.

Note 1. "and before had nothing of the King's lady."

Note 2. if it were a question of something it would not be among the last, and straight small continuation?

Note 3. first-fruits.

Hall's Chronicle 1535. Apr 1535. In the beginning of this yere the Duke of Norfolk (age 62) and the Bishop of Ely went to Calais, and thither came the Admiral of France.

Letters and Papers 1535. 17 May 1535. 726. The Duke of Norfolk (age 62) with other English gentlemen and about 300 horses were to start on the 12th. In place of Cromwell, who cannot leave, having the control of everything in his hands, Lord Rochford (age 32), the brother of the new Queen (age 34), or a bishop, her almoner, will come.

News has come of the capture, by the king of the Romans, of the prothonotary Casale, who was sent to king John on the part of England.

Hol., pp. 13. Copy. Headed: A M. Ambrogio da Carlemesnel, (fn. 4) alli 17 di Maggio, ritenuta fino alli 18, &c.

Letters and Papers 1535. 21 May 1535. 746. Has urged the Pope not to hinder the despatch of the executorials, which were decreed so long ago in Consistory by pope Clement. They have hitherto been refused in consequence of the expected interview between the kings of England and France, and, now that the interview has been given up, they are refused until the result of the Duke of Norfolk's (age 62) embassy is known, which is expected this month. It was reported lately that the Pope stated in the Consistory that the French king was treating of a marriage between his third son, the duke of Angoulême, and the daughter of "la Ana." If it is so, it is showing favor to all the schisms and heresies of the king of England.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. Cromwell told me that if the King's lady (age 34) knew the freedom with which we conversed together she would procure some trouble, and that only three days ago they had had words together, and that she had said she would like to see his head cut off, but he had such confidence in the King, his master, that he thought she could do nothing to him. I suspect he invented this to raise the value of his goods; for I told him all the world regarded him as her right hand, although I am informed on good authority that the said lady does not cease night or day to procure the disgrace of the Duke of Norfolk (age 62), whether it be because he has spoken too freely of her or because Cromwell, desiring to lower the great ones, wishes to commence with him.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. On the 28th Cromwell came twice to my lodging, not having found me the first time; and, anxious and troubled as he showed himself, he told me that when the French came to Calais they began by protesting that they would not speak of war, and they continued this language till Rochford (age 32) left; but afterwards, as the Duke of Norfolk (age 62) wrote, they entirely changed their tone, and were very desirous of war. He said he would not specify in what quarter; not withstanding he immediately observed to me that it was for Milan. Further, in the way of confidence, Cromwell showed me a writing, which, he said, had been enclosed in a letter sent to him by the Admiral of France, although it bore no signature or appearance of being an inclosure. He allowed me to read it in full. The purport was that Francis, having carefully examined the question of the validity of the two marriages of the king of England, found the first unlawful and the other valid, and promised to defend the latter, and procure revocation of the sentence given to the contrary by the Holy See. On reading it I smiled, and said the French knew well what they were doing, and did not promise things without knowing for how much an ell, and, having obtained what they wanted, knew how to wash their hands of their promises. And for this they had several means sufficiently apparent, especially as there would be time enough, before they were called on to fulfil their promises. I added that since the said king of France had taken so much trouble in examining matrimonial questions, this King had no occasion to send lately to Calais; and that, having the promise of such a prince as the king of France, who is not only so great but allied to the Queen, this King, who alleged the fear that princes entertained of the kindred and affinity of your Majesty, ought to make no difficulty in submitting to the determination of the Council. To this he made no reply. In truth I should doubt that the said writing had been drawn up by the English, who want to impute it to the king of France, for otherwise it would not agree with what a very good person has sent to inform the Princess, i.e. that the French insisted on having her for the Dauphin; and this is said commonly at the lodging of the French ambassador. It seems the more probable from what the King said lately, that the Admiral had written on his arrival at Calais, that there was nothing so true as that your Majesty had previously offered them the said Princess.

Letters and Papers 1535. 16 Jun 1535. 876. The Duke of Norfolk (age 62) and the other deputies of this King for the meeting at Calais are daily expected here. It is not two days since the French ambassador said that the said meeting would still last 20 days. I know not the cause of its being shortened, or any particulars of what was treated, except that I have had confirmation of the fact that what the French most insisted on was to have the Princess for the Dauphin, and it is commonly said that they have left ill pleased with one another. London, 16 June 1535.

French, from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Jun 1535. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 80 b. B. M. 910. Bishop of Faenza to M. di Fossumbrone, Papal Nuncio with the Emperor.

The Admiral (age 43), who was at Calais with the Duke of Norfolk (age 62), returned six days ago without having concluded the marriage of the duke of Angoulême with the last daughter (age 1) of the King, which was spoken of as certain on both sides, or anything else that one can hear of; but the capitulation and the old friendship remain. The cause was the exorbitant demand of the English that the French king should bind himself to maintain Henry's marriage against the Pope and any determination of the Council; and finally they wished him to act in Church matters as had been done in England. They are very anxious about Fisher (age 65). The English who were at Calais say that he will not come out of prison; that he is 90 years of age, and very ill, giving him 25 years more than he has; and that he cannot live more than a month; so that it is easily seen that in this their actions correspond with the others. The cardinal of Paris set out four days ago for Rome. * * *

Ital., pp. 2, modern copy. Headed: A Mons. di Fossumbrone, Nuntio di Sua Santita all a Maesta Casarea. D'Amien, alli 22 di Giugno 1535.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Jun 1535. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 76 b. B. M. 909. Bishop of Faenza to M. Ambrogio.

The Admiral (age 43), who was 22 days at Calais, returned on the 17th, though it was said everywhere that he would go on to England. Mons. de Ricciafort (age 32) (Rochford), the brother of the new Queen (age 34), came here for eight days, but, as far as could be seen, did nothing. It is only from his relation to the Queen that he is employed, for the King has very few to trust in. All business passes through the hands of people who depend on the new Queen, and must therefore be settled according to her purpose. This was the case in the negociations with the Admiral (age 43), which were broken off on account of his refusal to allow the duke of Angoulême to go to England until the girl was old enough to be married, and because he would not declare in any way against the Church, or in favour of the King's second wife (age 34) (ne voler difendere in alcun modo contro la chiesa o declaratione del concilio la causa della seconda moglie1). Every one knows that the alliance (parentado) has not been concluded, as both sides confidently affirmed it would be, but that the ambassadors separated very ill satisfied, and the English are guarding Calais more carefully than they have done, even when the French were there in greater numbers. However, both sides affirm the friendship to be firmer than ever. The French king and Council say that their respect to the Holy See and the Pope has been the principal cause of their not coming to some other understanding (ad altro ristretto) with the king of England, who is a most bitter enemy of the Church, and so firm in his opinion that he intends to die in it, and tries to have this kingdom for company. The Duke of Norfolk (age 62), according to the Admiral (age 43), affirms that he would sooner die than see any change as regards the King or the new Queen; which is not unlike what the writer has heard in other ways of Norfolk, viz., that this breaking off might reasonably have been expected, matters depending very much on his dexterity, and the affairs of England being commonly managed more than barbarously. For he, being one of the greatest men in the kingdom, and having sons, and the [his son-in-law] Duke of Richmond (age 16) for his son-in-law, might hope one day to have that daughter for one of his sons, or, if disorders ensued, to get the rule into his own hands. The French lords are not too well contented with the English, who, since Norfolk's return, have despatched a courier, and show themselves displeased that nothing was concluded at Calais. The Admiral (age 43), though he takes Fisher's (age 65) case much to heart, has great fears for his life, especially as the Pope says in the brief that the created him a cardinal to make use of him in the Council. He says also that the English pretended that he could not live much more than a month, being a valetudinarian of 90; which shows what they mean to do with him, reckoning him 25 years older than he is, although they declare there is no hope in any case of his coming out of prison. These are truly the most monstrous things seen in our time. The French make great account with the Pope of not listening to anything proposed to them by the English which might turn to the damage of the Holy See.

Ital., pp. 9, modern copy. Headed: In Amoien, al Sig. M. Ambrogio, alli 12 (sic) ut supra.

2. An extract copy from the original is in the Vatican transcripts, dated Amiens, 22 June 1535. Pp. 3.

Note 1. nor want to defend the cause of the second wife in any way against the church or declaration of the council

Letters and Papers 1535. 04 Jul 1535. 985. Francis also spoke three days ago of the new Queen of England (age 34), how little virtuously she has always lived and now lives, and how she and her brother (age 32) and adherents suspect the Duke of Norfolk (age 62) of wishing to make his son King, and marry him to the King's legitimate daughter, though they are near relations. It seems to him there can be little friendship between the two kingdoms.

The King spoke of the marriage of the king of Scotland with the duke of Vendome's daughter as certain, but said the king of England was displeased at it, and now would wish to give him his eldest daughter. His inconstancy was incredible. Sends the copy of a proclamation issued in England.

Ital., pp. 11, modern copy. Headed; Al S. Mons. Ambrogio, ali 4 di Luglio, data alla Fiera.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Letters and Papers 1535. 25 Jul 1535. Vienna Archives. 1105. Chapuys to Charles V.

Since the return of the Duke of Norfolk (age 62) and the others from Calais I have several times written to your Majesty, and, among other things, that immediately after the said return Cromwell came to notify to me that nothing had been concluded on the part of his master, of which he wished me to inform you at once; and that I agreed to despatch a messenger, provided there was other matter to convey, such as that the King would accept the overtures made by your Majesty, or make better ones. I have also written how, besides other three Carthusians who have been executed with the same cruelty as the former ones, they had beheaded the Cardinal of Rochester (deceased) and Master Morus (deceased), to the great grief of the whole people.

Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

Letters 1536. 29 Jan 1536. 282. On the day of the interment the Concubine (age 35) had an abortion which seemed to be a male child which she had not borne 3½ months, at which the King has shown great distress. The said concubine (age 35) wished to lay the blame on the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, saying he frightened her by bringing the news of the fall the King had six days before. But it is well known that is not the cause, for it was told her in a way that she should not be alarmed or attach much importance to it. Some think it was owing to her own incapacity to bear children, others to a fear that the King would treat her like the late Queen, especially considering the treatment shown to a lady of the Court, named Mistress Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)], to whom, as many say, he has lately made great presents. The Princess's gouvernante (age 60), her daughters, and a niece, have been in great sorrow for the said abortion, and have been continually questioning a lady who is very intimate with the Princess whether the said Princess did not know the said news of the abortion, and that she might know that, but they would not for the world that she knew the rest, meaning that there was some fear the King might take another wife.

Calendars. On the same day that the Queen (deceased) was buried this King's concubine (age 35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the King (age 44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (age 35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named Miss Seymour (age 27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents-is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne's miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.

Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 27 Feb 1536. The Soundaie of Quinquegesima, being the 27th daie of Februarie and Leepe yeare, a.d. 1536, preached at Paules Crosse [Map] the Bushoppe of Durhame, named Dr. Dunstall (age 62),c sometime Bishopp of London, and afore that, being Master of the Rolls; and their were present at his sermon the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 46) with eight other bishopps, sitting at the crosse before the preacher; and the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (age 48), the Duke of Norfolke (age 63), the Duke of Suffolke, with six Erles and divers other lordes, stoode behinde the preacher within the pulpitt, and also fower monkes of the Charterhouse of London were brought to the said sermon, which denied the King (age 44) to be supreame heade of the Church of Englande. And their the said preacher declared the profession of the Bishopp of Rome when he is elected Pope, according to the confirmation of eight universall general counsells, which were congregate for the faith of all Christendome; and everie Pope taketh an othe on the articles, promising to observe, keepe, and hould all that the said counsells confirmed, and to dampne all that they dampned; and how he, contrarie to his oth, hath usurped his power and aucthoritie over all Christendome; and also how uncharitably he had handled our Prince, King Henrie the Eight (age 44), in marying [him to] his brother's wife, contrarie to Godes lawes and also against his owne promise and decrees, which he opened by scriptures and by the cannons of the Appostles; and also how everie Kinge hath the highe power under God, and ought to be the supreame head over all spirituall prelates, which was a goodlie and gracious hearing to all the audience being their present at the same sermon. And in his prayers he said, after this manner, ye shall pray for the universall church of all Christendome, and especiall for the prosperous estate of our Soveraigne and Emperour King Henrie the Eight, being the onelie supreame head of this realme of Englande; and he declared also in his said sermon how that the Cardinalls of Rome bee but curattes and decons of the cittie and province of Bome, and how that everie curate of any parrish have as much power as they have, according to scripture, save onelie that the Pope of Rome hath made them so high aucthorities onelie for to ezhalt his name and power in Christen realmes for covetousnes, as by his owne decrees he evidentlie their approved.

Note c. Cuthbert Tunstall (age 62), translated from London 25th March, 1530.

Before 10 Mar 1536 [his son] Henry Howard (age 20) and [his daughter-in-law] Frances Vere Countess of Surrey (age 19) were married. She the daughter of John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65) and Elizabeth Trussell Countess of Oxford. He the son of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 39).

Letters 1536. 21 Apr 1536. 699. One of the greatest disappointments I have suffered has been not being able to effect (exploicter) in this matter what your Majesty desires. Greater vigilance and dexterity could not have been used than has been done. I have forborne to write it all, fearing that what I write is already too long, and I beg you to excuse me that I have not been able to do better.—Suggests that if the Emperor, weary of pursuing matters with the English, thinks it expedient to treat with the French, the whole matter should be brought forward by means of the Pope, as they have to do with men of little faith, and that the king of France should promise to obey the commands of the Holy See, especially about the matrimonial sentence and its consequences; and it should be said that if, in consequence of this King's obstinacy, it be necessary to proceed to the promulgation of the bull depriving him of his kingdom, that the right to the kingdom is entirely reserved to the Princess, so that she may not lose the pension and claim of France; and it would be necessary, to give greater occasion to see to the preservation of her life, to arrange something in favor of the lawful successors, or the assistance to your Majesty in the pursuit of her quarrels; and though I think your Majesty would not listen to it, it should be expressly said that neither you nor the said King shall regard as lawful any issue that this King may have of his concubine (age 35), nor of any other wife during her life; which agreement is in conformity with the sentence and with law, unless the Pope dispenses with it, and it would be necessary at once to constrain the Pope not to give such a dispensation; and I think that if this King heard that a part of this had been arranged he would suddenly come to his senses without waiting for the said force to be applied. If your Majesty thinks the matter should be pursued here, it could not but do good to thank the Chancellor and the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) by letter for their good will, begging them to continue.

Letters 1536. 21 Apr 1536. 699. By statute of the Parliament the temporal goods of the Bishopric of Norwich, worth 3,000 of rent, have been dismembered, and the King's grant of them to the Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) has been confirmed; to whom also the King has given two of the abbeys that are to be suppressed. The said Parliament, [which] has lasted by several prorogations from the time I came here, to the great expense and trouble of the whole kingdom, is now dissolved, having first by a statute transferred the authority and power of the said Parliament, in which all the lords, both spiritual and temporal, were present, and more than 300 secular persons on the part of the Commons, to 32 persons whom the King should choose, which is one of the chief points that the King could have desired.

The Scotch ambassador has told me that nothing has yet been settled touching the interviews of the two Kings, and that he had come to learn the cause why this King so strongly desired them; to which he replied that he would not declare it to any man alive except the Scotch king. As soon as the ambassador arrived Cromwell told him that he need not waste his time in seeking to have the Princess for his master, or attempt to make any condition with the King not to speak of the question of religion at the said interviews. And the ambassador thinks no interview will take place, although the King does not cease to press for it, and for this very purpose has just lately sent to the king of Scots the brother of the Duke of Norfolk (age 63). London, 21 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 17.

Letters 1536. 21 Apr 1536. 699. Hereupon, without having given him any occasion except [that I desired] he would take with extreme gentleness and patience what I showed him, he began to be somewhat angry, and reproached your Majesty with great ingratitude, saying that without him you would not have acquired the Empire or enjoyed Spain, and that after you had been elected you had not only treated him with neglect, but had tried to get him declared schismatic and deprived of his kingdom, and that you ("quil," qu "quelle"? i.e. vre. Majesté) had not kept your promise to him not to make peace with the king of France till you had obtained for him the crown of France, and that when Francis was your prisoner you had replied you would not make war on your prisoner. He concealed the other article of the reply, viz., that he had already made a compact with the Chancellor of Alençon, as I showed him, telling him, as to the declarations he spoke of, that he himself had affirmed to me, (and I had not since spoken to him), that he knew well it was the Pope who solicited his (qu. your?) Majesty about it, but that if he was well informed he would find that immediately after the Admiral had left ill content with the last meeting at Calais there were others who solicited the same declarations. I did not cease to beg the King to put all this aside, urging that if there had been in the past any ill understanding so much the more earnest should be the good offices; and I quoted certain authorities and histories serving to this purpose. I afterwards told the King that since he would not give me a more formal answer I begged him to write to his ambassador with your Majesty. He remained some time without knowing what to reply, but afterwards said that if I wished it he was willing to do it, but in that case he held the said reply as not given; and then immediately afterwards said to me that his ambassador was not fit for this, and that I must have the honor since I had made the beginning. The Chancellor and Cromwell appeared to regret these answers, and in spite of the King's gestures (bonnes mynes) to them that they should applaud him, neither of them would say three words. The conclusion was that he would next day look over the treaties he had with your Majesty, and inform me of what they determined. At this slender and provoking reply, after compliments to the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) and others of the Council, I left the Court, and went to wait on Cromwell at the place where we met in the morning, and there we expressed our mutual regret, which was great on both sides, especially on that of Cromwell, who was hardly able to speak for sorrow, and had never been more mortified in his life than with the said reply. I suggested to him that we should suspend the other matters, and consider what could be done about the fourth point, and as to marrying the Princess;—at which he recovered his spirits, and said he had still hope of a good result. Next day, Wednesday of Easter week, the King's whole Council were assembled for three or four hours; and, as Cromwell informed me, there was not one of them but remained long on his knees before the King to beg him, for the honor of God, not to lose so good an opportunity of establishing a friendship so necessary and advantageous; but they had not been able to change his opinion, and that he would sooner suffer all the ills in the world than confess tacitly or expressly that he had done you any injury, or that he desired this friendship, but that if asked for it in good form, as he had said, he would be content. Today, Thursday, Cromwell reported the above to me, and thanked me on the part of the King for the good office I had done, begging me on his part also to continue till the establishment of this friendship was achieved, and that afterwards all the other points would be disposed of to your Majesty's satisfaction; and begged, for the honor of God, that I would at least obtain a letter of credence addressed to the King, saying that the King would liberally acknowledge my trouble. Moreover, he has given me to understand that he told the King his master that if he had known what has taken place in this affair, he would not have meddled with it for all the gold in England, and that henceforth he would not treat with ambassadors without having a colleagne; telling me also that although he had always pretended that what he said to me was of his own suggestion, yet he had neither said nor done anything without express command from the King. On my asking him what could have made this variation in the King's will, he said he could not imagine what spirit it was, and that at least I had given him no occasion, for the King himself was satisfied with the moderate language I had used; and he concluded that princes have spirits or properties which are hidden and unknown to all others. By which conversations Cromwell showed covertly his dissatisfaction at the strange contradictions of his master. He also told me that the King was writing to his ambassadors in France to desire the French king to desist from his enterprises, and that he had spoken of it yesterday also to the French ambassador, who, as the said Cromwell told me, came back yesterday from Court as mortified as I was the day before.

Arrest of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 02 May 1536. ... and the same daie, about five of the clocke at nighta, Anne Bolleine (age 35) was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (age 48)b, the Duke of Norfolke (age 63), Mr. Secretarie (age 51),c and Sir William Kingston (age 60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate,d entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her accusement,e and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner.f.

Note a. "In the afternoon." — Stow.

Note b. Sir Thomas Audley.

Note c. Sir Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex.

Note d. "Towergate" in Stow.

Note e. On her arrest she was informed of the accusation of adultery.

Note f. Anne's prison-chamber was that in which she had slept the night before her coronation.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. 02 May 1536. How the Queen (age 35) and her brother the Duke (age 33) were arrested.

On the 2nd of May the captain of the guard with hundred halberdiers came to Greenwich in the King's great barge, and went to the Queen, and said to her, "My lady, the King has sent me for you;" and she, very much astonished, asked the captain where the King was. She was told he was at Westminster; and she at once got ready, and embarked with all her ladies, thinking she was to be taken to Westminster, but when she saw they stopped at the Tower, she asked whether the King was there. The captain of the Tower appeared, and the captain of the guard addressed him, saying, "I bring you here the Queen, whom the King orders you to keep prisoner, and very carefully guarded." Thereupon the captain took Anne by the arm, and she, as soon as she heard that she was a prisoner, exclaimed loudly in the hearing of many, "I entered with more ceremony the last time I came." They ordered two of her ladies to remain with her, and the rest to be taken to Westminster, and amongst them one very attractive, of whom we shall have to speak further on.1

As soon as the King learnt that she was in the Tower, he ordered the Duke her brother to be arrested, and taken thither, the old woman having already been taken. The King then wished the Queen to be examined, and he sent Secretary Cromwell, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 46), the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), and the Chancellor (age 48), who were expressly ordered by the King to treat her with no respect or consideration. They desired the Archbishop to be spokesman, and he said these words to her, "Madam, there is no one in the realm, after my lord the King, who is so distressed at your bad conduct as I am, for all these gentlemen well know I owe my dignity to your good-will;" and Anne, before he could say any more, interrupted him with, "My lord Bishop, I know what is your errand; waste no more time; I have never wronged the King, but I know well that he is tired of me, as he was before of the good lady Katharine." Then the Bishop continued, "Say no such thing, Madam, for your evil courses have been clearly seen; and if you desire to read the confession which Mark has made, it will be shown to you." Anne, in a great rage, replied, "Go to! It has all been done as I say, because the King has fallen in love, as I know, with Jane Seymour (age 27), and does not know how to get rid of me. Well, let him do as he likes, he will get nothing more out of me; and any confession that has been made is false."

With that, as they saw they should extract nothing from her, they determined to leave; but before doing so the Duke of Norfolk said to her, "Madam, if it be true that the Duke2 your brother has shared your guilt, a great punishment indeed should be yours and his as well." To which she answered, "Duke, say no such thing; my brother is blameless; and if he has been in my chamber to speak with me, surely he might do so without suspicion, being my brother, and they cannot accuse him for that. I know that the King has had him arrested, so that there should be none left to take my part. You need not trouble to stop talking with me, for you will find out no more. "So they went away; and when they told the King how she had answered, he said, "She has a stout heart, but she shall pay for it;" and he sent them to the Duke to see how he would answer. To explain why the Duke had been arrested, it should be told that the King was informed that he had been seen on several occasions going in and out of the Queen's room dressed only in his night-clothes. When the gentlemen went to him, he said, "I do not know why the King has had me arrested, for I never wronged him in word or deed. If my sister has done so, let her bear the penalty." Then the Chancellor replied, "Duke, it was ground for suspicion that you should go so often to her chamber at night, and tell the ladies to leave you. It was a very bold thing to do, and you deserve great punishment." "But look you, Chancellor," answered the Duke, "even if I did go to speak with her sometimes when she was unwell, surely that is no proof that I was so wicked as to do so great crime and treason to the King." Then the Duke of Norfolk said, "Hold thy peace, Duke, the King's will must be done after all." So they left him, and presently put old Margaret to the torture, who told the whole story of how she had arranged that Mark and Master Norris and Brereton should all have access to the Queen unknown to each other. She was asked about Master Wyatt, but she said she had never even seen him speak to the Queen privately, but always openly, whereupon Secretary Cromwell was glad, for he was very fond of Master Wyatt.

So the gentlemen ordered the old woman3 to be burnt that night within the Tower, and they took her confession to the King; and the King ordered all the prisoners to be beheaded, and the Duke as well, so the next day the Duke, Master Norris, Brereton, and Mark were executed.

Note 1. TT. Probably a reference to Jane Seymour (age 27).

Note 2. The chronicler is in error in calling the Queen's brother Duke. He was, of course, Viscount Rochford.

Note 3. Lady Wingfield; I can find no record, however, of her having been burnt in Tower, although her dying confession, of which a part only now remains, has always been considered the strongest proof of Anne's guilt.

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. 1036. A Lord of the Privy Council seeing clear evidence that his sister loved certain persons with a dishonorable love, admonished her fraternally. She acknowledged her offence, but said it was little in her case in comparison with that of the Queen, as he might ascertain from Mark (deceased), declaring that she was guilty of incest with her own brother. The brother did not know what to do on this intelligence, and took counsel with two friends of the King, with whom he went to the King himself and one reported it in the name of all three. The King was astonished, and his color changed at the revelation, but he thanked the gentlemen. The Queen, meanwhile, took her pleasure unconscious of the discovery, seeing dogs and animals that day fight in a park. In the evening there was a ball, and the King treated her as if he knew no cause of displeasure. But Mark (deceased) was then in prison and was forced to answer the accusation against him. Without being tortured he deliberately said that the Queen had three times yielded to his passion. The King was thus convinced, but made no show of it, and gave himself up to enjoyment. Especially on the 1 May, he got up a tournay with several combatants; among others, my Lord of Rocheford (deceased), the Queen's (deceased) brother, showed his skill in breaking lances and vaulting on horseback. Norris (deceased), also, best loved of the King, presented himself well armed, but his horse refused the lists and turned away as if conscious of the impending calamity to his master. The King seeing this, presented Norris with his own horse; who, however, knew that he could not keep it long. He, Weston (deceased), and Brereton did great feats of arms, and the King showed them great kindness "dissimulant leur ruyne prochaine." The Queen looked on from a high place, "et souvent envoioit les doulz regards," to encourage the combatants, who knew nothing of their danger. Immediately after the tournay archers were ordered to arrest Norris, and were much astonished and grieved, considering his virtue and intimacy with the King, that he should have committed disloyalty. Before he went to prison the King desired to speak to him, offering to spare his life and goods, although he was guilty, if he would tell him the truth. But being told the accusation, Norris offered to maintain the contrary with his body in any place. He was accordingly sent to the Tower. The Queen was conducted thither next day by the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), and her brother also, who said he had well merited his fate. Waston (deceased) and Barton followed, and pages also. The city rejoiced on hearing the report, hoping that the Princess would be restored. The whole town awaited her coming with delight.

"Et n'eussiez veu jusque aux petis enfans

Que tous chantans et d'aise triumphans.

11 n'y a cueur si triste qui ne rye

En attendant la princesse Marie."

But she did not remove from her lodging, and did not avenge herself by blaming the Queen when she heard that she was a prisoner; but only wished she had behaved better to the King, and hoped God would help her, adding:—

"Et si sa fille est au Roy, je promectz

Qu'a mon pouvoir ne luy fauldray jamais."

Here follows a eulogy of the Princess, describing her education in astronomy, mathematics, logic, morals, politics, Latin, Greek, &c. The expectation that she would be restored made the King apprehensive of some commotion; to appease which he caused his thanks to be conveyed to the people for their good will to him and his daughter, but told them they need not be anxious about her return, for they would shortly be satisfied. The joy of the people on this was converted into sorrow and they dispersed (et confuz s'en partit).

The Queen, meanwhile, having no further hope in this world, would confess nothing.

"Riens ne confesse, et ne resiste fort Comme voulant presque estre délivre De vivre icy, pour aulz cieulz aller vivre; Et l'espoir tant en icelle surmonte, Que de la mort ne tient plus aucun compte."

Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

Letters 1536. 12 May. R. O. 848. Trial of Weston (age 25), Norris (age 54), and others.

Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex to Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Thomas Earl of Wiltshire (age 59), Rob. Earl of Sussex, William lord Sandys, Thomas Crumwell (age 51), chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

ii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the grand jury at Westminster on Wednesday, 10 May next. Dated 9 May 28 Henry VIII.—Grand jury panel annexed, 16 sworn.

iii. Indictment found in Middlesex against Anne Boleyn (age 35), &c. as in No. 876, with marginal note stating that it was sent before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as steward of England, hac vice, as regards all matters touching the Queen and Lord Rochford (age 33).

iv. The justices' precept to the constable of the Tower to bring up Sir Francis Weston (age 25), Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Mark Smeton (age 24), at Westminster, on Friday next after three weeks of Easter. Westm., 10 May 28 Henry VIII.—With reply of the Constable endorsed.

v. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the petty jury for the trial of Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Sir Francis Weston [here follows an erasure which evidently contained the name of Mark Smeaton (age 24)]. Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.—With panel annexed.

vi. Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Kent, to Sir Thomas Audeley (age 48), Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Rob. Earl of Sussex, Thomas Crumwell, chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lyster, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

vii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Kent for the return of the grand jury at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May. Endd. by Sir Edward Wotton, sheriff.—Panel of grand jury annexed.

viii. Indictment found in Kent, as in No. 876, with memorandum in margin, as in section iii.

ix. Record of the sessions holden Friday after three weeks of Easter 28 Henry VIII. before the above justices. Noreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24) were brought up in the custody of the constable of the Tower, when Smeton (age 24) pleaded guilty of violation and carnal knowledge of the Queen, and put himself in the King's mercy. Noreys, Bryerton, and Weston pleaded Not guilty. The jury return a verdict of Guilty, and that they have no lands, goods, or chattels.

Judgment against all four as in cases of treason; execution to be at Tyburn.

The above file of documents is endorsed: "Sessiones Comitatuum Middlesexiæ et Kanciæ primo tentæ apud villam Westmonasterii in comitatu Midd. coram Thoma Audeley, milite, Cancellario Angliæ, et aliis, &c., et secundo tentæ apud Depford in comitatu Kanciæ coram Johanne Baldewyn, milite et aliis, anno regni Regis Henrici VIII. vicesimo octavo."

Letters 1536. 13 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 221. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge, 113. Burnet, vi. 167. 864. Earl of Northumberland (age 34) to Cromwell.

I perceive by Raynold Carnaby that there is supposed a pre-contract between the Queen (age 35) and me; "whereupon I was not only heretofore examined upon my oath before the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, but also received the blessed sacrament upon the same before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) and other the King's highness' council learned in the spiritual law, assuring you, Mr. Secretary, by the said oath and blessed body, which afore I received and hereafter intend to receive, that the same may be to my damnation if ever there were any contract or promise of marriage between her and me." Newington Green, 13 May 28 Henry VIII. Signed. Mutilated. Add.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 May 1536. After this, immediately the Lord of Rocheforde (age 33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower [Map] from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume [Map], and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London.

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. [his son] Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 55).

[his former son-in-law] Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel (age 24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).

Edward Powers Lord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. R. O. 876. Trial of Anne Boleyn (age 35) and Lord Rochford (age 33).

Record of pleas held at the Tower of London before Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), treasurer and Earl marshal, lord high steward, citing:—

1. Patent appointing the said Duke steward of England hac vice for the trial of queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.

2. Mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thos. Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex, to return all indictments found against queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

3. Similar mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners for Kent. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

4. Mandate to Sir William Kyngestone, constable of the Tower, to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) before the Lord High Steward when required. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

5. The Lord High Steward issued his precept, 13 May, to Sir John Baldewyn and his fellows in Middlesex, to return the indictments at the Tower before him on Monday, 15 May, and a similar precept to Sir J. Baldewyn, Luke, and his fellows in Kent; a third precept to the constable of the Tower to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) that day before him; and a fourth to Ralph Felmyngham, serjeant-at-arms, to summon such and so many lords of the kingdom, peers of the said queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33), by whom the truth may appear.

6. Pleas held before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), steward of England, at the Tower, on Monday, 15 May 28 Henry VIII.

The justices bring in the indictments for Middlesex and Kent, Sir William Kingston (age 60) produces the prisoners, and Ralph Felmyngham declares that he has summoned the peers. Proclamation being then made, the peers answer to their names; viz., Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter, William Earl of Arundel, John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 34), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), [his former son-in-law] Edward Earl of Derby (age 27), Henry Earl of Worcester, Thomas Earl of Rutland (age 44), Rob. Earl of Sussex, George Earl of Huntingdon, John lord Audeley, Thos. lord La Ware, Henry lord Mountague, Henry lord Morley, Thos. lord Dacre, George lord Cobham, Henry lord Maltravers, Edward lord Powes, Thos. lord Mount Egle, Edward lord Clynton, William lord Sandes, Andrew lord Wyndesore, Thos. lord Wentworth, Thos. lord Burgh, and John lord Mordaunt.

7. Indictment found at Westminster on Wednesday next after three weeks of Easter, 28 Henry VIII.1 before Sir John Baldwin, &c., by the oaths of Giles Heron, Roger More, Richard Awnsham, Thos. Byllyngton, Gregory Lovell, Jo. Worsop, William Goddard, William Blakwall, Jo. Wylford, William Berd, Henry Hubbylthorn, William Hunyng, Rob. Walys, John England, Henry Lodysman, and John Averey; who present that whereas queen Anne has been the wife of Henry VIII. for three years and more, she, despising her marriage, and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust, did falsely and traitorously procure by base conversations and kisses, touchings, gifts, and other infamous incitations, divers of the King's daily and familiar servants to be her adulterers and concubines, so that several of the King's servants yielded to her vile provocations; viz., on 6th Oct. 25 Henry VIII., at Westminster, and divers days before and after, she procured, by sweet words, kisses, touches, and otherwise, Henry Noreys, of Westminster, gentle man of the privy chamber, to violate her, by reason whereof he did so at Westminster on the 12th Oct. 25 Henry VIII.; and they had illicit intercourse at various other times, both before and after, sometimes by his procurement, and sometimes by that of the Queen. Also the Queen, 2 Nov. 27 Henry VIII. and several times before and after, at Westminster, procured and incited her own natural brother, George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, alluring him with her tongue in the said George's mouth, and the said George's tongue in hers, and also with kisses, presents, and jewels; whereby he, despising the commands of God, and all human laws, 5 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., violated and carnally knew the said Queen, his own sister, at Westminster; which he also did on divers other days before and after at the same place, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 3 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and after, at Westminster, procured one William Bryerton, late of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so on 8 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, in the parish of Lytel Hampton, and on several other days before and after, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 8 May 26 Henry VIII., and at other times before and since, procured Sir Fras. Weston, of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, &c., whereby he did so on the 20 May, &c. Also the Queen, 12 April 26 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, at Westminster, procured Mark Smeton (age 24), groom of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so at Westminster, 26 April 27 Henry VIII.

Moreover, the said Lord Rochford (age 33), Norreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24), being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, could not endure any of them to converse with any other woman, without showing great displeasure; and on the 27 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., and other days before and after, at Westminster, she gave them great gifts to encourage them in their crimes. And further the said Queen and these other traitors, 31 Oct. 27 Henry VIII., at Westminster, conspired the death and destruction of the King, the Queen often saying she would marry one of them as soon as the King died, and affirming that she would never love the King in her heart. And the King having a short time since become aware of the said abominable crimes and treasons against himself, took such inward displeasure and heaviness, especially from his said Queen's malice and adultery, that certain harms and perils have befallen his royal body.

And thus the said Queen and the other traitors aforesaid have committed their treasons in contempt of the Crown, and of the issue and heirs of the said King and Queen.

8. Record of indictment and process before Baldewyn, Luke, and others, in co. Kent.

The indictment found at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May 28 Henry VIII., is precisely similar in character to the Middlesex indictment, except as regards times and places; viz., that the Queen at Estgrenewyche, 12 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, allured one Henry Noreys, late of Est Grenewyche, to violate her, whereby he did so on the 19 Nov., &c.; that on 22 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers other days, at Eltham, she allured George Boleyn, Lord Rochford (age 33), &c., whereby he did so, 29 Dec., &c.; that on the 16 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers, &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured one William Bryerton, late of Est Grenewyche, &c., whereby he did so, 27 Nov., &c.; that on the 6 June 26 Henry VIII., &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Sir Fras. Weston, &c., whereby he did so, 20 June, &c.; that on the 13 May 26 Henry VIII. &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Mark Smeton (age 24), &c., whereby he did so, 19 May 26 Henry VIII.

And further that the said Boleyn, &c. grew jealous of each other; and the Queen, to encourage them, at Eltham, 31 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers times before and since, made them presents, &c.; that the Queen and the others, 8 Jan. 27 Henry VIII., conspired the King's death, &c., and that she promised to marry one of the traitors whenever the King was dead, affirming she would never love him, &c.

And afterwards, Monday, 15 May, queen Anne comes to the bar before the Lord High Steward in the Tower, in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), pleads not guilty, and puts herself on her peers; whereupon the said Duke of Suffolk (age 52), marquis of Exeter, and other peers, are charged by the High Steward to say the truth; and being examined from the lowest peer to the highest, each of them severally saith that she is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then, at the King's command, to the Green within the Tower, and there to be burned or beheaded as shall please the King.

The same day, Lord Rochford (age 33) is brought before the High Steward in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), and pleads not guilty. The peers are charged, with the exception of the Earl of Northumberland (age 34), who was suddenly taken ill, and each of them severally saith that he is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then drawn through the city of London, to the gallows at Tyburn, &c., as usual in high treason.

R. O. 2. Originals of the above indictments, commission to the Lord High Steward, mandates and precept, with the original panel of peers. Several of these documents are a good deal injured.

Note 1. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of the Pub. Records, App. ii. 243. The whole of the proceedings are printed by Mr. Hamilton in the Appendix to Vol. I. of Wriothesley's Chronicle.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. 908. On the 15th the said Concubine and her brother (age 33) were condemned of treason by all the principal lords of England, and the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) pronounced sentence. I am told the Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) was quite as ready to assist at the judgment as he had done at the condemnation of the other four. Neither the putain (age 35) nor her brother (age 33) was brought to Westminster like the other criminals. They were condemned within the Tower, but the thing was not done secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present. What she was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris (age 54) to marry after the King's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted to mean that she had poisoned the late Queen and intrigued to do the same to the Princess. These things she totally denied, and gave to each a plausible answer. Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston (age 25), as she had often done to other young gentlemen. She was also charged, and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the King and his dress, and that she showed in various ways she did not love the King but was tired of him. Her brother was charged with having cohabited with her by presumption, because he had been once found a long time with her, and with certain other little follies. To all he replied so well that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted, especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.

I must not omit, that among other things charged against him as a crime was, that his sister (age 35) had told his wife (age 31) that the King "nestoit habile en cas de soy copuler avec femme, et quil navoit ne vertu ne puissance1." This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with a warning not to repeat it. But he immediately declared the matter, in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the King's issue. He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question whether his sister's daughter was the King's child. To which he made no reply. They were judged separately, and did not see each other. The Concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which was to be burnt or beheaded at the King's pleasure, she preserved her composure, saying that she held herself "pour toute saluee de la mort2," and that what she regretted most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the King, were to die for her. She only asked a short space for shrift (pour disposer sa conscience3). Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death. He only begged the King that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid out of his goods.

Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the putain, there are some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and people speak variously of the King; and it will not pacify the world when it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Mrs. Jane Semel (age 27). Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the King, having received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the arrest of the putain; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies, sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river. Most part of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as showing his delight at getting rid of a "maigre vieille et mechante bague4," with hope of change, which is a thing specially agreeable to this King. He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the Bishop of Carlisle, and showed an extravagant joy, as the said Bishop came to tell me next morning, who reported, moreover, that the King had said to him, among other things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him; and, so saying, the King drew from his bosom a little book written in his own hand, but the Bishop did not read the contents. It may have been certain ballads that the King has composed, at which the putain and her brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great crime.

Note 1. "was not skilful in case of copulating with a woman, and that he had neither virtue nor power".

Note 2. "for every death salute".

Note 3. to dispose of one's conscience.

Note 4. skinny old nasty ring

Note 5. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (age 60)e and the Lieutenant (age 56) brought forthe the Queene (age 35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her,g whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same,a and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after they had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the Duke of Northfolke (age 63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge: Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene [Map], els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (age 60) and the [his sister] Ladie Boleyn (age 56), her aunte.

Note e. Sir William Kingston (age 60).

Note f. Sir Edmond Walsingham (age 56).

Note g. Her indictment, which comprised six sereral charges, is preserred in the Public Record Office, with the subsequent proceedings thereon.

Note a. Upon her examination she positively denied she had ever been false to the King; but, being told that Norris, Weston, Brereton, and Smeton had accused her, she said she ought not to conceal certain things which had passed between her and them. See Burnet, tom, i. pp. 191, 280, &c.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Item, on Munday,c the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London [Map] Queene Anne (age 35),d for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London [Map], and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the [his son] Earle of Surrey (age 20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (age 48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his left hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees.

Note c. Stow's account seems to hare been taken from this, with considerable verbal differences and some omissions.

Note d. There was no precedent for the trial of a Queen for treason, so Henry determined that she should be arraigned before a commission of Lords, as had been practised in the case of the Duke of Buckingham.

Letters 1536. But she did not give up her greatness, but spoke to the lords as a mistress. Those who came to interrogate were astonished. They afterwards went to Rochford, who said he knew that death awaited him and would say the truth, but raising his eyes to Heaven denied the accusations against him. They next went to Norris, Waston, and Barton, who all likewise refused to confess, except Mark, who had done so already. The King ordered the trial at Westminster, which was held after the manner of the country.

Description of the process of indictment and how the archers of the guard turn the back [of the axe] to the prisoners in going, but after sentence of guilty the edge is turned towards their faces; the trial at Westminster; the verdict; whereupon suddenly the axe was turned towards them; and the sentence. Everyone was moved at their misfortune, especially at the case of Waston, who was young and of old lineage and high accomplishments; but no one dared plead for him, except his mother, who, oppressed with grief, petitioned the King, and his wife, who offered rents and goods for his deliverance. But the King was determined the sentence should be carried out. If money could have availed, the fine would have been 100,000 crowns.

Rochford (deceased) was not tried at Westminster, but at the Tower, with the Queen. His calm behaviour, and good defence. More himself did not reply better. The judges at first were of different opinions, but at last one view overturned the other and they were unanimous. The Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as president, though maternal uncle of the accused, asked them if he was guilty or not, and one replied guilty. Rochford (deceased) then merely requested the judges that they would ask the King to pay his debts. The Queen then was summoned by an usher. She seemed unmoved as a stock, and came away with her young ladies, not as one who had to defend her cause but with the bearing of one coming to great honor. She returned the salutations of the lords with her accustomed politeness, and took her seat. She defended herself soberly against the charges, her face saying more for her than her words; for she said little, but no one to look at her would have thought her guilty. In the end the judges said she must resign her crown to their hands; which she did at once without resistance, but protested she had never misconducted herself towards the King. She was then degraded from all her titles,—countess, marchioness, and princess, which she said she gave up willingly to the King who had conferred them. Sentence of death, either by sword or fire, at the pleasure of the King, was pronounced by Norfolk. Her face did not change, but she appealed to God whether the sentence was deserved; then turning to the judges, said she would not dispute with them, but believed there was some other reason for which she was condemned than the cause alleged, of which her conscience acquitted her, as she had always been faithful to the King. But she did not say this to preserve her life, for she was quite prepared to die. Her speech made even her bitterest enemies pity her.

Meanwhile the prisoners prepared to die and took the Sacrament. Description of the execution of Rochford (deceased), with his dying speech, not unlike the version given in No. 1107. The other four said nothing, as if they had commissioned Rochford (deceased) to speak for them, except Mark, who persisted in what he said that he was justly punished for his misdeeds.

The Queen, in expectation of her last day, took the Sacrament. Then the day of her death was announced to her, at which she was more joyful than before. She asked about the patience shown by her brother and the others; but when told that Mark confessed that he had merited his death, her face changed somewhat. "Did he not exonerate me," she said, "before he died, of the public infamy he laid on me? Alas! I fear his soul will suffer for it."

Next day, expecting her end, she desired that no one would trouble her devotions that morning. But when the appointed hour passed she was disappointed,—not that she desired death, but thought herself prepared to die and feared that delay would weaken her. She, however, consoled her ladies several times, telling them that was not a thing to be regretted by Christians, and she hoped to be quit of all unhappiness, with various other good counsels. When the captain came to tell her the hour approached and that she should make ready, she bade him for his part see to acquit himself of his charge, for she had been long prepared. So she went to the place of execution with an untroubled countenance. Her face and complexion never were so beautiful. She gracefully addressed the people from the scaffold with a voice somewhat overcome by weakness, but which gathered strength as she went on. She begged her hearers to forgive her if she had not used them all with becoming gentleness, and asked for their prayers. It was needless, she said, to relate why she was there, but she prayed the Judge of all the world to have compassion on those who had condemned her, and she begged them to pray for the King, in whom she had always found great kindness, fear of God, and love of his subjects. The spectators could not refrain from tears. She herself having put off her white collar and hood that the blow might not be impeded, knelt, and said several times "O Christ, receive my spirit !"

One of her ladies in tears came forward to do the last office and cover her face with a linen cloth. The executioner then, himself distressed, divided her neck at a blow. The head and body were taken up by the ladies, whom you would have thought bereft of their souls, such was their weakness; but fearing to let their mistress be touched by unworthy hands, forced themselves to do so. Half dead themselves, they carried the body, wrapped in a white covering, to the place of burial within the Tower. Her brother was buried beside her, Weston (deceased) and Norris after them. Barton and Mark also were buried together (en ung couble).

The ladies were then as sheep without a shepherd, but it will not be long before they meet with their former treatment, because already the King has taken a fancy to a choice lady. And hereby, Monseigneur, is accomplished a great part of a certain prophecy which is believed to be true, because nothing notable has happened which it has not foretold. Other great things yet are predicted of which the people are assured. If I see them take place I will let you know, for never were such news. People say it is the year of marvels.Fr.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. I have delivered the letters of credence to the three dukes, who thank you very humbly and promise to use their best offices for the matter in question and all other things, especially the Duke of Suffolk (age 52), who has again sent for leave to take a command of Englishmen for the service of your Majesty. The Duke of Norfolk (age 63) inclines more to the side of France; I know not whether owing to conformity of conditions, or because the pension assigned to him by your Majesty was never paid. The interview of the two kings is forgotten. The king of Scots, after the example of his "patrisant et matrisant," has also aken to wife "une sienne amoreuse," and laughs at the French who had failed in their promise to him.

Not being too well assured by the words of those here, I thought it my duty not merely to write simply how matters stood, but to add some of the circumstances, that your Majesty might judge more clearly the intentions of these men; for which reason I beg you to excuse my prolixity. London, 6 June 1536.Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 31.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. The King had said to me before with great protestations that it was not by way of reproach, and he begged me not to inform you about it if I did not think it for the benefit of affairs; that, because the promise formerly made to him to continue the war against the king of France, even to the privation of the Crown, had not been kept, he feared that when they came to treat it would be the same thing again. But I satisfied him on this point by several reasons.

On my leaving the King he called several of his Council who were there in the chamber, and repeated to them our communications. Meanwhile I went to talk with this Queen's brother [Edward Seymour (age 36)], whom I left very well informed of the great good it would be, not only to the Queen his sister and all their kin, but also to the realm and all Christendom likewise, if the Princess were restored to her rights; and I am sure he will use his good offices therein. The Duke of Norfolk (age 63) afterwards, leaving, told me that I should see without being told that the King his master had no need of Chancellor or Council to make his replies and take his determinations, for he did all his business himself. I afterwards spoke to Cromwell, reporting the brusque words the King had used to me, but excusing him because he had already taken upon himself the office of an arbiter, who to bring the parties to an agreement imputes blame to both. Cromwell replied that I had spoken truly, and he thought it a great advantage that I understood the nature and artifice of the King his master, and that he could assure me all would go well; and he prayed God that during these interludes your Majesty's army might make notable progress, and that if the Princess were restored, which he hoped would be by Saturday next, all the rest could be easily settled; and that the Queen, after leaving me, had spoken to the King as warmly as possible in favor of the Princess, putting before him the greatness and goodness of all her kindred. Cromwell would advise your Majesty to write a rather long letter to the King about the injuries done you by the king of France, your efforts for peace, the expences you have incurred, and offering still to accept a sure and honorable peace, especially for the King's sake; and that you might send me the conditions apart if you did not think proper to write them to the King, among which conditions Cromwell presupposes would be the demand for Burgundy.

1536 Neville Triple Wedding

On 02 Jul 1536 three weddings between the Neville, and Manners and Vere families, were celebrated at one mass at Holywell Priory [Map]:

Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 11) and Anne Manners Countess of Westmoreland (age 9) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41). He the son of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland (age 37). They were half fourth cousins. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 9) and Margaret Neville Countess Rutland were married. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland (age 37). He the son of Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John de Vere 16th Earl of Oxford (age 20) and Dorothy Neville Countess of Oxford were married. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) and Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland (age 37). He the son of John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65) and Elizabeth Trussell Countess of Oxford.

Those present included Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19), Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65) and Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Pilgrimage of Grace

Around Oct 1536 the North rose against religious policies of Henry VIII (age 45). Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48) condemned the traitors. John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer (age 42) was implicated. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63), [his son] Henry Howard (age 20) and Edmund Knyvet (age 28) undertook the suppression of the rebels.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Around Oct 1536. After that the King’s highness was credibly certified of this new insurged insurrection, he making no delay in so weighty a matter, caused with all speed the Dukes of Norffolke (age 63) and Suffolke (age 52), the Marques of Exeter (age 40), the Erle of Shrewsbury (age 68) with other, accompanied with his mighty and royal army, which was of great power and strength, forthwith to set upon the rebels: but when these noble captains and counsellors approached, the rebels and perceived their number and saw how they were bent to battle, they practised with great policy to have pacified all without bloodsheding, but the Northern men were so stiff necked that they would in no wise stoop, but stoutly stood and maintained their wicked enterprise, wherefore the nobles above said perceiving and seeing none other way to pacify these wretched rebels, agreed upon a battle, the battle was appointed, and the day was assigned: but, se the same night which was the night before the day of the battle appointed, fell a small rain nothing to speak of but yet as it were by a great miracle of god, the water which was but a very small ford, and that men in manner the day before might have gone dry-shod over, suddenly rose of such a height, deepness and breadth that the like no man that there did inhabit could tell that ever they saw it so afore, so that the day, even when the hour of battle should come it was impossible for the one army to come at the other.

After this appointment made between both the armies (disappointed as it is to be thought only by God, who extended his great mercy and had compassion on the great number of innocent persons, that in that deadly slaughter had like to have been murdered) could take no place: Then by the great wisdom and policy of the said captains, a communication was had, and a pardon of the King’s Majestic obtained, for all the captains and chief doers of this insurrection, and they promised that such things as they found themselves aggrieved withall they should gently be heard, and there reasonable petitions granted and that their articles should be presented to the King’s Majesty, that by his highness authority, and wisdom of his counsel, all things should be brought to good order and conclusion: and with this order every man quietly departed, and those which before were bent as hot as fire to fight, being letted thereof by God, went now peaceably to their houses, and were as cold as water. A domino factum est istud [This was done by the Lord].

Before 1537 John Bulmer and [his sister-in-law] Margaret Stafford (age 25) were married. She the daughter of Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Bigod's Rebellion

On 17 Jan 1537 Thomas Darcy 1st Baron Darcy Templehurst (age 70) wrote to Robert Aske (age 37) and Robert Constable (age 59) ... Of Sir Fras Bigod (age 29) I heard, this day at dinner, as you wrote; and more, that Hallum was taken at Hull yesterday with a letter in his purse from Sir Francis Bigod (age 29) promising that he and all the West Base Countries would rise and come forward. This day with my servant, Alan Gefreyson, I sent you my news which are of such bruits, rages, and furies as the like I have not read nor heard of. I sent to my cousin Ellerker and Whartton for the premises concerning Hull. My advice is that you stay the people till the coming of my lord of Norfolk (age 64), which, I hear, shall be shortly, and all the gentlemen that is above of the North with him. He brings gracious answers of the Parliament and petitions. Good Mr. Aske, where you write desiring me to stay my quarters; there has yet been no stir in my rooms and lands, but what was caused by other wild countries and dales. I shall do my duty, and play my part therein, though I lie in my bed. I hear my lord of Cumberland is likely to have business for two prisoners he keeps.

Hall's Chronicle 1537. Feb 1537. Also in the said month, Nichol Musgrave, Thomas Tilbie, with other began a new rebellion at Kirbie Stephen [Map] in Westmoreland with eight thousand persons, and besieged the city of Carlisle [Map], from whence they were beaten, with the only power of the city, and in their returning the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), who then was made Lieutenant of the North encountered with them, and took the captains, and according to the law martial, arraigned threescore and fourteen of them, and hanged them on Carlisle walls, but Musgrave escaped. And in the same month of February began yet another insurreccion, by the enticement of Sir Frances Bigod (age 29), a man no doubt that loved God, and feared his Prince, with a right obedient and loving fear but now being deceived and provoked thereunto by false rebellious persons, it was his fortune to taste of the end which appertains to rebels such are men when God leaves them to themselves, and when they will enterprise the doing of that thing which God’s most holy word utterly forbids. This Bigod was apprehended and brought to the Tower of London. This last rebellion began in Setrington, and in Pikerin Leigh, and Scarborough.

On 25 May 1537 [his sister-in-law] Margaret Stafford (age 26) was burned at the stake at Smithfield [Map].

On 06 Jul 1537 Robert Constable (age 59) was hanged in chains from the Beverley Gate in Kingston upon Hull witnessed by Thomas Howard 3rd Duke Norfolk (age 64).

Letters and Papers 1537. 03 Jul 1537. 206. Robert Southwell to Cromwell.

On his way towards Furness, found the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) at Sheriff Hutton in Yorkshire, and delivered Cromwell's letter, on reading which the Duke seemed glad of Southwell's coming. The Duke walked into the park with him to confer of divers matters, as of Gostwyk's, Pope's, and Freman's, whereof at his departure Cromwell commissioned him; and he, being desirous of amity between the Duke and Cromwell, took the occasion to recite many arguments he had perceived both before and since the Duke's going Northward of Cromwell's friendship to the same. The Duke answered, "Sowthwell," quoth he, "I confess all to be true that you have spoken and myself to be knowing of no less than you have said, for having the experiments that I have of his friendship towards me and mine for my sake, if I should have diffidence in him I were not worthy to be taken ay an honest man, and if there were any spark of mistrust in me toward him I would not disguise it to you, whom I take both to be my friend and an honest man." Assures Cromwell that wherever the Duke went, after reproving the people for their untruth to the King, he blamed most their inhumanity towards Cromwell. Heard this of the people themselves, who are very penitent, though the original default was not in them. Has heard many complaints as he passed through; if it is as they say, they are not well treated. The tenants of Wynterberne complain of my Lord of Cumberland: wherewith he would not meddle other than for the "vndevalue" (undervalue?) of the manor, which touches his office; for he has learnt, in the short while he has served the King, that it is best to be silent. Begs favour. Assures Cromwell the King's fee and all he has beside is not us much as the office in London he gave up on entering the King's service. Can get nothing more than his fee of £20 Truly, if he had sold the cattle, &c. there to the rich, leaving the poor unserved, he might have benefited himself more. Begs remembrance of the Bishop of St. Assez suit and his touching the priory of Rochester. Furneys, 3 July.

Hol., pp. 4 Add.: Privy Seal. Endd.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.

On 15 Oct 1537 the future Edward VI was christened by Bishop John Stokesley (age 62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) were Godparents.

King Edward VI of England and Ireland was created Duke Cornwall, 1st Earl Chester.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long (age 43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52), Philip Boteler (age 45), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66) and John Gage (age 57) attended. Mary Scrope (age 61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried the canopy.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton (age 48) attended.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 37) was created 1st Earl Hertford.

Nicholas Carew (age 41), Francis Bryan (age 47), Anthony Browne (age 37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire (age 27), Edward Neville (age 66), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 29), Richard Long (age 43) and John Wallop (age 47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and Bishop John Bell attended.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 47) was created 1st Earl of Southampton. Mabel Clifford Countess Southampton (age 55) by marriage Countess of Southampton.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 25thd daie of October, being Moundaie, the Prince was christened in the Kinges chappell at Hampton Court, the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 48) and the Duke of Norfoike (age 64) godfathers at the font, and my Ladie Maries grace (age 21), the Kinges daughter by Queene Katherin, godmotherb, and the Duke of Suffolke, godfather at the confirmation, the Princes name being Edwarde, proclaymed after his christning by the King of Haroldesa, "Edward, sonne and heire to the King of Englande, Duke of Cornewall, and Earle of Chester." The goodlie solempnitie of the lordes and ladies done at the christning was a goodlie sight to behoulde, everie one after their office and degree; the Ladie Elizabeth (age 4), the Kinges daughter, bearing the chrisome on her breast, the Viscoumpt Beauchampe (age 37), brother to the Queeneb, bearing her in his armes, the Earle of Essex (age 52) bearing the salte, the Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 34) bearing the Prince to the church and home againe, the Duke of Norfolke (age 64) staying his head, as she bare him, and the Duke of Suffolke (age 53) at his feete.

Note d. Evidently a clerical error for the 15th, which was Monday, whereas the 25th would haye been Thursday.

Note e. It is cnrions to note the incongruity of the sponsors: these were Archbishop Cranmer (age 48), the head of the Protestant Reformers, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), leader of the lay Catholics, and the Princess Mary (age 21), a bigoted Catholic, who had been bastardised by her father.

Note a. Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux King-at-Arms.

Note b. Edward Seymour (age 37), elder brother of Queen Jane, and so brother-in-law of Henry VIII was created Viscount Beauchomp, of Hache, co. Somerset, 5th June, 1536. He was lineally descended from Sir Roger Seymour (temp. Edward III.) who married Cicely, sister and eldest coheir of John de Beauchamp, last Baron Beauchamp.

Funeral of Jane Seymour

Letters and Papers 1537. 24 Oct 1537. Heralds' College MS. I. 11,f. 37. 1060. Queen Jane Seymour. A remembrance of the interment of Queen Jane, mother of Edward VI., who died at Hampton Court, 24 Oct., on Wednesday about 12 p.m., in child-bed, 29 Henry VIII.

Immediately upon this heavy news the King ordained the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), High Marshal, and Sir William Pawlet, Treasurer of the Household, to see to her burial; and he himself retired to a solitary place to pass his sorrows. The aforesaid councillors then sent for Garter and other of the Office of Arms to show precedents. First the wax-chandler did his office, taking out the entrails "with searing, balming, spicing, and trammeling in cloth," then the plumber leaded, soldered, and chested; and her entrails were honourably interred in the chapel. Friday, 26 Oct., there was provided in the chamber of presence a hearse with 21 tapers about it, &c., and the corpse conveyed, in honourable wise, from the place where she died, and laid beneath the hearse. All the ladies and gentlewomen "put off their rich apparel, doing on their mourning habit and white kerchers hanging over their heads and shoulders," and there knelt about the hearse during mass afore noon and Dirige after; there was also a watch kept nightly until the last day of the month.

Letters and Papers 1537. On Wednesday [01 Nov 1537], the vigil of All Saints, the great chamber and galleries leading to the chapel, and the chapel, were hung with black cloth and garnished with rich images. In the chapel was prepared a hearse, garnished with 8 banner-rolls of descents i.e. of the King, Queen, Prince, York, Normandy, Guienne, Ireland and Cornwall with "rachments and majestye." The same afternoon the corpse was conveyed to the chapel, the King's officers and servants standing in double rank from the chamber to the chapel with torches, not lighted, whilst the Bishop of Carlisle, her almoner, assisted by the Bishop of Chichester, dean of the Chapel and the subdean, entered the chamber and did the ceremonies, as sensing with holy water and De profundis. That done, torches were lighted and the procession formed; first the cross with priests, two and two, then gentlemen, esquires, pursuivants and heralds, then the noblemen, then Garter, then the Earl of Rutland (age 45), the Queen's chamberlain, and Duke of Norfolk (age 64), then the corpse, then the chief mourner, the lady Marquis of Exeter "in place of the Lady Mary as then accrased assisted by two noblemen as earls," then nine noble ladies, mourners. The corpse being received in the chapel by the prelates and placed under the hearse, Lancaster Herald said, with a loud voice, "Of your charity pray for the soul" &c. (words quoted). Then Dirige was sung and all departed to the Queen's chamber. Watch was kept every night in the chapel by priests, gentlemen-ushers and officers of arms who, in the morning, early, were relieved by ladies and went to breakfast, which was provided "as two chines of beef with bread ale and wine thereto sufficient." Then began Laudes; and at nine a.m. the Lady Mary (age 21), chief mourner, and the others proceeded to the chapel. Thursday, 1 Nov., was the offering mass (described) at which everyone offered a piece of gold. Then after dinner and consultation with the cofferer and other chief clerks of the Household about the provision to be made, Dirige was solemnly sung by the Bishop of Chichester. On Friday, 2 Nov., the Abbot of St. Albans said mass and conducted the service; Saturday, 3 Nov., the Abbot of Waltham did execute; Sunday, 4 Nov., the Abbot of Reading; Monday, 5 Nov., the Abbot of Stratford. On Tuesday, 6 Nov., were 3 solemn masses, (1) by the Abbot of Tower Hill at which were the chief mourner, the Countess of Rutland (age 42) and other ladies, nine in all, the train borne by Mrs. Bassett: (2) by the Abbot of Westminster (attended by the chief mourner, [his half-sister] Countess of Oxford (age 19) and others): (3) by the Bishop of St. Tasse, Abbot of Bramsey (attended by the chief mourner, Lady Marquis of Exeter, Countess of Rutland (age 42) and Sussex and others; the train borne by lady Coffyn).

Letters and Papers 1537. 12 Nov 1537. Monday, 12 Nov [1537], the corpse was removed to a chair drawn by six chariot horses, and four banners were borne by four barons (not named). Banners (described) were also borne by Chester, Windsor, Richmond, and Lancaster heralds, by Sir Thomas Denys, Gregory Crumwell, Sir William Godolphyn, Sir John Sandes, Richard Crumwell and Richard Manners. Assistants about the corpse and chair:—Duke of Suffolk (age 53), Marquis Dorset, and earls of Surrey, Westmorland, Wiltshire and Sussex. To the chief mourner:—lords Montague and Clifford. Gentlemen-ushers:—Henry Webbe and Thomas Dauncy. Henchmen that sat upon the chariot horses:—Thomas Kempe, Robert Turwytt, Bennet Lee, and John Hastynges. Officers of arms in attendance:— Garter and Clarencieux, kings; York, Chester, Windsor, Richmond, Lancaster and Somerset, heralds; Portcullis, Bluemantle, Rougedragon, Guisnes, Hammes, Berwick and Blaunchlyon, pursuivants. Serjeants-at-arms:—William Rowte, John Gwillm, Walt. Chalcote, Thomas Dawtry, William Uxley, George Warrenne, Richard Raynshowe, William Clerke, John Stoner, Ralph Framyngham, John Greefelde, Ralph Saintjohn, John up Richards, Edward Slegge, Nicholas Jacsoune. Everything being in order the procession started, Gregory Lovell and Robert Hawkes leading the way, with black staves, followed by 200 poor men wearing the Queen's badges, who at Colbrooke, Exton (sic, Eton), and Windsor stood on each side of the street with their torches. Then came minstrels and trumpets, strangers and ambassadors' servants, the cross with priests, knights, chaplains, abbots, barons and bishops, councillors and head officers, Viscounts and earls. Lord Cromwell lord Privy Seal with the French ambassador Mons. de Schatelon. The lord Chancellor with the ambassador of the Emperor "last come." The cross of the archbishop of Canterbury borne before him by his chaplain; and he himself with the Emperor's ambassador "longest being here." Then Clarencieux and Garter, the Queen's almoner, the chamberlains to the King and Queen, the Earl of Oxford (age 66), High-Chamberlain, the Duke of Norfolk (age 64), High-Marshal. Then the corpse surrounded by banners borne by Sir William Muschame, lord Hungerford, lord Mordaunt, lord Bray and lord Mountjoy; assisted by the earls of Sussex and Westmorland, marquis Dorset, the earls of Wiltshire and Surrey and Duke of Suffolk (age 53). Then my Lady Mary, chief mourner, her horse trapped in black velvet and assisted by lords Clifford and Montague. Noble ladies following, in the first chair:—Lady Fraunces, the Countesses of [his half-sister] Oxford (age 19), Rutland (age 42), Sussex, Bath, and Southampton, and lady Margaret Howard. In the 2nd (described) the Countess of Derby (age 52), widow, and ladies Margaret Gray, Rochford (age 32), and Carowe, followed by ladies Morley, Dawbeney, Dudley, Owtred, Browne, Pawlet, Russell, and Baynton. The 3rd chair containing ladies Cobham, Bray, Kingston (age 61), and Coffyn; followed by ladies Knevet, Wollope, Henage, and Lyster, Mrs. Smith, Mrs. Jernyngham, Mrs. Stoner, and Mrs. Francis Aylmer. The 4th chair containing Mrs. Souche, Mrs. Hollande, Mrs. Asheley, Mrs. Norres, and Mrs. Parre; and followed by Mrs. Darcy, Mrs. Pexsall, Mrs. Clarencieux, Mrs. Carowe, Mrs. Poyntes, Mrs. Cromwell, Mrs. Boynton, and Mrs. Tymeo. The 5th chair containing Mrs. Fitzherbart, Mrs. Bassett, Mrs. Rastall, Mrs. Uxbryge, and Mrs. Joscelyn. (All other gentlewomen rode on before to await the arrival at Windsor, and the start was to be made at 5 a.m.) After the 5th chariot came Sir William Kingston (age 61), the King's vice-chamberlain and captain of the Guard, followed by the Guard—three and three—and all other noblemen's servants. Two almoners were appointed to distribute alms by the way. At Colbroke the corpse was reverently received; and so forth at Eaton, where the Bishop of Lincoln, the Bishop of Carlisle "provost of the said college," and all the priests, clerks, and children received it with caps and tapers in their hands. At Windsor the mayor and brethren met it at the bridge-foot with lighted torches, and so passed to the College. Describes the hangings on the way from the bridge-foot to the west door and in the choir. The dean of Windsor and all the College met the corpse at the utter gate, and accompanied it to the west door, where the chair was taken out and borne by Sir Henry Savyll, Sir Marm. Constable, Sir Arthur Darcy, Sir John St. John, Sir Henry Parker, Sir Thomas Poyninges, and Sir Thomas Darcy, assisted by Sir Humph. Radclyff, Sir John Gage, Sir Richard Weston, and Sir Richard Sandys. A canopy (described) was borne over the corpse by Lord Hastyngs, son and heir to the Earl of Huntingdon, and lords Delaware, Morley, Dacres of the South, Cobham and Bray. In the choir was the archbishop of Canterbury, in pontificalibus, assisted by the bishops of London, Lincoln, Chichester, Worcester, Rochester, St. Taxe (St. Asaph), and Carlisle, and the abbots of Westminster, St. Albans, Reading, Waltham, Tower Hill, and Stratford. The chief mourner followed the corpse, having her train borne by the Viscountess Rochforde (age 32), and assisted by lady Fraunces, the Countesses of Oxford, Derby (age 52) (widow), Rutland (age 42), Bath, and Southampton, and lady Margaret Howard. The corpse being passed under the hearse, a Dirge began in which the lessons were read by the prelates in turn (named) and that finished, the nobility went to the Castle. Describes solemn watch that night and services next day, after which the "offering of the palles began" i.e., ladies Bray, Dawbeney, Morley and Cobham offered one each, ladies Margaret Howard, and Marg. Gray two each, the Countesses of Southampton, Bath, Sussex, Rutland (age 42), Oxford, and Derby (age 52) three each, lady Fraunces four, and the Lady Mary, who was lead between the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, seven. That done, the mourners went to the Castle where they were sumptuously provided for, and the corpse was solemnly buried and all finished by 12 o'clock that day.

ii. Liveries given to the officers of arms and payments for diets made to them by Mr. Gostwick.

Pp. 24 in an Elizabethan hand.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 31 Oct 1537. This yeare, on All Hallowe Even, the Lord [his half-brother] Thomas Howarde (age 26), brother to the Duke of Northfolke (age 64), died in prison in the Tower of London, and his bodie was caried to Thetforde, and there buried.

Allso the Ladie Margarett Duglas (age 22), that had lyen in prison in the Tower of London for love betwene him and her, was pardoned by the King and sett agayne at her libertie; howbeit, she tooke his death very heavilie.1

Note 1. In 1644 she married Matthew fourth Earl of Lennox (age 21), and became Conntess of Lennox, and mother of Darnley.

Execution of Friar John Forest

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 22 May 1538. Also the 22th daie of Maie, being Wednesdaie this same yeare, the said Friar Forrest was drawen from Newgate to the place of execution in Smythfielde, where was a noble sermon made by the Bishopp of Worcestre (age 51), afore writton, to have drawen the said Friar Forrest from his opinions; but he, obstinatlie standing still and stiffe in his opininons, and beinge asked by the said bishopp in what state he would die, he openlie declaring their with a lowde voyce to the Bishopp as followeth: That if an angell should come downe from heaven and shew him any other thing then that he had beleeved all his liffe tyme past he would not beleeve him, and that if his bodie should be cutt joynt after joynt or membre after membre, brent, hanged, or what paine soever might de donne to his bodie, he wold neaver turne from his old sect of this Bishopp of Rome; and also seaven yeare agone hea durst not have made such a sermon for his lief. And then after this, being a false traitor to his Praynce, an hereticke, and a seditious person to the Kinges leighe people, was had to the place of executionb and their hanged about the middle in chains of iron on a paire of gallowes alive, a great fire made under him and about him, and so was burned for his said heresie and treason.

Also their was brent with him an idollc that was brought out of Gidarne was North Wales, which idoll was of woode like a man of armes in his armes in his harneies having a litle speare in his hande and a caskett of iron about his necke hanging with a ribond, the which people of North Walles honored as a sainct. The name of the idoll was called in Walch Darvell Gadarn.d Present at this execution were the Duke of Norfolke (age 65), the Duke of Suffolke (age 54), the Erle of Sussex (age 31), the Earle of Hartford (age 38) being Vicount Beawchampe, the Bishoppe of London, with other of the Kinges Counsell, the Major (age 53)e of London, with the most part of the aldermen and shrives, and, as I thinke, tenne thousand persons and more; also the place of execution where the gallowes and fire was made was railed round about; and their was a skaffold made to sett the pulpitt on where the preacher stoode, and an other against itt where the friar stoode all the sermon tyme, and a long skaffold next to Sainct Bartholomewes spittell gate, where the Lordes of the Privie Counsell sate with the major and aldermen and other gentlemen and commons of the cittie.

Note a. Bishop Latimer (age 51).

Note b. Compare this with the account of the burning of Friar Forest in Harleian MS. 530, f. 120.

Note c. The Welshmen had a prophesy that this image should set a whole forest a fire, which prophesie now toke effect, for it set this Frier Forest on fyre, and consumed him to nothing. Hall, p 826.

Note d. Usually written Darvell or David Gatheren.

Note e. Sir Richard Gresham (age 53).

On 16 May 1539 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 66) proposed the Six Articles.

On 29 Jun 1539 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 66) attended dinner with King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 48), Cromwell (age 54) and others as guests of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 49).

Arrest and Attainder of Thomas Cromwell

On 10 Jun 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 55) attended a Meeting of the Privy Council where he was arrested. It isn't entirely clear why he was arrested but his role in the King's recent failed marriage to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24) is likely to have played a part. Either Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 67) or William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 50) tore off Cromwell's (age 55) St George of the Order of the Garter; the source of this story unknown? He was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Earl Essex and Baron Cromwell of Wimbledon in Surrey forfeit.

On 29 Jan 1541 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68) was appointed Lieutenant General North of the Trent.

1541 Executions

On 20 Jun 1541 Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 26) was tried for the murder of John Busbrig, servant of Nicholas Pelham (age 24) on whose land they were poaching on 30 Apr 1541. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68) was appointed Lord High Steward for the trial.

On 29 Jun 1541 he was hanged at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at St Sepulchre without Newgate Church. Baron Dacre Gilsland forfeit. His son Gregory (age 1) would be restored to the title in 1558.

Note. Hall's Chronicle says strangled.

Letters and Papers 1541. 02 Jul 1541. 954. Chapuys (age 51) to the Queen of Hungary.

Almost immediately after Chapuys's return the King (age 50) gave the people of Dunkirk permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use for curing herrings, and he has frequently reminded Chapuys of the favor, saying he was surprised that the town had not sent a deputation to say how much wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after being kept 13 days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things till the Queen has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition purchased by the King some time ago at Antwerp.

On St. Peter's eve lord Leonard (deceased), uncle of the Marquis of Osceter (age 24) (Dorset) and of the Chancellor's (age 53) wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower [Map]. Hears he was accused of letting his nephew (age 16), the young Earl of Kildare, escape to France and thence to Liege.

That afternoon two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had an income of over 12,000 ducats a year, and was the handsomest and best bred man in England [Note. Not clear as to who this is? If anyone has information on the identity of this person I'd be grateful if they would email Christopher Smith.], only 25 years old and married to a niece of the Duke of Norfolk (age 68). He was sentenced for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in an unpremeditated fray. For the same cause lord Dacres (deceased) also, son1 of the Duke of Norfolk's (age 68) [his half-sister] sister, and cousin of this Queen (age 18), 23 years old and possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet, and for greater shame dragged through the streets to the place of execution, to the great pity of many people, and even of his very judges, who wept when they sentenced him, and in a body asked his pardon of the King. But the thing which astonished people most was, that, the same day lord Dacres was hung, another young man (age 28), son of the Treasurer of the Royal household (age 56), who was one of those present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned, though he had been already tried for some like misdemeanour.

At the same time in the North, Sir John Neville (deceased) and about 60 more, among whom at least 25 were ecclesiastics, were executed for the conspiracy of which Chapuys wrote some time ago. Has just heard of the arrival of a Polish gentleman with eight or ten servants. Will endeavour to discover who he is and what he comes for. London, 2 July 1541. Original at Vienna.

Note 1. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (deceased), Lord Dacre, was the grandson of Anne Bourchier Baroness Dacre Gilsland who was the maternal half-sister of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68); Anne and Thomas' mother was [his mother] Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey.

On 03 Mar 1542 [his illegitimate brother-in-law] Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle (age 77) died at the Tower of London [Map]. Viscount Lisle extinct.

Battle of Solway Moss

On 25 Nov 1542 Thomas Wharton 1st Baron Wharton (age 47) commanded the English forces at Battle of Solway Moss at Solway Moss, Cumberland [Map]. John Thynne (age 27) fought. Of the Scottish army Malcolm Fleming 3rd Lord Fleming (age 48), Gilbert Kennedy 3rd Earl Cassilis (age 27) and Laurence Oliphant 3rd Lord Oliphant fought.

William Graham 3rd Earl Menteith (age 42) was captured. He was ransomed in 1453.

William Cunningham 4th Earl Glencairn (age 49) was captured and committed to the custody of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 69). He was released on payment of a ransom of a thousand pounds and subscribing by his own hand to support Henry VIII's (age 51) project of a marriage between the young King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 5) and the Mary Queen of Scots.

Malcolm Fleming 3rd Lord Fleming (age 48) was captured.

On 17 Dec 1545 [his sister-in-law] Mary Stafford Baroness Bergavenny (age 50) died in Abergavenny, Monmouthshire [Map].

The History of England under Henry VIII 1546. The [his wife] Dutchess Elizabeth (age 49), daughter to Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, having for many years entertain'd so violent jealousies of the duke her husband's matrimonial affection and loyalty, as it broke out at last to open rancour, divers occasions of scandal were given: insomuch, that not being content with having surmized a long while since two articles against him, she again, in sundry letters to the lord privy-seal, both averred the articles, and manifestly accus'd some of his minions, repeated divers hard usages, she pretended to receive from them, and briefly discover'd all the ordinary passions of hei offended sex. This again being urg'd in a time when the king was in his declining age, and for the rest, disquieted with scruples, that the duke's greatness or interest in sequent times might interrupt the order he intended to give, was not unwillingly heard. So that notwithstanding his many important and faithful services, both in war and peace, at home and abroad, he and his son [his son] Henry Earl of Surrey (age 30), were expos'd to the malignity and detraction of their accusers. This again fell out in an unfortunate time; for besides that the lady his dutchess had now for above four years been separated from him [Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 73)]; his son the Earl of Surrey (age 30) was but newly, and perchance, scarce reconciled with him; his daughter [his daughter] Mary Dutchess of Richmond (age 27) not only inclined to the Protestant party, (which lov'd not the duke) but grown an extream enemy of her brother: so that there was not only a kind of intestine division in his family, but this again many secret ways fomented.

On 12 Dec 1546 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 73) and his son [his son] Henry Howard (age 30) were imprisoned at Tower of London [Map]. Henry was accused of having assuming the royal arms of Edward the Confessor as part of his personal heraldry; an act of treason.

In 1547 [his brother-in-law] Henry Stafford 1st Baron Stafford (age 45) was created 1st Baron Stafford.

Execution of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey

On 19 Jan 1547 [his son] Henry Howard (age 31) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. He had foolishly added the arms of Edward the Confessor to his own arms. He was charged with treasonably quartering the royal arms. His father survived sentence since the King died the day before it was due to take place.

In 1553 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) was appointed Privy Council.

In 1553 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) was knighted by Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 36).

Letters and Papers 1533. Apr 1553. R. O. 423. The Staple Of Calais.

"Demands to be made of the King's behalf of the merchants of the Staple."

1. That they shall pay the King the sums due this day upon all obligations according to the days of payment. 2. That they shall pay ½d. more on each woolfell that they shall load hereafter to Calais, and 13s. 4d. more on every sack. 3. That they shall bring in bullion for every sack according to law, and not henceforth make any exchanges without licence.

On these conditions the King is willing to take their house and lands in Calais and the Marches, and to accept the other offers made in their supplication, and to grant them liberty to ship and to continue their company, and to pay for no more wools and fells than they shall ship.

In Cromwell's hand, p. 1.

ii. Memoranda on the back of the preceding:—

"For to remember the judgment to be prepared for in the King's great matter.

Item, for the despatch of my lord of Norfolk (age 80).

Item, the bill for the succession, and to rest upon the same.

Item, for to devise for the coronation, and to see presendementtes for the same.

Item, to devise for lands for the Queen.

Item, for the establishment of the Dowager."

In Cromwell's hand.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal entrance into London.

Strype's Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:

There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (age 80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (age 80) was put to death by King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (age 26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (age 70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (age 56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (age 26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (age 70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen's mother and had written in defense of King Henry's proceedings.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 18 Aug 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26) were tried at Westminster Hall [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) presided at the trial.

Coronation of Mary I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1553. The xxx day of September the Qwuyen('s) (age 37) grace cam from the Towre thrugh London, rydyng in a charett gorgusly be-sene unto Westmynster; by the way at Fanche-chyrche a goodly pagant, with iiij grett gyants, and with goodly speches, the geneways mad yt; at Grache-chyrche a-nodur goodly pajant of esterlyngs makyng; and at Ledyne-hall was nodur pagant hangyd with cloth of gold, and the goodlyst playng with all maner of musyssoners, and ther was on blohyng of a trumpet all the day longe; at the conduyt in Cornhyll a-nodur of the sete; and (at) the grett condutt a-nodur goodly on, and the standard pentyd and gyldyd, and the crosse pentyd; and (at) the lytyll conduyt a goodly pagant; in Powlles chyrche-yerde ij pagants; and ij scaffolds on Powlles stepull with stremars; andt Ludgat pentyd; at the conduyd in Flett-stret a goodly pajant and pentyd .... holy] water-stokes and sensers and copes ... Westmynster chyrche, and ther her grace hard masse, and was crounyd a-pon a he stage, and after [she was] a-nontyd Qwene, the forst day of October. [When all] was don, her grace cam to Westmynster hall .... yt was iiij of the cloke or she whent to dener [or pa]st; and ther the duke of Norffoke rod up and done the hall, my lord the yerle of [his former son-in-law] Darbe (age 44) he constabull, the yerle of Arundell (age 41) he boteler, and my lord of Borgane cheyff larderer, master Dymmoke (age 45) the qwyen('s) champyon; and ther was [great me]lode; and the erle of Devonshyre (age 26) bare the sword, and the yerle of Westmorland (age 28) bare the cape of mantenans, and the erle of Shrowsbery (age 53) bare the crowne, and the duke of Norffoke (age 80) [was earl] marshall, and the yerle of Arundell (age 41) lord stuard, and the erle of Surray (age 17) was doer under the duke ys grandshyr, and the erle of Woseter (age 27) was her grace('s) carver that day at dener, my lord Wyndsore (age 54) was (blank); and at the end of the tabull dynyd my lade Elisabeth (age 20) and my lade Anne of Cleyff (age 38); and so yt was candyll-lyght or her grace or she had dynyd, and so [anon] her grace toke barge.

On 01 Oct 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) was crowned I Queen of England and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26) carried the Sword of State.

John Gage (age 73) bore the queen's train. Edward Dymoke (age 45) attended as the Queen's Champion. James Blount 6th Baron Mountjoy (age 20) and Henry Parker 12th Baron Marshal 11th Baron Morley (age 20) were created Knight of the Bath. Thomas Hastings (age 38) and John Leigh (age 51) were knighted. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 80) and Henry Neville 5th Earl of Westmoreland (age 28) attended.

Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 38) took part in the procession.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.

Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (deceased) and her husband (deceased), the Duke of Suffolk's (age 37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (age 27) has been sent back to the Tower [Map], where are also the Duke of Suffolk (age 37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey and John Grey (age 30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (age 81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (age 53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.

They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (age 47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.

Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.

Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 18 Aug 1554. Saterdaye the 18 of August, in the after-noone, the King (age 27) and Queenes (age 38) Majesties rode throughe Sowthwerke, over the bridge [Map], and so throughe London; where they were with great provision receaved of the citizens, pageants in places accustomed, the crosse in Cheape [Map] new gilte, &c.

Memorandum: In the moneth of September the Duke of Norfolke (age 81) died at Framlingham [Map] in Norfolke, and there was honorablye buried [Map] amongst his auncestors.

Allso this moneth the Bishop of London (age 54) visited all his dioces, and had sermons in everie parishe and place where he satt, and sett owt divers goodlye articles in print for the true religion.

Allso he commaunded that the feast of everie saynte that was patrone of the churche, called Festum loci in everie parishe, should be kept holiedaye in everie parishe throughe his diocesse as a principall feast used in olde tyme, after the custome of the churche.

On 25 Aug 1554 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 81) died at Kenninghall, Norfolk. He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. His grandson Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke Norfolk, 3rd Earl Surrey.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1554. The ij day of October was bered the nobull duke of Norffok at a plasse callyd Fremyngham chyrche [Map]; and ther was a goodly hersse of wax as I have sene in thes days, with a dosen of banerrolles of ys progene, and xij dosen penselles, xij dosen of kochyons, and with standard, and iij cotes of armes, and a baner of damaske, and iiij banars of emages, and mony mornars, and a gret dolle, and after gret dener. [For the furnishing of which dinner were killed forty great oxen and a hundred sheep, and sixty calves, besides venison, swans, and cranes, capons, rabbits, pigeons, pikes, and other provisions both flesh and fish. There was also great plenty of wine; and of bread and beer as great plenty as ever had been known, both for] ryche and pore: all the co[untry came thither; and] a grett dolle of money ther wher [bestowed upon the poorer sort;] for he was cared from (unfinished).

Note. P. 70. Funeral of the duke of Norfolk. The MS. Harl. 897 says the duke died at Kenyng hall on Monday the 27. of August, and was buried at Fremyngham on Monday the last of September. His funeral is in Coll. Arm, I. 3, f. 103.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1554. The v day of October was the obsequy of the duke of Northfoke at sant Mare Overes [Map]; a hers [hearse] mad with tymber, and hangyd with blake, and with ys armes, and iiij goodly candlestyks gyldyd, and iiij grett tapurs, and with ys armes, and alle the qwyre hangyd with blake and armes; and durge and masse on the morowe. And my lord chanseler (age 71) cheffe morner, and next master [controller,] and master Gorge Haward; at the durge my lord Montyguw (age 25), my [his half-brother] lord admerell (age 44), and my lord Brugys, and divers others; and a xl in gownes and cotes in blake; and after to my lord['s place], and gret ryngyng ij days.

In Nov 1558 [his former wife] Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 61) died.

[his daughter] Katherine Howard Countess Derby was born to Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk.

Letters 1536. You are to go on step by step in drawing the King further and more expressly to declare himself against France, and find out what assistance he will give; also you will learn, touching all that concerns this league, what he wishes to do, and to what one can induce him beforehand. If you find any means or ground, [you may tell them we shall not object] to send your letters for the King, the Duke of Norfolk, or others, or some good personage, to confirm and testify what you have done. But you must take care to proceed in such wise that the English may not make their profit of it with the French, and not give them any writing which they might show as evidence. We beg you earnestly to use all diligence about this, and let us know what you do by this same courier whom we send express, paid for his going and coming. It will not be necessary to send any other, as you have been persuaded by our said cousin. Gaeta, 28 March 1535.Fr. From a modern copy, pp. 14.

Letters 1536. 23 April. Anstis' Order of the Garter. ii. 398. 715. The Garter.

On St. George's Day, 23 April 28 Henry VIII., a chapter of the Order of the Garter was held at Greenwich, at which were present the King, the Dukes of Richmond and Norfolk, the Earls of Northumberland, Westmoreland, Wiltshire, Sussex, Rutland, and Oxford, lord Sandys, and Sir William Fitzwilliam. It was determined to hold the feast on May 21, the Earl of Northumberland taking the Sovereign's place, assisted by the Earls of Rutland, Westmoreland, and Oxford, and Sir William Fitzwilliam. Votes were taken for the election of a knight; and the next day, after mass for the dead, the King declared Sir Nicholas Carew elected. He was installed when the feast was kept, on May 21. On this occasion the Earl of Northumberland was seized with vertigo and weakness, so that it was feared he would not be able to take his part as deputy, but he recovered. The next day the hatchments of the deceased were offered up. Lat.

Royal Ancestors of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1473-1554

Kings Wessex: Great x 13 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 10 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 16 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 11 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 6 Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 11 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 7 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Royal Descendants of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1473-1554

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 3

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 11

Ancestors of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk 1473-1554

Great x 1 Grandfather: Robert Howard 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandFather: John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Mowbray Baroness Grey Ruthyn 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Father: Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Moleyns 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

GrandMother: Katherine Moleyns 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Philip Tilney

GrandFather: Frederick Tilney

Mother: Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Lawrence Cheney

GrandMother: Elizabeth Cheney 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cockayne 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England