Biography of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

Paternal Family Tree: Stewart

Maternal Family Tree: Blanca de la Cerda y Lara 1317-1347

Descendants Family Tree: King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1605 New Years Honours

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1625 Death of James I

1630 Baptism of future Charles II

1641 Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

1642 Battle of Edge Hill

1649 Execution of Charles I

1651 Charles II Crowned King Scotland

1651 Battle of Worcester

1656 Treaty of Brussels

1659 Booth's Uprising

1660 Declaration of Breda

1660 Charles II Proclaimed

1660 June Creation of Baronets

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1660 August Creation of Baronets

1660 September Creation of Peerages

1660 November Creation of Baronets

1660 December Creation of Baronets and Peerages

1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1661 Creation of Baronets and Peerages by Charles II Post Coronation

1661 Cavalier Parliament

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 St James' Day Battle

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

1671 Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

1672 Declaration of Indulgence

1678 Popish Plot

1683 Rye House Plot

1683 Frost Fair

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1705 Death of Catherine of Braganza Dowager Queen Consort

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

The 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover was a pact between France and England for England to abandon its alliance with Sweden and the Duct Republic, allowing France to conquer the Dutch Republic after which France would England a number of stratgeic ports on Dutch Rivers.

King Charles II's sister [his sister] Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was instrumental in arranging the Treaty - she was married to the French King's brother Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans.

The signatories included:

Richard Bellings

Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington

Henry Arundell 3rd Baron Arundel

On 23 Feb 1589 Oliver St George 1st Baronet was knighted at Whitehall Palace [Map] by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [his father] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace [Map]. He was created Duke Albany.

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 4) was created 1st Duke York and Knight of the Bath by his father [his grandfather] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 38)

Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland (age 27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset (age 26) was @@appointed Knight of the Bath.

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex (age 43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.

James Wriothesley (age 11), brothers Robert Howard (age 32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley (age 15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland (age 41) and John Cavendish were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 [his grandfather] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 58) died at Theobalds House, Hertfordshire. His son [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. Duke York merged with the Crown.

On 29 May 1630 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 20) at St James's Palace [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Baptism of future Charles II

On 27 Jun 1630 the future Charles II was baptised by Archbishop William Laud (age 56) at Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. [his uncle] Louis XIII King France (age 28) and [his grandmother] Marie de Medici Queen Consort France (age 55) were godparents.

Robert Kerr 1st Earl Ancram (age 52) was created 1st Earl Ancram.

In 1638 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 7) was appointed 437th Knight of the Garter by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 37).

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 13 Apr 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) was attainted by 204 votes to 59 ostensibly for his authoritarian rule as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Despite his promise not to [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) signed the death warrant on the 10 May 1641 in the light of increasing pressure from Parliament and the commons.

Wenceslaus Hollar (age 33). Engraving of the Trial of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48) with the following marked:

A. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40).

C. [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31).

D. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 10).

E. Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk (age 55), Lord High Steward.

F. Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester (age 78), Lord Keeper of the Great Seal.

G. John Paulet 5th Marquess Winchester (age 43).

H. Robert Bertie 1st Earl Lindsey (age 58), Lord Chamberlain.

I. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery (age 56), Lord Chamberlain of the Household.

V. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford (age 48).

Z. Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk (age 56).

Wenceslaus Hollar: On 23 Jul 1607 he was born. Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and my Lord Bruncker did show me Hollar's new print of the City, with a pretty representation of that part which is burnt, very fine indeed; and tells me that he was yesterday sworn the King's servant, and that the King hath commanded him to go on with his great map of the City, which he was upon before the City was burned, like Gombout of Paris, which I am glad of. On 25 Mar 1677 he died.

On 06 Sep 1641 William Fermor 1st Baronet (age 20) was created 1st Baronet Fermor of Easton Neston in Northamptonshire by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) who also gave him the command of a troop of horse, and afterwards made him a Privy Councillor to Charles, Prince of Wales (age 11).

Around 1642. William Dobson (age 30). Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 11).

Battle of Edge Hill

On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill [Map]. The Royal army was commanded by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41) (with his son King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 12) present), Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 22) and Richard Spencer (age 49) commanded the army that included Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 21), Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron (age 36), Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland (age 32), Charles Cavendish (age 22), Henry Newton aka Puckering 3rd Baronet (age 24), Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton (age 41), Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet (age 30), John Byron 1st Baron Byron (age 43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh (age 55).

George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny (age 24) was killed.

Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh (age 34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex (age 51). Oliver St John 5th Baron St John (age 39) was wounded.

Samuel Sandys (age 27) commanded a troop of horse.

Richard Sandys (age 26) was killed.

Thomas Strickland (age 20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry.

Henry Hunloke 1st Baronet (age 24) was knighted by King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

William Dugdale (age 37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.

John Hinton (age 38) was present.

Edward Verney (age 52) was killed.

John Assheton (age 29) was killed.

Robert Bertie 1st Earl Lindsey (age 59) was killed. His son Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey (age 34) succeeded 2nd Earl Lindsey, 15th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Martha Cockayne Countess Lindsey and Holderness by marriage Countess Lindsey.

William Pennyman 1st Baronet (age 35) commanded a regiment, of which he served as Colonel, which he led for the King.

Edward Stradling 2nd Baronet (age 42) fought for the King, was captured imprisoned for seven months, and died a month after his release.

In 1643 Bulstrode Whitelocke (age 37) sent to negotiate with King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 12).

In 1644 Bulstrode Whitelocke (age 38) sent to negotiate with King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 13).

In Nov 1644 George Goring 1st Earl Norwich (age 59) was created 1st Earl Norwich by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 14) for his support during the Civil War. The last Earl Norwich of the previous creation was his uncle Edward Denny 1st Earl Norwich brother of his mother Anne Denny (age 77).

On 16 Jul 1645 William Morgan (age 85) was visited by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) who stayed ovenight.

In 1646 Elizabeth Capell (age 54) died in the Channel Islands [Map] to where her husband had travelled with King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15).

After 12 Mar 1646 Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton (age 49) with Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 37) and King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) travelled to the Channel Islands [Map].

Around Apr 1646 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) travelled to Scilly Isles [Map].

Around Apr 1646 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) stayed at Pendennis Castle, Falmouth [Map].

Around Apr 1646 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) travelled to Jersey.

Around Apr 1646 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 15) travelled to France.

In 1648 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 17) travelled to where his sister [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 16) and brother in law William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 21) were living at The Hague.

In 1649 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 20) was appointed 446th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

In 1649 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 38) was appointed 444th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

In 1649 Maurice Palatinate Simmern (age 27) was appointed 443rd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

In 1649 Edward Palatinate Simmern (age 23) was appointed 445th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

After Jan 1649 Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester (age 36) was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [his father] Charles I (age 48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace [Map]. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

On 17 Feb 1649 George Carteret 1st Baronet (age 39) at St Helier, Jersey [Map] had Charles II (age 18) proclaimed King after his father Charles I was executed; an act that Charles II never forgot.

On 09 Apr 1649 [his illegitimate son] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18) and Lucy Walter (age 19) at Rotterdam.

In Jul 1649 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19) stayed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.

In Sep 1649 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19) travelled to Jersey.

In 1650 Charles Lyttelton 3rd Baronet (age 22) was appointed Cupbearer to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19) while the King was in exile.

In 1650 James Stanley 7th Earl of Derby (age 42) was appointed 452nd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

In 1650 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset (age 62) was appointed 447th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

In 1650 William Cavendish 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 57) was appointed 450th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

In 1650 James Graham 1st Marquess Montrose (age 37) was appointed 451st Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

Around 1650 [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19) and Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 27).

In 1650 William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton (age 33) was appointed 449th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

In 1650 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 2nd Earl Chichester (age 42) was appointed 448th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 19).

Charles II Crowned King Scotland

On 01 Jan 1651 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 20) was crowned II King Scotland at Scone Abbey [Map].

On 06 May 1651 [his illegitimate daughter] Mary Walters was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 20) and Lucy Walter (age 21) at The Hague. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 20) didn't acknowledge her. Her father is some somewhat speculative; he may have been Theobald Taaffe 1st Earl Carlingford (age 48) or Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 33).

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at Worcester, Worcestershire [Map] the Battle of Worcester Oliver Cromwell (age 52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle (age 22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 28), Thomas Blagge (age 38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 60) was captured. Giles Strangeways (age 36) provided 300 gold pieces to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21) following his defeat to aid his escape.

Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet (age 27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 44) fought for th Royalists.

After 03 Sep 1651 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21) hid at Royal Oak Boscobel House [Map].

On 16 Oct 1651 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21) landed at Normandy [Map].

In 1652 William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts (age 41) was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to the exiled King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21).

In 1653 George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol (age 40) was appointed 453rd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 22).

In 1653 Henri Tremoille (age 54) was appointed 455th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 22).

In 1653 King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 2) was appointed 456th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 22).

In 1653 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester (age 12) was appointed 454th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 22).

In 1654 Frederick William "Great Elector" Hohenzollern Elector Brandenburg (age 33) was appointed 457th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 23)..

In 1656 John Middleton 1st Earl Middleton (age 48) was created 1st Earl Middleton by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 25) whilst in exile. Grizel Durham Countess Middleton by marriage Countess Middleton.

Treaty of Brussels

On 02 Apr 1656 the Treaty of Brussels agreeing mutual support between England (Royal) and Spain was signed by Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester (age 43) and James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 45) on behalf of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 25), and Alonso Cárdenas on behalf of Philip IV King Spain (age 50).

On 06 Nov 1656 John IV King Portugal (age 52) died. His son [his future brother-in-law] Alfonso VI King Portugal (age 13) succeeded King Portuagal.

Around 1657 [his illegitimate son] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) and Catherine Pegge (age 22).

After 1657 Colonel Silius Titus (age 34) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) for having published a pamphlet "Killing No Murder" advocating the assassination of Oliver Cromwell (age 57).

In 1658 John Marchin (age 57) was appointed 458th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 27).

In 1658 [his daughter] Catherine Fitzcharles was born to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and Catherine Pegge (age 23).

In 1659 Thomas Allen 1st Baronet (age 26) was appointed Lord Mayor of London in which role he welcomed King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) into the City of London on 29 May 1660; an important step to his Restoration.

Booth's Uprising

In Aug 1659 Booth's Uprising was a unsuccessful Cheshire rebellion led by George Booth 1st Baron Delamer (age 36) to restore King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) to throne as part of a national uprising led by John Mordaunt 1st Viscount Mordaunt (age 33). Its supprters included John Owen (age 59).

John Marlay (age 69) was briefly imprisoned suspected of surporting the uprising.

In 1660 George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51) was appointed 459th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

In 1660 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 34) was appointed 460th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

In 1660 George Hamilton 1st Baronet of Donalong (age 53) was created 1st Baronet Donalong by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) for his allegiance to the Crown.

In 1660 Charles Scarburgh (age 44) was appointed physician to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

In 1660 Aubrey de Vere 20th Earl of Oxford (age 32) was appointed 461st Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

After 1660 Robert Streater (age 39) was appointed Serjeant to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

Declaration of Breda

04 Apr 1660 The Declaration of Breda [Map], written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

On 08 May 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) received a letter inviting him to return to England and become King at Breda [Map].

Before 25 May 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) left at Scheveningen.

On 25 May 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) arrived at Dover, Kent [Map].

Charles II Proclaimed

On 29 May 1660, his thirtieth birthday, King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) was restored II King England Scotland and Ireland.

John Evelyn 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Evelyn of Godstone. This is the first Baronetcy Charles II created following his Restoration indicating the high regard in which he held John Evelyn 1st Baronet (age 27) and the Evelyn family including John Evelyn (age 39).

1660 June Creation of Baronets

In Jun 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration ...

6th William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) and John Talbot of Lacock (age 29) were knighted.

7th Geoffrey Palmer 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Palmer of Carlton in Northampton

7th Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Bridgeman of Great Lever in Lancashire.

7th John Langham 1st Baronet (age 76) was created 1st Baronet Langham of Cottesbrooke in Northamptonshire.

11th Henry Wright 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Wright of Dagenham. Ann Crew Lady Wright by marriage Lady Wright of Dagenham.

13th Nicholas Gould 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Gould of the City of London.

14th Thomas Allen 1st Baronet (age 27) was created 1st Baronet Allen of Totteridge in Middlesex.

18th Thomas Cullum 1st Baronet (age 73) was created 1st Baronet Cullum of Hastede in Suffolk.

19th Thomas Darcy 1st Baronet (age 28) was created 1st Baronet Darcy of St Osith's.

22nd Robert Cordell 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Cordell of Long Melford.

22nd John Robinson 1st Baronet (age 45) was created 1st Baronet Robinson of London. Anne Whitmore Lady Robinson (age 48) by marriage Lady Robinson of London.

25th William Bowyer 1st Baronet (age 47) was created 1st Baronet Bowyer of Denham Court. Margaret Weld Lady Bowyer (age 43) by marriage Lady Bowyer of Denham Court.

25th Thomas Stanley 1st Baronet (age 63) was created 1st Baronet Stanley of Alderley in Cheshire.

26th Jacob Astley 1st Baronet (age 21) was created 1st Baronet Astley of Hill Morton.

27th William Wray 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Wray of Ashby in Lincolnshire. Olympia Tufton Lady Ashby (age 36) by marriage Lady Wray of Ashby in Lincolnshire.

28th Oliver St John 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet St John of Woodford in Northamptonshire.

29th Ralph Delaval 1st Baronet (age 37) was created 1st Baronet Delaval of Seaton in Northumberland. Anne Leslie Lady Delaval by marriage Lady Delaval of Seaton in Northumberland.

30th Andrew Henley 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Henley of Henley in Somerset.

On 15 Jun 1660 Thomas Tipping (age 44) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) at Whitehall Palace [Map].

1660 July Creation of Peerages

In Jul 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration ...

2nd. Maurice Berkeley 3rd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 32) was created 1st Baronet Berkeley of Bruton in Somerset. Anne Lee Viscountess Fitzhardinge (age 37) by marriage Lady Berkeley of Bruton in Somerset.

4th. Thomas Myddelton 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Myddelton of Chirk Castle.

6th. Varney Noel 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Noel.

7th. George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle (age 51) was created 1st Duke Albemarle, 1st Earl Torrington in Devon. Anne Clarges Duchess Albermarle (age 41) by marriage Duchess Albemarle.

12th. Robert Hales 1st Baronet (age 50) was created 1st Baronet Hales of Beakesbourne in Kent.

12th. Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 34) was created 1st Earl Sandwich. Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 35) by marriage Countess Sandwich.

14th. Elizabeth Feilding Countess Guildford was created 1st Earl Guildford by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). The peerage for life.

18th. Samuel Morland 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Morland of Sulhamstead Banister. Susanne de Milleville Lady Morland by marriage Lady Morland of Sulhamstead Banister.

23rd. Henry Vernon 1st Baronet (age 55) was created 1st Baronet Vernon of Hodnet in Shropshire.

23rd. John Aubrey 1st Baronet (age 54) was created 1st Baronet Aubrey of Llantrithyd in Glamorganshire.

1660 August Creation of Baronets

In Aug 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 02 Aug 1660 Hugh Smithson 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Smithson of Stanwick in Yorkshire.

On 10 Aug 1660 Peter Leicester 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Leicester of Tabley in Cheshire. Elizabeth Gerard Lady Leicester by marriage Lady Leicester of Tabley in Cheshire.

On 11 Aug 1660 William wheler 1st Baronet 1611 1666 (age 49) was created 1st Baronet Wheler of the City of Westminster with a special remainder failing the heirs male of his body, "to Charles Wheeler (age 40) [rectius Wheler], cosin to the said Sir William and the heires males of the body of the said Sir Charles."

On 16 Aug 1660 Thomas Lee 1st Baronet (age 25) was created 1st Baronet Lee of Hartwell in Buckinghamshire.

On 16 Aug 1660 John Newton 1st Baronet (age 49) was created 1st Baronet Newton of Barrs Court.

On 16 Aug 1660 Thomas Smith 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Smith of Hatherton in Cheshire.

On 31 Aug 1660 John Drake 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Drake of Ashe in Devon. Dionise Strode Lady Drake by marriage Lady Drake of Ashe in Devon.

1660 September Creation of Peerages

In Sep 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded a further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 04 Sep 1660 John King 1st Baron Kingston was created 1st Baron Kingston of Kingston in Dublin.

On 05 Sep 1660 Roger Boyle 1st Earl Orrery (age 39) was created 1st Earl Orrery. Margaret Howard Countess Orrery (age 38) by marriage Countess Orrery.

On 05 Sep 1660 Oliver St George 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet St George of Carrickdrumrusk in Leitrim in the Peerage of England.

On 06 Sep 1660 Francis Boyle 1st Viscount Shannon (age 37) was created 1st Viscount Shannon. Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 38) by marriage Viscountess Shannon.

On 06 Sep 1660 Richard Coote 1st Baron Coote (age 40) was created 1st Baron Coote.

On 10 Sep 1660 Charles Gordon 1st Earl Aboyne (age 22) was created 1st Earl Aboyne.

1660 November Creation of Baronets

In Nov 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 08 Nov 1660 William Russell 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Russell of Laugherne in Carmarthenshire.

On 12 Nov 1660 John Cutler 1st Baronet (age 57) was created 1st Baronet Cutler of London.

On 21 Nov 1660 John Clotworthy 1st Viscount Massereene was created 1st Viscount Massereene, 1st Baron Lough Neagh, in the Irish peerage, with remainder in default of male heirs to his son-in-law. See Viscountcies of England Created with a Special Remainder.

On 21 Nov 1660 Thomas Foote 1st Baronet (age 62) was created 1st Baronet Foote of London with a special remainder for title to revert on his death to his son-in-law, Arthur Onslow of West Clandon (age 36).

On 29 Nov 1660 John Wroth 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Wroth of Blenden Hall in Kent.

1660 December Creation of Baronets and Peerages

In Dec 1660 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration by awarding them Baronetcies ...

On 03 Dec 1660 George Winn 1st Baronet (age 53) was created 1st Baronet Winn of Nostel in Yorkshire.

On 22 Dec 1660 John Keyt 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Keyt of Ebrington in Gloucestershire for having raised a troop of horse to fight in the Royalist cause.

On 24 Dec 1660 William Frankland 1st Baronet (age 20) was created 1st Baronet Frankland of Thirkleby in Yorkshire.

On 04 Dec 1660 Wadham Wyndham (age 51) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30).

In 1661 Charles II of England (age 30) invited John Roettiers (age 29) and his brother Joseph (and subsequently a third brother Philip) to join the British Royal Mint.

1661 Charles II Continues to Reward those who Supported His Restoration

In early 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rewarded of further tranche of those who supported his Restoration ...

On 02 Jan 1661 Henry Bedingfield 1st Baronet (age 46) was created 1st Baronet Bedingfield of Oxburgh in Norfolk.

On 10 Jan 1661 Andrew Rutherford 1st Earl Teviot was created 1st Baron Rutherford with special remainder to his heirs and assignees whatsoever, and that under what provisions, restrictions, and conditions the said Lord Rutherford should think fit.

On 23 Jan 1661 John Cole 1st Baronet (age 41) was created Baronet Cole of Newland.

On 23 Feb 1661 Edward Smythe 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Smythe.

On 04 Mar 1661 Compton Reade 1st Baronet (age 36) was created 1st Baronet Reade of Barton in Berkshire. Mary Cornwall Lady Reade (age 31) by marriage Lady Reade of Barton in Berkshire.

On 10 Mar 1661 Brian Broughton 1st Baronet (age 42) was created 1st Baronet Broughton of Broughton in Staffordshire.

On 20 Mar 1661 Thomas Rich 1st Baronet (age 60) was created 1st Baronet Rich of Sonning in Berkshire.

On 29 Mar 1661 Robert Cholmondeley 1st Viscount Cholmondeley (age 21) was created 1st Viscount Cholmondeley of Kells in County Meath.

On 30 Mar 1661 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 50) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30). Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 30 Mar 1661 John Fettiplace 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire. Anne Wenman Lady Fettiplace (age 31) by marriage Lady Fettiplace of Childrey in Berkshire.

Around 1661 John Michael Wright (age 43). Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) in his coronation robes.

In 1661 Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester (age 59) was appointed 464th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30).

In 1661 Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey (age 53) was appointed 463rd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30).

In 1661 William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford (age 34) was appointed 465th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30).

On 25 Feb 1661 [his illegitimate daughter] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 20) at Westminster [Map].

On 01 Apr 1661 Francis Prujean (age 68) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30).

On 15 Apr 1661 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond (age 22) was appointed 462nd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30).

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rode from the Tower of London [Map] to Whitehall Palace [Map]. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".

Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street [Map], that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.

At the Conduit in Cornhill [Map] a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.

The procession included the [his brother] Duke of York (age 27), the Lord High Constable (age 58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (age 53).

The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox.

On 23 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey [Map].

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston (age 44), Francis Fane (age 23) and Edward Hungerford (age 28) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Francis Godolphin (age 55) was knighted.

Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland (age 16) attended.

James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 42) was appointed Earl Marshal.

1661 Creation of Baronets and Peerages by Charles II Post Coronation

In May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

In Jun 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

05 Jun 1661 James Clavering 1st Baronet (age 41) was created 1st Baronet Clavering of Axwell in County Durham.

13 Jun 1661 Thomas Adams 1st Baronet (age 75) was created 1st Baronet Adams of London.

14 Jun 1661 Henry Moore 1st Earl Drogheda (age 39) was created 1st Earl Drogheda.

On 17 Jun 1661 ...

Godfrey Copley 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Copley Sprotborough.

Abraham Cullen 1st Baronet (age 37) was created 1st Baronet Cullen of East Sheen in Surrey.

James Rushout 1st Baronet (age 17) was created 1st Baronet Rushout of Northwick Park in Worcestershire aged only seveneteen.

William Stanley 1st Baronet (age 33) was created 1st Baronet Stanley of Hooton in Cheshire. Charlotte Molyneux Lady Stanley by marriage Lady Stanley of Hooton in Cheshire.

Griffith Williams 1st Baronet was created 1st Baronet Williams of Penrhyn in Caernarfonshire.

18 Jun 1661 Thomas Vyner 1st Baronet (age 72) was created 1st Baronet Vyner of London.

18 Jun 1661 Henry Winchcombe 1st Baronet (age 18) was created 1st Baronet Winchcombe of Bucklebury in Berkshire.

26 Jun 1661 Theobald Taaffe 1st Earl Carlingford (age 58) was created 1st Earl Carlingford.

In Jul 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

10 Jul 1661 Christopher Guise 1st Baronet (age 44) was created 1st Baronet Guise of Elmore in Gloucestershire.

16 Jul 1661 Philip Parker 1st Baronet (age 43) was created 1st Baronet Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk. Rebecca Long Lady Parker by marriage Lady Parker of Arwarton in Suffolk.

21 Jul 1661 Charles Hussey 1st Baronet (age 35) was created 1st Baronet Hussey of Caythorpe in Lincolnshire.

21 Jul 1661 Edward Barkham 1st Baronet (age 31) was created 1st Baronet Barkham Waynflete.

25 Jul 1661 John Banks 1st Baronet (age 34) was created 1st Baronet Banks of London by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland.

In Aug 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) created new Baronetcies and Peerages ...

02 Aug 1661 Thomas Carew 1st Baronet (age 29) was created 1st Baronet Carew of Haccombe in Devon.

04 Aug 1661 John Chichester 1st Baronet (age 38) was created 1st Baronet Chichester of Raleigh in Devon.

07 Aug 1661 Mark Milbanke 1st Baronet (age 23) was created 1st Baronet Milbanke of Halnaby in Yorkshire. Elizabeth Acklom Lady Milbanke by marriage Lady Milbanke of Halnaby in Yorkshire.

17 Aug 1661 William Boyd 1st Earl Kilmarnock (age 15) was created 1st Earl Kilmarnock.

Cavalier Parliament

On 08 May 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) summoned his second Parliament.

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston (age 44) was elected MP Wallingford.

James Thynne (age 56) was elected MP Wiltshire.

Adam Browne 2nd Baronet (age 35) was elected MP Surrey.

Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 30) was elected MP Northumberland.

William Compton (age 36) was elected MP Cambridge.

Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry (age 32) was elected MP Camelford.

Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge (age 61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury.

Edward Hungerford (age 28) was elected MP Chippenham.

Robert Pierrepont (age 24) was elected MP Nottingham.

John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 75) was elected MP Weymouth.

Giles Strangeways (age 45) was elected MP Dorset.

John Strangeways (age 24) was elected MP Bridport.

William Wyndham 1st Baronet (age 29) was elected MP Taunton.

James Herbert (age 38) was elected MP Queenborough.

William Alington 1st and 3rd Baron Alington (age 21) was elected MP Cambridge.

William Bowes of Streatlam (age 4) was elected MP Durham.

Robert Brooke (age 24) was elected MP Aldeburgh.

Josiah Child (age 30) was elected MP Dartmouth.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet (age 73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire.

Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew (age 37) was elected MP Brackley.

Richard Jennings (age 42) was elected MP St Albans.

Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet (age 33) was elected MP Norfolk.

Edward Phelips (age 48) was elected MP Somerset.

Robert Robartes (age 27) was elected MP Bossiney.

Hender Robartes (age 25) was elected MP Bodmin.

Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet (age 48) was elected MP Coventry.

William Portman 6th Baronet (age 17) was elected MP Taunton.

John Robinson 1st Baronet (age 46) was elected MP Rye.

On 11 Dec 1661 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 27) was created 1st Earl Castlemaine, 1st Baron Limerick by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) in gratitude for allowing his wife Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 21) to become the King's mistress. Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 21) by marriage Countess Castlemaine.

In 1662 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) sold Dunkirk to his cousin Louis "Sun King" XIV King France (age 23) for around £375,000.

In 1662 Christian V King Denmark and Norway (age 15) was appointed 466th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31).

Around 1662 Winifred Wells Maid of Honour (age 20) became a mistress of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31).

On 12 Apr 1662 William Warren was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31).

Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) and Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 23) were married at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of John IV King Portugal and Luisa de Guzman Queen Consort Portugal (age 48). He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 52).

Minutes of the Royal Society. 11 Jun 1662. 82. Royal Society Meeting Minutes.

Sir Robert Moray (age 54) President.

Dr Petty's (age 51) brother (age 42) showed the Society a draft of the pleasure boat he is to make for the King (age 32).

Lord Berkeley of Berkely (age 13) presented the Society with a Bird of Paradise having two feet.

Dr Goddard brought in a moth with feathered wings.

Mr Evelyn (age 41) presentd the Society with a book called 'The History of Chalcogrphij'.

Mr Ball to be asked to produce his 'Magnetick Instruments',

Mr Boyle1 presented the Society with a book of the 'Weight and Spring of Air'; and also with a glass tube filled with Minium, wherewith the experiment of filtering was made.

The Amanuensis to enquire about the depth of the water under the arches of London Bridge.

Mr Croone (age 28) to write to Dr Power about the trial of heat and cold in deep caves.

The Amanuensis to bespeak the long glass tube for the Torricellian Experiment.

Note 1. Not clear which Mr Boyle this is since Richard Boyle was elected 20 May 1663 and Robert Boyle (age 36) on 22 Apr 1663.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" (age 49) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for treason against King Charles II (age 32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (age 32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

On 18 Jun 1662 [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 21).

On 10 Jul 1662 Andrew Riccard (age 58) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32).

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine Volume 4 Pages 307-363. "1663. King Charles II (age 32) discoursing one morning with my Lord Brownker (age 43) and Dr. Charleton1 concerning Stoneheng, they told his Majestie, what they had heard me say, concerning Aubury, se. that it did as much exceed Stoneheng as a Cathedral does a Parish Church. His Majesty admired that none of our Chorographers had taken notice of it: and commanded Dr. Charlton to bring me to him the next morning. I brought with me a draught of it donne by memorie only: but well enough resembling it, with which his Majesty was pleased: gave me his hand to kisse and commanded me to waite on him at Marleborough when he went to Bath with the Queen (which was about a fortnight after) which I did: and the next day, when the court were on their journie, his Majesty left the Queen and diverted to Aubury, where I shewed him that stupendious Antiquity, with the view whereof, He and his Royal Highness, the Duke of Yorke, were very well pleased. His Majesty commanded me to write a Description of it, and present it to him: and the Duke of Yorke commanded me to give an account of the old Camps, and Barrows on the Plaines.

"As his Majesty departed from Aubury to overtake the Queen, he cast his eie on Silsbury-hill [Map] about a mile off: which they had the curiosity to see, and walkt up to the top of it, with the Duke of Yorke, Dr. Charlton and I attending them. They went to Lacock2 to dinner: and that evening to Bath; all the Gentry and Commonaltie of those parts waiting on them, with great acclamations of joy, &c.

"There have been several books writt by learned men concerning Stoneheng, much differing from one another, some affirming one thing, some another. Now I come in the rear of all by comparative arguments to give a clear evidence that these monuments were pagan temples, which was not made out before; and have also (with humble submission to better judgments) offered a probability, that they were temples of the Druids.

"When a traveller rides along by the ruines of a Monastery, he knows by the manner of building, sc. Chapell, Cloysters, &c., that it was a Convent, but of what order (sc. Benedictine, Dominican, &e.,) it was, he cannot tell by the bare view. So it is cleer that all the monuments, which I have here recounted were Temples. Now my presumption is, That the Druids being the most eminent Priests [or Order of Priests] among the Britaines, 'tis odds, but that these ancient monuments [sc. Aubury, Stonehenge, Kerrig y Druidd &c.] were Temples of the Priests of the most eminent Order, viz., Druids, and it is strongly to be presumed, that Aubury, Stoneheng, &c., are as ancient as these times.

"This inquiry, I must confess, is a gropeing in the dark: but although I have not brought it into a cleer light, yet I can affirm that I have brought it from an utter darkness to a thin mist, and have gonne farther in this essay than any one before me.

"These antiquities are so exceedingly old that no bookes doe reach them, se. that there is no way to retrive them but by comparative antiquitie, which I have writt upon the spott from the monuments themselves,— 'Historia quoque modo scripta, bona est;'3 and though this be writt, as I rode a gallop, yet the novelty of it, and the faithfulness of the delivery, may make some amends for the uncorrectness of the style.

"The first draught was worn out with time and handling, and now, methinks, after many years lying dormant, I come abroad, like the ghost of one of those Druids.

"I beg the reader's pardon for running this preface into a storie, and wish him as much pleasure in reading them, as I met in seeing them. Vale.

John Aubrey (age 36).

Note 1. William Visc. Brouncker of Earlstoke (age 43), was the first President of the Royal Scciety. Dr. Walter Charleton was the King's Physician, and author of a treatise advocating the Danish origin of Stonehenge.

Note 2. Sir John Talbot's.

Note 3. History is also just written, it is good.

On 14 Feb 1663 [his illegitimate son] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 13) was created 1st Duke Monmouth, 1st Earl Doncaster, 1st Baron Scott of Tynedale by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32).

On 28 Mar 1663 [his illegitimate son] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 13) was appointed 467th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32).

On 20 Apr 1663 [his illegitimate son] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 14) and [his daughter-in-law] Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 12) were married. She by marriage Duchess Monmouth. She the daughter of Francis Scott 2nd Earl Buccleuch and Margaret Leslie Countess Buccleuch and Wemyss (age 42). He the son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Lucy Walter.

On 28 Sep 1663 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 33) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 22).

In 1664 Samuel Tuke 1st Baronet (age 49) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 33).

On 05 Sep 1664 [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 34) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 23).

In 1665 William Cavendish 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 72) was created 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 34). Margaret Lucas Duchess Newcastle upon Tyne (age 42) by marriage Duchess Newcastle upon Tyne.

Around 1665 John Greenhill (age 21). Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 34) in his Garter Robes.

Great Plague of London

In Jul 1665 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) travelled to Salisbury during the Great Plague of London.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. [his brother] His royal highness (age 31) and his duchess (age 28) came down to York, where they stayed till September the 23rd, when the Duke (age 31) went for Oxford, where the King (age 35) was to meet the Parliament. The Duchess (age 28) went not till some time after. Most of the gentry attended at York whilst their liighnesses were there. The Duke passed his time in shooting and other exercises, the Duchess (age 28) in receiving the ladies, which she did very obligingly. One evening having a little snake (which I kept in bran in a box) in my hand as I was in the presence, one of the maids of honour seeing of it was frightened. The Duchess (age 28), hearing the noise, and what was the occasion, desired to see the snake, and took it into her hand without any fear. This Duchess (age 28) was Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess (age 28) not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported.

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. The King (age 35) to the Lord General (age 56). Alderman Backwell (age 47) being in great straits for the second payment he has to make for the service in Flanders, as much tin is to be transmitted to him as will raise the sum. Has authorized him and Sir George Carteret (age 55) to treat with the tin farmers for 500 tons of tin to be speedily transported under good convoy; but if on consulting with Alderman Backwell (age 47), this plan of the tin seems insufficient, then without further difficulty, he is to dispose for that purpose of the £10,000. assigned for pay of the Guards, not doubting that before that comes due, other ways will be found for supplying it; the payment in Flanders is of such importance that some means must be found of providing for it. [Ent. Book 17, pp. 122-3.]

Calendars. 08 Aug 1665. Salisbury. 65. The King (age 35) to the Lord General (age 56) and Sir George Carteret (age 55). Authorizes them to treat with the farmers of tin for the sale or deposit for a year of 500 tons of tin, to be sent to Flanders and sold to meet the second payment which Alderman Backwell (age 47) has to make there. They are to agree with the farmers as best they can, giving tallies on the Royal aid to secure repayment, to conclude the contract at once, the pressing importance of the service admitting no delay, and to have vessels and convoys ready to transmit the tin to Ostend. [Ent. Book 17, p. 125.]

On 28 Dec 1665 [his illegitimate son] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 25) at Merton College, Oxford University.

In 1666 William Chiffinch (age 64) assisted the Duchess of Cleveland (age 25) in her plan to cause King Charles II (age 35) to surprise his latest favourite, 'La Belle Stuart' (age 18) in company of the Duke of Richmond (age 26).

In 1666 James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge (age 2) was appointed 468th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35).

In Feb 1666 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) returned to London.

On 27 Mar 1666 Defiance was launched at Deptford, Kent [Map] in the presence of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35).

The Loyal London was built by Captain John Taylor. It was given to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 36) by the City of London. Launched 10 Jun 1666.

On 02 Aug 1666 [his brother-in-law] Alfonso VI King Portugal (age 22) and Marie Françoise Élisabeth of Savoy Queen Consort of Portugal (age 20) were married. She had arrived in Portugal on the same day. The marriage was not consummated. She subsequently married her brother-in-law [his brother-in-law] Peter II King Portugal (age 17) when he took control of the Portuguese throne; an example of Married to Two Siblings. She by marriage Queen Consort Portugal. He the son of John IV King Portugal and Luisa de Guzman Queen Consort Portugal.

St James' Day Battle

Calendars. 27 Oct 1666. Whitehall. 62. H. Muddiman to Sir Edward Stradling, St. Donat's Castle, Glamorganshire. The sickness is abating, 8 only have died of it at Plymouth, 8 at Sarum, decrease 17, one or two at Ips- wich, and 8 at Norwich. The English are said to have been forced from the Canaries, leaving their estates in the hands of Spaniards. The Commissioners for payment of seamen daily pay off great numbers who are discharged from winter service, and bring their tickets with them, and the rest are ordered by beat of drum to repair aboard. The planting of hemp is much enconraged. The Commons have answered the Lords' reasons about importing French commodities, and are settling supplies. Sir Jeremy Smith has got as much credit by his late examination as his enemies wished him disgrace, the King (age 36) and [his brother] Duke of York (age 33) being fully satisfied of his valour in the engagement. It appears that he had 147 men killed and wounded, while the most eminent of his accusers had but two or three. Peter Ceely of Cornwall, secured on suspicion of fanaticism, refused the liberty offered him if he would give security to the deputy lieutenants. The King has ordered a proclamation in Scotland for a convocation, which differs from a parliament in that it can levy money, but makes no laws. News from Germany, Brandenburg, Holland, and Munster. Sir Rich. Browne has brought into the House of Commons knives broad and sharp, able to pierce armour, of which 300 were found in the rubbish of a house where two Frenchmen lived; they can be guessed of no use but to massacre. A proclamation and other measures are proposed, for repressing the insolencies of the Papists. [8 pages.]

Calendars. 03 Nov 1666. Declaration [by Lord Arlington]. The King (age 36), haying maturely considered the charges brought against Sir Rob. Holmes (age 44) by Sir Jeremy Smith, finds no cause to suspect Sir Robert (age 44) of cowardice in the fight with the Dutch of June 25 and 26, but thinks that on the night of the 26th, he yielded too easily to the opinion of his pilot, without consulting those of the other ships, muzzled his ship, and thus obliged the squadron to do the same, and so the enemy, which might have been driven into the body of the King's fleet, then returning from the pursuit, was allowed to escape. [Hnt. Book 23, p. 264.]

In 1667 King Chales II (age 36), his brother [his brother] James (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 47) and [his illegitimate son] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch (age 17) dined with Richard Neville (age 51) at Billingbear House Waltham St Lawrence.

In 1667 Archbishop William Sancroft (age 49) was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury at the express wish of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 36).

Around 1667 Mary "Moll" Davis (age 19) became a mistress of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 36).

On 07 Oct 1667 Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge was created 1st Duke Cambridge by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37).

On 19 Oct 1667 The Black Prince was staged first by The King's Company at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane Convent Garden. The opening performance was attended by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37).

Edward Kynaston (age 27) played The Black Prince.

In 1668 Charles XI King Sweden (age 12) was appointed 469th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37).

In 1668 John George Wettin Elector Saxony (age 54) was appointed 470th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37).

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

The London Gazette 238. 25 Feb 1668. Whitehall, Feb. 25. This day His Majesty (age 37) was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent Services heretofore done to His Majesty by most of those persons who were engaged in the late Duel or Rencounter wherein William Jenkins was killed, He doth Graciously pardon the said Offence: Nevertheless, he is resolved from henceforth, that upon no pretence whatsoever, any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any Duel or Rencounter but that the course of Law shall wholly take place in all such Cases; and His Majesty was pleased to command that this His solemn Declaration should be entred in the Council Book, and that publick notice of it be likewise hereby givern that no persons may for the future pretend ignorance thereof.

In 1669 Charles Scarburgh (age 53) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 38).

Before Jul 1669 [his son-in-law] James Howard (age 29) and [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth (age 19) were married. She the daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 47).

On 10 Sep 1669 [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 59) died.

In 1670 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 29) was created 1st Duke Cleveland, 1st Earl of Southampton and 1st Baron Nonsuch by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) for having given birth to five of his illegitimate children.

In 1670 [his son-in-law] William Sarsfield and [his illegitimate daughter] Mary Walters (age 18) were married. She the daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Lucy Walter.

In 1670 Christopher Monck 2nd Duke Albemarle (age 16) was appointed 471st Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39).

On 08 May 1670 [his illegitimate son] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Nell Gwyn (age 20).

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

On 30 Jun 1670 [his sister] Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans (age 26) (sister of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40)) died at the Château de Saint Cloud. Her death came shortly after she had visited Dover, Kent [Map]. She had suffered pains in her side for a number of years. The evening before she consumed a glass of chicory water after which she immediately cried out that she had been posisoned.

In 1671 Henry Hobart 4th Baronet (age 14) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) at Blickling, Norfolk.

Andrew Marvell Letter to a friend 1671. 1671. The King (age 40) having, upon pretence of the great preparations of his neighbours, demanded three hundred thousand pounds for his navy, (though in conclusion he hath not sent out any) and that the Parliament should pay his debts, which the ministers would never particularize to the House of Commons, our house gave several bills. You see how far things were stretched beyond reason, there being no satisfaction how these debts were contracted, and all men foreseeing that what was given would not be applied to discharge the debts, which I hear are at this day risen to four millions.

Nevertheless, such was the number of the constant courtiers, increased by the apostate patriots, who were bought off for that turn, some at six, others at ten, one at fifteen thousand pounds, in money; besides which, offices, lands, and reversions to others, that it is a mercy they gave not away the whole land and liberty of England. The Duke of Buckingham (age 42) is again one hundred and forty thousand pounds in debt, and, by this prorogation, his creditors have time to tear all his lands in pieces. The House of Commons have run almost to the end of their time, and are grown extremely chargeable to the King (age 40), and odious to the people. They have signed and sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to the Duchess of Cleveland (age 30), who has likewise ten thousand pounds out of the excise of beer and ale; five thousand pounds a year out of the post-office; and, they say, the reversion of all the king's leases, the reversion of all the places in the Customhouse, and, indeed, what not? All promotions, spiritual and temporal, pass under her cognizance.

In 1671 John Hobart 3rd Baronet (age 42) hosted King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) at

Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood (age 53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London [Map]. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London [Map] with the Crown. Following his capture he refused to to answer to anyone but the King (age 40). He was questioned by the King (age 40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 51). For unknown reasons he was pardoned by the King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

On 25 May 1671 Henry Wood 1st Baronet (age 73) died without male issue. Baronet Wood extinct. On 31 May 1671 he was buried at Ufford, Suffolk. His daughter [his future daughter-in-law] Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 8) was his heir. In view of the great wealth she was to inherit she was betrothed to [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 8), an illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 30). On her father's death she went to live with Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 30). They, Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 8) and Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 8) married 1679 but she died a year later from smallpox.

Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman (age 68). Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

Before 1672 Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 22) became a mistress of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

In 1672 Henry Somerset 1st Duke Beaufort (age 43) was appointed 473rd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

In 1672 Thomas Butler 6th Earl Ossory (age 37) was appointed 477th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

In 1672 Henry Jermyn 1st Earl St Albans (age 66) was appointed 474th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 41).

1672 Declaration of Indulgence

On 15 Mar 1672. The Royal Declaration of Indulgence was Charles II's (age 41) attempt to extend religious liberty to Protestant nonconformists and Roman Catholics. It was highly controversial. Sir Orlando Bridgeman (age 66) resigned as Lord Keeper of the Great Seal because he refused to apply the Great Seal to it.

On 29 May 1672 William Russell 1st Duke Bedford (age 55) was appointed 475th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

On 03 Jun 1672 John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale (age 56) was appointed 472nd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

On 15 Jun 1672 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 54) was appointed 476th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

On 16 Jul 1672 [his illegitimate daughter] Barbara Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 31) at Merton College, Oxford University.

On 29 Jul 1672 [his illegitimate son] Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 22).

On 01 Aug 1672 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 8) and [his daughter-in-law] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 4) were married. She the daughter of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 54) and Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 38). He the son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 31).

He was created 1st Earl Euston, 1st Viscount Ipswich, 1st Baron Sudbury. Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 4) by marriage Countess Euston.

Before 1673 [his son-in-law] William Paston 2nd Earl of Yarmouth (age 19) and [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth (age 22) were married. She by marriage Countess of Yarmouth. She the daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon (age 50). He the son of Robert Paston 1st Earl of Yarmouth (age 41) and Rebecca Clayton Countess Yarmouth (age 37).

From 1673 to May 1678 Henry Savile (age 36) was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

In 1673 [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 10) was appointed 478th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

On 20 Jun 1673 Hugh Wyndham Baron of the Exchequer (age 71) was knighted by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43).

On 19 Aug 1673 Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 23) was created 1st Duke Portsmouth, 1st Earl Fareham, 1st Baron Petersfield by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43) for life for being his mistress and for having given birth to his son [his illegitimate son] Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond (age 1).

On 16 Oct 1673 [his daughter] Mary Tudor Countess Derwentwater was born to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43) and Mary "Moll" Davis (age 25). He subsequently dismissed her with a pension of an annual pension of £1000.

In 1674 [his future son-in-law] Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield (age 10) was created 1st Earl Lichfield as a consequence of his being betrothed to [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield (age 9), a natural daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43).

In 1674 John Sheffield 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby (age 25) was appointed 479th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43).

On 16 May 1674 [his son-in-law] Thomas Lennard 1st Earl of Sussex (age 20) and [his illegitimate daughter] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex (age 13) were married at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. She the daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 33). They were first cousin once removed.

On 01 Oct 1674 [his illegitimate son] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland (age 8) was created 1st Earl of Northumberland, 1st Viscount Falmouth, 1st Baron Pontefract by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44).

In 1675 [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 12) was created 1st Duke Southampton, 1st Earl Chichester, 1st Baron Newbury by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44).

1675. Hendrick Danckerts (age 50). Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II (age 44)

On 02 Feb 1675 John Flamsteed (age 28) arrived in London. He stayed at the Tower of London [Map] with Jonas Moore (age 57). He was taken by Silius Titus (age 52) to meet King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44).

On 09 Aug 1675 [his illegitimate son] Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond (age 3) was created 1st Duke Richmond, 1st Earl March, 1st Baron Settrington by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 45).

On 11 Sep 1675 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 11) was created 1st Duke Grafton by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 45). [his daughter-in-law] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 7) by marriage Duchess Grafton.

In 1676 Bishop Thomas Sprat (age 41) was appointed Chaplain to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 45).

Around Jun 1676 Hortense Mancini Duchess of Mazarin (age 29) had become the mistress of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 46) for whom he had provided a pension of £4000 each year.

On 21 Dec 1676 [his illegitimate son] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans (age 6) was created 1st Earl Burford, 1st Baron Heddington by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 46).

In 1677 Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne (age 46) was appointed 480th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 46).

In 1677 Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds (age 44) was appointed 481st Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 46).

On 06 Feb 1677 [his son-in-law] Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield (age 14) and [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield (age 12) were married. She by marriage Countess Lichfield. She the daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 46) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 36). He the son of Francis Lee 4th Baronet and Elizabeth Pope Countess Lindsey. They were third cousins.

Popish Plot

Between 1678 and 1681 the Popish Plot was a fictitious Catholic conspiracy to murder King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 47) invented by Titus Oates (age 28) that led to the execution of more than twenty-two men.

On 28 Jan 1678 Philip "Infamous Earl" Herbert 7th Earl Pembroke 4th Earl Montgomery (age 26) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 47) "for uttering such horrid and blasphemous words, and other actions proved upon oath, as are not fit to be repeated in any Christian assembly". He was released two days later on 30 Jan 1678.

On 10 Apr 1678 Christopher Hussey (age 79) swore allegiance to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 47) (the first to do so) at Hampton, Rockingham County.

On 19 Sep 1678 [his illegitimate son] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth (age 21) and [his daughter-in-law] Bridget Osborne Countess Plymouth were married in Wimbledon, Surrey. She by marriage Countess Plymouth. She the daughter of Thomas Osborne 1st Duke Leeds (age 46) and Bridget Bertie Duchess Leeds (age 49). He the son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) and Catherine Pegge (age 43).

In 1679 [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 16) and [his daughter-in-law] Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 16) were married. She by marriage Duchess Southampton. He the son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 38).

In 1679 James Hamilton Duke Hamilton, 1st Duke Brandon (age 20) was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48).

In 1679 John Robartes 1st Earl Radnor (age 73) was created 1st Earl Radnor, 1st Viscount Bodmin by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) in reward for having supported Charles' brother James II King England, Scotland and Ireland 1633-1701's future accession. Letitia Isabella Smythe Countess Radnor (age 49) by marriage Countess Radnor.

On 09 Dec 1679 Henry Brouncker 3rd Viscount Brounckner (age 52) was appointed Cofferer of the Household to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49).

In 1680 Archbishop Thomas Tenison (age 43) was presented by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49) to St Martin in the Fields [Map].

In 1680 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 16) was appointed 482nd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49).

In 1680 James Cecil 3rd Earl Salisbury (age 32) was appointed 483rd Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49).

In 1680 Charles Palatinate Simmern II Elector Palatine Rhine (age 28) was appointed 484th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49).

In 1681 [his illegitimate son] Charles Lennox 1st Duke Richmond (age 8) was appointed 485th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 50).

On 17 Nov 1681 Jean Chardin Traveller (age 38) was knighted at Whitehall Palace [Map] by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51). The same day Jean Chardin Traveller (age 38) and Esther Lardinière Peigné were married.

Before 1682 Dr Henry Dove was appointed Chaplain to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51).

In 1682 Foster Cunliffe was born. Some sources describe his godfather as King Charles II (age 51).

In 1682 William Hamilton Duke Hamilton (age 47) was appointed 486th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51).

On 09 Nov 1682 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 72) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52). Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde (age 67) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

On 02 Dec 1682 Henry Somerset 1st Duke Beaufort (age 53) was created 1st Duke Beaufort by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52). Mary Capell Duchess Beaufort (age 52) by marriage Duchess Beaufort.

In 1683 Andrew Snape Developer (age 39) wrote the treatise 'The Anatomy of an Horse'. Around this time he was Farrier to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52).

Rye House Plot

Before 21 Mar 1683 the Rye House Plot was an attempt to assassinate King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52) and his brother [his brother] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 49) as they passed Rye House, Hoddesdon when were returning from the races at Newmarket, Suffolk on 01 Apr 1683. In the event a fire at Newmarket, Suffolk on the 22 Mar 1683 the races were cancelled.

In 1685 Charles Gerard 2nd Earl Macclesfield (age 26) was sentenced to death for his part in the Rye House Plot but was subsequently pardoned by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54).

On 06 Apr 1683 [his illegitimate son] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland (age 17) was created 1st Duke Northumberland by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 52).

In 12 Sep 1683 [his brother-in-law] Alfonso VI King Portugal (age 40) died. His brother [his brother-in-law] Peter II King Portugal (age 34) succeeded King Portugal. Marie Françoise Élisabeth of Savoy Queen Consort of Portugal (age 37) by marriage Queen Consort Portugal for a second time albeit for three months only.

Frost Fair

In Dec 1683 the River Thames froze for a period of six weeks during which a great Frost Fair took place on the frozen surface.

The printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day (ten times a labourer's weekly wage). King Charles II (age 53) bought one.

In 1684 Charles Seymour 6th Duke Somerset (age 21) was appointed 488th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 53).

On 01 Jan 1684 Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland (age 30) was appointed 487th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 53).

On 05 Jan 1684 [his illegitimate son] Charles Beauclerk 1st Duke St Albans (age 13) was created 1st Duke St Albans by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 53).

On 10 Jan 1684 [his illegitimate son] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland (age 18) was appointed 489th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 53).

Death and Burial of Charles II

On 02 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) suffered a sudden apoplectic fit.

On 05 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of John Huddlestone (age 76).

On 06 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 54) died at 1145 in the morning at Whitehall Palace [Map] attended by Charles Scarburgh (age 69). His brother [his brother] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51) succeeded II King England Scotland and Ireland. Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) by marriage Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland. His brother King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 51), William Chiffinch (age 83), Richard Mason (age 52) and Archbishop William Sancroft (age 68) were present. Duke York merged with the Crown.

On 14 Feb 1685 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (deceased) was buried without any manner of pomp at Westminster Abbey [Map].

Roger Whitley's Diary. 03 Mar 1690. Monday, I went to the Penthouse, where was Examination of Words, wich Grosvenor sayd against the King,&c. then went to Talbotts to speake with Coney, &c. before he went to Dysert; then to the Common Hall to the Crown Moote, &c. then to Angells, where I & G.Mainwaring (age 47) dined; then to Jacksons with G.Mainwaring (age 47). Streete came to us, & Wright, Thomas Griffith, Crosse, a stranger (from Dublin),&c. I left them at 5, went home.

Roger Whitley's Diary. 08 Mar 1690. Satorday, Booth that informed against Grosvenor,came to complaine that he was threatened that they would have eares, &c. I told him, whilest he swore truth for the King he need not feare; I bid the Butler stand by,&c took notice what I sayd; I left him; at his going away he met me againe, neare the Dyatts; I still advised to speake truth & that would protect him; he told me that G;Harvey, though he appeared against: him; yet had given him up his bonds & discharged him, many yeares agoe; that when he went from him he went into the King Charles his service; that after Harvey had delivered his bonds & received 2 li to be frinds he had imployed him severall times to work under him; at last he would not pay him his wages; Booth sued him & recovered it; which had incensed Harvey against: him, &c. I still charged him to speake nothing but truth; soe he went presently back to Chester; I dined at home; in the evening came Bidolph & 3 servants: then Conen & 2 other men that came from London & had bin at Dysert;,&c. stayd all night.

Before 1691. John Riley (age 44). Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Death of Catherine of Braganza Dowager Queen Consort

On 31 Dec 1705 [his former wife] Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 67) died at the Bemposta Palace some twenty years after the death of her husband King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland. She was buried at Monastery of São Vicente de Fora.

After 1716. Monument in All Saints Church, Spelsbury [Map] to [his son-in-law] Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield (age 52) and [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield (age 51) (natural daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland).

On 17 Feb 1718 [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield (age 53) died. She a natural daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. After my gay season of 1842 and the innumerable balls and parties which my dear mother seemed to enjoy as much as I did, we went to Cowes, where we spent a delightful month. Mamma gave a ball for me at the King's House, a former residence of George IV., which we had taken that year; it is now pulled down and replaced by a hideous row of houses, which I regard as an eyesore when I remember the house where I spent so many happy days.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. In 1661, Charles II rewarded his father's faithful adherent by creating him Earl of Cardigan on April 22, but the old man did not live long to enjoy his new honours, for he died at Deene [Map] in 1663, aged eighty.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. As I was always fond of yachting I went for long cruises, usually accompanied by dear Maria Hill. We visited Trouville and Deauville, and in 1871, when I was at Trouville, the King, then Prince of Wales (age 27), came to tea with me on board the Sea Horse.

His Majesty honoured me with constant visits to my houses in town, Newmarket, and Cowes for many years, and I cannot write too enthusiastically about the pleasure I experienced from his agreeable visits and his kind friendship.

The King was a delightful companion, and he was most appreciative of my efforts to entertain him. We often discussed Art together, and those who say that a taste for High Art can only be acquired are quite wrong, for the King is a born artist.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. My hunting recollections would not be complete without including among them the occasion in '73 when I went to a meet at Belvoir [Map], and met his Majesty King Edward VII (age 31), then Prince of Wales, who was staying at the Castle. I was riding my famous horse "Dandy", who won the Billesdon Coplow Stakes at Croxton Park, and that morning I was much exercised in my mind about a proposal of marriage I had just received from Disraeli (age 68). My uncle Admiral Rous (age 77), had said to me, "My dear, you can't marry that d---d old Jew", but I had known Disraeli (age 68) all my life, and I liked him very well. He had, however, one drawback so far as I was concerned, and that was his breath - the ill odour of politics perhaps ! In ancient Rome a wife could divorce her husband if his breath were unpleasant, and had Dizzy (age 68) lived in those days his wife would have been able to divorce him without any difficulty. I was wondering whether I could possibly put up with this unfortunate attribute in a great man, when I met the King, who was graciously pleased to ride with me. In the course of our conversation I told him about Disraeli's (age 68) proposal and asked him whether he would advise me to accept it, but the King (age 31) said he did not think the marriage would be a very happy one.

I lunched with the Royal party at Belvoir Castle [Map], and as I rode home afterwards I felt well pleased that I had decided not to become the wife of a politician !

The Windsor Beauties are a set of portraits of the ladies of the court of King Charles II painted by Peter Lely.

Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton was appointed Master of the Robes to the Prince of Wales.

Fox Arms. Ermine, on a chevron azure three fox's heads and necks erased or on a canton of the second a fleur de lys of the third. The canton is an augmentation of honour to his paternal arms, granted out of the Royal Arms as a mark of esteem to him and his heirs forever, by King Charles II following the Restoration of the Monarchy. Source.

Grammont. The necessity of affairs had exposed Charles II from his earliest youth to the toils and perils of a bloody war. The fate of the [his father] king his father had left him for inheritance nothing but his misfortunes and disgraces. They overtook him everywhere; but it was not until he had struggled with his ill-fortune to the last extremity that he submitted to the decrees of Providence.

All those who were either great on account of their birth or their loyalty had followed him into exile; and all the young persons of the greatest distinction having afterwards joined him, composed a court worthy of a better fate.

Plenty and prosperity, which are thought to tend only to corrupt manners, found nothing to spoil in an indigent and wandering court. Necessity, on the contrary, which produces a thousand advantages whether we will or no, served them for education; and nothing was to be seen among them but an emulation in glory, politeness, and virtue.

With this little court, in such high esteem for merit, the King of England returned two years prior to the period we mention, to ascend a throne which, to all appearances, he was to fill as worthily as the most glorious of his predecessors. The magnificence displayed on thus occasion was renewed at his coronation.

The death of the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester, and of the [his sister] Princess Royal, which followed soon after, had interrupted the course of this splendour by a tedious mourning, which they quitted at last to prepare for the reception of the Infanta of Portugal.

Grammont. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.

Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.

The character of the [his brother] Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.

His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the [his sister] Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Grammont. Affairs wore quite a different appearance at his second voyage. The joy for the restoration of the royal family still appeared in all parts. The nation, fond of change and novelty, tasted the pleasure of a natural government, and seemed to breathe again after a long oppression. In short, the same people who, by a solemn abjuration, had excluded even the posterity of their lawful sovereign, exhausted themselves in festivals and rejoicings for his return.

Memoirs of Jean Francois Paul de Gondi Cardinal de Retz Book 1. The Prince de Conde was enraged at the declaration published by the Prince de Conti and M. de Longueville, which cast the Court, then at Saint Germain, into such a despair that the Cardinal was upon the point of retiring. I was abused there without mercy, as appeared by a letter sent to Madame de Longueville from the Princess, her mother, in which I read this sentence: "They rail here plentifully against the Coadjutor, whom yet I cannot forbear thanking for what he has done for the poor [his mother] Queen of England." This circumstance is very curious. You must know that a few days before the King left Paris I visited the Queen of England, whom I found in the apartment of her [his sister] daughter, since Madame d'Orléans. "You see, monsieur," said the Queen, "I come here to keep Henriette company; the poor child has lain in bed all day for want of a fire." The truth is, the Cardinal having stopped the Queen's pension six months, tradesmen were unwilling to give her credit, and there was not a chip of wood in the house. You may be sure I took care that a Princess of Great Britain should not be confined to her bed next day, for want of a fagot; and a few days after I exaggerated the scandal of this desertion, and the Parliament sent the Queen a present of 40,000 livres. Posterity will hardly believe that the Queen of England, granddaughter of [his grandfather] Henri the Great, wanted a fagot to light a fire in the month of January, in the Louvre, and at the Court of France. Note. daughter of Henry IV King France if he is referring to Henrietta Queen Consort of England.

There are many passages in history less monstrous than this which make us shudder, and this mean action of the Court made so little impression upon the minds of the generality of the people at that time that I have reflected a thousand times since that we are far more moved at the hearing of old stories than of those of the present time; we are not shocked at what we see with our own eyes, and I question whether our surprise would be as great as we imagine at the story of Caligula's promoting his horse to the dignity of a consul were he and his horse now living.

Grammont. The Duke of Ormond's sons and his nephews had been in the king's court during his exile, and were far from diminishing its lustre after his return. The Earl of Arran had a singular address in all kinds of exercises, played well at tennis and on the guitar, and was pretty successful in gallantry: his elder brother, the Earl of Ossory, was not so lively, but of the most liberal sentiments, and of great probity.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. My uncle, Admiral Rous, was a great personage at Newmarket, Suffolk, and I cannot describe him better than by quoting what has been written by a well-known sporting judge.

"There was the old Admiral himself, the King of Sportsmen and good fellows. Horse or man-o'-war, it was all one to him; and although sport may not be regarded as of the same importance with politics, who knows which has the more beneficial effect on man-kind .'* I would have backed Admiral Rous to save us from war, and if we drifted into it, to save us from the enemy against any men in the world".

Mrs. Rous was very dictatorial, and I remember one day after her death calling to inquire how my uncle was. "Indeed, my Lady", said the servant, "I may say the Admiral is a deal better since Mrs. Rous's death". I believe the same answer was given to all callers, and how angry my aunt would have been could she have heard it !

After I became a widow I often stayed with my uncle, and later on I bought the house associated with so many pleasant memories of the dear Admiral.

Lord Ross Divorce

The Lord Ross Divorce attracted considerable public attention since it highlighted the shortcomings of the divorce laws. Anne Pierrepont had clearly committed adultery since she was in London at the time of the conception whilst her husband, known by the courtesy title Lord Ross was at Belvoir Castle [Map]. The child would be considered legitimate since the parents were married; the law made no provision for adultery or divorce. He was forced to seek legislation in Parliament that made the child illegitimate and, therefore, unable to inherit his title. He was further compelled to seek legislation so that he could marry again so that he could produce an heir.

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland took a more than passing interest, it is believed, since divorce may have been an option since he and his wife Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England had not had any children in their eight years of marriage despite he having had eight illegitimate children.

Grammont. Curiosity to see a man equally famous for his crimes and his elevation, had once before induced the Chevalier de Grammont to visit England. Reasons of state assume great privileges. Whatever appears advantageous is lawful, and every thing that is necessary is honourable in politics. While the King of England sought the protection of Spain in the Low Countries, and that of the States-General in Holland, other powers sent splendid embassies to Cromwell.

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625

Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541

Royal Ancestors of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

Kings Wessex: Great x 17 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 14 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 20 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 15 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Robert "The Bruce" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 13 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Grand Son of Henry IV King France

Royal Descendants of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 3

Ancestors of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

GrandFather: King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandmother: Mary Queen of Scots Great Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Father: King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland Son of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland

Great x 1 Grandfather: Frederick II King Denmark 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Anne of Denmark Queen Consort Scotland England and Ireland 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Sophie Mecklenburg-Schwerin Queen Consort Denmark 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland Son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: Antoine King Navarre 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Henry IV King France 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Jeanne Albret III Queen Navarre 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Mother: Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Joanna of Austria Grand Duchess Tuscany 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England