Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Surrey, Hampton Richmond, Hampton Court Palace [Map]

Hampton Court Palace, Richmond is in Hampton Richmond, Surrey.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Death of Jane Seymour

1541 Catherine Howard Trial

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1543 Parr Family Ennobled

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1550 Visit of the French Ambassadors

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1551 Edward VI's 14th Birthday

1604 Masque of the Twelve Goddesses

1647 Charles I's Flight from Hampton Court Palace

1662 Catherine of Braganza's Arrival in London

In 1510 William Howard 1st Baron Howard was born to Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 67) and Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 33) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 26 Mar 1522. The King’s highness kept this year his Easter at his manor of Richemont [Map], and caused his almoner to make enquire, eight miles round about the said manor, what poor people was in every parish. And for the eschewing of murder, that most commonly fortuned every Good Friday, by reason of the great resort of poor people, his grace caused them to be refreshed with his alms at home at their houses.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 23 Apr 1522. THE King (age 30) this yere kept the day of S. George with great solemnity, at his manor of Richemond [Map], where were elected to the Order of the Garter, Don Ferdinando (age 19) brother to the Emperor (age 22), and Archduke of Austria, and Sir Richard Wingfield (age 53) knight by the Emperor’s means, to the which the Emperor had given two hundred pound pension, out of the house of Burgundy, which Sir Edward Poynings before had of the Emperors gift.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. Titus, B. I. 299. B. M. St. P. I. 296. 4409. Brian Tuke to Wolsey.

Yesternight late received Wolsey's letters, dated yesterday, at Hampton Court [Map], with others out of France and Spain. After perusing them I took them to the King, then in secret communication with his physician, Mr. Chamber, in a tower, where he sometimes sups apart. When I came to speak of the truce contained in your letter, the King said I had already sufficiently explained it before; as indeed I had, else I had not been worthy "to wear mine ears on my head," or do a message between two princes. In fact, the King did not appear to wish to hear any more reasoning in that matter, complaining only that the Spaniards had the advantage of being allowed to use the havens of England. I showed him it was not in reality less to the commodity of the King's realm than the Spaniards, and that when Wolsey had explained it, this would clearly appear. "His Highness, being singularly well satisfied and pleased, said, 'Yea, by God, they dealt with no fool;' meaning, by this word, 'they,' the ambassadors and secretaries; and so bad me read forth." I read the king of Scots' and Gonson's letter. He ordered me to write to the latter to tarry at sea. I told him this had been done by you already, and only required his signature. He ordered Norris to bring both letters; and on my asking to have them signed, Norris said the King would speak with me after supper. "And at reading of your Grace's said letter, his Highness said, 'Well, I will show you anon,' and so bade me read forth." He approves of the article touching relaxation.

In reading the letters from the Bishop of Bath, he seemed to think them long; and whilst I read he sorted the letters and copies. When I read of the good offices that Morette had done, he greatly commended him, and also the Bishop of Bayonne. When I came to that part of your letter expressing sorrow for my complaint, he began to tell me a medicine pro tumore testiculorum. I told him my complaint was in the bladder, and proceeded ex calore in renibus. By and by he showed me the remedies, "as any most cunning physician in England could do."

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 304. 4439. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55) to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 37).

Is glad the King has escaped the plague. Has just heard of the death of Sir William Compton (age 46), and advises the King to stay the distribution of his offices for a time. Is sorry to be so far away from the King, but will at any time attend him with one servant and a page to do service in the King's chamber. Hampton Court [Map], 30 June. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1530. 01 Oct 1530. P. S. 6658. Anne Seyntleger (age 75) and Margaret Boleyn (age 76), Widows.

Livery of lands in Ireland as daughters and heirs of Thomas Earl of Ormond, deceased. Hampton Court [Map], 24 Sept. 22 Henry VIII. Del. Chelsea, 1 Oct.

Pat. 22 Henry VIII. p. 2, m. 8.

R.O. 2. Original patent of the preceding.

02 Oct 1530 Vit. B. XIII. 87 b. B. M. 6659.

As the beast, whom his correspondent knows, takes no account of his duty, nor of his own nor the King's honor, having no fear of deceiving or imposing on any one, I suggest that, for revenge, you should write to me, begging for the remainder of the money, mentioning my promises and your deserts, which were the chief cause of gaining friends for the King at Padua, and of the Paduan instrument, which the King highly values. You must also praise Simonetus, saying that Ambrose would have done nothing without him; and, without abuse of the Bishop, bewail his shabbiness. I will attest everything to the King from the relations of others. You must write to me two letters; one copy I will show to the man himself, and thus compel him to perform his promises, not without interest. If he does not do so soon, will take care that the King reads the other letter. The consequences will be more than perhaps you hoped. You may be sure that I will do what I can, either by myself or through friends. Venice, 2 Oct.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 12 Oct 1537. In October on Saint Edward’s eve was borne at Hampton court [Map] the noble Impe Prince Edward, whose Godfathers at the Christening were the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 48), and the Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and his Godmother the Lady Mary (age 21) the King’s daughter, and at the bishoping was Godfather the Duke of Suffolk (age 53). At the birth of this noble Prince was great fires made through the whole realm and great joy made with thanks giving to almighty God, which had sent so noble a prince to succeed in the crown of this realm.

On 12 Oct 1537 King Edward VI of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 46) and Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. George Owen (age 38) assisted as Physician.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 12 Oct 1537. Also this yere the 12th day of October was born the Prince Edward at Hampton Court [Map], the 29th year of King Henry the VIII.

Death of Jane Seymour

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 23 Oct 1537. This year the good Queen Jane (age 28) deceased the 23rd day of October at Richmond [Map], and all the court had them black gowns, ...

On 24 Oct 1537 Queen Jane Seymour (age 28)died at Hampton Court Palace [Map] at two in the morning as a result of complications arising from childbirth.

Hall's Chronicle 1540. The eight day of August [08 Aug 1540], was the Lady Catherine Howard (age 17), niece to the duke of Norfolk (age 67), and daughter to the Lord Edmund Howard, showed openly as Queen at Hampton Court [Map], which dignity she enjoyed not long, as after you shall hear.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) and Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters Mary (age 27) and Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

On 21 May 1545 Robert Townshend was knighted by Henry VIII (age 53) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

Annales of England by John Stow. 28 Jan 1547. Edward (age 9) the first borne at Hampton court [Map] (by the decease of k. Henry (age 55) his father) began his raigne the 28 of January, and was proclaimed k. of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the churches of England and also of Ireland the supreme head immedlatly in earth under God, & on the last day of January, in the yere of Christ after the Church of England 1546 but after the accompt of them that begin the yere at Chatfimas 1547 being then of the age of nine yéeres. And the same day in the afternoone the saide young king came to the tower of London [Map] from Hertford, and rode into the City at Aldgate, and so along the wall by the crossed Friars [Map] to the Tower hill, & entred at the red bulwarke [Map], where be was received by sir John Gage (age 67) constable of the tower, and the lieutenant on horseback, the Earle of Hertford (age 47) riding before the king, and sir Anthony Browne (age 47) riding after him: and on the bridge next the warde gate, the archbishop of Canterbury (age 57), the lorde Chancellor (age 41), with other great lords of the Councell received him, and so brought him to his chamber of pretence, there they were sworne to his majesty.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1547. The eight daie of October my Lord Protectors Grace (age 47) came from North home, and in Finsburie Fields my lord major, with the aldermen in their skarlett gownes, with certaine of the comens in their liveries with their hoodes, mett his Grace, the major and aldermen on horsebacke, and he ever tooke one of them by the handea, and after my lord major rode with him to the pounde in Smythfield [Map], where my Lord Protector tooke his leve of them, and so rode that night to his place at Shene [Map], and the morrowe after to the King (age 9) at Hampton Court [Map].

Note a. Probably a clerical error for "he tooke every one of them by the hand."

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 16 Jan 1549 Thomas Seymour (age 41), the King's (age 11) uncle, was caught trying to break in to the King's (age 11) apartments at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. He entered the privy garden and awoke one of the King's pet spaniels. In response to the dog's barking, he shot and killed it. He was arrested and taken to the Tower of London [Map].

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 49) was arrested on various charges, including embezzlement at the Bristol mint.

Diary of Edward VI. 06 Oct 1549. In the meane season in Englond rose great sturres, like to increase much if it had not been well forseen.1 The counsel, about 19 of them, were gathered in London, thinking to mete with the lord Protectour (age 49), and to make him amend some of his disordres. He, fearing his state, caused the secretary [Petre (age 44)] in my name to be sent to the lordes, to know for what cause they gathered their powres togethers, and, if they ment to talke with him, that they should come in peacable maner. The next morning, being the 6 of October, and Saturday [Sunday], he commaunded the armoure to be brought downe out of th'armury of Hampton court, about 600 harnesses, to arme both his and my men withal, the gates of the hous to be rempared; peple to be raysed. Peple came abundantly to the house. That night, with al the peple, at 9 or 10 a cloke at night, I went to Windsore [Map], and there was watch and ward kept every night. The lordis sat in open places of London, calling for gentlemen before them, and declaring the causes of accusation of the lord Protectour (age 49), and caused the same to be proclaimed. After wich time few came to Windsore, but only myn owne men of the garde, whom the lordes willed, fearing the rage of the peple so lately quietid. Then begane the Protectour (age 49) to treate by letters, sending Sir Philip Hobbey (age 44), lately cum from his ambassad in Flaundres to see to his famyly, who brought in his returne a letter to the Protectour (age 49) very gentle, wich he delivered to hime, another to me, another to my house, to declare his fautes, ambicion, vain glorie, entriag into rashe warres in mine youth, negligent loking on Newhaven, enriching of himself of my treasour, folowing his owne opinion, and doing al by his owne authorite, et [?]; wich lettres was openly redd, and immediately the lordes came to Windsore, toke him, and brought him through Holborn to the Tower. Afterward I came to Ampton court [Map], wheir they appointed by my consente six lordes of the counsel to be attendant on me, at lest tow, and fower knightes; lordes, the marches Northampton (age 37), th'erles of Warwike (age 45) and Arondel, lordes Russel (age 64), Seintjone, and Wentworth; knigh(tes) sir Andrew Dudely (age 42), sir Edward Rogers (age 51), sir Thomas Darcy, sir Thomas Wroth.1a After I came through London to Westmuster.2a The lord of Warwike made Admyral of England.3a Sir Thomas Cheiney sent to the em perour for relief4, wich he could not obteine. Mr. Wotton5 made secretary. The lord Protectour, by his owne agreement and submission, lost his protectourship, treasourirshipe, marchalshipe, al his moveables, and niere 2,000 pound lande, by acte of parliement.

Note 1. Under the influence of the earl of Warwick (age 45), seconded by the ex-chancellor Southampton and the Romanist party, a majority of the council now undertook to terminate the supreme dictatorship assumed by the Protector. It appears that Somerset's suspicions of his insecurity were first alarmed by learning that the councillors in London dined at each others' houses (see Tytler, p. 249); he consequently took measures on the 5th October, if not before (see the documents quoted in p. 285 hereafter), to strengthen his military resources. According to the record of the council, entered in their register, they had appointed on the morning of Sunday the 6th of October "to repayr to Hampton court, accompanied with their ordinary numbers of servants, to have had friendly communication with the lord Protectour about the reformation of the state;" when, "as they were booted and ready to have mounted upon their horses," they "were certainely advertised, as well as credible reportes of diverse gentlemen, as by letters subscribed by the hands of the said lord Protectour, that he, having some intelligence of their lordships' intents, and moved with the conscience of his ill-government, whereof he would abyde no reformation, had suddenly raised a power of the commons, to the intent, if their lordships had come to the court, to have destroyed them; which power he had levyed as well by letters whereunto he caused his Matie to set his most gracious hand, as by most sedicious bills, which he had devised for that purpose, the tenor whereof word for word foloweth. Good People," &c. (not entered in the Council Book, but preserved in the State Paper office, see hereafter, p. 242). Their lordships consequently determined to remain in London, assembling themselves at Ely Place, then the mansion of the earl of Warwick (age 45), in Holborn, where the following councillors were present: lord St. John, lord great master (who had been with the Protector at Hampton court only two days before), the earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), and Southampton, mr. secretary Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), sir Edward Wotton (age 59), and mr. doctor Wotton dean of Canterbury. Their first step was to unfold their views to the magistrates of London, who consequently held a court of aldermen at Guildhall that same afternoon, and their proceedings will be found detailed at full by Stowe. The council sent out various letters to countermand and counteract the orders issued by the Protector, and also to levy forces on their own party; and, sending for the lieutenant of the Tower of London sir John Markham, they "required him to suffer certain others to enter for the good keeping thereof to his Majesties use; whereunto the said lieutenant according, sir Edmund Peckham (age 54) knight and Leonard Chamberlayne esquire, with their servants, were commanded to enter into the Tower, as associates to the said lieutenant, for the better presidy and guard of the same."

The next morning, Monday Oct. 7, the council met at Mercers' hall in London, in number sixteen, there being present, in addition to those of the day before, the lord chancellor (age 52) (Rich), mr. treasurer (Cheyne), sir John Gage, sir Edward Mountagu, sir Ralph Sadler (age 42), and sir John Baker. They were informed that, during the previous night, the lord Protector had hastily conveyed the King from Hampton court to Windsor castle, and they directed to Windsor the letters hereafter noticed.

On the 8th, at 9 a.m. they met at Guildhall, with the further accession to their company of the marquess of Northampton (age 37) and the earl of Shrewsbury. The mayor, aldermen, and common council were ordered to attend them, and, the lord chancellor (age 52) and others (as Stowe relates) having declared divers abuses of the lord Protector, they persuaded the citizens to take their part. "The lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes, and in the afternoone proclamation was made in divers places of the cittie, with trumpets, heraults, and kings at armes, wherein was contained divers articles touching the evill government of the lord Protector."

On the 9th the council was held "at the house of mr. Yorke, sheriff of London" (this was the ancient mansion, then belonging to the Crown, called the Duke's Place in Southwark, the new sheriff being master of the mint then established there). The names of the lord privy seal (Russell), the master of the horses (Herbert (age 48)), the lord Wentworth, and the vice-chamberlain (Wingfield), are also entered as present in council; but the two former were certainly this day at Wilton, as shown by their autograph signatures to the letter mentioned hereafter, and none of the four signed the council's letters of this day.

"The tenth of October (says Stowe, but this certainly should be the 9th), by a common councell at the guild-hall, was granted five hundred men of the citie (one hundred to be horsemen) to be readie on the next morrow: and this day the lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes of London."

On the 10th, "the same appearance of the councell as before" assembled "at the house of the lord St. John, lord great master, being in London," when they were informed" that, through their former letters, and other means by them devised, and by the dihgent travail also of the archbishop of Canterbury and sir William Paget, then being at Windsor, the Kinges Matie owne servants were again restored to their places of attendance about his Matie person, and that the duke of Somerset's servants and others of the bands were sequestered from his Majtie Having received the private communication from Paget, noticed hereafter, they this day sent to Windsor sir Anthony Wingfield the vice-chamberlain, sir Anthony Sellenger one of the gentlemen of the privy chamber, and sir John Williams treasurer of the augmentations and revenues of the crown, with their servants, for the better guard of the King's person, and for the prevention of Somerset's escape. These officers effected the arrest of the duke the next morning; and, on Sunday the 12th, the lords in a body repaired to Windsor "and presented themselves forthwith before the King's Matie, most humbly on their knees, declaring to the same the occasion and order of their doings, the which his Matie did accept in most gratious part, giving to their lordships his Matie most hearty thanks." Calling before them sir Thomas Smith, sir Michael Stanhope, sir John Thynne (age 34), Edward Wolfe one of his Matie privy chamber, and William Gray esquire, of Reading, "adherents of the said duke, and the principal instruments and councellours that he did use, both at this time, and otherwise also in the affairs of his government," they charged them with their offences, and ordered them to the Tower of London, sir Thomas Smith being at the same time sequestered from the council, and deprived of his secretaryship.

On the 13th, the duke himself "being sent for t'appeare before their lordships, and charged by them with his faults, was with the others before named sent to the Tower of London, under the conduct of the earls of Sussex (not Southampton, as some of the chroniclers state) and Huntingdon, the lords Grey and Burgayny, sir John Gage constable of the Tower, and certain other gentlemen and their bands. This day also the King's Matie departed from Windsor to Hampton court."

Such is the account of this revolution which the privy council were pleased to place upon record. The course of these important events may be further traced by abundant documentary evidence, the greater part of which has been published, but scattered in various places. The two letters placed first in the annexed list may be regarded as a portion of the series — the first clouds that foreboded the coming storm: —

May 8, 1549. A letter of warning from sir William Paget to the lord Protector, remonstrating on his angry and snappish conduct towards those of the council who differed from him or ventured to express their own sentiments. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. Appendix GG.

July 7. A second, and very long, letter of expostulation and advice, written by Paget when abroad, upon hearing of the insurrection in the West. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; another in State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. viii. art. 4; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. App. HH.

Oct. 1 [or 5 ?] a letter, signed by the King and the Protector, summoning all the King's loving subjects with all haste to repair to Hampton Court, "in most defensible array, with harness and weapons, to defend his most royal person, and his most entirely beloved uncle the lord Protector, against whom certain hath attempted a most dangerous conspiracy." It is plainly dated "the furstoi October; "but was received (by a party unnamed) on "the vj of October, of George Dunstalle my lord of Canterbury's servant." In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. ix. art. 1; printed in Tytler's "England under Edward VI. and Mary," i. 205. Another (transcript) copy in the State Paper office, dated Oct. 5, is addressed "To all Justices of peace, mayers, shrives, balives, constables, hed boroughes, and all other the Kynges Matie officers and subjects."

Oct. 4. A letter from the lords at Hampton court to lord Cobham (age 52), deputy of Calais, directing him to select twenty gunners from Calais, and send them to lord Clinton (age 37) (at Boulogne), is signe.d by the Protector, archbishop Cranmer, W. St. John, Wm. Paget, and Wm. Petre (age 44). Original in MS. Harl. 284, fol. 46, printed by Tytler, i. 211.

Oct. 5. Letter of the Protector to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), then in command of the forces lately employed against the "Western rebels, requesting both of them to come to Hampton court, and the latter by post, and his servants to follow. In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI., vol. ix. art. 5; unpublished.

Letter signed by the Protector, the King's signature being prefixed by a stamp, to Sir Harry Seymour, to levy horse and foot. In State Paper office, art. 3, partly printed by Tytler, p. 213.

Oct. 6. Circular letter, of the like form, summoning those to whom it was sent to repair to Hampton court. In State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 214.

Letter under the King's signet, dated from Hampton court, addressed to the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, requiring them to levy men, to watch their gates, and to send one thousand, well harnessed, and with good and convenient weapons, to be at Hampton court that night, or at least on the morrow before noon. This was accompanied by a letter requiring credence to the bearer, Owen Claydon, signed EDWARD and SOMERSET; printed in Poxe's Actes and Monuments, under the head of "The troubles of the duke of Somerset;" and in Hollnshed's Chronicle.

Letter under the King's signet to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), announcing that "suche a henous and grevus conspiracye as never was seen, is attempted against us," &c. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 9.

Another like letter to the same parties, desiring them to assemble with all expedition as many men, both horse and foot, as they could, and bring them to Hampton court. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 8.

A third letter to the same, representing the matter more at fuU, and desiring them to repair "with such force as ye have" to Windsor castle. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, art. 6; printed by Foxe, Actes and Monuments.

A shorter letter of the same date desiring the same parties to give credence to lord Edward Seymour, the Protector's eldest son, who was the bearer of one or more of the preceding letters. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 7.

A letter from the Protector to the earl of Shrewsbury, requiring his aid; printed in Lodge's Illustrations of British History, i. 135.

Letter of certain of the council to the lord mayor, &c. denouncing the conduct of the Protector, and requiring that no harness, weapons, or munitions should be sent to him. It is signed by nine councillors — St. John, Northampton (age 37), Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Southampton, Petre (age 44), North, Gage, and Southwell; printed in Foxe and Holinshed.

Circular letter of the council in London, being a summons to arm in support of their side of the dispute. An original copy, undirected, but having the autograph signatures of R. Ryche, cane, W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Henry Sussex, T. Cheyne, Edward North, and John Gage: in the State Paper office, art. 10.

Oct. 7. Circular letters from the council to the sheriffs, forbidding the levies ordered to be raised by the Protector. One undirected is preserved in the State Paper office, art. 20, bearing the autograph signatures of the same councillors as above, except Cheyne.

Another letter nearly of the same import, addressed to certain commissioners: signed Kke the last, excepting that it wants the names of the earls of Arundel (age 37) and Shrewsbury, and has that of Edward Mountagu. Ibid. art. 21.

Letters under the signet, signed both by the King and Somerset, directing levies to be made by the bailiffs of Uxbridge, Hillington, and Cullam. Dated "at our castle of Windsor." Original in State Paper office, art. 15.

Letter of the lord Protector, now at Windsor, to the lords in London, declaring his intention, "if you will take no other way but violence, to defend us (as nature and our allegiance doth bind us) to extremity of death, and to put all to God's hand, who giveth the victory as it pleaseth him." He desires an answer either by secretary Petre (age 44), whom he had sent with a message, or, if they would not let him leave them, by the bearer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 16, signed only by the Protector's hand, printed by Tytler, p. 214; also previously pubHshed by Foxe, Holinshed, and Stowe.

The lords of the council in London to those at Windsor, requiring the duke of Somerset to absent himself from his Majesty, and to disperse the force which he had levied. "Consider, my lords, for God's sake, we heartely pray you, that we be almost the hole Councell," viz. the chancellor Eich, lord great master St. John, marquess of Northampton (age 37), earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Shrewsbury, and Southampton, sir Thomas Cheyne, sir William Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir John Gage, sir Ealph Sadleyr, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), and dr. Nicholas Wotton — in all fourteen. Sent by master Hunnings, a clerk of the council. Original in MS. Cotton. Calig. B. vn. fol. 404; printed in Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. ii. App. No. 44; Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 166. Draft copy in State Paper office, art. 22.

Letter to the King, signed by the same councillors, with the addition of sir Edward Mountagu. Original in MS. Cotton. Titus, B. ii. fol. 35; three draft copies in State Paper office, Nos. 17, 18, and 20; printed in Burnet's History of the Keformation, Part II. Book I. Eecords, No. 41.

To this day (Oct. 7) probably belongs a document which Mr. Tytler has edited, i. 207, with the date Oct. 4, from the State Paper office, art. 13, being suggestions for a letter to be written by the King strongly justifying the general conduct of the Protector. On the second leaf of the same sheet are various memoranda in the same handwriting, (but not copied by Tytler,) consisting partly of informations and partly of suggestions, apparently intended for the eye of the Protector. Among the latter are these: —

"Also that the Kinges matie wold make a letter unto the Maior, sherifes and aldremen of the citie, and to be delyvered unto the messenger by the Kinges own hande.

"Also lettre unto the lordes wylleng that asm any of them as are his treue honorable [subjects] shuld repayre unto him against his ennemys, or else they sought his blode aswell as his uncle's."

A previous paragraph states, "Also that upon sondaie [Oct. 6] my lorde grete m"^ [St. John] entered into the Tower of London to the Kinges use, and have made mr. Peckeham [sir Edward Peckham, treasurer of the mint,] lieutenant therof, and given him allowance for a table."

"Also the disobedyence of mr. Markham [the lieutenant of the Tower] in his office.

"Also that sir Thomas Darcy is laid in the Tower as a traytor."

Oct. 8. Circular letters to counties, countermanding the duke of Somerset's orders for levies, and charging all men to follow their vocations peaceably. Two copies (undirected), each bearing the autograph signatures of — E. Eyche, cane. W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Thomas' Southampton, William Petre (age 44), Nicholas Wotton, Edward Mountagu, Jo. Baker, are in the State Paper office, art. 28, 29.

Autograph letter of Harry lord Morley, acknowledging the council's summons, and expressing his readiness "with that pore power I have within one bower's warnyng, so ether to lyve or to dy." Dated from Mark hall. In State Paper office, art. 30.

Reply of the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), written from Andover, to the lord Protector: after having received other letters from the lords dated the same day (Oct. 6) as the Protector's letter to them. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 217: the substance given in Foxe's Actes and Monuments.

Letter from the lords at Windsor (Cranmer, Paget, and Smith) to those in London, in answer to theirs sent the day before. Original in the State Paper office, art. 26, printed by Tytler, p. 223; contemporary transcript in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 406; also printed in Stowe's Chronicle, and by Todd, in his Life of Cranmer, 1832, vol, iii. p. 57, Strype and Sharon Turner having considered the archbishop to have been the writer of it.

Letter from the King to the lords in London, entreating them to hold a moderate course; being accompanied by "certain articles exhibited unto us by our said uncle, signed with his own hand." Original in the State Paper office, art. 24; printed by Tytler, p. 220. Draft copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 405.

"Articles offered by me the lord Protector to the King's majestic, in the presence of his highnes counsail and other his majesties lordes and gentlemen at Wyndesor, to be declared in my behalf to the lordes and the reste of his highnes counsail remayning in London." Original in the State Paper office, marked 24 i. It is signed both at the beginning and end by the King, and at the foot by Somerset: contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 407; printed in Burnet, No. 42; Ellis, I. ii. 173.

Private letter from the duke of Somerset to the earl of Warwick (age 45), soliciting reconciliation. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Private letter from secretary Smith to secretary Petre (age 44), earnestly begging him to advocate moderation. Original in the State Paper office, art. 27, printed by Tytler, p. 228. There is also (art. 39) a second letter of Smith to Petre (age 44), which commences with thanking "my lords of Warwicke (age 45), Arondell, and yow, that my brother George had leave to come and visite me." It is written in a tone somewhat less anxious than the other, yet it is difficult to say whether a few hours before or a few hours after.

Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) was the bearer of these five documents. On the same day the council were actively proceeding in their prosecution of the Protector, by issuing a public proclamation. The charges it contained against him are given by Foxe and by Stowe.

Oct. 9. The following anecdote regarding this day is related on the authority of sir Thomas Smith, who remained faithful to the Protector: —

"Sir Phillip Hobby, [having] receaved an answere of the lordes in London by letter, came out of London, and by the way, faininge he had loste his letter out of his poquet, said to his man he would returne for a newe, and willed him to goe to the courte and tell the Counsell all should be well. This excuse was of purpose before devised by the lords, to the end they might winne tyme the better that they might doe their feates. The next daye he came to the courte with a letter to the Kinge from the lordes, and before he delivered said thus —

"Sir Phillip Hobby's saying or mesuage declared to the duke of Somerset, the archebishop of Canterbury, sir W. Pagett mr. comptrolor, sir Thomas Smithe secretary, in the presence of mr. Cecill, sir John Thinne, sir Richard Cotton, and divers others; reported by sir Thomas Smith.'" MS. Harl. 353, fol. 77; printed by Tytler, p. 238.

Letter from the lords in London, to the King. Printed from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 43. Draft copy in the State Paper office, art. 35.

Reply of the lords in London to those at Windsor, sent by sir Philip Hoby (age 44). Original, with fifteen autograph signatures, in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 408; draft copy in State Paper office, art. 37; printed from the former in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 169; and from the Council book by Burnet, No. 44.

Letter from the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48) to the lords of the council, dated from Wilton, they having retired farther with their military forces, instead of advancing. Original in State Paper office, art. 31, printed by Tytler, p. 231.

Letter of the lord privy seal and sir W. Herbert (age 48) to the sheriff of Gloucestershire. "The like letters are goone unto other shirrefes, not only to the sherrifes, but also to every justice of peace and gentleman privately." Summoning levies to repair to Wilton, from which town the letter is dated. Contemporary copy in the State Paper office, art. 31 i.

Letters, addressed to the lady Mary and the lady Elizabeth respectively, relating, on the part of the council, the events that had occurred, and denouncing the pride and ambition of the Protector. Original draft in the State Paper office, art. 33; printed by Tytler, p. 248.

Oct. 10. Letter of the archbishop of Canterbury, sir William Paget, and sir Thomas Smith, the lords at Windsor, acknowledging the receipt of the letter brought by sir Philip Hoby (age 44), and professing themselves ready to obey the directions of those in London. Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) returned with their submission. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. VII. fol. 412; printed in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 171; also printed, from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 45.

Letter from the lords in London to sir William Paget, acknowledging a credence sent them by his servant Bedill, and desiring him to give firm credence to the bearer mr. vicechamberlain sir Anthony Wingfield, who was also captain of the guard. In a postscript (to wliicli the council repeated their signatures), it was intimated to Paget that "if yow shall see any good oportunite for this purpose, and if it may be conveniently doon, as by your sei-vant's message it semed," the duke should be apprehended, and also secretary Smith, sir John Thynne, Richard Whalley, and William Cycill, who was then the duke's private secretary and master of his court of requests. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 410; printed by Ellis, I. ii. 173.

A Proclamacion, set furth by the body and state of the Kynges majesties privey counsayle, concernyng the devisers, writers and casters abrode of certain vile, slaunderous, and moste trayterous letters, billes, scrowes, and papers, tendyng to the seducement of the Kynges majesties good and lovyng subjectes: persons "whiche do labor now to maintain the trayterous doynges of the duke of Somerset," for that purpose "doon devise the moste vile, false, and traiterous billes, papers, and bokes that ever wer hard of, strawyng the same in the stretes, as well within the citie of London as in diverse tounes and other places in the country, wherein thei do falsely and traitorously travaile to slaunder the Kynges majesties oounsaill, thinkynge thereby to amase and abuse his majesties good subjects, whiche bee in areadinesse to joyne with the said counsaill for delivery of the Kyng our sovereigne lordes most royall persone, remainyng to his greate perill and daunger in the saied duke's custody." A reward of one hundred crounes is offered for the apprehension of every offender. This document, of which the draft is in the State Paper office, art. 40, is extant in an original broadside copy preserved in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries, It is subscribed by the names of all the following councillors:

The Lorde Riche (age 52), Lord Chancellor.

The Lorde Sainct Jhon, Lorde Great Master, and President of the Counsaill.

The Lorde Eussell, Lorde Privey Scale,

The Lorde Marques of Northampton (age 37).

The Erle of Warwicke (age 45), Lorde Greate Chamberlain.

The Erle of Arundell (age 37), Lorde Chamberlain.

The Erle of Shrewsbery,

The Erle of Southampton,

The Lorde Wentworth.

Sir Thomas Cheiney, Knight of the Order, and Threasaurer of the Kynges Maiesties house, and Lord Warden of the Cinque Portes.

Sir Willyam Herbert (age 48), Knight, Master of the Kynges Majesties horses.

Sir Anthony Wingfeld, Knight of the Order, the Kynges Majesties vice Chamberlein, and Capitain of the Garde.

Sir Jhon Gage, Knight of the Order, Constable of the Towre.

Sir Willyam Petre (age 44), Knight, Secretary.

Sir Edward North, Knight.

Sir Edward Montague, Knight, Chief Justice of the Comon Place.

Sir Raufe Sadler (age 42), Knight.

Sir Jhon Baker, Knight.

Sir Edward Wotton (age 59), Knight.

Master doctor Wotton, Deane of Cantorbury.

Sir Richard Southwell (age 46), Knight.

Sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), Knyght, high Threasaurer of all the Kynges Majesties Myntes.

Of the handbills mentioned in this proclamation, two are preserved in the State Paper office: one (art. 11 of the volume so often cited) commencing, "Moste loving and trew Ynglishmen," and signed, "By the Kynges true and loving subject to his poure, Henry A." This is supposed to have been "cast about" in the city of London (see before, p. 233), and it is indorsed. Rede itt and gyve itt furth. (Printed by Tytler, p. 209: the word "conspire" in p. 210, should be read serve?) The other (art. 12) is indorsed, "The copie of the bill sowed emongest the commons" (printed by Tytler, p. 210, where, for "the extortions of gentlemen," read "the extortiouse gentylmen"). There can be little doubt that this was the very bill which the lord privy seal found at Andover; where, he tells the council, "The gentlemen had received like letters from the King's majestie as we had done; and the commons had found bills that were sown abroad, to raise them in the Kinges name and the Protector's quarrel, as by a copy of one of the same bills, which ye shall also receive herewith, your Lordships may more plainly perceive." In his letter written to the duke of Somerset the day before, Russell had directly taxed him with the authorship of these papers: "Your Grace's proclamations and billets sent abroad for the raising of the commons we mishke very much." It is to be considered that the nobility, with great effort and much difficidty, had very recently succeeded in suppressing various insurrections, which they attributed in part to the Protector's former conduct towards the comnion people; they now detected him in acts calculated to provoke a repetition of such troubles. This indiscretion had the effect of arraying them against him, and throwing them into the hands of the more subtle and insidious Warwick (age 45).

Oct. 11. Letter written partly by Wingfield, and partly by Paget, signifying to the council the arrest of the duke, and describing the King's behaviour. It is signed also by Cranmer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 42; printed by Tytler, p. 241.

Minute of the whole discourse of the duke of Somerset's doings, addressed to the English ambassadors abroad. In the State Paper office, art. 41.

A circular letter from the council to counties, announcing the dispersal of the forces assembled by the duke of Somerset, and staying any further musters. Contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Titus, B, ir. fol. 30.

Another circular letter announcing the duke's arrest, and directing the parties addressed "to staye your nombres at home, without taking eny further traveile for this matter." One with the autograph signatures of eleven councillors in State Paper office, art. 44.

Oct. 14. Letter of the council to the lieutenant of the Tower, that he sujBfer no one to speak with the duke of Somerset or any other prisoner. Ibid. art. 45.

Articles objected to the duke of Somerset. These have never been edited accurately. The most perfect printed copy is that in Stowe's Chronicle (but in article 12 for Iniunction read Commission; in article 26 the 6 instead of "9 of October," and there are other errors.) In Foxe's Actes and Monuments, the 29 articles are reduced to 20, by the omission of the 10th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th. Hohnshed follows Foxe. Hay ward's copy (Life and Eeign of King Edward VI.) is imperfect, by the omission of the 28th article, as well as by a modernization of the language throughout; and Burnet copies Hayward. Strype in his Life of Cramner, p. 265, has pointed out the significance of the 10th article, which charged the Protector with having laid the blame of the insurrections on the nobility; and it is to be regretted that Strype did not print the draft copy which he had seen. It was, as he imagined, in the handwriting of bishop Gardiner: but this was a very bold surmise. Strype is in error in attributing these articles to the time of the duke's "second apprehension and trial." There is an old transcript of the whole 29 articles in MS. Addit. Brit. Mus. 9069; which is worth consulting if no other can be recovered.

Dec. 23. The duke of Somerset's submission, having read and considered the said 29 articles. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Feb. 2. His second submission, dated from the Tower. Also in Stowe.

Feb. 6. His recognizance in 1000/. to reside at the King's manor of Sheen or his own house at Syon, without passing the limit of four miles from either house. In the Eegister of the Privy Council.

The 6 of February the duke of Somerset was delivered out of the Tower, and that night he supped at sir John Yorke's, one of the sheriffes of London," (Stowe,) where, it appears from the council book, the lords assembled to welcome him.

Feb. 16. A pardon to the duke by letters patent under this date is printed in Rymer, Foedera, &c. xv. 205.

Note 1a. Of the "four principal gentlemen of his Highness' privy chambre" (the knights) it was also ordered that "two at the least should be continually attendants, .. to whom was advanced, above their accustomed fee of L li. by the yeare, the yearly fee of L li. more, in consideration of the singular care and travail that they should have about his Majesties person." (Council Book.) See further arrangements under the 20th April, 1550, hereafter.

In 1550 Thomas Cawarden of Bletchingly and Nonsuch was appointed Keeper of Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Visit of the French Ambassadors

Diary of Edward VI. 28 May 1550. The same went to see Hampton court [Map], where thei did hunt4, and the same night retourne to Durasme place.

Note 4. "Wednesday, they were conveyed by me, the marquess of Northampton (age 38), to Hampton court, where they dined, hunted, and that night returned." (Ibid.)

1551 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Henry Machyn's Diary. The x day of July [1551] the Kynges (age 13) grace removyd from Westmynster unto Hamtun courte [Map], for ther ded serten besyd the court, and [that] causyd the Kynges grase to be gone so sune, for ther ded in Lo[ndon] mony marchants and grett ryche men and women, and yonge men and [old], of the nuw swett,-the v of K. E. vjth.

Diary of Edward VI. 11 Jul 1551. It [the Sweating Sickness] grue so much, for in London the 10 day ther died 70 in the liberties, and this day 120, and also one of my gentlemen, another of my gromes, fell sike and died, that I removed to Ampton court [Map] with very few with me.

Note. The epidemic called the sweating sickness, which remains a mystery today, had visited England before but this was the last major outbreak to occur, and thereafter vanished.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Aug 1551. The xxiij day [of] August the Kynges (age 13) grace went from Amton courte [Map] unto Wyndsore [Map], and ther was stallyd the Frenche Kyng (age 32) of the nobull order of the garter, with a grett baner of armes inbrodered with flowrs delusys of gold bosted, the mantylls of tysshuw, and the elmett clene gylt and ys sword; and the goodly gere was.

Note. The French king installed at Windsor. This was of course by deputy. He had been elected of the Garter on the St. George's day preceding, and the marquess of Northampton (age 39) had conveyed the insignia to France. See various documents relating to his election described by Strype, Memorials, 1721, ii. 512.

Edward VI's 14th Birthday

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Oct 1551. The xj day of October wher creatyd [at Hampton [Map]] curtte my lord marqwes Dorsett duke of Suffolk (age 34); the yerle of Warwyke duke of Northumburland (age 47); [the earl] of Wyllshere (age 68) created the marqwes of Wyncha[ster; sir] Wylliam Harbard (age 50) made lord of Cardyff, and after the yerle of Penbroke; and knyghtes mad the sam time, sir William Syssyll (age 31), secretery, knyght, and M. Hare Nevylle knyght, [sir William] Sydney knyght, and M. Cheke, the kynges scollmaster.

Note. Creation of new peerages. The intended creation of the dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk, the marquess of Winchester, and the earl of Pembroke, was made known to the Privy Council on the 4th Oct. 1551, as thus recorded in their minutes: "This daye the lord chamberlen together wth the lord chamberlen (sic), beinge sente from the kinge to the lordes, declared on his majesties behalfe, that, for asmuch as the lord marques of Dorset hath lately opened to his highness the occasyones of his inhabilletie to serve in the place of generall warden of the marches towardes Scotlande, and therefore besought his majestie to call him from that place; his majestie, thinkinge the same lord marques' suite reasonable, and mindinge not to leave such a rowme of importance unfurneshed of an able personage, hath resolved both to revoke the said marques from that offyce, and to appointe the earle of Warwicke in his steed, who for his greate experience, and namly in those partes, his highnes taketh to be moste meeteste for that rowme. And hath further determyned, as well to th'ende that the said earle of Warwicke may the rather be had in the estymacione he deserveth for his digneties sake, as for that also his majestie thinketh necessarye, the noble houses of this his realme being of late much decayed, to erect other in their stead by rewardinge such as have alredye well served, and maye be therby the rather encowraged to contynewe the same, to call both his lordship and other noble personages to hier estates and digneties; and therfore hath appointed to advaunce firste the said earle of Warwicke to the degree of a duke; the lorde marques Dorsett, as well for his service sacke as for that he is lyke by waye of maryage to have claime to the tytle of duke of Suffolke, his highnes is pleased to call to that degree; the lord treasuror nowe earl of Wiltesheir to the degree of a marques; the master of the horse [sir William Herbert] to the degree of an earle; which his majesties mynd and determenacion his highnes pleasure is shalbe gon through with all, and these personages to be created on Sondaye nexte; to the assistance whereof his majestie willeth that such of the lordes and nobles as shalbe thought needfull, to be presente," &c. (MS. Harl. 352, f. 188b.)

Note. The three new knights. Mr. Sidney (age 69) and Mr. Neville (age 31) had been made gentlemen of the privy chamber on the 18th April 1550, and Mr. Cheke held the same appointment. (King Edward's Diary.) Sir Henry Neville (age 31) was the first settler at Billingbere of his name and family. He married Frances (age 9), only daughter and heir of sir John Gresham (age 33), and died July 13, 1593.

11 Oct 1551, the day before his fourteenth birthday, King Edward VI (age 13) celebrated at Hampton Court Palace [Map] by rewarding his guardians; it may have been a case of his guardians rewarding themselves.

John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 47), leader of the Council, was created 1st Duke Northumberland. Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 42) by marriage Duchess Northumberland. His son Henry Dudley (age 25) was knighted.

Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 34) was created 1st Duke Suffolk for having married King Edward VI's (age 13) first cousin Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 34). Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 34) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

William Paulet (age 68), Master of the Kings Wards, was created 1st Marquess Winchester. Elizabeth Capell Marchioness Winchester by marriage Marchioness Winchester.

His guardian William Herbert (age 50) was created 1st Earl Pembroke. Anne Parr Countess Pembroke (age 36) by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 51), the King's (age 13) uncle attended.

Henry Dudley (age 25) was knighted at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1551. The ij day of November cam to Londun from Hamton courtte [Map] and landyd at Benard castyll [Map] the old Qwyne of Schottes (age 35), and cam rydyng to the bysshope('s) palles at Powlles with many lordes, the duke of Suffoke (age 34), my lord marqwes of Northamptun (age 39), my lord of Warwyke (age 24), the lord Welebe (age 34), my lord Haward (age 41), my lord Rosselle (age 66), lord Bray, and dyvers mo lords and knyghtes and gentyllmen, and then cam the Qwyne of Schottes and alle owre lades and her gentyll women and owre gentyll women to the nomber of a C. and ther was sent her mony grett gyftes by the mayre and aldermen, as beyffes, mottuns, velles, swines, bred, wylld ffulle, wyne, bere, spysys, and alle thyngs, and qwaylles, sturgeon, wod and colles, and samons, by dyver men.

Note. Visit of the old queen of Scots. The queen dowager of Scotland (Mary of Guise) embarked at Edinburgh to visit her daughter in France, Sept. 7, 1550. On her return she landed at Portsmouth on the 2d Nov. 1551. (Lettres de Marie Stuart, edited by the Prince Alexandre Labanoff, 8vo. 1844, vol. i. 5.) The privy council addressed, "25 Sept. 1551. A Letter to the lord chauncelor requiring him to passe under the greate seal a saulf-conduct graunted by the kinges majestie to the dowager of Scotlande, and to retayne with him for a record the originall thereof sent him signed by his highnes." The saulf-conduct itself is printed in Rymer's Collection, xv. 290: it bears an earlier date, viz. 17 Sept. Some subsequent minutes of the Privy Council relating to preparations for this visit are given by Strype. There are many particulars of it in king Edward's Diary, and a narrative of the queen's reception is in MS. Harl. 290, art. 2.

Note. Funeral of sir Michael Lyster. The name of the lord chief justice of the king's bench was sir Richard Lyster, but that of his eldest son, here recorded, was sir Michael. See the memoir on the monument of sir Richard Lyster at St. Michael's church, Southampton, by Sir F. Madden, in the Winchester volume of the Archæological Institute. There is a portrait of a lady Lyster among the Holbein Heads: it may be doubtful to which lady of the name it belongs (see the pedigree given by Sir F. Madden); but Mr. Lodge, in his accompanying memoir, supposed it to be that of lady Mary, daughter of the earl of Southampton, wife of sir Richard, grandson of the chief justice. (See her funeral afterwards, p. 273.)

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 02 Nov 1551. The 2 of November, beinge Monday, the sayd Quene came by water from the Kinges pallace of Hampton Court [Map], and landed at Pawles Wharfe [Map] in the aftemone, and so rode from thence to the Bishopes place, accompanied with divers noblemen and ladyes of England [sent] to receive her, where at her entry the Cities provision was ready with a bill of the same, and presented by the Chamberlaine of London.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1552. The xxvij day of Juin the Kyng's (age 14) mageste removed from Grenwyche [Map] by water unto Pottney [Map], and ther [he] toke ys horsse unto Hamtun [Map] cowrte one ys progres, and ther lyvyng ther x days, and so to Ottland [Map], and to Gy[lford] [Map].

Note. The king took horse on his progress. King Edward's Diary, (May 23, 1551) gives the following enumeration of the bands of men of arms appointed at this time to accompany him on his progress:

Lord Treasure 30 Earl of Rutland 15 Lord Cobham 20

Lord Great Master 25 Earl of Huntingdon 25 Lord Warden 20

Lord Privy Seal 30 Earl of Pembroke 50 Mr. Vice-chamberlain 15

Duke of Suffolk 25 Lord Admiral 15 Mr. Sadler 15

Earl of Warwick 25 Lord Darcy 30 Mr. Sydney 15

Afterwards, on the 22d of June, it was agreed that the bands appointed to Mr. Sidney, Mr. Vice-chamberlain, Mr. Hobby, and Mr. Sadler, should not be furnished, but left off. Again, when the king was in Sussex, on the 24th July, "because the number of bands that went with me this progress made the train great, it was thought good they should be sent home, save only 150 which were picked out of all the bands. This was because the train was thought to be near 4000 horse, which were enough to eat up the country, for there was little meadow or hay all the way as I went."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jan 1554. The x day of January the enbasadurs rod unto Hamtun Courtt [Map], and ther they had grett chere [as] cold be had, and huntyd, and kyllyd tagc and rage with honds and swords.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Sep 1554. The xxviij day of September the Kyng (age 27) and the Quen (age 38) removyd from Hamtun court [Map] unto Westmynster tho her grace('s) plasse.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Apr 1555. The iiij day of Aprell the Kyng('s) (age 27) grace and the Quen (age 39) removyd unto Hamtun [Map] cowrte to kepe Ester ther, and so her grace to her chambur ther.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1555. [The xxiijd day of April, being saint George's day, at Hampton Court [Map], the King (age 27), with other lords and knights of the garter, went in their robes on procession, with three] crosses, and clarkes and prestes, and my lord chancellor, the cheyff menyster, metered [mitred ie wearing his mitre], and all thay in copes of cloth of tyssue and gold, syngyng Salva fasta dyes as thay whent a-bowt; the Quen('s) (age 39) grace lokyd owt of a cassement, that hundereds dyd se her grace after she had taken her chambur; and arolds gohyng a-bowt the Kyng('s) grace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 May 1555. The x day of May was browth unto [the court at] Hamtun [Map] to the consell a yonge man the wyche sayd he was kyng Edward the vjth, and was [examined] a-for the conselle, and so examynyd how he [dared be] so bold, and after delevered unto the marshall and conveyed to the marshellsay, and ther he bydyth the conselles pleasure.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1555. The iij day of August the Quen (age 39) and Kynges (age 28) grace removyd from Hamtun Court [Map] unto Hotland [Map], a iiij mylles of: has her grace whent thrugh the parke for to take her barge, ther mett her grace by the way a powre man with ij chruches, and when that he saw her grace, for joy he thruw hys stayffes a-way, and rane after her grace, and sche commondyd that one shuld gyff ym a reward.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Aug 1556. The xxiiij day of August was bered at (blank) beyonde Hamtun cowrt [Map] master (blank) Banester sqwyre, with cott armur and penone of armes and iiij dosen of skochyons of armes, and xij stayffe torchys, and iiij grett tapurs .... cott-armur, helmett, targatt, and swerd ... of skochyons of armes and iiij baners of emages and iiij dosen of penselles and ij whyt branchys ... and tapurs; and master Norrey the harold.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1557. The x day of Junij the Kyng (age 30) and the Quen (age 41) toke ther jorney toward Hamtun [Map] courte for to hunt and to kyll a grett hartt, with serten of the consell; and so the howswold tared at the Whytthalle, tylle the Saterday folowhyng they cam a-gayne to Whytthalle.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1559. The x day of August, the wyche was sant Laurans day, the Quen('s) (age 25) grace removyd from Non-shyche [Map] unto Hamtun cowrte [Map].

Note. P. 206. Nonsuch. A memoir by the present writer on the royal palace of Nonesuch will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for August 1837, New Series, vol. VIII. pp. 135–144. The earl of Arundel, as lord steward of the household, had obtained an interest in it, which seems almost to have amounted to an alienation, but it reverted to the Crown in 1591. His first dealings with it were resisted by sir Thomas Cawarden, (the subject of the following Note,) who had been the previous keeper.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1559. The xv day of August the Quen('s) (age 25) grace returned from Hamtun cowrte [Map] unto ( ... ) my lord [admiral's] (age 49) place; and ther her had grett cher, for my lord [admiral] byldyd a goodly banketthowsse [banquet house] for her grace; [it was] gyldyd rychely and pentyd, for he kept a gret [many] of penters [painters] a grett wylle in the contrey.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Nov 1562. The viij day of November the Quen('s) (age 29) grace removyd from Hamtun cowrt [Map] toward London, and be-twyn iij and [iiij o'clock] cam by Charyng-crosse [Map], and so rod unto Some[rset plac]e with mony nobull men and women, and with har[olds of a]rmes in ther cotte armurs; and my lord Thomas [Howard bare] the sword a-for the quen to Somersett plase [Map], and the [Queen will abide] ther tyll Criustynmas, and then to Whyt-halle.

On 15 Jan 1569 Catherine Carey (age 45) died at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

On 17 Mar 1570 William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 69) died at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. His son Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 32) succeeded 2nd Earl Pembroke. Catherine Talbot Countess Pembroke (age 20) by marriage Countess Pembroke.

On 12 Jan 1573 William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 63) died at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. He was buried at Reigate, Surrey [Map]. His son Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham (age 37) succeeded 2nd Baron Howard of Effingham. Katherine Carey Countess Nottingham (age 23) by marriage Baroness Howard of Effingham.

Masque of the Twelve Goddesses

On 08 Jan 1604 the Masque of the Twelve Goddesses was performed in the Great Hall at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. The performers included:

Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland England and Ireland (age 29) played Pallas.

Catherine Knyvet Countess Suffolk (age 40) played Juno.

Frances Howard Duchess Lennox and Richmond (age 25) played Diana.

Lucy Harrington Countess Bedford (age 24) played Vesta.

Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby (age 28) played Proserpine.

Margaret Stewart 1st Countess Nottingham (age 13) played Concordia.

Penelope Devereux Countess Devonshire (age 41) played Venus.

Elizabeth Cecil Lady Hatton (age 26) played Macaria.

Audrey Shelton Lady Walsingham (age 35) played Astraea.

Susan Vere Countess Montgomery (age 16) played Flora.

Dorothy Hastings (age 25) played Ceres.

Elizabeth Howard Countess Banbury (age 21) played Tethys.

On 16 Sep 1607 Princess Mary Stewart (age 2) died of pneumonia at the Stanwell Park Stanwell, Surrey home of Thomas Knyvet 1st Baron Knyvet (age 62) in whose care she had been placed. As soon as Mary died, the Earl of Worcester (age 57), the Earl of Leicester (age 43) and the Earl of Totnes (age 52) went to Hampton Court Palace [Map], to inform the Queen (age 32) of her daughter's death. Seeing the three men before her, Queen Anne realized what had happened and spared the men the task of telling her.

On 29 Sep 1617 John Villiers 1st Viscount Purbeck (age 26) and Frances Coke Viscountess Purbeck (age 15) were married at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 51) gave away the bride. He the son of George Villiers of Brokesby and Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham (age 47).

On 03 Dec 1641 Jacob Garrard 1st Baronet (age 55) was knighted at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]; one of five Aldermen to be knighted that day.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1647. I came to Wotton, Surrey [Map], the place of my birth, to my brother (age 30), and on the 10th to Hampton Court [Map] where I had the honor to kiss his Majesty's (age 46) hand, and give him an account of several things I had in charge, he being now in the power of those execrable villains who not long after murdered him. I lay at my cousin, Sergeant Hatton's at Thames Ditton, Surrey [Map], whence, on the 13th, I went to London.

Charles I's Flight from Hampton Court Palace

On 10 Nov 1647 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 46) escaped from Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map] with John Berkeley 1st Baron Berkeley (age 45).

On 19 May 1648 Colonel William Legge was imprisoned at Arundel Castle [Map] for having supported King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 47) in his escape from Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

On 26 Aug 1657 William Wheler 1st Baronet (age 46) was knighted by Oliver Cromwell (age 58) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1661. The Queen's things were all in White Hall Court ready to be sent away, and her Majesty ready to be gone an hour after to Hampton Court [Map] to-night, and so to be at Ports mouth on Saturday next.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jan 1661. Mr. Moore making up accounts with me all this morning till Lieut. Lambert (age 41) came, and so with them over the water to Southwark, and so over the fields to Lambeth, and there drank, it being a most glorious and warm day, even to amazement, for this time of the year. Thence to my Lord's, where we found my Lady gone with some company to see Hampton Court [Map], so we three went to BlackFryers (the first time I ever was there since plays begun), and there after great patience and little expectation, from so poor beginning, I saw three acts of "The Mayd in ye Mill" acted to my great content. But it being late, I left the play and them, and by water through bridge home, and so to Mr. Turner's house, where the Comptroller (age 50), Sir William Batten (age 60), and Mr. Davis and their ladies; and here we had a most neat little but costly and genteel supper, and after that a great deal of impertinent mirth by Mr. Davis, and some catches, and so broke up, and going away, Mr. Davis's eldest son took up my old Lady Slingsby in his arms, and carried her to the coach, and is said to be able to carry three of the biggest men that were in the company, which I wonder at. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1662. At noon to the Wardrobe; there dined. My Lady told me how my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) do speak of going to lie in at Hampton Court [Map]; which she and all our ladies are much troubled at, because of the King's being forced to show her countenance in the sight of the Queen (age 23) when she comes.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1662. Thence to the Wardrobe; and there consulted with the ladies about our going to Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow, and thence home, and after settled business there my wife and I to the Wardrobe, and there we lay all night in Captain Ferrers' chambers, but the bed so soft that I could not sleep that hot night.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1662. Mr. Townsend called us up by four o'clock; and by five the three ladies, my wife and I, and Mr. Townsend, his son and daughter, were got to the barge and set out. We walked from Mortlake, Richmond to Richmond, Surrey [Map], and so to boat again. And from Teddington to Hampton Court [Map] Mr. Townsend and I walked again. And then met the ladies, and were showed the whole house by Mr. Marriott; which is indeed nobly furnished, particularly the Queen's (age 23) bed, given her by the States of Holland; a looking-glass sent by the Queen-Mother (age 52) from France, hanging in the Queen's (age 23) chamber, and many brave pictures.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1662. At the office good part of the morning, and then about noon with my wife on foot to the Wardrobe. My wife went up to the dining room to my Lady Paulina (age 13), and I staid below talking with Mr. Moore in the parley, reading of the King's and Chancellor's late speeches at the proroguing of the Houses of Parliament. And while I was reading, news was brought me that my Lord Sandwich (age 36) is come and gone up to my Lady, which put me into great suspense of joy, so I went up waiting my Lord's coming out of my Lady's chamber, which by and by he did, and looks very well, and my soul is glad to see him. He very merry, and hath left the King (age 31) and Queen (age 23) at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and is come up to stay here till next Wednesday, and then to meet the King (age 31) and Queen (age 23) at Hampton Court [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1662. I went this evening to London, in order to our journey to Hampton Court [Map], to see the Queen (age 23); who, having landed at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], had been married to the King (age 31) a week before by the Bishop of London (age 63).

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1662. After dinner comes my uncle Wight and sat awhile and talked with us, and thence we three to the Mum House at Leadenhall, and there sat awhile. Then I left them, and to the Wardrobe, where I found my Lord gone to Hampton Court [Map]. Here I staid all the afternoon till late with Creed and Captain Ferrers, thinking whether we should go to-morrow together to Hampton Court [Map], but Ferrers his wife coming in by and by to the house with the young ladies (with whom she had been abroad), she was unwilling to go, whereupon I was willing to put off our going, and so home, but still my mind was hankering after our going to-morrow. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1662. This day, being the King's birth-day, was very solemnly observed; and the more, for that the Queen (age 23) this day comes to Hampton Court [Map]. In the evening, bonfires were made, but nothing to the great number that was heretofore at the burning of the Rump. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1662. So home, and thence to the Wardrobe, where Mr. Shepley was come with the things. Here I staid talking with my Lady, who is preparing to go to-morrow to Hampton Court [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1662. The Queen (age 23) is brought a few days since to Hampton Court [Map]; and all people say of her to be a very fine and handsome lady, and very discreet; and that the King (age 32) is pleased enough with her which, I fear, will put Madam Castlemaine's (age 21) nose out of joynt. The Court is wholly now at Hampton.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1662. So to my father at Tom's, and after some talk with him away home, and by and by comes my father to dinner with me, and then by coach, setting him down in Cheapside, my wife and I to Mrs. Clarke's at Westminster, the first visit that ever we both made her yet. We found her in a dishabille, intending to go to Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow. We had much pretty discourse, and a very fine lady she is.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1662. Thence to the Wardrobe, where I found my Lady come from Hampton Court [Map], where the Queen (age 23) hath used her very civilly; and my Lady tells me is a most pretty woman, at which I am glad.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1662. At noon to the Wardrobe by appointment to meet my father, who did come and was well treated by my Lady, who tells me she has some thoughts to send her two little boys to our house at Brampton, but I have got leave for them to go along with me and my wife to Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow or Sunday.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1662. At my office all the afternoon, and at night hear that my father is gone into the country, but whether to Richmond as he intended, and thence to meet us at Hampton Court [Map] on Monday, I know not, or to Brampton. At which I am much troubled. In the evening home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jun 1662. At noon with him and Sir W. Batten (age 61) to dinner at Trinity House, Deptford [Map]; where, among others, Sir J. Robinson (age 47), Lieutenant of the Tower, was, who says that yesterday Sir H. Vane (age 49) had a full hearing at the King's Bench, and is found guilty; and that he did never hear any man argue more simply than he in all his life, and so others say. My mind in great trouble whether I should go as I intended to Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow or no. At last resolved the contrary, because of the charge thereof, and I am afraid now to bring in any accounts for journeys, and so will others I suppose be, because of Mr. Coventry's (age 34) prying into them.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jun 1662. Hampton Court [Map] is as noble and uniform a pile, and as capacious as any Gothic architecture can have made it. There is an incomparable furniture in it, especially hangings designed by Raphael, very rich with gold; also many rare pictures, especially the Cæsarean Triumphs of Andrea Mantegna, formerly the Duke of Mantua's; of the tapestries, I believe the world can show nothing nobler of the kind than the stories of Abraham and Tobit. The gallery of horns is very particular for the vast beams of stags, elks, antelopes, etc. The Queen's bed was an embroidery of silver on crimson velvet, and cost £8,000, being a present made by the States of Holland when his Majesty (age 32) returned, and had formerly been given by them to our King's sister, the Princess of Orange, and, being bought of her again, was now presented to the King (age 32). The great looking-glass and toilet, of beaten and massive gold, was given by the Queen-Mother (age 52). The Queen (age 23) brought over with her from Portugal such Indian cabinets as had never before been seen here. The great hall is a most magnificent room. The chapel roof excellently fretted and gilt. I was also curious to visit the wardrobe and tents, and other furniture of state. The park, formerly a flat and naked piece of ground, now planted with sweet rows of lime trees; and the canal for water now near perfected; also the air-park. In the garden is a rich and noble fountain, with Sirens, statues, etc., cast in copper, by Fanelli; but no plenty of water. The cradle-work of horn beam in the garden is, for the perplexed twining of the trees, very observable. There is a parterre which they call Paradise, in which is a pretty banqueting-house set over a cave, or cellar. All these gardens might be exceedingly improved, as being too narrow for such a palace.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jun 1662. This day I am told of a Portugall lady, at Hampton Court [Map], that hath dropped a child already since the Queen's (age 23) coming, but the King (age 32) would not have them searched whose it is; and so it is not commonly known yet.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock, and put my accounts with my Lord into a very good order, and so to my office, where having put many things in order I went to the Wardrobe, but found my Lord gone to Hampton Court [Map]. After discourse with Mr. Shepley we parted, and I into Thames Street, beyond the Bridge [Map], and there enquired among the shops the price of tarre and oyle, and do find great content in it, and hope to save the King (age 32) money by this practice.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1662. This I take to be as bad a juncture as ever I observed. The King (age 32) and his new Queen (age 23) minding their pleasures at Hampton Court [Map]. All people discontented; some that the King (age 32) do not gratify them enough; and the others, Fanatiques of all sorts, that the King (age 32) do take away their liberty of conscience; and the height of the Bishops, who I fear will ruin all again. They do much cry up the manner of Sir H. Vane's (deceased) death, and he deserves it. They clamour against the chimney-money, and say they will not pay it without force. And in the mean time, like to have war abroad; and Portugall to assist, when we have not money to pay for any ordinary layings-out at home. Myself all in dirt about building of my house and Sir W. Batten's (age 61) a story higher. Into a good way, fallen on minding my business and saving money, which God encrease; and I do take great delight in it, and see the benefit of it. In a longing mind of going to see Brampton, but cannot get three days time, do what I can. In very good health, my wife and myself.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1662. This afternoon I went to Westminster; and there hear that the King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) intend to come to White Hall from Hampton Court [Map] next week, for all winter.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1662. At noon Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I by his coach to the Exchange [Map] together; and in Lumbard-street [Map] met Captain Browne of the Rosebush: at which he was cruel angry: and did threaten to go to-day to the Duke at Hampton Court [Map], and get him turned out because he was not sailed. But at the Exchange [Map] we resolved of eating a bit together, which we did at the Ship behind the Exchange [Map], and so took boat to Billingsgate, and went down on board the Rosebush at Woolwich, Kent [Map], and found all things out of order, but after frightening the officers there, we left them to make more haste, and so on shore to the yard, and did the same to the officers of the yard, that the ship was not dispatched. Here we found Sir W. Batten (age 61) going about his survey, but so poorly and unlike a survey of the Navy, that I am ashamed of it, and so is Mr. Coventry (age 34). We found fault with many things, and among others the measure of some timber now serving in which Mr. Day the assistant told us of, and so by water home again, all the way talking of the office business and other very pleasant discourse, and much proud I am of getting thus far into his books, which I think I am very much in.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Aug 1662. To London, and next day to Hampton Court [Map], about my purchase, and took leave of Sir R. Fanshawe (age 54), now going Ambassador to Portugal.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1662. Thence by water to White Hall; and so to St. James's; but there found Mr. Coventry (age 34) gone to Hampton Court [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1662. At noon came Mr. Coventry (age 34) on purpose from Hampton Court [Map] to see the same, and dined with Mr. Falconer, and after dinner to several experiments of Hemp, and particularly some Milan hemp that is brought over ready dressed.

Catherine of Braganza's Arrival in London

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. So we parted, and Mr. Creed by appointment being come, he and I went out together, and at an ordinary in Lombard Street [Map] dined together, and so walked down to the Styllyard [Map], and so all along Thames-street, but could not get a boat: I offered eight shillings for a boat to attend me this afternoon, and they would not, it being the day of the Queen's (age 23) coming to town from Hampton Court [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. I was spectator of the most magnificent triumph that ever floated on the Thames, considering the innumerable boats and vessels, dressed and adorned with all imaginable pomp, but, above all, the thrones, arches, pageants, and other representations, stately barges of the Lord Mayor and companies, with various inventions, music, and peals of ordnance both from the vessels and the shore, going to meet and conduct the new Queen (age 23) from Hampton Court [Map] to Whitehall [Map], at the first time of her coming to town. In my opinion, it far exceeded all the Venetian Bucentoras, etc., on the Ascension, when they go to espouse the Adriatic. His Majesty (age 32) and the Queen (age 23) came in an antique-shaped open vessel, covered with a state, or canopy, of cloth of gold, made in form of a cupola, supported with high Corinthian pillars, wreathed with flowers, festoons and garlands. I was in our newly built vessel, sailing among them.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Dec 1662. Christmas Day. Up pretty early, leaving my wife not well in bed, and with my boy walked, it being a most brave cold and dry frosty morning, and had a pleasant walk to White Hall, where I intended to have received the Communion with the family, but I came a little too late. So I walked up into the house and spent my time looking over pictures, particularly the ships in King Henry the VIIIth's Voyage to Bullen1; marking the great difference between their build then and now.

Note 1. Boulogne. These pictures were given by George III to the Society of Antiquaries, who in return presented to the King (age 32) a set of Thomas Hearne's works, on large paper. The pictures were reclaimed by George IV., and are now at Hampton Court [Map]. They were exhibited in the Tudor Exhibition, 1890.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1664. Thence homeward, and the coach broke with us in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and so walked to Fleete Streete, and there took coach and home, and to my office, whither by and by comes Captain Cocke (age 47), and then Sir W. Batten (age 63), and we all to Sir J. Minnes (age 65), and I did give them a barrel of oysters I had given to me, and so there sat and talked, where good discourse of the late troubles, they knowing things, all of them, very well; and Cocke (age 47), from the King's (age 34) own mouth, being then entrusted himself much, do know particularly that the King's credulity to Cromwell's promises, private to him, against the advice of his friends and the certain discovery of the practices and discourses of Cromwell in council (by Major Huntington)1 did take away his life and nothing else. Then to some loose atheisticall discourse of Cocke's (age 47), when he was almost drunk, and then about 11 o'clock broke up, and I to my office, to fit up an account for Povy (age 50), wherein I hope to get something. At it till almost two o'clock, then to supper and to bed.

Note 1. According to Clarendon the officer here alluded to was a major in Cromwell's own regiment of horse, and employed by him to treat with Charles I whilst at Hampton Court [Map]; but being convinced of the insincerity of the proceeding, communicated his suspicions to that monarch, and immediately gave up his commission. We hear no more of Huntington till the Restoration, when his name occurs with those of many other officers, who tendered their services to the King (age 34). His reasons for laying down his commission are printed in Thurloe's "State Papers" and Maseres's "Tracts". B.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jul 1665. I went to Hampton-Court [Map], where now the whole Court was, to solicit for money; to carry intercepted letters; confer again with Sir William Coventry (age 37), the Duke's secretary; and so home, having dined with Mr. Secretary Morice (age 37).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1665. Anon I took my leave, and away by water to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56), where he tells me that I must be at Hampton Court [Map] anon. So I home to look over my Tangier papers, and having a coach of Mr. Povy's (age 51) attending me, by appointment, in order to my coming to dine at his country house at Brainford, where he and his family is, I went and Mr. Tasbrough with me therein, it being a pretty chariot, but most inconvenient as to the horses throwing dust and dirt into one's eyes and upon one's clothes. There I staid a quarter of an houre, Creed being there, and being able to do little business (but the less the better). Creed rode before, and Mr. Povy (age 51) and I after him in the chariot; and I was set down by him at the Parke pale, where one of his saddle horses was ready for me, he himself not daring to come into the house or be seen, because that a servant of his, out of his horse, happened to be sicke, but is not yet dead, but was never suffered to come into his house after he was ill. But this opportunity was taken to injure Povy (age 51), and most horribly he is abused by some persons hereupon, and his fortune, I believe, quite broke; but that he hath a good heart to bear, or a cunning one to conceal his evil.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1665. I eat a bit (my Baroness Carteret (age 63) being the most kind lady in the world), and so took boat, and a fresh boat at the Tower, and so up the river, against tide all the way, I having lost it by staying prating to and with my Lady, and, from before one, made it seven ere we got to Hampton Court [Map]; and when I come there all business was over, saving my finding Mr. Coventry (age 37) at his chamber, and with him a good while about several businesses at his chamber, and so took leave, and away to my boat, and all night upon the water, staying a while with Nan at Moreclacke, very much pleased and merry with her, and so on homeward, and come home by two o'clock, shooting the bridge at that time of night, and so to bed, where I find Will is not, he staying at Woolwich, Kent [Map] to come with my wife to dinner tomorrow to my Baroness Carteret's (age 63).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1665. Heard Mr. Williamson (age 31) repeat at Hampton Court [Map] to-day how the King of France (age 26) hath lately set out a most high arrest against the Pope, which is reckoned very lofty and high1.

Note 1. Arret. The rupture between Alexander VII and Louis XIV. was healed in 1664, by the treaty signed at Pisa, on February 12th. On August 9th, the pope's nephew, Cardinal Chigi, made his entry into Paris, as legate, to give the King (age 35) satisfaction for the insult offered at Rome by the Corsican guard to the Duc de Crequi, the French ambassador; (see January 25th, 1662-63). Cardinal Imperiali, Governor of Rome, asked pardon of the King (age 35) in person, and all the hard conditions of the treaty were fulfilled. But no arret against the pope was set forth in 1665. On the contrary, Alexander, now wishing to please the King (age 35), issued a constitution on February 2nd, 1665, ordering all the clergy of France, without any exception, to sign a formulary condemning the famous five propositions extracted from the works of Jansenius; and on April 29th, the King (age 35) in person ordered the parliament to register the bull. The Jansenist party, of course, demurred to this proceeding; the Bishops of Alais, Angers, Beauvais, and Pamiers, issuing mandates calling upon their clergy to refuse. It was against these mandates, as being contrary to the King's declaration and the pope's intentions, that the arret was directed. B.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1665. To my office, where late writing letters, and getting myself prepared with business for Hampton Court [Map] to-morrow, and so having caused a good pullet to be got for my supper, all alone, I very late to bed. All the news is great: that we must of necessity fall out with France, for He will side with the Dutch against us. That Alderman Backewell (age 47) is gone over (which indeed he is) with money, and that Ostend is in our present possession. But it is strange to see how poor Alderman Backewell (age 47) is like to be put to it in his absence, Mr. Shaw his right hand being ill. And the Alderman's absence gives doubts to people, and I perceive they are in great straits for money, besides what Sir G. Carteret (age 55) told me about fourteen days ago. Our fleet under my Lord Sandwich (age 39) being about the latitude 55 (which is a great secret) to the Northward of the Texell.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1665. Lord's Day. Up very betimes, called by Mr. Cutler, by appointment, and with him in his coach and four horses over London Bridge [Map] to Kingston [Map], a very pleasant journey, and at Hampton Court [Map] by nine o'clock, and in our way very good and various discourse, as he is a man, that though I think he be a knave, as the world thinks him, yet a man of great experience and worthy to be heard discourse. When we come there, we to Sir W. Coventry's (age 37) chamber, and there discoursed long with him, he and I alone, the others being gone away, and so walked together through the garden to the house, where we parted, I observing with a little trouble that he is too great now to expect too much familiarity with, and I find he do not mind me as he used to do, but when I reflect upon him and his business I cannot think much of it, for I do not observe anything but the same great kindness from him.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1665. Up, and after doing a little business, down to Deptford, Kent [Map] with Sir W. Batten (age 64), and there left him, and I to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to the Park, where I hear the King (age 35) and Duke (age 31) are come by water this morn from Hampton Court [Map]. They asked me several questions. The King (age 35) mightily pleased with his new buildings there. I followed them to Castle's (age 36) ship in building, and there, met Sir W. Batten (age 64), and thence to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55), where all the morning with them; they not having any but the Duke of Monmouth (age 16), and Sir W. Killigrew (age 59), and one gentleman, and a page more. Great variety of talk, and was often led to speak to the King (age 35) and Duke (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. Called up at 4 o'clock. Up and to my preparing some papers for Hampton Court [Map], and so by water to Fox Hall, and there Mr. Gauden's coach took me up, and by and by I took up him, and so both thither, a brave morning to ride in and good discourse with him. Among others he begun with me to speak of the Tangier Victuallers resigning their employment, and his willingness to come on. Of which I was glad, and took the opportunity to answer him with all kindness and promise of assistance. He told me a while since my Lord Berkeley (age 63) did speak of it to him, and yesterday a message from Sir Thomas Ingram (age 51).

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1665. It being Lord's day, up and dressed and to church, thinking to have sat with Sir James Bunce to hear his daughter and her husband sing, that are so much commended, but was prevented by being invited into Coll. Cleggatt's pew. However, there I sat, near Mr. Laneare, with whom I spoke, and in sight, by chance, and very near my fat brown beauty of our Parish, the rich merchant's lady, a very noble woman, and Madame Pierce. A good sermon of Mr. Plume's (age 35), and so to Captain Cocke's (age 48), and there dined with him, and Colonell Wyndham, a worthy gentleman, whose wife was nurse to the present King, and one that while she lived governed him and every thing else, as Cocke (age 48) says, as a minister of state; the old King putting mighty weight and trust upon her. They talked much of matters of State and persons, and particularly how my Lord Barkeley (age 63) hath all along been a fortunate, though a passionate and but weak man as to policy; but as a kinsman brought in and promoted by my Lord of St. Alban's (age 60), and one that is the greatest vapourer in the world, this Colonell Wyndham says; and one to whom only, with Jacke Asheburnel (age 62) and Colonel Legg, the King's removal to the Isle of Wight from Hampton Court [Map] was communicated; and (though betrayed by their knavery, or at best by their ignorance, insomuch that they have all solemnly charged one another with their failures therein, and have been at daggers-drawing publickly about it), yet now none greater friends in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1666. I to the office then, where I did much business, and set my people to work against furnishing me to go to Hampton Court [Map], where the King (age 35) and Duke (age 32) will be on Sunday next. It is now certain that the King of France (age 27) hath publickly declared war against us, and God knows how little fit we are for it.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. And up again about six (Lord's day), and being dressed in my velvett coate and plain cravatte took a Hackney coach provided ready for me by eight o'clock, and so to my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) with all my papers, and there took his coach with four horses and away toward Hampton Court [Map], having a great deale of good discourse with him, particularly about his coming to lie at the office, when I went further in inviting him to than I intended, having not yet considered whether it will be convenient for me or no to have him here so near us, and then of getting Mr. Evelyn (age 45) or Sir Robert Murray (age 58) into the Navy in the room of Sir Thomas Harvey (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jan 1666. At Brainford [Map] I 'light, having need to shit, and went into an Inne doore that stood open, found the house of office and used it, but saw no people, only after I was in the house, heard a great dogg barke, and so was afeard how I should get safe back again, and therefore drew my sword and scabbard out of my belt to have ready in my hand, but did not need to use it, but got safe into the coach again, but lost my belt by the shift, not missing it till I come to Hampton Court [Map]. At the Wicke found Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and Sir W. Batten (age 65) at a lodging provided for us by our messenger, and there a good dinner ready.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty (age 35), now returned from Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] to Hampton-Court [Map], where the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) presented me to him; he ran toward me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a time of such great danger, when everybody fled their employments; he told me he was much obliged to me, and said he was several times concerned for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my service most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had performed it as I ought!). After this, his Majesty (age 35) was pleased to talk with me alone, near an hour, of several particulars of my employment, and ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday following at Whitehall [Map]. Then the Duke (age 57) came toward me, and embraced me with much kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would have been so great, he would not have suffered his Majesty (age 35) to employ me in that station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans (age 60), Lord Arlington (age 48), Sir William Coventry (age 38), and several great persons; after which, I got home, not being very well in health.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1666. Then to the office, and out with Sir W. Warren for discourse by coach to White Hall, thinking to have spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 38), but did not, and to see the Queene (age 56), but she comes but to Hampton Court [Map] to-night. Back to my office and there late, and so home to supper and bed. I walked a good while to-night with Mr. Hater in the garden, talking about a husband for my sister, and reckoning up all our clerks about us, none of which he thinks fit for her and her portion. At last I thought of young Gawden, and will thinke of it again.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1667. So home to dinner, and after dinner I took coach and to the King's house, and by and by comes after me my wife with W. Hewer (age 25) and his mother and Barker, and there we saw "The Tameing of a Shrew", which hath some very good pieces in it, but generally is but a mean play; and the best part, "Sawny"1, done by Lacy (age 52), hath not half its life, by reason of the words, I suppose, not being understood, at least by me.

Note 1. This play was entitled "Sawney the Scot, or the Taming of a Shrew", and consisted of an alteration of Shakespeare's play by John Lacy (age 52). Although it had long been popular it was not printed until 1698. In the old "Taming of a Shrew" (1594), reprinted by Thomas Amyot for the Shakespeare Society in 1844, the hero's servant is named Sander, and this seems to have given the hint to Lacy (age 52), when altering Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew", to foist a 'Scotsman into the action. Sawney was one of Lacy's (age 52) favourite characters, and occupies a prominent position in Michael Wright's (age 49) picture at Hampton Court [Map]. Evelyn, on October 3rd, 1662, "visited Mr. Wright, a Scotsman, who had liv'd long at Rome, and was esteem'd a good painter", and he singles out as his best picture, "Lacy (age 52), the famous Roscius, or comedian, whom he has painted in three dresses, as a gallant, a Presbyterian minister, and a Scotch Highlander in his plaid". Langbaine and Aubrey both make the mistake of ascribing the third figure to Teague in "The Committee"; and in spite of Evelyn's clear statement, his editor in a note follows them in their blunder. Planche has reproduced the picture in his "History of Costume" (Vol. ii., p. 243).

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1667. Thence carried Creed to White Hall, and there my wife and I took coach and home, and both of us to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), to invite them to dinner on Wednesday next, having a whole buck come from Hampton Court [Map], by the warrant which Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) did give me.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1668. After dinner I by coach to my bookseller's in Duck Lane [Map], and there did spend a little time and regarder su moher, and so to St. James's, where did a little ordinary business; and by and by comes Monsieur Colbert (age 43), the French Embassador, to make his first visit to the Duke of York (age 34), and then to the Duchess (age 31): and I saw it: a silly piece of ceremony, he saying only a few formal words. A comely man, and in a black suit and cloak of silk, which is a strange fashion, now it hath been so long left off: This day I did first see the Duke of York's (age 34) room of pictures of some Maids of Honour, done by Lilly (age 49): good, but not like1.

Note 1. The set of portraits known as "King Charles's Beauties", formerly in Windsor Castle, but now at Hampton Court [Map]. B.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1669. Up, and with W. Hewer (age 27) to White Hall, and there attended the Duke of York (age 35), and thence to the Exchange [Map], in the way calling at several places on occasions relating to my feast to-morrow, on which my mind is now set; as how to get a new looking-glass for my dining-room, and some pewter, and good wine, against to-morrow; and so home, where I had the looking-glass set up, cost me £6 7s. 6d. And here at the 'Change [Map] I met with Mr. Dancre (age 44), the famous landscape painter, with whom I was on Wednesday; and he took measure of my panels in my dining-room, where, in the four, I intend to have the four houses of the King (age 38), White Hall, Hampton Court [Map], Greenwich, Kent [Map], and Windsor. He gone, I to dinner with my people, and so to my office to dispatch a little business, and then home to look after things against to-morrow, and among other things was mightily pleased with the fellow that come to lay the cloth, and fold the napkins, which I like so well, as that I am resolved to give him 40s. to teach my wife to do it.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1669. Thence to Dancre's (age 44), and there, saw our pictures which are in doing; and I did choose a view of Rome instead of Hampton Court [Map]; and mightily pleased I shall be in them. Here were Sir Charles Cotterell (age 53) and his son bespeaking something; both ingenious men.

On 16 May 1674 Thomas Lennard 1st Earl of Sussex (age 20) and Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex (age 13) were married at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. She the illegitmate daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 33). They were first cousin once removed.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1681. I went to Hampton Court [Map], when the Surrey gentlemen presented their addresses to his Majesty (age 51), whose hand I kissed, introduced by the Duke of Albemarle (age 27). Being at the Privy Council, I took another occasion of discoursing with Sir Stephen Fox (age 54) about his daughter (age 12) and to revive that business, and at least brought it to this: That in case the young people liked one the other, after four years, he first desiring to see a particular of my Lord's (age 39) present estate if I could transmit it to him privately, he would make her portion £14,000, though to all appearance he might likely make it £50,000 as easily, his eldest son (age 15) having no child and growing very corpulent.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jun 1687. I went to Hampton Court [Map] to give his Majesty thanks for his late gracious favor, though it was but granting what was due. While I was in the Council Chamber, came in some persons, at the head of whom was a formal man with a large roll of parchment in his hand, being an Address (as he said, for he introduced it with a speech) of the people of Coventry, giving his Majesty their great acknowledgments for his granting a liberty of conscience; he added that this was not the application of one party only, but the unanimous address of Church of England men, Presbyterians, Independents, and Anabaptists, to show how extensive his Majesty's grace was, as taking in all parties to his indulgence and protection, which had removed all dissensions and animosities, which would not only unite them in bonds of Christian charity, but exceedingly encourage their future industry, to the improvement of trade, and spreading his Majesty's glory throughout the world; and that now he had given to God his empire, God would establish his; with expressions of great loyalty and submission; and so he gave the roll to the King, which being returned to him again, his Majesty caused him to read. The address was short, but much to the substance of the speech of their foreman, to whom the King, pulling off his hat, said that what he had done in giving liberty of conscience, was, what was ever his judgment ought to be done; and that, as he would preserve them in their enjoyment of it during his reign, so he would endeavor to settle it by law, that it should never be altered by his successors. After this, he gave them his hand to kiss. It was reported the Members were above 1,000.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jul 1689. I went to Hampton Court [Map] about business, the Council being there. A great apartment and spacious garden with fountains was beginning in the park at the head of the canal.

Vesta Monumenta. 1769. Plate 2.27. Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. Etching by John Pye after an anonymous drawing copied by Michael Tyson.

On 23 Oct 1841 Charlotte Clavering Lady Pechell (age 82) died at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

In Mar 1843 Lieutenant-Colonel Josiah Cottin (age 72) died at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

On 29 Jul 1871 Katharine Anabella Bisshop Lady Brooke-Pechell (age 79) died at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Pepy's Diary. When I come to Hampton Court [Map] I find Sir T. Ingram and Creed ready with papers signed for the putting of Mr. Gawden in, upon a resignation signed to by Lanyon and sent to Sir Thos. Ingram. At this I was surprized but yet was glad, and so it passed but with respect enough to those that are in, at least without any thing ill taken from it. I got another order signed about the boats, which I think I shall get something by.

The River Mole rises near Rusper [Map] and flows broadly north through Leatherhead, Surrey [Map] after which it joins the River Thames opposite Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Surrey, Hampton Richmond, Hampton Court Palace, Chapel Royal [Map]

On 15 Oct 1537 the future Edward VI was christened by Bishop John Stokesley (age 62) at the Chapel Royal in Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 48) performed the Baptismal Rites, and was appointed Godfather. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 64) and Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 21) were Godparents.

King Edward VI of England and Ireland was created Duke Cornwall, 1st Earl Chester.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the Salt. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was Godfather and supported the Marchioness of Exeter. Richard Long (age 43) was knighted. Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52), Philip Boteler (age 45), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 66) and John Gage (age 57) attended. Mary Scrope (age 61) carried Lady Mary's train. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried a covered basin. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 54) carried the canopy.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) helped his young niece the future Elizabeth I to carry the Crisom. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 41) supported his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 34) to carry the child. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 60) bore a taper of virgin wax. William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 61) carried the train of the Prince's robe. Christopher Barker proclaimed the Prince's titles. Arthur Hopton (age 48) attended.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 37) was created 1st Earl Hertford.

Nicholas Carew (age 41), Francis Bryan (age 47), Anthony Browne (age 37) and John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 52) surrounded the font.

Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire (age 27), Edward Neville (age 66), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 29), Richard Long (age 43) and John Wallop (age 47) carried the canopy.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton and Bishop John Bell attended.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 47) was created 1st Earl of Southampton. Mabel Clifford Countess Southampton (age 55) by marriage Countess of Southampton.

On 01 Nov 1541 Henry VIII (age 50) received a warrant for Catherine Howard's (age 18) arrest from Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 52) at Chapel Royal, Hampton Court Palace [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Surrey, Hampton Richmond, Hampton Court Palace, Presence Chamber [Map]

On 23 Dec 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) enobled his new wife's (age 31) brother (age 31) and uncle (age 60) at ceremony in the Presence Chamber, Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 26) and Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 34) were present. Christopher Barker read the Patents.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 60) was created 1st Baron Parr of Horton. William was sixty with five daughters. He died four years later at which time the Barony became extinct.

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31) was created 1st Earl Essex. His estranged wife Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 26) was daughter of the last Earl of Essex of the Fifth Creation. A somewhat curious choice given his wife had eloped the year previous year with John Lyngfield, the prior of Tandbridge, Surrey [Map], by whom she had an illegitimate child.