Biography of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547

Paternal Family Tree: Tudor

Maternal Family Tree: Jeanne Sabran

Relatives Family Tree: King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1486 Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1499 Creation of Garter Knights

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1509 Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1510 Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

1511 Birth and Death of Prince Henry

1513 New Years Day Gift Giving

1513 Battle of the Spurs

1514 Creation and Re-creation of Peerages

1516 Birth of Princess Mary

1520 Marriage of William Carey and Mary Boleyn

1520 Field of the Cloth of Gold

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

1522 Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

1525 Creation of Garter Knights

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1526 Creation of Garter Knights

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1529 Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1533 Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1534 Treasons Act

1534 First Act of Succession

1534 First Act of Supremacy

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Henry VIII Tournament Accident

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

1536 Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

1537 Bigod's Rebellion

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Death of Jane Seymour

1538 Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

1538 Henry VIII Excommunicated

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Anne of Cleves Annulment

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1541 Creation of Garter Knights

1541 Executions

1541 Catherine Howard Trial

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1543 Parr Family Ennobled

1545 Christening of Henry Wriothesley

1546 Henry VIII Revises his Will

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1547 Funeral of King Henry VIII

1547 Coronation of Edward VI

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1557 Death of Anne of Cleves

On 03 Nov 1456 [his grandfather] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 26) died of plague at Carmarthen Castle [Map] leaving his twelve year old wife [his grandmother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 13) pregnant with their child [his father] Henry Tudor, the future King Henry VII. His son Henry Tudor succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his grandfather] King Edward of that name the Fourth (age 40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, [his uncle] Edward the Prince (age 12), thirteen years of age; [his uncle] Richard Duke of York (age 9), two years younger; [his mother] Elizabeth (age 17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto [his father] King Henry the Seventh (age 26), and mother unto the Eighth; [his aunt] Cecily (age 14) not so fortunate as fair; [his aunt] Brigette (age 2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford [Map], a house of cloistered Nuns; [his aunt] Anne (age 7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (age 10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and [his aunt] Katherine (age 3), who long time tossed in either fortune-sometime in wealth, often in adversity-at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed [his father] Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.

Marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth York

On 18 Jan 1486 [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) and [his mother] Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (age 19) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map]. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of King Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 49). He the son of Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 42). They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Letters and Papers 1529. After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. Catharine of Arragon.

A set of depositions as to Catharine's marriage with Prince Arthur.

1. of George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), seneschal of the King's household, at the Coldherbar, on Monday, 28 June 1529. Is 59 years of age. Was present at the marriage of [his father] Henry VII. at Westminster, and at the creation of Arthur prince of Wales and Henry Duke of York (age 38). They were always considered as brothers, and he never heard it contradicted. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St. Paul's, in Nov. 17 Henry VII. 1521 (sic). Believes that Arthur was then 14 or more. Saw the Queen [his mother] Elizabeth and him a month after his birth, at Winchester [Map], in 2 Henry VII. Believes that Catharine was more than 14. Thinks that Arthur must have been nearer 15 than 14. At night, with the Lord of Oxford (age 58) and others, conducted Prince Arthur to the lady [his wife] Catharine's (age 43) bedchamber, and left him there. Supposes that the Prince consummated the marriage,as he did so, being only 15 years when he was married. They were always considered lawfully married during the life of Prince Arthur. Saw the funeral of Prince Arthur at Worcester, and the marriage of the King and Queen at Greenwich. Cannot answer the 6th and 7th articles, but leaves them to the laws. Never heard what is contained in the 8th article. As to the 9th, knows that the King and Queen cohabited and treated each other as husband and wife, but cannot say whether lawfully or not. Can say nothing from his own knowledge as to the 10th, 11th, and 12th articles. Has made this deposition without being instructed or corrupted in any way, only for the sake of truth.

Vit. B. XII. 80. B. M.

2. of Thomas marquis of Dorset (age 52). Is 52 years of age. The 1st and 2nd articles contain the truth. Was present at the baptism of Arthur and Henry, the former at Winchester, and the latter at Greenwich. Was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St Paul's, on a Sunday in Nov. 1501, 17 Henry VII. Believes Arthur was about 15, for he has seen in the book in which are written the births of the King's children that he was born 20 Sept. 1486. Was present when Prince Arthur went to bed after his marriage, where the lady Catharine (age 43) lay under the coverlet, "as the manner is of Queens in that behalf." Thinks that he used the princess as his wife, for he was of a good and sanguine complexion, and they were commonly reputed as man and wife during Prince Arthur's life. As to the 5th article, he can depose nothing to the first part, as he was then prisoner at Calais; but the remainder, touching cohabitation and reputation, is true. Can say nothing to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. The 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th contain the truth, as he believes.

Vit. B. XII. 85. B. M.

3. of Sir Antony Willoughby. Has lived 15 years in Hampshire, for 12 years previously in Wiltshire. Was five years in the service of Prince Arthur, for five years before that in the service of the Bishop of Durham, and before that time in his father's household. Believes the 1st and 2nd articles to be true. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of Prince Arthur and lady Catharine. By favor of his father, Lord Broke, steward of the King's household, was present when Prince Arthur went to bed on his marriage night in the palace of the Bishop of London. In the morning the prince, in the presence of Mores St. John, Mr. Cromer, Mr. William Woddall, Mr. Griffith Rice, and others, said to him, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain;" and afterward said openly, "Masters, it is good pastime to have a wife." He, therefore, supposes that the marriage was consummated; and he heard that they lay together the Shrovetide following at Ludlow.

Knows that they lived together as man and wife during the remainder of the Prince's life.

Believes the 5th article to be true. Can depose nothing to the 6th, 7th and 8th. Believes the 9th, 10th and 11th to be true. The 12th contains law; to which he is not bound to reply. To the second additional interrogatory he replies, that it contains the truth, for he has been present twenty times at the solemnization of marriage, and the said form of words is always used.

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

On 28 Jun 1491 Henry VIII was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 28 Jun 1491. This yeare, in June,f Kinge Henrie the Eightg was borne at Greenewich [Map], which was second sonne to King Henry the VIIth (age 34), named Duke of Yorke.

Note f. June 28th, 1491.

Note g. This expression shows that this portion of the Chronicle was written after the accession of Henry VIII.

After 28 Jun 1491 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland was baptised by Bishop Richard Foxe (age 43) at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map].

In 1493 Edmund Compton died. His son William Compton (age 11) became as ward of [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 35) who appointed him Page to Prince Henry (age 1) to whom he became a close friend.

In 1494 Henry VIII (age 2) was created 1st Duke York.

On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke, fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son [his grandfather] King Edward the iiij th, the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in Fstamfordhis tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay [Map], a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the [his father] King (age 38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (age 38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the [his mother] Quene (age 29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the [his grandmother] Kinges moder (age 51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord [his brother] Prince (age 8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (age 3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay [Map] in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond, than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damask browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare [Map] a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion [Map] two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Brigitte (age 14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Cecill (age 26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Anne (age 19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter [his aunt] Kateryn (age 15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (age 50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 50).

Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (age 24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son Humfrey (age 21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son William (age 17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion, a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede [Map] unto the colege of Fodringhey [Map]. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay [Map] for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (age 63), Sir Reignolde Bray (age 55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede [Map] the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

1499 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1499 [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 41) created a number of Garter Knights ...

243rd Edward Poynings (age 40).

244th John King Denmark Norway and Sweden (age 43).

245th Gilbert Talbot (age 47).

246th King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 7).

247th Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 20).

248th Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 20).

249th Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester (age 39). The date sometimes given as 1496?

250th Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 28).

251st Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu.

252nd Thomas Lovell.

253rd Richard Pole (age 37).

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

On 14 Nov 1501 [his brother] Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and [his future wife] Catherine of Aragon (age 15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Henry Deane assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (age 51) and a further eighteen bishops. She wore a white satin dress with a farthingale and over her head wore a veil of fine silk trimmed with gold and pearls. She would, eight years later, marry his younger brother King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 10) - see Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 49) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 50). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 44) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 35). They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Prince Henry (age 10) who escorted her up the aisle and gave her away.

[his aunt] Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 24) was Chief Answerer.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 18) and Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) attended.

Thomas Englefield was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Immediately after their marriage Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and Catherine of Aragon (age 15) resided at Tickenhill Manor, Bewdley [Map] for a month. Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow, Shropshire [Map].

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

On 02 Feb 1503 [his sister] Katherine Tudor was born to [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 46) and [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36) at the Tower of London [Map]. She died eight days later on 10 Feb 1503.

On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36) died from childbirth.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 Henry VIII (age 12) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 24) was created Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson (age 54) was knighted.

Grafton's Chronicle. 18 Feb 1504. In which yeare the eighteenth day of February, the [his father] King (age 47) at his Palace of Westminster, with all solemnity created his only son Henry Prince of Wales (age 12), Earl of Chester, &c. which noble youngling succeded his father, not only in the inheritance and regality, but also was to him equal in honour, fame, learning and policy.

In 1509 William Compton (age 27) was appointed Groom of the Stool to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 17).

Letters and Papers 1509. Apr 1509. Will of [his father] Henry VII (age 52):

At his manor of Richmond, Surrey [Map] March 24 Henry VII., the King (age 52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.

Desires to be buried at Westminster [Map], where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame Catharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel [Map] which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, £5,000, by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.

His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all £250 and shall distribute 2,£000 in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,£250 with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.

His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (age 59), Richard bp of Winchester (age 61), the bps of London and Rochester (age 39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (age 66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (age 49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (age 44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thomas Lovell, Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (age 59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (age 47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.

His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.

Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.

For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.

Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,£000 upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark [Map], and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.

To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the Prince (age 17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Henry VII. for the fulfilment of his will.

Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.

Bequest of a dote of 50,£000 for the marriage of [his sister] Lady Mary (age 13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (age 9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Henry VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the Prince (age 17), his Council and our said executors.".

Death of Henry VII

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 21 Apr 1509. This yeare, in Aprill, died [his father] King Henry the Vllth (age 52) at Richmond [Map] and his Sonne King Henry the VIII (age 17) was proclaymed Kinge on St Georges dayeg 1508 [1509], in the same moneth.

Note g. We should here read St George's Eve, 22nd April, 1509, from which day Henry Vlll reckoned his regnal years. Stow, however, says that Henry was not proclaimed till the 24th.

On 21 Apr 1509 [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace [Map]. His son Henry VIII  (age 17) succeeded VIII King England. Duke York and Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley (age 21), who wasn't present, made a drawing of the death of [his father] Henry VII (deceased). The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:

Bishop Richard Foxe (age 61).

Two tonsured clerics.

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 22).

Richard Weston of Sutton Place (age 44).

Richard Clement of Ingham Mote (age 27).

Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey.

John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex.

Physician holding urine bottle.

William Tyler.

Hugh Denys.

William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) closing the King's eyes. There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.

The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy argent & gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagenet with white border ie Holland 2&3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville (age 41) daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu. It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19). William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 19) was the childhood companion of Henry VIII (age 17).

Physician holding urine bottle.

Richard Weston of Sutton Place: He and Anne Sandys were married. In 1465 he was born. In 1541 he died.

Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey: From 1486 he was appointed Governor of Jersey. In May 1513 he died in Bermondsey Abbey.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 11 Jun 1509, one month after the death of his father, Henry VIII (age 17) and Catherine of Aragon (age 23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map]. She had, eight years before, married his older brother Prince Arthur Tudor - see Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 57) and Isabella Queen Castile. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Letters and Papers 1509. 11 Jun 1509. 41. Catharine of Aragon. Acknowledgment by Henry VIII (age 17). of receipt from Gutierre Gomez de Fuen Salida, comendator of La Membrilla, ambassador of Ferdinand King of Aragon, &c., of 50,000 crowns of gold, in part payment of 100,000 crowns for dowry of [his wife] Catharine Queen of England (age 23). S.B. Undated (now filed with 11 June). [162.]

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 03 Jun 1509. And in June followinge the King was married to [his former wife] Queene Katherin, late wife of his brotherh Prince Arthure,

Note h. At Greenwich, on Trinity Sunday, June the 3rd.[Note. Other sources say at 11 Jun 1509?]

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 23 Jun 1509 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 17) created Knights of the Bath ...

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 26)

Henry Scrope 7th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 27)

George Fitzhugh 7th Baron Fitzhugh (age 23)

William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 31)

Henry Daubeney 1st Earl Bridgewater (age 15)

Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 39)

Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland (age 16)

Maurice Berkeley 4th Baron Berkeley (age 42)

Thomas Knyvet (age 24)

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 42)

Thomas Parr (age 26)

[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 32)

Richard Wentworth 5th Baron Despencer (age 29)

Henry Ughtred 6th Baron Ughtred

Francis Cheney (age 28)

Henry Wyatt (age 49)

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 22)

Sir Thomas Metham of Metham, Yorkshire

Sir Thomas Bedingfield

John Shelton (age 32)

Either Giles Alington (age 26) or his son Giles Alington (age 10).

Sir John Trevanion

Sir William Crowmer

Sir John Heydon of Baconsthorpe in Norfolk

Goddard Oxenbridge

Henry Sacheverell (age 34).

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 24 Jun 1509... and were both [King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 17) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England (age 23)] crowned on Midsommer day.i

Note i. For the account of Henry's coronation with his queen, Kadiarine, see MS. Harleian. 169, Art 7.

On 24 Jun 1509 Henry VIII (age 17) was crowned VIII King England at Westminster Abbey [Map]. [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (age 23) was crowned Queen Consort England.

Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 31), [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 32) and Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 66) attended. Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland (age 16) was knighted. Robert Dymoke (age 48) attended as the Kings's Champion. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 26) was created Knight of the Bath and served as Lord Sewer.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 24 Jun 1509. The coronationa of Kinge Henrie the Eight (age 17), which was the 24th of June, A.D. 1509.

Note a. In consequence of the erroneous idea that the Kings of England always ascended the throne immediately on the decease of the preceding sovereign, some authorities make the regnal years of Henry VIII. to commence on the 21st April, 1509, the day of his father's decease, but it is clearly established, as shown by Sir Harris Nicolas, that they ought to be computed from the day following, viz. April 22. The years in the text, howerer, are computed from Lord Mayor's day.

Before Oct 1509 Richard Empson (age 59) was imprisoned by Henry VIII (age 18) for constructive treason.

Around 1510 John Gostwick (age 30) was appointed Gentleman Usher to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 18).

In 1510 William Compton (age 28) was involved in a public row with Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 31) over his affair with the Duke's married sister Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon (age 27). Some speculate that she, Anne (age 27), was having an affair with King Henry VIII's (age 18) with Compton (age 28) acting as go-between. Her husband George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 23) sent her to convent. William Compton (age 28) took the sacrament to prove that he had not committed adultery. Some have speculated that her affair with Henry VIII (age 18) continued after 1510 and that he, Henry, may be the father of her son Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon especially in view her being second in the list of gifts given in the 1513 New Years Day Gift Giving with a gift of a cup with a gilt cover weighing 30¾ oz (only second to the Archbishop of Canterbury).

Execution of Richard Empson and Edmund Dudley

On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley (age 48) and Richard Empson (age 60) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for constructive treason for having carried out [his father] King Henry VII's rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.

Birth and Death of Prince Henry

On 01 Jan 1511 [his son] Prince Henry Duke Cornwall was born to Henry VIII (age 19) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (age 25) at Richmond Palace [Map]. He was appointed Duke Cornwall at birth.

On 22 Feb 1511 Prince Henry Duke Cornwall died. He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map].

In Feb 1511 Henry VIII (age 19) celebrated the birth of his son by holding a magnificent tournament at Westminster [Map]. The challengers included Henry VIII (age 19) who fought as Cuere Loyall, Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 15) as Bon Vouloir, Edward Neville (age 40) as Joyeulx Penser, Thomas Knyvet (age 26) as Valiant Desyr and Thomas Tyrrell.

On Day 1 of the tournament the Answerers included: William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 28), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 16), Thomas Cheney (age 26), Richard Blount and Robert Morton.

On Day 2 of the tournament the Answerers included: Richard Tempest of Bracewell (age 31), Thomas Lucy, Henry Guildford (age 22), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 27), [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 34), Richard Grey, Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane (age 32), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 38), Edmund Howard (age 33) and Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire (age 32).

1513 New Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1513 King Henry VIII (age 21) made New Years gifts as described in the Calendar Rolls.

Battle of the Spurs

On 16 Aug 1513 Henry VIII (age 22) fought at Thérouanne [Map] during the Battle of the Spurs.

Henry's army included George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) (commanded), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 36), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 43), Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu, John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and Anthony Wingfield (age 26). John "Tilbury Jack" Arundell (age 18), William Compton (age 31), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 48) and William Hussey (age 41) was knighted by [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland. Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 56) and Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 46) was created Knight Banneret.

Louis I d'Orléans Duc de Longueville 1480-1516 was captured.

Arthur Hopton (age 24) was knighted for his bravery.

On 25 Sep 1513 John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 42) was knighted by Henry VIII (age 22) at Tournai [Map].

On 25 Dec 1513 John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex was knighted by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 22).

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 03 Jan 1514. A Parlement kept at Westminster,c where was graunted to the King (age 22) of all men's goodes 6d. in the pownde.

Creation and Re-creation of Peerages

On 01 Feb 1514 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 22) created and re-created two peerages ....

Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester (age 54) was created 1st Earl Worcester.

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 71) was restored 2nd Duke Norfolk probably for having secured victory at the Battle of Flodden after which his arms were augmented with an inescutcheon bearing the lion of Scotland pierced through the mouth with an arrow. Some documentation describes this as a creation rather than restoration although he is always referred to as 2nd. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 37) by marriage Duchess Norfolk

In 1515 William Coffin (age 20) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 23).

Around 1515 Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 17) became the mistress of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 23). Their relationship continued until around 1520, possibly longer, when she was replaced by [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 16).

In 1516 Edward Neville (age 45) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 24).

In 1516 Edward Neville (age 45) was appointed Master of the Hounds to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 24).

Birth of Princess Mary

On 18 Feb 1516 [his daughter] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 24) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (age 30) at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Margaret Bourchier 1st Baroness Bryan (age 48) was created 1st Baron Bryan and appointed the child's governess. [his aunt] Catherine York Countess Devon (age 36) was her godmother.

On 15 Jun 1519 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset was born illegitimately to Henry VIII (age 27) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 21) at Augustinian Priory of St Lawrence Ingatestone Blackmore [Map].

Marriage of William Carey and Mary Boleyn

On 04 Feb 1520 William Carey (age 20) and [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 21) were married. Around the time, possibly shortly after, Mary Boleyn (age 21) became mistress to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 28) leading to speculation one or both of her children were fathered by Henry (age 28). She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 43) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 40). He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Field of the Cloth of Gold

In Jun 1520 Henry VIII (age 28) hosted Field of the Cloth of Gold at Balinghem [Map].

Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 42) carried the Sword of State.

Bishop John Stokesley (age 45) attended as Henry VIII's chaplain.

Edmund Braye 1st Baron Braye (age 36), Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 42), Anthony Poyntz (age 40), William Coffin (age 25), William "Great" Courtenay (age 43), Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 37), William Paston (age 41), William Denys (age 50), Richard Cecil (age 25), William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 37), Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 22), John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 40), Henry Guildford (age 31), Marmaduke Constable (age 40), William Compton (age 38), William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 42), Thomas Cheney (age 35), Henry Willoughby (age 69), John Rodney (age 59), John Marney 2nd Baron Marney (age 36), William Sidney (age 38), John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 20), John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 49), Edmund Walsingham (age 40), William Skeffington (age 55) and Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West (age 63) attended.

William Carey (age 20) jousted.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 50) organised.

Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 15) attended.

Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 50), Robert Willoughby 2nd Baron Willoughby 10th Baron Latimer (age 48), Anthony Wingfield (age 33), William Scott (age 61), Thomas Wriothesley (age 32), Bishop Thomas Ruthall (age 48), Margaret Dymoke (age 20) and Edward Chamberlayne (age 36) were present.

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jul 1520. R.O. 4534. [his illegitimate son] Henry Duke of Richmond (age 1) to Henry VIII (age 29).

I have received your letters and the goodly apparel you sent me by Master Magnus, director of my council. According to the purport of your said letters, I shall apply myself to learning, and proceed in virtue. Sheriffhutton [Map], 20 July.

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

On 17 May 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map] for no specific reason other than his having a significant amount of Plantagenet blood and was, therefore, considered a threat by Henry VIII (age 29). He was posthumously attainted by Act of Parliament on 31 July 1523, disinheriting his children. He was buried at St Peter's Church, Britford [Map]. Duke of Buckingham, Earl Stafford and Baron Stafford extinct.

His father Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham had been executed for his part in Buckingham's Rebellion, his great-grandfather Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham was killed at the 1460 Battle of Northampton, and his great-great grand-father was killed at the Battle of Shrewsbury, not forgetting his great-uncle Henry Stafford who was killed at the Battle of Barnet and his daughter Margaret Stafford (age 10) who was burned at the stake for her part in Bigod's Rebellion.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 02 Feb 1522. The second day of February, the King (age 30) being at Greenwich, came thither the Cardinal with a Legation from Leo bishop of Rome, and also his ambassador, on who waited many a nobleman, the King met them at his chamber door welcoming them as though they had both come from Rome. Then said the Cardinal, high and victorious King it hath pleased our Lord God to indue your grace with a great multitude of manifold graces as a King elect in favour of the high heaven, and so appears presently by your noble person, so formed and figured in shape and stature with force and pulchritude, which signifies the present pleasure of our Lord God wrought in your noble grace. And further he praised his wisdom, prudence and learning, with many other goodly words in the praise of his most noble grace. And finally, the Cardinal declared how the said Bishop of Rome had sent his highness an Act in Bull under lead, declaring therein his grace to be the Defender of the Christian Faith, and his successors for evermore.

And when his grace had received the said Bull and caused it to be read and published, he went to his chapel to hear Mass accompanied with many nobles of his realm and also with Ambassadors of sundry princes, the Cardinal being requested to sing masse, the Erle of Essex brought the Bason with water, the Duke of Suffolk (age 38) gave the assay, the Duke of Norfolk (age 49) held the towel, and so preceded to Masse. And that done gave to all them that heard the masse clean remission and blessed the King and the Queen and all the people: then was the Bull eftsoons declared, and trumpets blew, the shalmes and saggebuttes played in honour of the King’s new style. Thus, his highness went to dinner in the midst whereof the King of Heralds and his company began the larges, crying Henricus dei gratia rex Anglie, and Francie, defensor fidei; and dominus Hibernie thus ended the dinner, with much abundance of vittels and wine, to all manner of people.

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

On 04 Mar 1522, Shrove Tuesday, at Cardinal Wolsey's York Place, a pageant known as Chateau Vert was performed. Believed to be the first public appearance of [his future wife] Anne Bolyen (age 21) since her return from the French Court, and the first time King Henry VIII (age 30) had seen her since her childhood. The pageant was part of the Shrovetide celebrations which began on 1st March 1522 and which also celebrated the negotiations between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry VIII (age 30) for a joint attack on France, which were to be sealed by the marriage of Charles V (age 22) and [his daughter] Princess Mary (age 6), Henry's daughter.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 04 Mar 1522. On Shrove Tuesday at night, the said Cardinal to the King and Ambassadors made another supper, and after supper they came into a great chamber hanged with Arras, and there was a clothe of estate, and many branches, and on every branch thirty-two torchettes of wax, and in the nether end of the same chamber was a castle, in which was a principal Tower, in which was a cresset burning: and two other less Towers stood on every side, warded and embattailed, and on every Tower was a banner, one banner was of three rent hearts, the other was a ladies hand gripping a man’s heart, the third banner was a ladies hand turning a man’s heart: this castle was kept with ladies of strange names, the first [his sister] Beautie (age 32), the second Honor (age 19), the third [his future wife] Perseveraunce (age 21), the fourth [his future sister-in-law] Kyndnes (age 23), the fifth Constance (age 17), the sixte Bounty, the seventh Mercy, and the eight Pity: these eight ladies had Milan gowns of white satin, every Lady had her name embroidered with gold, on their heads cauls, and Milan bonnets of gold, with jewels. Underneath the base fortress of the castle were other eight ladies, whose names were, Danger, Disdain, Jealousy, Unkindness, Scorn, Malebouche, Strangeness, these ladies were tired [attired] like to women of India. Then entered eight lords in clothe of gold caps and all, and great mantel cloaks of blue satin, these lords were named. Amorous, Nobleness, Youth, Attendance, Loyalty, Pleasure, Gentleness, and Liberty, the King (age 30) was chief of this company, this company was led by one all in crimson satin with burning flames of gold, called Ardent Desire which so moved the Ladies to give over the Castle, but Scorne and Disdain said they would hold the place, then Desire said the ladies should be won and came and encouraged the knights, then the lords ran to the castle, (at which time without was shot a great peal of guns) and the ladies defended the castle with rose water and comfits and the lords threw in dates and oranges, and other fruits made for pleasure but at the last the place was won, but Lady Scorn and her company stubbornly defended them with bows and balls, till they were driven out of the place and fled. Then the lords took the ladies of honour as prisoners by the hands, and brought them down, and danced together very pleasantly, which much pleased the strangers, and when they had danced their fill then all these dis-visored themselves and were known: and then was there a costly banquet, and when all was done, the strangers took their leave of the King and the Cardinal and so departed into Flanders, giving to the King much commendation.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 23 Apr 1522. THE King (age 30) this yere kept the day of S. George with great solemnity, at his manor of Richemond [Map], where were elected to the Order of the Garter, Don Ferdinando (age 19) brother to the Emperor (age 22), and Archduke of Austria, and Sir Richard Wingfield (age 53) knight by the Emperor’s means, to the which the Emperor had given two hundred pound pension, out of the house of Burgundy, which Sir Edward Poynings before had of the Emperors gift.

Henry VIII Meeting with Charles V Holy Roman Emperor

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 27 May 1522. The King of England (age 30) was come to Canterbury [Map], the twenty-seventh day of May, and received by the Archbishop (age 72): and hearing of the Emperors arrival, with a small company on the Wednesday, being the Ascension eve, he rode to Dover, and with much joy and gladness the Emperor (age 22) and he met, and there tarried the Ascension Day, and on Friday, the King brought the Emperor aboard on his new ship, called the Henry Grace Dieu, a ship of fifteen hundred tons and rowed about to all his great ships, which then lay in Dover road. The Emperor and his lords, much praised the making of the ships, and especially the artillery, they said, they never saw ships so armed.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 03 Jun 1522. The Wednesday, the more to do the Emperor pleasure, was prepared a Jousts Royal. On the one part was the King, the Earl of Devonshire (age 26) and ten more companions, all mounted on horseback, their apparel and bards, were of rich Cloth of gold, embroidered with silver letters, very rich, with great plumes on their heads. This company took the field, and rode about the tilt: then entered the Duke of Suffolk (age 38), and the Marquess of Dorset (age 44), and ten with them barded, and their apparel was russet velvet, embroidered with sundry knots, and culpins [?] of gold. The Emperor and the [his wife] Queen (age 36), with all the nobles stood in the gallery, to behold the doing. The King (age 30) ran at the Duke of Suffolk (age 38) eight courses, and at every course brake his spere. Then every man ran his courses and that done, all ran together violent, as fast as they could discharge, and when the spears appointed were broken, then they disarmed and went to supper. After supper, the Emperor beheld the ladies dances, and suddenly came to the chamber, six noble men, apparelled in crimson velvet and cloth of gold, and a mantel of taffeta, rolled about their bodies, and hoods and bonnets of cloth of gold, on their heads, and velvet buskins on their legs. These maskers entered and danced a great while with the ladies, and suddenly entered six other maskers with drumslades [drums], apparelled in long gowns, and hoods of cloth of gold, of which number was the King, the Duke of Suffolk (age 38), the Prince of Orange, the Count of Nassau, the Count of Naveray, and Monsieur Egmont. When these maskers were entered, the other avoided, and then they took ladies and danced, so that the strangers much praised them and when the time came, every person departed to their lodging.

On 18 Jun 1522 Gilbert Tailboys 1st Baron Tailboys (age 24) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 24) were married. She the former mistress of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 27) had given given birth to Henry's illegitimate son [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset in Jun 1519. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Around 1524 Catherine Carey was born to William Carey (age 24) and [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 25). There is speculation among historians that her father may actually have been Henry VIII (age 32) who was known to have had an affair with Mary Boleyn (age 25) although the precise dates are unknown.

Around 1525 [his future brother-in-law] George Boleyn (age 22) and Jane Parker (age 20) were married. He the son of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45).

1525 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1525, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1525, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) created four new Knights of the Garter:

285th. William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 49).

286th. Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 33).

287th. [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 5).

288th. Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 26).

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In 1525 William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 35) was appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. [his future mother-in-law] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

Around 18 Jun 1525 Henry Clifford 2nd Earl of Cumberland (age 8) and Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 6) were married at Bridewell Palace [Map]. King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33) was present. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 29). He the son of Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland (age 32) and Margaret Percy Baroness Clifford (age 25). They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Before 1526 Richard Jerningham was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34).

by 1526 John Carey (age 35) was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34).

In 1526 William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 56) was appointed Lord Chamberlain of the Household to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34).

1526 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1526, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1526, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 34) created four new Knights of the Garter:

289th. William Blount 4th Baron Mountjoy (age 48).

290th. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 36).

291st. Henry Guildford (age 37).

292nd. King Francis I of France (age 31).

On 04 Mar 1526 Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon was born to William Carey (age 26) and [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 27). There is speculation among historians that his father may actually have been Henry VIII (age 34) who was known to have had an affair with Mary Boleyn (age 27) although the precise dates are unknown.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1527. Love Letters VIII. 3219. Henry VIII (age 36) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 26).

Though it is not for a gentleman to take his lady in the place of a servant, nevertheless, according to your desire, I shall willingly grant it if thereby I may find you less ungrateful in the place chosen by yourself than you have been in the place given you by me; thanking you most heartily that you are pleased still to have some remembrance of me.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1527. Love Letters IV. 3218. Henry VIII (age 36) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 26).

I have been in great agony about the contents of your letters, not knowing whether to construe them to my disadvantage "comme en des aucunes autres," or to my advantage. I beg to know expressly your intention touching the love between us. Necessity compels me to obtain this answer, having been more than a year wounded by the dart of love, and not yet sure whether I shall fail or find a place in your affection. This has prevented me naming you my mistress; for if you love me with no more than ordinary love, the name is not appropriate to you, for it denotes a singularity far from the common. But if it please you to do the office of a true, loyal mistress, and give yourself, body and heart, to me, who have been and mean to be your loyal servant, I promise you not only the name, but that I shall make you my sole mistress, remove all others from my affection, and serve you only. Give me a full answer on which I can rely; and if you do not like to answer by letter, appoint some place where I can have it by word of mouth.

Letters and Papers 1527. Aug 1527. Love Letters V. 3325. Henry VIII (age 36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 26).

For a present so beautiful that nothing could be more so I thank you most heartily, not only for the splendid diamond and the ship in which the solitary damsel is tossed about, but also for the pretty interpretation and too humble submission made by your benignity. I should have found it difficult to merit this but for your humanity and favor, which I have sought and will seek to preserve by every kindness possible to me; and this is my firm intention and hope, according to the motto, Aut illic aut nullibi. Your letter, and the demonstrations of your affection, are so cordial that they bind me to honor, love and serve you. I desire also, if at any time I have offended you, that you will give me the same absolution that you ask, assuring you that henceforth my heart shall be devoted to you only. I wish my body also could be. God can do it if he pleases, to whom I pray once a day that it may be, and hope at length to be heard. "Escripte de la main du secretaire qui en ceur, corps et volonte est vostre loiall et plus assure serviteure.

Letters and Papers 1527. Aug 1527. Love Letters II. 3326. Henry VIII (age 36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 26).

The time seems so long since I heard of your good health and of you, that I send the bearer to be better ascertained of your health and your purpose; for since my last parting from you I have been told you have quite given up the intention of coming to court, either with your mother or otherwise. If so, I cannot wonder sufficiently; for I have committed no offence against you, and it is very little return for the great love I bear you to deny me the presence of the woman I esteem most of all the world. If you love me as I hope you do, our separation should be painful to you. I trust your absence is not wilful on your part; for if so, I can but lament my ill fortune, and by degrees abate my great folly.

Before 1528 Thomas Morgan (age 46) was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 36).

In 1528 Elizabeth "Holy Maid of Kent" Barton (age 22) held a private meeting with Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 54) and with King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 36) thereafter. She also subsequently met with Thomas More (age 49). Thereafter, with the advent of Henry's having his marriage annulled and his supporting religious reform Barton prophesised that if Henry remarried, he would die within a few months.

Letters and Papers 1528. Feb 1528. Love Letters XIV. 3990. Henry VIII (age 36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The bearer and his fellow are dispatched with as many things to compass our matter and bring it to pass as wit could imagine; which being accomplished by their diligence, I trust you and I will shortly have our desired end. This would be more to my heart's ease and quietness of my mind than anything in the world. I assure you no time shall be lost, for ultra posse non est esse. "Keep him not too long with you, but desire him, for your sake, to make the more speed; for the sooner we shall have word from him, the sooner shall our matter come to pass. And thus, upon trust of your short repair to London, I make an end of my letter, mine own sweetheart. Written with the hand of him which desireth as much to be yours as you do to have him."

On 18 Feb 1528 Piers "Red" Butler 8th Earl Ormonde 1st Earl Ossory (age 61) resigned their claim to the Ormonde inheritance since King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 36) wanted the titles for [his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51) to whom they were subsequently granted.

On 01 Mar 1528 Henry VIII (age 36) sold the wardship of Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 8) to Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 44) who subsequently married her.

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. VII. 77. 4355. Gardiner (age 45) to Henry VIII (age 36).

Has at last conduced to the setting forward of Campeggio (age 53), as will appear by the Cardinal's letters sent to Fox. Thinks the King will be satisfied with their services. It is a great heaviness to them to be accused of want of diligence and sincerity. After many altercations and promises made to the Pope, he has consented at last to send the commission by Campeggio (age 53). We urged the Pope to express the matter in special terms, but could not prevail with him in consequence of the difficulty. He said you would understand his meaning by the words, "inventuri sumus aliquam formam." I may be deceived, but I think the Pope means well. If I thought otherwise I would certainly tell the truth, for your Majesty is templum fidei et veritatis unicum in orbe relictum. Your Majesty will now understand how much the words spoken by you to Tuke do prick me. Apologises for his rude writing. Viterbo, 11 June.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 16 Jun 1528. Love Letters XII. 4383. Henry VIII (age 36) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

There came to me in the night the most afflicting news possible. I have to grieve for three causes: first, to hear of my mistress's (age 27) sickness, whose health I desire as my own, and would willingly bear the half of yours to cure you; secondly, because I fear to suffer yet longer that absence which has already given me so much pain, God deliver me from such an importunate rebel!; thirdly, because the physician I trust most is at present absent when he could do me the greatest pleasure. However, in his absence, I send you the second, praying God he may soon make you well, and I shall love him the better. I beseech you to be governed by his advice, and then I hope to see you soon again!

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. Henry VIII (age 36). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham [Map], two ushers, two valets de chambre, your [his future brother-in-law] brother (age 25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, Hertfordshire [Map], where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:-few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. Love Letters IX. 4410. Henry VIII (age 36) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your [his future sister-in-law] sister's (age 29) matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, whatsoever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that [his future father-in-law] he2 must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours, &c.

Note 1. So in the Harl. Misc. copy, which seems there to give the right reading. The Pamphleteer reads: "that we shall not have poure to dyslave Adam."

Note 2. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51).

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 303. 4438. Hennege to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55).

The King (age 37) begs you to be of good comfort, and do as he does. He is sorry that you are so far off, and thinks that if you were at St. Alban's [Map] you might every hour hear the one of the other, and his physicians attend upon you, should anything happen. News is come of the death of Sir William Compton (age 46). Suits are made for his offices, and the King wishes to have a bill of them. All are in good health at the Court, and they that sickened on Sunday night are recovered. The King (age 37) is merry, and pleased with your "mynone house" here. Tuesday.

P.S.-I will not ask for any of those offices for myself, considering the little time I have been in the King's service. The King sent for Mr. Herytage today, to make a new window in your closet, because it is so little.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. I. 304. 4439. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55) to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 37).

Is glad the King has escaped the plague. Has just heard of the death of Sir William Compton (age 46), and advises the King to stay the distribution of his offices for a time. Is sorry to be so far away from the King, but will at any time attend him with one servant and a page to do service in the King's chamber. Hampton Court [Map], 30 June. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. 4440. The [his future wife] young lady (age 27) is still with her father. The King (age 37) keeps moving about for fear of the plague. Many of his people have died of it in three or four hours. of those you know there are only Poowits (deceased), Carey (deceased) and Cotton (age 46) dead; but Feuguillem, the marquis [Dorset] (age 51), my Lord William, Bron (Brown), Careu, Bryan [Tuke], who is now of the Chamber, Nourriz (Norris), Walop, Chesney, Quinston (Kingston), Paget, and those of the Chamber generally, all but one, have been or are attacked. Yesterday some of them were said to be dead. The King (age 37) shuts himself up quite alone. It is the same with Wolsey (age 55). After all, those who are not exposed to the air do not die. Of 40,000 attacked in London, only 2,000 are dead; but if a man only put his hand out of bed during twenty-four hours, it becomes as stiff as a pane of glass.

Letters and Papers 1528. 07 Jul 1528. Love Letters XIII. 4477. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Since her last, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thomas Care, Yrion of Brearton, John Coke the potecary, are fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thank God, have all recovered, so the plague has not yet quite ceased here. The rest of us are well, and I hope will pass it. As for the matter of Wylton, my Lord Cardinal has had the nuns before him, and examined them in presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different priests, and has since been kept, not long ago, by a servant of Lord Broke that was. "Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, cloak your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor I trust you would not that neither for brother nor sister I should so distayne mine honor or conscience. And as touching the prioress or dame Ellenor's eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and the prioress is so old that of many years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that nother of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed, whereof I ensure you it hath much need, and God much the better served. As touching your abode at Hever [Map], do therein as best shall like you, for you know best what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto, if it pleased God, that nother of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche (Zouch) is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do in likewise from you.".

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jun 1528. Vesp. C. IV. 237. B. M. St. P. I. 293. 4404. Brian Tuke to Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 55).

According to the purpose he expressed in his last letter to Wolsey, sent to Mr. Treasurer (age 38) to know if he should repair to the King. His messenger found Mr. Treasurer (age 38) sick of the sweat at Waltham [Map], and the King (age 36) removed to Hunsdon [Map], whither he followed him, and delivered him Wolsey's letters to the Bishop of London and Tuke, Tuke's to the Bishop, his answer and Tuke's to the Treasurer. The King asked the messenger what disease Tuke had. The messenger told him wrong; and the King bade Tuke come, though he had to ride in a litter, offering to send him one. Rode thither on his mule at a foot pace, with marvellous pain; for on my faith I void blood per virgam. Arrived yesterday afternoon. The King seemed to be satisfied in the matter of the truce, for which he said he at first sent for him, but now he must put him to other business, saying secretly that it was to write his will, which he has lately reformed.

As to the truce, he said the Spaniards had a great advantage in the liberty to go to Flanders, but the English had not like liberty to repair to Spain; and he also complains that my Lady Margaret is not bound to make restitution for injuries done by Spaniards out of the property of other Spaniards in Flanders. Answered that the liberty to go to Flanders was beneficial to England, which would thus obtain oil and other Spanish merchandise; and, besides, English cloths, which would have been sent to Spain, can now be sent to Flanders. Showed him also the advantage that French or English men-of-war might have, in doing any exploits beyond the French havens; for directly they have returned to safety on this side the Spanish havens, the Spaniards are without remedy, as all hostilities must cease in the seas on this side.

Told him how glad the French ambassadors were when Wolsey, with marvellous policy, brought the secretaries to that point. Assured him "it was tikle medeling with them, seeing how little my Lady Margaret's council esteemed the truce," by which the French were enabled to strengthen themselves in Italy, and their cost in the Low Countries was lost. The King doubted whether the Spaniards would be bound by my Lady Margaret's treaty. Told him she had bound herself that the Emperor should ratify it, and that she would recompence goods taken by Spaniards; adding that if this order had not been taken by Wolsey, the King's subjects passing to Flanders, Iceland, Denmark, Bordeaux, &c. would have been in continual danger of capture. "His highness, not willing to make great replication, said, a little army might have served for keeping of the seas against the Spaniards; and I said, that his army royal, furnished as largely as ever it was, could not save his subjects from many great harms in the length between Spain and Iceland."

The King, being then about to sit down to supper, bid Tuke to rest that night at a gentleman's place near at hand, and return to him this day, when he would speak with him about the other secret matter of his will. "And so, willing to have rewarded me with a dish, if I had not said that I eat no fish," took his leave, and departed two miles to the lodging. On his return this morning, found the King going into the garden, who, after his return, heard three masses, and then called Tuke to the chamber in which he supped apart last night. After speaking of the advantages of this house, and its wholesome air at this time of sickness, the King delivered to him "the book of his said will in many points reformed, wherein his Grace riped me," and appointed Tuke a chamber here, under his privy chamber, bidding him send for his stuff, and go in hand with his business. Expects, therefore, to be here five or six days at least, though he has only a bed that he brought on horseback, ready to lay down anywhere. Must borrow stuff meanwhile, and is disappointed of the physic which he had ordered at his house in Essex, whither he sent a physician to stay with him for a time, promising him a mark a day, horse meat and man's meat. Must bid him return till he has leave to depart, when he begs Wolsey to let him attend on his physician for eight or ten days; "else I shall utterly, for lack of looking to at this begining, destroy myself for ever." The King is expected to remain here eight or ten days. Hunsdon, Sunday, 21 June 1528.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. R. O. 4442. Sir William Compton (age 46).

Will of Sir William Compton, made on 8 March 1522, 14 Henry VIII. Desires to be buried at Compton Wynyates [Map] in Warwickshire, beside his ancestors: That is if his wife (age 28) die before he return home from his journey, she be afterwards brought to Compton and buried there. Bequeaths to his wife (age 28) movables at Bettyschorne, and at the great park of Windsor, and the plate which belonged to Francis Cheyny, "my predecessor." If his wife be delivered of a son, bequeaths to him all his household stuff at Compton, with the plate which was given him by the French king in a schedule. His wife to have the control of it till the child be of age. If he have a son, bequeaths to each of his daughters 1,000 marks for their marriages, and 100 marks in plate. Wills that 40 pair of vestments be made of one suit, to be distributed to the parish churches in the counties of Warwick and Worcester, adjoining to Compton. All his apparel to be used in making vestments and other works of charity. Bequeaths to the abbey of Winchcomb his wedding gown of tynsen satin, to make a vestment that they may pray for the souls of his ancestors. Wills his executors to release to the monastery of Denny all the debts they owe him, and bequeaths to them £10 for an obit. Bequeaths goods to the value of 200 marks to be distributed to poor householders, and to the marriages of poor maids in the counties of Warwick and Worcester. Wills that a tomb of alabaster be prepared for his father, with his arms graven upon it. Bequeaths to the King (age 37) his little chest of ivory with gilt lock, "and a chest bourde under the same, and a pair of tables upon it," with all the jewels and treasure enclosed, now in his wife's custody; also "certain specialties to the sum of 1,000 marks, which I have of [his future father-in-law] Sir Thomas Bullen (age 51), knight," for money lent to him. Wills that his children have their plate on coming to their full ages; i.e., on the males coming to the age of twenty-one, and the females to the age of eighteen.

Bequests to his sister [Elizabeth] Rudney, and his cousin John Rudney, her son. Wills that his mother's body be taken up and buried at Compton Wynyates [Map]. Bequest to the daughter of his aunt Appulby. £20 to be put in a box at the abbey of Winchecombe, to make defence for all such actions as may be wrongfully taken against his wife or his executors. Two chantries to be founded in his name at Compton Wynyates [Map], to do daily service for the souls of the King, the Queen, my Lady Anne Hastings (age 45), himself, his wife and ancestors. The priests to be appointed by the Abbot of Winchecombe, or, failing him, the Abbot of Evesham. 5 marks a year to be paid to the parson of Compton to keep a free grammar school. £100 a year to be paid to his wife during her life, for her jointure, besides her inheritance in Barkeley's lands. Bequests to the monasteries of Evesham, Hayles, Winchecombe, Worcester, Croxton, the charterhouses of Henton and Coventry, for obits; to Sir William Tyler, Sir Thomas Lynne, Thomas Baskett and George Lynde; to his servants who happen to be with him this journey; to John Draper, his servant, and Robert Bencare, his solicitor; to Griffin Gynne, now with Humphrey Brown, serjeant-at-law, for his learning; and to Lady Anne Hastings (age 45). Executors appointed: Dame Warburgh my wife (age 31), the bishop of Exeter (age 66), Sir Henry Marney, Lord Privy Seal, Sir Henry Guildford (age 39), Sir Richard Broke, Sir John Dantsy, Dr. Chomber, Humphrey Brown, serjeant-at-law, Thomas Leson, clk., James Clarell and Thomas Unton. Appoints my Lord Bishop of  Canterbury (age 78) supervisor of his will. Gifts to the executors.

3. Bargain and sale by Sir Henry Guildford (age 39), Humphrey Brown, Thomas Hunton and Thomas Leeson, as executors of Sir William Compton, to Sir Thomas Arundell, of certain tenements in St Swithin's Lane [Map], [London,] lately in the possession of Lewis... and Humphrey... as executors of Sir Richard Wingfield.

4. Inventory of the goods of Sir William Compton in his house in London.

Ready money, gold and silver, 1,£338 7s. 0½d. Jewels of gold and silver, £898 6s. 2d. Gilt plate, £85 5s. 3d. Parcel gilt plate, £31 12s. 2d. White plate, £90 0s. 3½d. Silks, £210 13s. 6d.=2,£654 4s. 5d.

5. Names of the officers upon the lands late Sir William Compton's.

[Note. Lots of names of Steward and Bailiffs and values.].

6. Inquisition taken in Middlesex on the death of Sir William Compton, 20 Henry VIII.

Found that Richard Broke, serjeant-at-law, [Walter Rodney] [Names in brackets crossed out], William Dyngley and John Dyngley, now surviving, with [Sir Rob. Throgmerton and William Tracy,]* deceased, were seized of the manors of Totenham, Pembrokes, Bruses, Daubeneys and Mokkyngs, with lands in Tottenham, Edelmeton and Enfeld, to Compton's use; and that George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 60), Henry Earl of Essex, John Bourchier Lord Bernes (age 61), [Sir Rob. Ratclyf,]* Rob. Brudenell (age 67), justice of the King's Bench, Richard Sacheverell (age 61) [and Thomas Brokesby],* now surviving, with [Sir Ralph Shyrley,]* deceased, were seized of the manor of Fyncheley and lands in Fyncheley and Hendon to his use. His son, Peter Compton (age 5), is his heir, and is six years old and over.

7. Citation by Wolsey (age 55), as legate, of Sir William Compton, for having lived in adultery with the wife (age 45) of Lord Hastings (age 41), while his own wife, dame Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon (age 45), was alive, and for having taken the sacrament to disprove it.

4443. Sir William Compton.

Inventory of the goods of Sir William Compton at his places in London, Compton, Bittisthorne, the Great Park of Windsor, Sir Walter Stoner's place. Total of moveables, 4,£485 2s. 3½d. "Sperat dettes," estimated at 3,£511 13s. 4d. "Chatell Royall," £666 13s. 4d.

Wards.-One ward that cost £466 13s. 4d.; another of 500 marks land; the third, "Sir George Salynger's son and his heir." There is at Windsor Great Park plate embezzled to the value of £579 2s. 6d., as appears by a bill found in Sir William's place at London. Desperate debts estimated at 1,£908 6s. 8d. Debts owing by him estimated at £1,000

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters X. 3220. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Although, my mistress, you have not been pleased to remember your promise when I was last with you, to let me hear news of you and have an answer to my last, I think it the part of a true servant to inquire after his mistress's health and send you this, desiring to hear of your prosperity. I also send by the bearer a buck killed by me late last night, hoping when you eat of it you will think of the hunter. Written by the hand of your servant, who often wishes you in the place of your brother.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters I. 3221. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

I and my heart put ourselves in your hands. Let not absence lessen your affection; for it causes us more pain than I should ever have thought, reminding us of a point of astronomy that the longer the days are, the further off is the sun, and yet the heat is all the greater. So it is with our love, which keeps its fervour in absence, at least on our side. Prolonged absence would be intolerable, but for my firm hope in your indissoluble affection. As I cannot be with you in person, I send you my picture set in bracelets.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. R.O. St. P.I. 321. 4536. [his illegitimate son] Duke of Richmond (age 9) to Henry VIII (age 37).

I have received two of your letters, dated Tittenhanger, the 10th, desiring the preferment of Sir Giles Strangwisshe and Sir Edward Seymer, master of my horse, to rooms vacant by the death of Sir William Compton. I send a list of the offices and the fees appertaining. I presume you mean that one of the said gentlemen is to be preferred to the stewardship of Canforde.

It was signified to me by the Cardinal that it was your pleasure, when any office fell vacant, that I should dispose of it, considering the great number of my servants who have no other reward. Hearing, then, that the stewardship of my lands in Dorset and Somerset shires was void, I have disposed of one of them to Sir William Parre, and the other to George Coton, who attends upon me. Sheriffhutton, 21 July. Signed.

P.1. Add. Endd.

ii. Lordships belonging to my Lord of Richmond and Somerset.

Dorset.—Canforde, Corfe Castle, Cockden hundred and the Isle of Purbyke. The steward's fee is 100s.

Somerset.—The borough of Milborn Port. The manor of Kingesbury Regis and the hundred of Horethorn. The manor of Quene Cammell. The lordship of Martock. The hundred of Stone and Cattisayshe. The manor of Coryrevell. The hundred of Abdyke and Bulstone, and the borough of Langporte.

The steward's fee is £6 13s. 4d., besides 60s. for his clerk.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XI. 4537. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The approach of the time which has been delayed so long delights me so much that it seems almost already come. Nevertheless, the entire accomplishment cannot be till the two persons meet; which meeting is more desired on my part than anything in the world, for what joy can be so great as to have the company of her who is my most dear friend, knowing likewise that she does the same. Judge then what will that personage do whose absence has given me the greatest pain in my heart, which neither tongue nor writing can express, and nothing but that can remedy. Tell your [his future father-in-law] father (age 51) on my part that I beg him to abridge by two days the time appointed that he may be in court before the old term, or at least upon the day prefixed; otherwise I shall think he will not do the lover's turn as he said he would, nor answer my expectation. No more, for want of time. I hope soon to tell you by mouth the rest of the pains I have suffered in your absence. Written by the hand of the secretary, who hopes to be privately with you, &c.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XV. 4539. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Is perplexed with such things as her [his future brother-in-law] brother (age 25) will declare to her. Wrote in his last that he trusted shortly to see her, "which is better known at London than with any that is about me; whereof I not a little marvel, but lack of discreet handling must be the cause thereof." I hope soon "our meeting shall not depend upon other men's lyght handylleness but upon your own. Written with the hand of hys that longeth to be yours."

Letters and Papers 1528. 01 Aug 1528. Love Letters XVI. 4597. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Writes to tell her of the great "elengenes" he finds since her departure, "for, I ensure you, me thinketh the time lenger since your departing now last than I was wont to do a whole fortnight." Could not have thought so short an absence would have so grieved him, but is comforted now he is coming towards her; "insomuch that my book maketh substantially for my matter; in token whereof I have spent above four hours this day, which caused me to write the shorter letter to you at this time by cause of some pain in my head. Wishing myself specially an evening in my sweetheart's arms, whose pretty dubbys I trust shortly to cusse.".

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Aug 1528. Love Letters VII. 4648. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Has got her a lodging by my Lord Cardinal's means, such as could not have been found hereabouts "for all causes," as the bearer will explain. Nothing more can be done in our other affairs, nor can all dangers be better provided against, so that I trust it will be hereafter to both our comforts; but I defer particulars, which would be too long to write, and not fit to trust to a messenger till your repair hither. I trust it will not be long "to-fore" I have caused my lord your [his future father-in-law] father (age 51) to make his provisions with speed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 16 Sep 1528. Love Letters VI. 4742. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

"The reasonable request of your last letter, with the pleasure also that I take to know them true, causeth me to send you now these news. The Legate which we most desire arrived at Paris on Sunday or Monday last past, so that I trust by the next Monday to hear of his arrival at Calais, and then I trust within a while after to enjoy that which I have so longed for to God's pleasure and our both comfort. No more to you at this present, mine own darling, for lack of time, but that I would you were in mine arms or I in yours, for I think it long since I kissed you. Written after the killing of an hart, at 11 of the clock, minding with God's grace tomorrow mytely tymely to kill another, by the hand of him which I trust shortly shall be yours.-Henry R.".

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Oct 1528. Love Letters, XVII. 4894. Henry VIII (age 37). to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

"To inform you what joy it is to me to understand of your conformableness to reason, and of the suppressing of your inutile vain thoughts and fantasies with the bridle of reason, I ensure you all the good in this world could not counterpoise for my satisfaction the knowledge and certainty hereof. Wherefore, good sweetheart, continue in the same, not only in this but in all your doings hereafter; for thereby shall come, both to you and me, the greatest quietness that may be in this world. The cause why this bearer tarryeth so long is the business that I have had to dress up yer (geer?) for you, which I trust or long to see you occupy, and then I trust to occupy yours, which shall be recompense enough to me for all my pains and labors. The unfeigned sickness of this well-willing legate doth somewhat retard his access to your presence; but I trust verily, when God shall send him health, he will with diligence recompense his demowre, for I know well whereby he hath said (lamenting the saying and bruit that he should be Imperial) that it should be well known in this matter that he is not Imperial. And thus for lack of time," &c.

Letters and Papers 1528. 31 Oct 1528. Love Letters XVII. 4894. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

"To inform you what joy it is to me to understand of your conformableness to reason, and of the suppressing of your inutile vain thoughts and fantasies with the bridle of reason, I ensure you all the good in this world could not counterpoise for my satisfaction the knowledge and certainty hereof. Wherefore, good sweetheart, continue in the same, not only in this but in all your doings hereafter; for thereby shall come, both to you and me, the greatest quietness that may be in this world. The cause why this bearer tarryeth so long is the business that I have had to dress up yer (geer?) for you, which I trust or long to see you occupy, and then I trust to occupy yours, which shall be recompense enough to me for all my pains and labors. The unfeigned sickness of this well-willing legate doth somewhat retard his access to your presence; but I trust verily, when God shall send him health, he will with diligence recompense his demowre, for I know well whereby he hath said (lamenting the saying and bruit that he should be Imperial) that it should be well known in this matter that he is not Imperial. And thus for lack of time," &c.

In 1529 Edward Burgh and [his future wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England (age 16) were married. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1529 John Mundy was knighted by Henry VIII (age 37).

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), [his future father-in-law] Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 08 Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 38) created three Earldoms ...

[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde. [his future mother-in-law] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 49) by marriage Earl Wiltshire, Countess Ormonde. His mother (age 75) was the daughter of the last Earl Ormonde Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde.

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon. Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon (age 46) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 46) was created 1st Earl of Sussex by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 38). Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex (age 50) by marriage Countess of Sussex.

In early Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland created five Baronies ...

The History of Reginald Pole. [Around 1530]. He Henry VIII (age 38) then goes on to show, "how inexcusable the King was in pretending that a dispensation to marry his Brother's Widow was invalid, at the same time that he was suing for One, which would enable him to marry a [his future wife] person (age 29), whose [his future sister-in-law] sister (age 31) he had corrupted, provided the nullity of his former marriage could be proved". This in a treatise inscribed to the King, and delivered to him on the part of the noble Author, by one of his Gentlemen. He asserts it as a known truth; and, indeed, had such an imputation been slander, or even of doubtful report, it would have been utterly unworthy and inconsistent with his character who relates it; and must have raised the clamour not only of the English, but of all foreigners against him. It ought, at the same time, to be remarked, that as he gives not the least insinuation of any looseness of the behaviour in Anne Bullen, before Henry's passion for her, or of a criminal commerce between her Mother and the King, of which she has been said to be the fruit, these reports are to be looked on as destitute of foundaton. Had the facts been real, they would not have escaped the knowledge of One so well informed; nor been overlooked in a work, where every aggravation. which regards this article is set forth in all its iniquity, and heightened with all the colouring that indignation and eloquence can give. All be says of her amounts to a sarcasm, that me must needs be chaste, as the choice to be the King's wife, rather than his Mitress; but that she might have learnt, how soon he was sated with those who had belonged to him in the latter quality and, if other examples were wanting, that his own sister was enough1."

Note 1. Concubina enim tua fieri pudica mulier nolebak, uxor volebat: Didicerat, opinor, si nullâ aliâ ex re, vel Sororis suæ exemplo, quam cito te concubinarum tuatum fatietas caperet.

For the chaste woman did not want to become your concubine, she wanted to be a wife: I think she had learned, if nothing else from the matter, or from the example of her sister (age 31), how quickly she was satisfied with your concubines.

In 1530 the Prior of Llanthony Priory [Map] sent cheese, carp and baked lamphreys to Henry VIII (age 38) at Windsor [Map].

On 11 Nov 1530 Giles Alington (age 31) was knighted by Henry VIII (age 39) at Whitehall Palace [Map].

On 20 Nov 1530 Thomas Arundell of Wardour Castle (age 28) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Howard (age 15) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Around 1531 Anthony Ughtred (age 53) and [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Seymour Baroness Cromwell Oakham (age 13) were married. The difference in their ages was 40 years.

On 18 Jan 1531 Edward Bayntun (age 39) and [his future sister-in-law] Isabel Leigh were married. She the half-sister of Catherine Howard (age 8) their mother was Joyce Culpepper.

In 1532 Mark Smeaton (age 20) was appointed Groom of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 40).

Around 1532. Joos van Cleve (age 47). Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 40). The inscription on the scroll in the portrait of Henry VIII translates as, 'Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature' (Mark 16:15). The same words were inscribed on Holbein's title page for the Coverdale Bible of 1535 which has sometimes been seen as a key to dating this portrait, but it is one of ten biblical quotations on that page. It seems more likely that van Cleve's inclusion of these words - in Latin rather than English - is more Catholic than Protestant, and was intended to celebrate Henry's papal title of Defender of the Faith, which he won in 1521.

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 [his future wife] Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

[his future father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

[his future daughter-in-law] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

On 11 Nov 1532 Henry VIII (age 41) and [his future wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 31) met with King Francis I of France (age 38) at Calais [Map]. Henry Howard (age 16) was present.

Those listed as travelling with Henry and Anne include:

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37).

William Stafford (age 24); this may have been when he first met [his future sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 33).

Mary Boleyn (age 33)

In 1533 William Holles (age 62) was knighted by Henry VIII (age 41).

In 1533 Henry VIII (age 41) granted William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 43) to inpark 600 acres of meadow, pasture and wood and build fortifications at Cowdray House [Map].

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Statute in Restraint of Appeals

In Mar 1533 Parliament enacted the Statute in Restraint of Appeals by which Henry VIII (age 41) forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. Considered to be a cornerstone of the English Reformation.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, [his wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet at Greenwich Palace [Map]. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton.

The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the King (age 41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

About a week ago the [his brother-in-law] sieur de Rochefort (age 30) (George Boleyn) returned from France with the sieur de Beauvoes (Beauvoir), who started yesterday for Scotland for the purpose of inducing king James to place his differences with this King (age 41) into his master's hand, and making him judge and arbiter of their differences. I have been told by a very worthy man that the duke of Albany's secretary returning from a visit to the said Beaulvoys (sic) had assured him that the said ambassador would be unable to accomplish his mission in Scotland, and that war would go on fiercer than ever. Indeed it would seem as if the Scots at this moment more prosperous than ever, for instead of being as before on the defensive, they are continually making raids on the borders. For this purpose did Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30) go to France as it is now ascertained. These people, as I am told, wish immensely for peace with Scotland, but God, as I said above, has taken away their senses, and they cannot see how to bring it about. The said Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30), as his own servants assert, has been presented in France with 2,000 crs., no doubt for the good tidings of his [his wife] sister's (age 32) marriage, to whom the Most Christian King has now written a letter addressing her as Queen. I fancy, moreover, that the French consider this good news, firstly: because it is likely to be the means of breaking off the friendship between Your Majesty and this king, and also, because it might ultimately be the cause of freeing the French from their debt and payment of pensions, either through sheer necessity, or for fear these people may have of their ultimately joining you, should the Pope proceed to sentence the case and have the censures executed-a thing which, in my opinion, Your Majesty ought to urge in every possible way-the French would be released from all their bonds and pecuniary obligations to this king.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

Lastly, upon my urging upon him that his marriage had been pre-arranged by the King, his father [Henry VII.], and by the Catholic king of Spain [Ferdinand], both of whom were the wisest of their age, and would have never consented to it had there been the least shade of scruple respecting [his brother] Prince Arthur - which after all was the principal ground of complaint - he again insisted on his determination to act as he pleased in the matter without attending to considerations of any sort whatever, adding that you yourself had shewn him the way to disobey the Pope's injunctions by your appealing four years ago to a future Council. Upon which I told him that he himself could not do better than follow your example and appeal to that very Council, and since he alleged that he was ready to imitate you in this respect, I must warn him that no prince in the world had more respect than you had for His Holiness, or deeper fear of his excommunications, for upon one occasion you had been one whole Holy Week without attending Divine service.

These last words of mine had great effect upon the King (age 41), who no doubt thought that I meant to reproach him for not having obeyed the Papal excommunication and interdict once fulminated against him; he, therefore, was a little hurt and said to me in rather an angry tone of voice: "If you go on like that you will make me lose my temper." I begged him to tell me how I could have offended him, warmly protesting that I had no such intention; then he lowered his voice a little and spoke less harshly, though, notwithstanding all my entreaties, he would never say how or in what I had offended him, and I must say that the rest of our conference passed without any visible signs of ill-humour on his part.

Thus encouraged I asked him whether in the event of Spaniards and Flemings, as good Christians, refusing for fear of the Papal interdict to hold communication, or carry on trade with his subjects, they would be amenable to the penalties described in the statute, and what sort of crime could be imputed to them. He remained for a while thoughtful and startled, not knowing what to answer, which being observed by me I preferred asking leave to retire to remaining where I was and waiting for his answer. I, therefore, said to him: "If such be the state of things I will not trouble Your Highness any more and lose my time; I will withdraw." He then said "adieu" to me in a gracious manner, but retained Hesdin, to whom he addressed the following words; "You have heard what the Emperor's ambassador has just said respecting the Papal excommunication and the stopping of trade between my subjects and the Spaniards and Flemings; but I can tell you that the ecclesiastical censures do not on this occasion fall upon me, but upon the Emperor himself who has so long opposed me, and prevented my new marriage, thus making me live in sin and against the prescriptions of Mother Church. The excommunication, moreover, is of such a nature that the Pope himself could not raise it without my consent; but, pray, do not mention this to the ambassador." This will give Your Majesty an idea of the King's blindness in these matters. Hesdin only replied that the affair was of too much importance for him to mix himself up with it.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

After this we came to speak about the [his wife] Queen (age 47) and to argue whether she had or had not been known by Prince Arthur, and after responding victoriously to the suppositions and conjectures which he alleged in support of his opinion, I produced such arguments in proof of the contrary that he really knew not what to answer. Which arguments having been brought forward on more than one occasion I will not trouble Your Majesty with a reproduction of them, and will only say "que venant a reprendre le dit seigneur roy ce que plusieurs fois il auoit confesse, que la royne demeura pucelle du dit prince Arthus, et voyant quil ne le pouvoit nyer, il dit quil lauoit plusieurs fois dit mais que ce nauoit este que en ieu, et que lhome en iouant et banquetant dit souvent pluseures (sic) choses que ne sont veritables." Having said as much as if he had obtained a great success, or found some subtle point towards the gaining of his cause, he began to recover his self-possession and said confidently to me: "Now I think I have given you full satisfaction on all points; what else do you want?" Whatever the King (age 41) might say the satisfaction was not all-sufficing, but it served me admirably, much more than he himself could imagine, to dispute certain premises he had laid down. I told him that I flattered myself that I was the ambassador of the prince who desired most his welfare, profit, and honour, as well as the tranquillity of his kingdom. I had brought with me Master Hesdin, there present, who was, and acknowledged himself to be, his affectionate servant- as did also all Your Majesty's officers-that he might be present at the conference and hear what his answer was; but I would promise most solemnly that nothing that might be said at that audience should be reported to you unless he himself wished, for I consented to the said Hesdin giving me the lie if I ever attempted to write to Your Majesty anything he (the King) did dislike. This I said to the King (age 41) that I might inspire greater confidence and make him open his heart more fully (lui fere deslier le sac). The better to gain his confidence I told him how happy I had once considered myself at being chosen by Your Majesty to represent your person near so great and magnanimous a king, hoping that his Privy Council, taking due cognizance of the affairs pending between the two crowns, everything should go on smoothly. Now, on the contrary, affairs had taken such a disorderly turn, and were in such confusion that I considered myself unhappy in having to represent Your Majesty, inasmuch as I had continually assured you in my despatches that whatever countenance the King (age 41) put on, and whatever he did his heart and the affection he bore Your Majesty were not affected, and that he would never think of doing anything that might give occasion to suspect that he intended living otherwise than in peace and amity with Your Imperial Majesty. At these words, and without waiting to hear the rest, as if he wished to avoid alt further conversation on this delicate subject, the King (age 41) frowned, and moving his head to and fro, said rather abruptly: "Before I listen to such representations, I must know from whom they proceed, whether from the Emperor, your master, or from yourself; for if they be private remarks of your own I shall know how to answer them." And upon my answering that it was superfluous to ask whether I could have received commission to complain of facts and things which had only taken place a week ago, the intelligence of which would require a full month to be transmitted, and perhaps, too, four successive despatches of mine before it was believed-my general charge and instructions being to maintain by all best means the peace and friendship between Your Majesty and him, and especially to watch over the Queen's (age 47) affairs, since from them depended in a great measure that very friendship-the King (age 41) replied that you yourself had nothing to do with the laws, statutes, and constitutions of his kingdom, and that in spite of all opposition he would pass such laws and ordinances in his dominions as he thought proper, adding many other things in the same strain. My reply was that Your Majesty neither could nor would hinder any such legislative measures, but on the contrary would, if necessary, help him in them unless they personally affected the Queen (age 47), whom he wanted to compel to renounce her appeal [to Rome] and submit entirely to the judgment of the prelates of his kingdom who, either won by promises or threatened with that punishment which had already attained those who upheld the Queen's (age 47) right, could not fail to decide in his favour and against her. After this I repeated what I had told him on previous occasions in Your Majesty's name, that is to say: that the fact of the case being determined here, in England, as he wished, would in nowise remove hereafter the doubts about the succession for the reasons above explained, He, himself, considering how unreasonable and illegal it would be to have the case tried and decided in England, when the authority of the Holy Apostolic See was concerned, had from the beginning of the suit asked the Papal permission for the two cardinals (Campeggio (age 58) and York) to take cognizance of the case here. Even after that he had allowed the Queen (age 47) to appeal to Rome, and in the course of time not satisfied with that had himself, and through others, solicited the Queen (age 47) to consent to the case being tried out of Rome, not here in England, for he knew that to be a most unreasonable demand, but in a neutral place. For these reasons I said the Queen (age 47) cannot and ought not to be tied by laws and statutes to which no one hardly had consented, and which had been carried by compulsion. To this remark of mine the King (age 41) replied half in a passion (demy appassione): "All persuasions and remonstrances are absolutely in vain. Had I known that the audience you applied for had no other object than to speak to me of these things I certainly should have found some excuse to break through the established rule, and escape from such objurgations." But on my representing to him the object of my calling, and telling him that he was positively bound to listen not only to what an ambassador of Your Majesty, but the commonest mortal, had to say to him in a case of this sort, and the courteous and humane manner in which you had always treated his ambassadors, he was obliged to retract, and said that as regarded the commission granted to the two cardinals he could not deny that he himself had applied for it, but that was, he said, under a promise made by the Pope that the cause should never be revoked [from England]; but since His Holiness withdrew all the commissions he had previously given, he (the King) did likewise reject the offer to have the case tried and sentenced in a neutral place, for he wished it to be determined here and not elsewhere. As to his consent to the Queen's (age 47) appeal he had only given it conditionally, and provided the statutes and constitutions of the kingdom allowed of it, not otherwise, and said that lately a prohibitive one had been made in Parliament which the Queen (age 47) herself, as an English subject, was bound to obey. Hearing this I could not help observing that laws and constitutions had no retroactive power, and that they could only be enforced in the future. As to the Queen (age 47) being an English subject I owned that she being his legitimate wife was really and truly such, and that consequently all debate about constitutions and appeals was not only superfluous but out of the question; but that if the Queen (age 47), however, was, as he asserted, not his wife, she could not be called an English subject, for she only resided in this country in virtue of her marriage, not otherwise, and Common Law establishes that the claimant is to bring his action before the tribunal of the country whereof the defendant is a native. The Queen (age 47) might as well ask to have her case tried in Spain, but this she had never attempted, contenting herself that the court to which he himself had firstly applied as claimant should take cognizance of the affair, that being the only true and irrefragable tribunal in her case. And upon his replying that he had not sent for her, and that his brother, the prince of Wales, had first taken her to wife and consummated marriage, I remarked that if he himself had not sent for her he had after his brother's demise kept her by him, and prevented her from going away at the request of her father, the Catholic king of Spain, through his ambassador at this court, Hernand Duque de Estrada, as I could prove by his letters. These, however, the King (age 41) refused to peruse, and again repeated: "She must have patience and obey the laws of this kingdom." Then he added that Your Majesty in return for so many services and favours had done him the greatest possible injury by hindering his new marriage, and preventing his having male succession. That the Queen (age 47) was no more his wife than she was mine, and that he would act in this business just as he pleased, in spite of all opposition and grumbling, and that if Your Majesty capriciously attempted to cause him annoyance he would try to defend himself with the help of his friends.

Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

The name and title which the King (age 41) wishes the [his wife] Queen (age 47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to [his daughter] princess Mary (age 17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the [his wife] Lady (age 32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the [his wife] Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the [his wife] Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the [his daughter] Princess (age 17).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

Every day numbers of people come to my hotel and inquire from my servants and neighbours how long I intend remaining here in London, for until the hour of my departure many will go on thinking that Your Majesty consents to this marriage, without which condition no one thinks that this King (age 41) would have dared to proceed to such extremities. For this cause I think I ought to be immediately recalled, and most humbly beseech Your Majesty to send the order; not so much to avoid the dangers and troubles that may supervene, for I should consider myself happy to sacrifice my life for the Imperial service, but merely for the above-named considerations, &c.-London, 15th April 1533.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Saturday, the eve of Easter, [his wife] Lady Anne (age 32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the [his future daughter-in-law] daughter (age 14) of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), betrothed to the [his illegitimate son] Duke of Richmond (age 13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church [Map] with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former Queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of Queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The King (age 41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new Queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (age 41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (age 43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the [his wife] Queen (age 47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (age 41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

After this, coming to the principal object of my visit, I told him plainly that, although for several days past I had heard of the attempt made both at the convocation of the prelates and in Parliament to impugn the [his wife] Queen's (age 47) rights, and greatly injure her just cause, I had taken no notice of the facts, inasmuch as I could not be persuaded that so wise, virtuous, and Catholic a prince could possibly authorize or sanction such things, and also because I thought and believed that such practices (menees) could in no wise impair the Queen's (age 47) right or cause her harm. Yet that having lately been apprized from various quarters that such an attempt was really being made, I considered that I could not acquit myself of my duty towards God, towards Your Imperial Majesty, and towards himself if I did not remonstrate at once against such behaviour, and entreat him by his virtue, wisdom, and humanity patiently to listen to my observations as proceeding from my desire for his service, for that though he might disregard and despise man, he would at least respect God. To which the King (age 41) answered that so he had done, and that God and his conscience were perfectly agreed on that point.

Hearing the King (age 41) express himself in this manner and wishing to bring him back to the subject as gently as possible, I observed that my colleague and I could not but be very much flattered at the familiar way in which he had expressed his sentiments, as if we were his own servants, which sentiments, I added, proceeded no doubt from his heart not from his mouth. He assured me, however, that such was not the case, and that what he had just said had been said without dissimulation. Upon which I again said to him that I could not believe that Christianity, being so agitated and troubled by heresies, he could possibly set so bad an example and contravene the treaties of peace and amity which, as he himself, who had been the principal promoter and mediator in them ought to know best, had cost so much time and trouble to make. He ought to know that even supposing no inconvenience arose therefrom in his lifetime there would be most serious ones after his death with regard to the succession. There had never been such a case, I continued, nor did we read of it in history, as for a prince to divorce his legitimate wife after five and twenty years, and marry another woman. Not knowing what to answer to my observations, the King (age 41) gladly seized the opportunity which I gave him by this last statement to contradict me, and said: "Not so long, if you please; and if the world finds this new marriage of mine strange, I find it still more so that the Pope [Julius] should have granted a dispensation for the former." I then mentioned to him five popes who had dispensed in similar cases, and declared that I was unwilling to dispute that matter with him, but that there was no doctor in his kingdom, who after such a debate would not confess that pope Julius was authorized to dispense in the case. After this, coming to speak about the manner in which his solicitors had procured the votes of the university of Paris, on which he founds his principal argument, I offered to produce the letters I had received relating the whole affair, as well as the names of those who had held for the Queen (age 47), but he said there was no necessity at all for that. I, moreover, told him that neither in Spain, nor in Naples, nor in any other country could one single prelate or doctor be found to assert the contrary, and that even in his own kingdom every canonist and lawyer was of the same opinion, with the exception of the few who had been gained over to the other side, and I proposed, in confirmation of my statement, to exhibit other letters, which he likewise refused to see.

At last, wishing to turn the conversation, the King (age 41) said that he wished to ensure the succession to his kingdom by having children, which he had not at present, and upon my remarking to him that he had one daughter, the most virtuous and accomplished that could be thought of, just of suitable age to be married and get children, and that it seemed as if Nature had decided that the succession to the English throne should be through the female line, as he himself had obtained it, and therefore, that he could by marrying the Princess to some one secure the succession he was so anxious for, he replied that he knew better than that; and would marry again in order to have children himself. And upon my observing to him that he could not be sure of that he asked me three times running: "Am I not a man like others?" and he afterwards added: "I need not give proofs of the contrary, or let you into my secrets," no doubt implying thereby that his beloved [his wife] Lady (age 32) is already in the family way.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Tuesday the 7th inst., having been informed of the strange and outrageous conduct and proceedings of this king (age 41) against the [his wife] Queen (age 47), whereof I have written to Your Majesty, I went to Court at the hour appointed for the King's audience, that I might there duly remonstrate against the Queen's treatment. I took with me Mr. Hesdin, who by the consent of the Queen [of Hungary] is now here to claim the arrears of his pension, in order that he might be present, and hear the remonstrances I had to address the King (age 41), hoping also that if I had to use threatening language the King (age 41) might not be so much offended if uttered in the presence of the said Hesdin. On my arrival at Greenwich [Map] the [his father-in-law] earl of Vulchier (age 56) (Wiltshire) came to meet me, and leading me to the apartments of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), who had just gone to see the Queen (age 47), said to me that the King (age 41) being very much engaged at that hour had deputed him to listen to what I had to say, and report thereupon. My answer was that my communication was of such a nature and so important that I could not possibly make it to anyone but to the King (age 41) in person. Until now he had never refused me audience, or put me off, and I could not think that he would now break through the custom without my having given him any occasion for it, especially as the King (age 41) knew that Your Majesty most willingly received the English ambassadors at all hours, whatever might be their errand or business. The Earl (age 56) repeated his excuses, and seemed at first disinclined to take my answer back to the King (age 41), until at last, perceiving my firm determination, he went in and came back saying the King (age 41) would see me immediately, though he still tried to ascertain what my business was, and advised me to put off my communication until after the festivals. It was settled at last that I should see the King (age 41) on Thursday in Holy Week, on which day having about me a copy of my last despatch [to Your Majesty], I took again the road to Court, accompanied as before by the said Master Hesdin, and was introduced to the Royal presence by the same earl of Wiltshire (age 56). The King (age 41) received us graciously enough. After the usual salutations and inquiries about Your Majesty's health, the King (age 41) asked me what news I had of your movements. I answered that the letters I had received last were rather old, but that I had reason to believe you had already embarked to return to Spain at the beginning of this present month. This statement the King (age 41) easily believed, and was rejoiced to hear (such is his wish to see you fairly out of Italy). I added that the weather for the last days could not have been more favourable, and therefore that it was to be hoped Your Majesty had reached Spain in safety. Having then asked me whether I had other news to communicate, I told him that your brother, the king of the Romans (age 30), had made his peace with the Turk, and that the latter had sent an embassy, at which piece of intelligence the King (age 41) remained for some time in silent astonishment as if he did not know what to answer.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

A deputation of English merchants trading with Flanders went on Friday last to see the King (age 41) for the purpose of ascertaining whether they could in future ship goods for that country. They were told that the King (age 41) was not at war with Your Majesty, and that they might trade or not just as they pleased; those who had any scruple might remain at home; those who chose to go on with their trade might do so. Not-withstanding which answer there is hardly any English or foreign merchants having goods in Flanders who has not sent for them, or had them put under another name (les couvrir), for there is hardly one who does not consider himself lost and ruined, and would not wish himself far off with his goods and substance. Indeed this fear is not confined to the merchants, but pervades all classes of society, and I have been told that Cramuel (age 48) (Cromwell), who is perhaps the man who has most influence with the King (age 41) just now, has had all his treasure and valuables removed to the Tower of London. And I do really believe that neither the King (age 41) himself nor any of his courtiers is exempt from fear, both of the people and of Your Majesty; yet it would seem as if God Almighty has blinded them, and taken away their senses, for they are perfectly bewildered and know not what to be at, nor how to mend their affairs. Indeed this is so much the case, that should the least mishap overtake them they would be so disconcerted that neither the King (age 41) nor his counsellors would think of aught else than flight, knowing very well the people's will in these matters.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

The King (age 41) has this very day dispatched a courier to Rome. I fancy it is for the purpose of telling the Pope that whatever has been attempted in this Parliament against him and his authority has been done at the solicitation of his people, not at his own, and that should his new marriage be ratified and sanctioned he is ready to revoke everything. He has forbidden the courier to carry any other letters but his, that the truth may not be found out. Your Majesty, however, might tell His Holiness how matters stand, and urge him to sentence the case and make all other necessary provisions.

Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

On 23 May 1533 Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (age 43) declared the marriage of Henry VIII (age 41) and [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (age 47) invalid.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 29 May 1533. Memorandum, Thursdaie, the 29th daie of Maie, 1533, Ladie [his wife] Anne, Marques of Pembroke (age 32), was receayed as Queene of Englande by all the Lordes of Englande.c And the Majord and Aldermen, with all the craftes of the Cittie of London, went to Greenewych in their barges after the best fashion, with a barge also of Batchlers of the Majors crafte rytchlie behanged with cloath of golde and a foyste to wayte on her. And so all the Lordes, the Major, with all the craftes of London, brought her by water from Greenewych [Map] to the Tower of London [Map], and ther the Kinges grace (age 41) receaved her at her landinge; and then were shott at the Towre above a thousand gunnes, besides other shotts that were shott at Lymehowse, and in other shipps lying in the Thammes. And the morrowe after being Fridaief their were made divers Knightes of the Bath.

Note c. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was descended through both parents from the royal stock of King Edward I; paternally, from Elizabeth, daughter of that monarch, and, maternally, from Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, son of the same King.

Note d. Sir Stephen Pecocke

Note e. A light and fast-sailing ship.

Note f. May 30.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 29 May 1533. The Thursdaye nexte before the feaste of Pentecost, the Kyng (age 41) and the [his wife] Queene (age 32) beyng at Grenewyche, all the Craftes of London thereunto well appoynted, in severall bargis deckyd after the most gorgiouse and sumptuous maner, with dyverse pagiantes thereunto belongyng, repayred and wayted all together upon the Mayre of London; and so, well furnysshed, cam all vnto Grenewiche, where they taryed and wayted for the Queenes commyng to her barge: which so done, they brought her unto the Tower, tromppets, shambesa2 and other dyverse instrumentes all the wayes playng and makyng greate melodic, which, as ys reported, was as combly donne as neuer was lyke in any tyme nyghe to our rememberaunce. And so her Grace cam to the Tower on Thursdaye at nyghte, abowte v. of the clocke, where also was suche a pele of gonnes as hathe not byn harde lyke a great while before.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 30 May 1533. And the same nyghte, and Frydaye aldayeb2 , the Kyng (age 41) and [his wife] Queene (age 32) taryed there; and on Frydaye at nyght the Kyngs Grace made xviij knyghts of the Bathe, whose creacion was not alonly so strange to here of, as also their garmentes stranger to beholde or loke on; whiche said Knightes, the nexte daye, whiche was Saturday, rydde before the Queene's grace thorowte the Citie of London towards Westminster palice, over and besyds the moste parte of the nobles of the Realme, whiche lyke accompanied her grace thorowe owte the said citie; she syttyng in her heere, upon a Horse Lytter, rychely appareled, and iiij knyghtes of the v. ports beryng a Canapye over her hedd. And after her cam iiij. riche charettes, one of them emptie, and iij. other furnysshed with diuerse auncient old lades; and after them cam a great trayne of other Ladies and gyntillwomen: whyche said Progresse, from the begynnyng to thendyng, extendid half a myle in leyngthe by estimacion or thereabout. To whome also, as she came alongeste the Citie, was shewid many costely pagiants, with diverse other encomyes spoken of chyldren to her; wyne also runyng at certeyne Condits plentiously. And so procedyng thorowte the streats, passid furthe vnto Westminster Hall, where was a certeyn banket prepared for her, which donne, she was conveyd owte of the bake syde of the palice into a Barge and so vnto Yorke Place, where the Kyng's grace was before her comyng, for this you muste ever presuppose that his Grace came allwayes before her secretlye in a Barge aswell frome Grenewyche to the Tower as from the Tower to Yorke place.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 01 Jun 1533. Memorandum, the first dale of June,d [his wife] Queene Anne (age 32) was brought from Westminster Hall to the Abbey of Sainct Peeter's [Map] with procession, all the monkes of Westminster going in rytch copes of golde with 13 abbotts mitred; and after them all the Kinges Chappell in rych copes with fower bushopps and tow archbishopps mittred, and all the Lordes going in their Perliament roabes,e and the crowne borne afore her by the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and her tow scepters by tow Earles, and she herself going under a rytch canapie of cloath of golde, apparailed in a kirtell of crymson velvett powdred with ermyns, and a robe of purple velvett furred with powdred ermines over that, and a rich cronett with a calla of pearles and stones on her hedde, and the olde Dutches of Norfolke (age 56)b bearing upp her traine in a robe of scarlett with a cronett of golde on her bonett, and the Lorde Boroughe,c the Queenes Chamberlaine, staying the traine in the middes; and after her tenne ladies following in robes of scarlett furred with ermins and rounde cronettes of golde on their heades; and next after theim all the Queenes maides in gownes of scarlett edged with white lettushe furre; and so was shee brought to Sainct Peeters Church [Map] at Westminster, and their sett in her seate riall, which was made on a high scaffolde before the highe aulter; and their shee was anoynted and crowned Queene of Englande by the Archbishopp of Canterberied1 and the Archbishoppe of Yorke, and so sate crowned in her seate riall all the masse, and offred also at the said masse; and the masse donne, they departed everie man in their degrees to Westminster Hall [Map], she going still under the cannapie crowned with towe septers in hir handes, my Lorde of Wilshire, her father,e1 and the Lorde Talbottf leadinge her, and so theire dynned; wheras was made the most honorable feast that hath beene seene.

The great hall at Westminster was rytchlie hanged with rych cloath of Arras, and a table sett at the upper ende of the hall, going upp twelve greeses,a2 where the Queene dyned; and a rytch cloath of estate hanged over her heade; and also fower other tables alongest the hall; and it was rayled on everie side, from the highe deasse in Westminster Hall to the scaffold in the church in the Abbaj.

And when she went to church to her coronation their was a raye cloath,b2 blew, spreed from the highe dessesc of the Kinges Benche unto the high alter of Westminster, wheron she wente.

Note B. the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 23), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

And when the Queenes grace had washed her handes, then came the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), High Constable that daie and stewarde of the feast, ryding on horsebacke rytchlie apparailed and trapped, and with him, also ridinge on horsebacke, the Lorde William (age 23) Howarde as deputie for the Duke of Norfolke (age 60) in the romthd2 of the Marshall of Englande, and the Queenes servicee2 following them with the Archbishopps, a certaine space betwene which was bornef2 all by knightes, the Archbishopp sitting at the Queenes borde, at the ende, on her left hande.g2 The Earle of Sussex (age 50) was sewer, the Earle of Essex carver, the Earle of Darbie (age 24) cuppbearer, the Earle of Arrondell (age 57) butler, the [his uncle] Viscount Lisle (age 69) pantler, the Lord Gray almoner.

Att one of the fower tables sate all the noble ladies all on one side of the hall, at the second table the noble men, at the thirde table the Major of Londonh2 with the Aldermen, att the fowerth table the Barons of the Fortes with the Masters of the Chauncerie. The goodlie dishes with the delicate meates and the settles which were all gilt, with the noble service that daie done by great men of the realme, the goodlie sweete armonie of minstrells with other thinges were to long to expresse, which was a goodlie sight to see and beholde.

And when shee had dined and washed her handes she stoode a while under the canopie of estate, and behelde throwghe the hall, and then were spices brought with other delicates, which were borne all in great high plates of gold, wherof shee tooke a litle refection, and the residue geavinge among the lordes and ladies; and that donne she departed up to the White Hall, and their changed her apparell, and so departed secreetlie by water to Yorke Place [Map], which is called White Hall, and their laie all night.

Note d. Whitsanday. Compare this with the account of the receiving and coronation of Anne Boleyn in MS. Harleian. Cod. 41, arts. 2-5, and MS. Harleian. 543, fol. 119.

Note e. Henry's (age 41) first wife, Katharine of Aragon (age 47), was crowned with him, and a magnificent ceremony was ordained for her successful rival Anne Boleyn, but none of the other wives of Henry were honoured with a coronation.

Note a. A caul was a kind of net in which women inclosed their hair.

Note b. Grandmother (age 56) of Anne Boleyn, being widow of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, whose daughter Elizabeth (age 53) married Sir [his father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn (age 56), afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, the father of Anne.

Note. b, immediately above, appears to be a mistake? The grandmother of Anne Boleyn was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey, first wife of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He, Thomas, married secondly his first wife's first cousin Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) who must be the old Duchess of Norfolk referred to since Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey died in Apr 1497.

Note c. Thomas, Lord Bnrgh of Gainsboroogh (age 45).

d1. In Sir Henry Ellis's Collection of Original Letters occurs a very interesting letter written by Cranmer to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, giving his own account of the pronouncing of sentence on Katharine and of the coronation of Anne Boleyn (age 32).

e1. Anne Boleyn's father (age 56) had been created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond on the 8th December, 1529.

a2. Steps or stain, Latin gressus.

b2. Striped cloth.

Note c. Desks.

d2. Room.

e2. Suite.

f2. Occupied.

g2. Stow expressly states that Archbishop Cranmer sat on the right hand of the Queen at the table's end. Ed. 1631, p. 567.

h2. Sir Stephen Pecocke.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 07 Sep 1533 [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 42) and [his wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32).

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 14) and [his daughter-in-law] Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 14) were married. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36). He the son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 35). They were third cousins.

In 1534 William Stafford (age 26) and [his sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 35) were married in secret. The marriage was discovered when she, Mary, attended Court, when pregnant, angering both the King (age 42) and her sister the [his wife] Queen (age 33). They was banished from Court. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 57) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 54).

In 1534 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42), [his wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 33) and [his daughter] Princess Elizabeth visited Chenies Manor House, Buckinghamshire [Map].

1534 Treasons Act

After 1534 Parliament enacted the Treason Act made it treason, punishable by death, to not swear an oath recognising the King Henry VIII (age 42) as the "... Only Head of the Church of England ...".

First Act of Succession

In Mar 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Succession. The Act made [his daughter] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 18) illegitimate and [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland the heir to King Henry VIII (age 42). The Act also required all subjects, if commanded, to swear an oath to recognize this Act as well as the king's supremacy.

Around Jul 1534 John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer (age 40) and [his future wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England (age 21) were married. She by marriage Baroness Latimer of Snape. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

First Act of Supremacy

On 03 Nov 1534 Parliament enacted the First Act of Supremacy by which Henry VIII (age 43) and his heirs were declared to be Supreme Head of the Church of England.

From Feb 1535 Margaret "Madge" Shelton was believed to have been a mistress of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 43). Eustace Chapuys (age 45) refers to "Mistress Shelton". Others have suggested "Mistress Shelton" could be Madge's sister Mary Shelton (age 25).

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Before 22 Jun 1535 Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 47) presided over the trial of Bishop John Fisher (age 65) and Thomas More (age 57) both of whom refused to take the Oath Of Supremacy. The judges including Anne Boleyn's father [his father-in-law] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 58). Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 50) brought Richard Rich 1st Baron Rich (age 38) as a witness who testified that Thomas More (age 57) had denied that the King was the legitimate head of the Church. However, Richard Southwell (age 32) to the contrary.

The jury took, somewhat unsurprisingly, only fifteen minutes to conclude Thomas More (age 57) was guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered; the King (age 43) commuted this to beheading.

On 21 Aug 1535 Nicholas Poyntz (age 25) visited by Henry VIII (age 44) and [his wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 34) at Acton Court Iron Acton, Gloucestershire [Map].

In 1536 Ralph Warren (age 50) was elected Lord Mayor of London. He was knighted by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 44) the same year.

1536 Hans Holbein The Younger (age 39). Portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 44).

Death of Catherine of Aragon

On 07 Jan 1536 [his wife] Catherine of Aragon (age 50) died at Kimbolton Castle [Map] in the arms of her great friend Maria de Salinas Baroness Willoughby (age 46).

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 07 Jan 1536. This yeare, the morrowe after twelve daie being Fridaie and the 7th daie of Januarieb, 1536 the honorable and noble [his wife] Princes, Queene Katherin (age 50), former wife to King Henrie the VIII (age 44), departed from her worldlie lief at Bugden [Map], in Huntingdonshire, about tenne of the clocke at nightb, and...

Note. Stow and Hall, with other authorities, state that Queen Katharine died on the 8th Jannary, but the correctness of our text as to the day is placed beyond a doubt by the original letter of Sir Edward Chamberleyn (age 52) and Sir Edmund Bedyngfeld (age 57) transmitting this intelligence to Cromwell (age 51), still extant in the Public Record Office, and which runs thus:

"Pleaseth yt yower honorable Maystershipp to be advertysed, that this 7th day of January, abowt 10 of the clock before none, the Lady Dowager was aneled with the Holy Oyntment, Mayster Chamberlein (age 57) and I called to the same; and before 2 of the clock at aftenone she departed to God. Besechyng yow that the Kyng may be advertyscd of the same, and furder to know yower pleasour yn every thyng aperteynyng to that purpose; and, furder, in all other causes concernyng the hows, the servantes, and all other thynges, as shall stand wyth the Kynge's pleasour and yowers."

Note b. This would appear to be an error for 2 o'clock in the afternoon. See preceding note.

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good [his former wife] Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his [his wife] concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the [his father-in-law] earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his [his brother-in-law] son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the [his daughter] Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His [his daughter] bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the [his sister] Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Henry VIII Tournament Accident

On 24 Jan 1536 Henry VIII (age 44) held a tournament at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map] some two weeks after [his former wife] Catherine of Aragon's (deceased) death.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

On 29 Jan 1536 [his former wife] Catherine of Aragon (deceased) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map] at a service for a Princess rather than Queen.

Bishop John Hilsey preached, alleging that, in the hour of death, she had acknowledged that she had never been Queen of England.

Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 17) was Chief Mourner. Henry VIII (age 44) refused their daughter [his daughter] Mary (age 19) permission to attend. On the same day [his wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) miscarried a child.

William Harvey (age 26) attended; the only officer of arms to do so.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

His last letter, announcing the death and martyrdom of the [his former wife] Queen of England, was dated the 30th of January.

Since then he (Ortiz) has received one, dated the 19th of January, [from Chapuys?], informing him that the [his daughter] Princess (age 20) (Mary) was in good health. The Queen before dying showed well what her whole life had been; for not only did she ask for, and receive, all the sacraments ordained by the Church, but answered the questions put by the priest with such ardour and devotion that all present were edified. Some of those who were by her bedside, having suggested that it was not yet time to receive the sacrament of Extreme Unction, she replied that she wished to hear and understand everything that was said, and make fitting answers. She preserved her senses to the last, &c.

They say that when the king of England (age 44) heard of the death of his Queen, dressed in mauve silk as he was at the time, and with a white feather in his cap, he went to solace himself with the ladies of the palace. In fact it may well be said of him and of his kingdom what the Prophet Isaias says, cap. lvii., "Justus periet, et non est qui recogitet in corde suo, et viri misericordia colliguntur quia non est qui intelligat."

Her Highness the Queen was buried with the honors of a Princess [dowager], 18 miles from the place where she died, at an abbey called Yperberu [Map] (Peterborough), the King having only sent thither some ladies of his Court to attend the funeral. The King and the [his wife] concubine (age 35) were not in London, but at a place on the road called Octinton [Map] (Huntingdon).

Anne Bolans (age 35) is now in fear of the King deserting her one of these days, in order to marry another lady.

The King having sent his ambassadors into Scotland to persuade the king (age 23) of that country to separate from, and refuse obedience to, the Apostolic See, it happened that the very day and moment when the English were delivering their embassy a storm arose, and a most tremendous clap of thunder was heard, at which king James (age 23) horrified rose from his seat, crossed himself, and exclaimed, "I scarcely know which of the two things has caused me most fear and horror, that thunder and lightning we have just heard, or the proposition you have made me." After which, and in the very presence of the English ambassadors, he ordered unconditional obedience to the Church to be proclaimed throughout his dominions.

Here, at Rome, when the news of the good Queen's death arrived, the Papal bull excommunicating king Henry for his iniquitous conduct, and depriving him of his kingdom, was already sealed and closed. Since then nothing further has been done in the matter, but the executory letters (executoriales) in the principal cause have actually been taken out, though with no small trouble.-Rome, 6 March 1536.

Since the above was written I have had a letter from the Imperial ambassador in France, in date of the 15th ultimo, intimating that, according to news received from England, the King wished to marry the Princess to a gentleman of his kingdom, and that king Francis had told the Imperial ambassador that in consequence of a fall from his horse king Henry had been two hours unconscious without speech1; seeing which Ana Bolans (age 35) (Boleyn) was so struck that she actually miscarried of a son. Great news these, for which we are bound to thank God, because, were the Princess to be married as reported, she may at once be considered out of danger; for her marriage may hereafter be dissolved and declared null, as it would effectually be owing to the violence used, and the evident fear the Princess has of her life, should she not consent to it. At any rate, it must be owned that though the King himself was not converted like St. Paul after his fall, at least his adulterous wife (age 35) has miscarried of a son.

Note 1. Que el Rey de Inglaterra auia caitlo con su cavallo, y estado mas de dos horas sin habla, de lo qual la Ana (age 35) tuvo tan grande alteracion que movió un hijo."

.

Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

Calendars. On the same day that the [his former wife] Queen (deceased) was buried this King's [his wife] concubine (age 35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the King (age 44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (age 35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named [his future wife] Miss Seymour (age 27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents-is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne's miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.

In May 1536 the marriage of Thomas Howard (age 25) and Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 20) was discovered by King Henry VIII (age 44). She, Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 20) was next in line of the succession at the time of the discovery. Henry promptly enacted retrospective legislation and imprisoned both Thomas and Margaret in the Tower of London [Map]. Thomas was attainted and remained in the Tower of London [Map] until his death a year later.

Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster [Map]g Sir Frances Weston (age 25), knight, Henrie Norrisy (age 54) esquier, Brerton, and Markes (age 24), being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamberh, and their condemned of high treason against the Kinge (age 44) for using fornication with [his wife] Queene Anne (age 35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent [burned] before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (age 48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme..

Note g. They were tried by a Commission of Oyer and Terminer in Westminster Hall, after having been twice indicted. True bills were found by the two grand juries of the counties of Kent and Middlesex, the crimes they were charged with being said to be done in both counties.

Note h. Sir Francis Western and William Brereton, esq. of the King's Privy Chamber. Henry Norris, Groom of the Stole, and one Mark Smeton, a musician.

Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

On 17 May 1536 [his brother-in-law] George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33), Henry Norreys (age 54), Francis Weston (age 25), William Brereton and Mark Smeaton (age 24) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

On 19 May 1536 [his wife] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map].

Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 20 May 1536 Henry VIII (age 44) and [his future wife] Queen Jane Seymour (age 27) were betrothed the day after Anne Boleyn had been beheaded.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 Henry VIII (age 44) and Jane Seymour (age 27) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map] by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 53). She by marriage Queen Consort England. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41) and Margaret Dymoke (age 36) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Jane Seymour (age 27).

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 30 May 1536. The week before Whitsuntide the King (age 44) married [his wife] lady Jane (age 27) daughter to the right worshipful Sir [his father-in-law] John Seymor (age 62) knight, which at Whitsuntide was openly showed as Queen.

18 Jul 1536. Attainder of Lord Thomas Howard 1536 28 Hen 8 c24 by which Thomas Howard (age 25) was attainted for having married the King's (age 45) niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 20) in secret thereby attempting to "interrupt ympedyte and lett the seid Succession of the Crowne" (she, Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 20), was heir to the throne at the time). The Act sentenced Howard to death although it wasn't implemented.

On 23 Jul 1536 [his illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 17) died at St James's Palace [Map]. He the illegitimate son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 45). He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Earl Nottingham extinct.

Pilgrimage of Grace

Around Oct 1536 the North rose against religious policies of Henry VIII (age 45). Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48) condemned the traitors. John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer (age 42) was implicated. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Henry Howard (age 20) and Edmund Knyvet (age 28) undertook the suppression of the rebels.

Bigod's Rebellion

In Jan 1537 Bigod's Rebellion was an armed rebellion by Catholics in Cumberland and Westmoreland against Henry VIII (age 45). It was led by Francis Bigod (age 29).

On 03 Aug 1537 Gregory Cromwell 1st Baron Cromwell Oakham (age 17) and [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Seymour Baroness Cromwell Oakham (age 19) were married at Mortlake, Richmond. He the son of Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 52) and Elizabeth Wyckes.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 12 Oct 1537 [his son] King Edward VI of England and Ireland was born to Henry VIII (age 46) and [his wife] Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. George Owen (age 38) assisted as Physician.

On 18 Oct 1537 Anthony Kingston (age 29) was knighted by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 46).

Death of Jane Seymour

On 24 Oct 1537 [his wife] Queen Jane Seymour (age 28)died at Hampton Court Palace [Map] at two in the morning as a result of complications arising from childbirth.

Letters and Papers 1537. 13 Nov 1537. 1079. [his sister] Queen Margaret (age 47) to Henry VIII (age 46).

Rejoices that he has a prince. Hopes he is informed both by her own writings sent with the herald Master Svallo and the information sent to Sir Tomas Qwarton, how she is treated. Trusts Henry will not let her be wronged daily. Would sooner be dead than remain in such trouble as she has been in since Master Sadler's departure. Desires only to "brwk" her lands given her by the King her father and confirmed by the three estates of this realm; of which she is only debarred by lord Meffen (age 42). Has her sentence of divorce ready to be pronounced written and concluded with forty "famos prewes" (proofs), but the King her son (age 25) supports Meffen (age 42), as her husband, in possession of her lands. When she passed to her land the forest of Ettrick the King her son accused her of intending to marry "him that was Earl of Angus," which Henry knows she had never a mind to do. Her son will only let her "depart bed and bwred," which is unjust, and fears she will pass into England. Trusts Henry will for his own honor refuse redress on the Borders till she has her due. Is now 49 years old and should not travel like a poor gentlewoman, following her son from place to place as she has done for 20 weeks past. 13 Oct.

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 25 Dec 1537. The Kinges Majesty (age 46) kept his Christmas at Greenwich in his mourning apparel, and so was all the Court till the morrow after Candlemas day, and then he and all other changed.

On 10 Mar 1538 Philip Hoby (age 33) arrived in Brussels [Map] with Hans Holbein The Younger (age 41) having been sent by Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 53) to procure a portrait of Christina Oldenburg Duchess Lorraine (age 16). King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 46) received the protrait on 18 Mar 1538 and was reported to have been pleased.

Letters and Papers 1538. 23 Mar 1538. Spanish Calendar, V. ii. No. 220. 583. Chapuys (age 48) to the Queen of Hungary (age 32).

She has done well in writing to Cromwell (age 53), who was much gratified by her letter. The French ambassadors have had difficulty in getting an interview with the King (age 46), and were ill received; on which the Bishop of Tarbes said to the Venetian secretary he would do his best to promote a peace between the Emperor and France. Next day the Bishop received a present of 500 cr. and 150 cr. for a gentleman of his suite; but he has not yet got his passports, which the King (age 46) will probably not give till he has heard from Spain. On the same day, the 18th, the painter (age 41) returned with the Duchess' (age 16) likeness, which has pleased the King (age 46) much, and put him in much better humour. He has been masking and visiting the Duchess of Suffolk (age 19), &c. Does not think, however, that he is pleased at the meeting arranged between the Pope, the Emperor, and Francis. London, 23 March 1538.From a MS. at Vienna.

Thomas Becket Shrine destroyed

In Sep 1538 Henry VIII (age 47) ordered Thomas of Becket's shrine at Canterbury Cathedral [Map] to be destroyed. Both an attack on the Catholic Church, and a means to generate revenue; Thomas' shrine was covered in precious metals and stones. Two huges chests, each requiring six men to carry, were required to remove the treasure.

On 16 Nov 1538 Henry VIII (age 47) attacked Thomas of Becket's reputation, removing his canonisation at the same time.

Henry enacted legislation as follows:

ITEM, for as moche as it appereth now clerely, that Thomas Becket, sometyme Archbyshop of Canterburie, stubburnly to withstand the holsome lawes establyshed agaynste the enormities of the clergie, by the kynges highness mooste noble progenitour, kynge HENRY the Seconde, for the common welthe, reste, and tranquillitie of this realme, of his frowarde mynde fledde the realme into Fraunce, and to the bishop of Rome, mayntenour of those enormities, to procure the abrogation of the sayd lawes, whereby arose moch trouble in this said realme, and that his dethe, which they untruely called martyrdome, happened upon a reskewe by him made, and that, as it is written, he gave opprobrious wordes to the gentyllmen, whiche than counsayled hym to leave his stubbernesse, and to avoyde the commocion of the people, rysen up for that rescue. And he not only callyd the one of them bawde, but also toke Tracy by the bosome, and violently shoke and plucked hym in suche maner, that he had almoste overthrowen hym to the pavement of the Churche; so that upon this fray one of their company, perceivynge the same, strake hym, and so in the thronge Becket was slayne. And further that his canonization was made onely by the bysshop of Rome, bycause he had ben a champion of maynteyne his usurped auctoritie, and a bearer of the iniquitie of the clergie, for these and for other great and urgent causes, longe to recyte, the Kynge's Maiestie, by the advyse of his counsayle, hath thought expedient to declare to his lovynge subjectes, that notwithstandynge the sayde canonization, there appereth nothynge in his lyfe and exteriour conversation, wherby he shuld be callyd a sainct, but rather estemed to have ben a rebell and traytour to his prynce. Therefore his Grace strayghtly chargeth and commandeth that from henseforth the sayde Thomas Becket shall not be estemed, named, reputed, nor called a sayncte, but bysshop Becket; and that his ymages and pictures, through the hole realme, shall be putte downe, and avoyded out of all churches, chapelles, and other places; and that from henseforthe, the dayes used to be festivall in his name shall not be observed, nor the service, office, antiphoners, colletes, and prayers, in his name redde, but rased and put out of all the bokes.

Henry VIII Excommunicated

On 17 Dec 1538 Henry VIII (age 47) was excommunicated by Pope Paul III (age 70).

In 1539 Maurice Berkeley (age 33) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 47).

On 29 Jun 1539 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 66) attended dinner with King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 48), Cromwell (age 54) and others as guests of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 49).

In Jul 1539 Henry VIII (age 48) visited Cowdray House [Map].

In Jul 1539 Henry VIII (age 48) visited Cowdray House [Map].

1540 Hans Holbein The Younger (age 43). Miniature portrait of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 48).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 Henry VIII (age 48) and Anne of Cleves (age 24) were married by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 50) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Anne of Cleves (age 24) was crowned Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of John La Marck III Duke Cleves and Maria Jülich Berg Duchess Cleves. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24).

On 10 Mar 1540 Thomas Jermyn (age 58) was knighted by Henry VIII (age 48).

Anne of Cleves Annulment

On 09 Jul 1540 Henry VIII's (age 49) marriage to [his wife] Anne of Cleves (age 24) was annulled. He gave her a generours settlement including Richmond Palace [Map] and Hever Castle, Kent [Map]. Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton signed the delcaration. She was given precedence above all other women other than the King's wife future wives and daughters, referring to her thereafter as The King's Sister. She lived seventeen more years outliving Henry's two next wives [his future wife] Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17) and [his future wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England (age 27), and [his son] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 2).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 Henry VIII (age 49) and Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

1541 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1541, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1541, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 49) created four new Knights of the Garter:

306th. [his former brother-in-law] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 41).

307th. Henry Howard (age 25).

308th. John Gage (age 61).

309th. Anthony Wingfield (age 54).

1541 Executions

Letters and Papers 1541. 29 May 1541. 868. Marillac to Francis I.

What has here happened since he wrote last, on the 22nd, gives matter to write. To begin with, a case more worthy of compassion than of long letters, the countess of Saalberi (deceased), mother of Cardinal Pol (age 41) and the late lord Montaigue, was yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, beheaded in a corner of the Tower [Map], in presence of so few people that until evening the truth was still doubted. It was the more difficult to believe as she had been long prisoner, was of noble lineage, above 80 years old, and had been punished by the loss of one son and banishment of the other, and the total ruin of her house. Further reflections upon this. The manner of proceeding in her case and that of a lord who was executed at the same time (who is not yet named, but is presumed to be lord Leonard de Clidas (age 62), formerly the King's lieutenant in Ireland) seems to argue that those here are afraid to put to death publicly those whom they execute in secret. It may be added that yesterday all the heads which were fixed upon the bridge of the river which passes by this town were taken down; in order that the people may forget those whose heads kept their memory fresh, if it were not that this will people the place with new, for Marillac hears from a good place that, before St. John's tide, they reckon to empty the Tower of the prisoners now there for treason.

The talk of going to the North continues, and provisions are already being sent; which are the greater as the company will be 4,000 or 5,000 horse, as well because the King (age 49) wishes to go with more magnificence (as he has not yet been there) as to be secure against any seditious designs. They will be gentlemen of these quarters of King (Kent), whom he trusts most. The 50 gentlemen of the house will each have tent and war equipment, as also will several other young lords; so that it will be rather like following a camp than going to the chase.

As instructed in last packet of the 20th, will write to no one of affairs here. Would not have done it in the past had he known Francis's pleasure, but was only written to to address all he wrote to Francis, not that he should not write to others. Will write affairs concerning war or peace to Mons. de Vendosme, as long as he is in Picardy, and in his absence a word to M. du Bies, to prevent them thinking better or worse in the absence of news. Is not spoken to about the Cauchoide nor about the conversation he wrote last in cipher.

Letters and Papers 1541. 10 Jun 1541. 897. Chapuys (age 51) to the Queen of Hungary.

If the affair is mentioned, will follow her instructions in her letter of the 28th ult. Expects to be summoned before the King (age 49) two days hence. Is vexed at not having received the copy of her answer to the King, referred to in his despatch of 26 May. The news since that date is that on the 27th three of the chief conspirators in the North - an abbot and two gentlemen - were hung and quartered. About the same time took place the lamentable execution of the countess of Salisbury (deceased) at the Tower [Map] in presence of the Lord Mayor and about 150 persons. When informed of her sentence she found it very strange, not knowing her crime; but she walked to the space in front of the Tower, where there was no scaffold but only a small block. She there commended her soul to God, and desired those present to pray for the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess. The ordinary executioner being absent, a blundering "garçonneau" was chosen, who hacked her head and shoulders to pieces. A most virtuous lady nearly 90 years of age. When her death was resolved on her nephew (grandson) (age 21), the son of lord Montague, who had been allowed occasionally to go about within the Tower, was more strictly guarded. It is to be supposed he will soon follow his father and grandmother. London, 10 June 1541. Original at Vienna.

Letters and Papers 1541. 02 Jul 1541. 954. Chapuys (age 51) to the Queen of Hungary.

Almost immediately after Chapuys's return the King (age 50) gave the people of Dunkirk permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use for curing herrings, and he has frequently reminded Chapuys of the favor, saying he was surprised that the town had not sent a deputation to say how much wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after being kept 13 days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things till the Queen has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition purchased by the King some time ago at Antwerp.

On St. Peter's eve lord Leonard (deceased), uncle of the Marquis of Osceter (age 24) (Dorset) and of the Chancellor's (age 53) wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower [Map]. Hears he was accused of letting his nephew (age 16), the young Earl of Kildare, escape to France and thence to Liege.

That afternoon two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had an income of over 12,000 ducats a year, and was the handsomest and best bred man in England [Note. Not clear as to who this is? If anyone has information on the identity of this person I'd be grateful if they would email Christopher Smith.], only 25 years old and married to a niece of the Duke of Norfolk (age 68). He was sentenced for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in an unpremeditated fray. For the same cause lord Dacres (deceased) also, son1 of the Duke of Norfolk's (age 68) sister, and cousin of this [his wife] Queen (age 18), 23 years old and possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet, and for greater shame dragged through the streets to the place of execution, to the great pity of many people, and even of his very judges, who wept when they sentenced him, and in a body asked his pardon of the King. But the thing which astonished people most was, that, the same day lord Dacres was hung, another young man (age 28), son of the Treasurer of the Royal household (age 56), who was one of those present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned, though he had been already tried for some like misdemeanour.

At the same time in the North, Sir John Neville (deceased) and about 60 more, among whom at least 25 were ecclesiastics, were executed for the conspiracy of which Chapuys wrote some time ago. Has just heard of the arrival of a Polish gentleman with eight or ten servants. Will endeavour to discover who he is and what he comes for. London, 2 July 1541. Original at Vienna.

Note 1. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (deceased), Lord Dacre, was the grandson of Anne Bourchier Baroness Dacre Gilsland who was the maternal half-sister of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68); Anne and Thomas' mother was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey.

On 04 Sep 1541 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 50) issued letters patent to convert Peterborough Abbey into a Cathedral [Map]. Bishop John Chambers was appointed Bishop of Peterborough.

Before Nov 1541 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 50) and [his wife] Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 18) visited Chenies Manor House, Buckinghamshire [Map]. The house was subsequently mentioned in evidence against her as somewhere she had committed adultery with Thomas Culpepper (age 27).

Catherine Howard Trial

On 01 Nov 1541 Henry VIII (age 50) received a warrant for [his wife] Catherine Howard's (age 18) arrest from Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 52) at Chapel Royal, Hampton Court Palace [Map].

In 1542 Hugh "The Elder" Cholmondeley (age 29) was knighted by Henry VIII (age 50).

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 [his wife] Queen Catherine Howard (age 19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 37) were beheaded at Tower Green [Map]. Henry Howard (age 26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

[his former sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 43) was the heir of Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 37) being the sister of her deceased husband [his former brother-in-law] George Boleyn Viscount Rochford.

On 20 Jul 1542 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 51) purchased the premises at Stanmore, with a windmill, lands in Great and Little Stanmore and Harrow, others in Essex, and also the "premises in the parish of St Sepulchre in the ward of Faryngton Without" from Geoffrey Chamber of Stanmore in Middlesex -1550.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) and Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters Mary (age 27) and Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

On 19 Jul 1543 [his former sister-in-law] Mary Boleyn (age 44) died. Her considerable wealth and properties were inherited by her two children from her first marriage Catherine Carey (age 19) and Henry Carey 1st Baron Hunsdon (age 17), and her second husband William Stafford (age 35).

Parr Family Ennobled

On 23 Dec 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) enobled his [his wife] new wife's (age 31) [his brother-in-law] brother (age 31) and uncle (age 60) at ceremony in the Presence Chamber, Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 26) and Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 34) were present. Christopher Barker read the Patents.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 60) was created 1st Baron Parr of Horton. William was sixty with five daughters. He died four years later at which time the Barony became extinct.

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31) was created 1st Earl Essex. His estranged wife Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 26) was daughter of the last Earl of Essex of the Fifth Creation. A somewhat curious choice given his wife had eloped the year previous year with John Lyngfield, the prior of Tandbridge, Surrey [Map], by whom she had an illegitimate child.

After 27 Nov 1544 James Stumpe and [his former sister-in-law] Isabel Leigh were married.

Christening of Henry Wriothesley

On 24 Apr 1545 Henry Wriothesley, the future 2nd Earl Southamption, was christened at St Andrew's Church, Holborn [Map]. His godparents were Henry VIII (age 53), Henry's daughter [his daughter] Mary Tudor (age 29) and Charles Brandon 1st Duke Suffolk (age 61).

On 21 May 1545 Robert Townshend was knighted by Henry VIII (age 53) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

In Aug 1545 Henry VIII (age 54) visited Cowdray House [Map].

On 09 May 1546 George Blagge (age 34) was induced to deny the efficacy of the Mass, by trickery he alleged, while walking home after church. He was immediately summoned by Thomas Wriothesley (age 40), the Lord Chancellor, and sent to Newgate Prison [Map]. At his trial at the Guildhall [Map], the main witnesses for the prosecution were Littleton (age 41) and Sir Hugh Calverley (age 42), MP for Cheshire. On their evidence, Blagge (age 34) was sentenced to be burned for heresy the following Wednesday. Fortunately for him, the Lord Privy Seal, John Russell (age 61), appealed on his behalf to the king (age 54), who had not heard of the proceedings to that point. Henry (age 54) immediately pardoned Blagge and ordered Wriothesley to release him.

Henry VIII Revises his Will

On 30 Dec 1546 Henry VIII (age 55) made his last revision to his will signed using the Dry Stamp that was used increasingly commonly. The will confirmed the succession as [his son] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9), [his daughter] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 30) and [his daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 13).

The will appointed sixteen executors: Anthony Browne (age 46), Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 57), Anthony Denny (age 45), John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 42), William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 45), Edward Montagu (age 61), Edward North 1st Baron North (age 50), William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 40), William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 63), John Russell 1st Earl Bedford (age 61), [his former brother-in-law] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 46), Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 72) and Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton (age 41).

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 Henry VIII (age 55) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son [his son] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) succeeded VI King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Thomas Wendy (age 46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King's last will and testament, for which he received £100.

Funeral of King Henry VIII

Annales of England by John Stow. The 14 of February the corpes of k Henrie the eight (deceased), was with great solemnitie and honor conveyed unto Syon [Map], and the next day to Windsor, and there buried in the colledge [Map].

On 16 Feb 1547 Henry VIII (deceased) was buried in the Henry VIII Vault, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map]. John Gage (age 67) attended.

Coronation of Edward VI

On 16 Feb 1547, three weeks's after the death of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (deceased), the new Council promoted themselves ...

Thomas Wriothesley 1st Earl of Southampton (age 41) was created 1st Earl of Southampton in accordance with Henry VIII's (deceased) will for which he was nominated executor. Jane Cheney Countess Southampton (age 38) by marriage Countess of Southampton.

[his former brother-in-law] Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 47), the King's uncle, was created 1st Duke Somerset. Since he was Protector and head of the Privy Council at the time he effectively created himself Duke. Anne Stanhope Duchess Somerset (age 50) by marriage Duchess Somerset.

William Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby of Parham (age 32) was created 1st Baron Willoughby Parham. Elizabeth Heneage Baroness Willoughby Parham (age 29) by marriage Baroness Willoughby Parham.

Around May 1547 [his former brother-in-law] Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 39) and [his former wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England (age 34) were married in secret only four months after the death of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 05 Sep 1548 [his former wife] Catherine Parr Queen Consort England (age 36) died from childbirth having given birth to her daughter Mary Seymour six days before. She was buried at Sudeley Castle [Map]. William Harvey (age 38) as Somerset Herald of Arms in Ordinary was the only herald to attend her funeral.

Before 04 Sep 1550 Thomas Paston (age 35) was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 [his daughter] Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal entrance into London.

Strype's Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:

There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (age 80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (age 80) was put to death by King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (age 26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (age 70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (age 56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (age 26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (age 70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen's mother and had written in defense of King Henry's proceedings.

Death of Anne of Cleves

On 16 Jul 1557 [his former wife] Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 41) died at Chelsea Manor [Map]. She was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map] on 03 Aug 1557. She was the last of Henry VIII's six wives to die having outlived him by ten years.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Aug 1654. Taking leave of my friends, who had now feasted me more than a month, I, with my wife (age 19), etc., set our faces toward home, and got this evening to Peterborough [Map], passing by a stately palace (Thorpe) of St. John's (one deep in the blood of our good king), built out of the ruins of the Bishop's palace and cloister. The church is exceeding fair, full of. Monuments of great antiquity. Here lies [his former wife] Queen Catherine, the unhappy wife of Henry VIII, and the no less unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scots. On the steeple, we viewed the fens of Lincolnshire, now much inclosed and drained with infinite expense, and by many sluices, cuts, mounds, and ingenious mills, and the like inventions; at which the city and country about it consisting of a poor and very lazy sort of people, were much displeased.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1663. Up and to my office, whither several persons came to me about office business. About 11 o'clock, Commissioner Pett (age 52) and I walked to Chyrurgeon's Hall (we being all invited thither, and promised to dine there); where we were led into the Theatre [Map]; and by and by comes the reader, Dr. Tearne, with the Master and Company, in a very handsome manner: and all being settled, he begun his lecture, this being the second upon the kidneys, ureters, &c., which was very fine; and his discourse being ended, we walked into the Hall, and there being great store of company, we had a fine dinner and good learned company, many Doctors of Phisique, and we used with extraordinary great respect. Among other observables we drank the King's health out of a gilt cup given by King Henry VIII to this Company, with bells hanging at it, which every man is to ring by shaking after he hath drunk up the whole cup. There is also a very excellent piece of the King, done by Holbein, stands up in the Hall, with the officers of the Company kneeling to him to receive their Charter.

1667. Remigius van Leemput (age 59). Copy (for which he received £150) of Hans Holbein's "Whitehall Mural" of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland, [his father] King Henry VII of England and Ireland, [his mother] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England and [his former wife] Queen Jane Seymour. The original was destroyed in a fire in 1698.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Oct 1667. At last, rose, and up, and broke our fast, and then took coach, and away, and at Newport [Map] did call on Mr. Lowther (age 26), and he and his friend, and the master of the house, their friend, where they were, a gentleman, did presently get a-horseback and overtook us, and went with us to Audley-End [Map], and did go along with us all over the house and garden: and mighty merry we were. The house indeed do appear very fine, but not so fine as it hath heretofore to me; particularly the ceilings are not so good as I always took them to be, being nothing so well wrought as my Chancellor's (age 58) are; and though the figure of the house without be very extraordinary good, yet the stayre-case is exceeding poor; and a great many pictures, and not one good one in the house but one of Harry the Eighth, done by Holben; and not one good suit of hangings in all the house, but all most ancient things, such as I would not give the hanging-up of in my house; and the other furniture, beds and other things, accordingly1. Only the gallery is good, and, above all things, the cellars, where we went down and drank of much good liquor; and indeed the cellars are fine: and here my wife and I did sing to my great content.

Note 1. Mr. George T. Robinson, F.S.A., in a paper on "Decorative Plaster Work", read before the Society of Arts in April, 1891, refers to the ceilings at Audley End as presenting an excellent idea of the state of the stuccoer's art in the middle of James I's reign, and adds, "Few houses in England can show so fine a series of the same date ... The great hall has medallions in the square portions of the ceiling formed by its dividing timber beams. The large saloon on the principal floor-a room about 66 feet long by 30 feet wide-has a very remarkable ceiling of the pendentive type, which presents many peculiarities, the most notable of which, that these not only depend from the ceiling, but the outside ones spring from the walls in a natural and structural manner. This is a most unusual circumstance in the stucco work of the time, the reason for the omission of this reasonable treatment evidently being the unwillingness of the stuccoer to omit his elaborate frieze in which he took such delight" ("Journal Soc. of Arts", vol. xxxix., p. 449).

Vesta Monumenta. 1734. Plate 1.43. The golden seal of Edmund, King of Sicily, between 1254 and 1261, a royal of Edward the Black Prince around 1364, a chaise of Edward the Black Prince around 1363), a salute of Henry VI around 1423), an angelot of Henry VI around 1427), a rose noble of Henry VII between 1485 and 1489, a silver jeton of Perkin Warbeck, Pretender around 1494), and a Tournay groat of Henry VIII around 1514. Engraving by George Vertue (age 50) after his own drawings. 459 x 273 mm.

Archaeologia Volume 25 Section VI. Proclamation of Henry the Eighth on his Marriage with [his former wife] Queen Anne Boleyn; in the possession of the Corporation of Norwich: Communicated by Hudson Gurney, Esg. V.P., in a Letter to Henry Ellis (age 54), Esq., F.R.S., Secretary.

Read 29th March, 1832.

Keswick, January 21, 1832.

Edward Neville was appointed Keeper of the Sewer to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

Henry Willoughby was appointed Knight of the Body to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton was appointed Esquire to the Body to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500 1552 Arms. Or, on a pile gules between six fleur de lys azure three lions of England. Augmentation of honour granted to Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset when his sister Queen Jane Seymour married King Henry VIII of England and Ireland. Source.

Ralph Leigh and Margaret Ireland were married.

Letters and Papers 1528. This day, as the King came "towards evensong," the marquis of Exeter brought two great bucks from Burllyng [Map], the best of which the King sends to your Grace. This day the King has received his Maker at the Friars', when my Lord of Lincoln administered. On Tuesday the King goes to Waltham [Map]. Greenwich [Map], Corpus Christi Day. Signed.

Francis Knollys was appointed Treasurer of the Royal Household to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

Thomas Heneage was appointed Groom of the Stool to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland.

Manners Augmented Arms. Manners Arms in chief England Henry IV Arms. The augmentation was granted by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York.

King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472

King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Royal Ancestors of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 11 Grand Son of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn King Gwynedd King Powys

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 2 Grand Son of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France

Royal Descendants of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547

Queen Mary I of England and Ireland x 1

Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland x 1

King Edward VI of England and Ireland x 1

Ancestors of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547

Great x 1 Grandfather: Owen Tudor 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Father: King Henry VII of England and Ireland 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Beaufort 1st Duke Somerset Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

King Henry VIII of England and Ireland Son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: King Edward IV of England 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Mother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England Daughter of King Edward IV of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers

GrandMother: Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England