Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London [Map]

 Tower of London Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London Bowyer Tower, Tower of London Brick Tower, Tower of London Iron Gate, Tower of London Red Bulwarke, Tower of London St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London Tower Green, Tower of London Tower Wharfe Wakefield Tower, Tower of London White Tower, Tower of London Chapel of St John the Evangelist King's Hall Tower of London

Tower of London is in London.

1100 Coronation of Henry I

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1346 Battle of Neville's Cross

1360 Release of King John II of France

1381 Peasants' Revolt

1382 Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

1387 Lords Appellant

1399 Abdication of Richard II

1400 Epiphany Rising

1441 Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1462 Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

1470 Execution of John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl Worcester

1471 Death of King Henry VI

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1483 Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1483 Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

1483 Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

1483 Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

1503 Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

1503 Lying in State of Elizabeth of York

1506 Malus Intercursus aka Evil Treaty

1521 Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1536 Arrest of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

1536 Bigod's Rebellion

1537 Pilgrimage of Grace

1538 Exeter Conspiracy

1540 Arrest and Attainder of Thomas Cromwell

1541 Executions

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

1544 Wyatt's Rebellion

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1551 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1553 Death of Edward VI

1553 Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1553 Coronation of Mary I

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1559 Coronation of Elizabeth I

1571 Ridolphi Plot

1600 Gowrie Conspiracy

1601 Essex Rebellion

1603 Main and Bye Plots

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1613 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1651 Battle of Worcester

1658 Royalist Conspiracy

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1665 Great Plague of London

1666 Great Storm

1666 Great Fire of London

1667 Raid on the Medway

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

1671 Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

1678 Popish Plot

1683 Rye House Plot

1688 Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

1690 Battle of the Boyne

1715 Battle of Preston

1760 Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

1875 Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Coronation of Henry I

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1100. And after this the Bishop of London, Maurice, consecrated him king (age 32); and all in this land submitted to him, and swore oaths, and became his men. And the king (age 32), soon after this, by the advice of those that were about him, allowed men to take the Bishop Ranulf of Durham (age 40), and bring him into the Tower of London [Map], and hold him there.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1101. This year also the Bishop Ranulf (age 41) at Candlemas burst out of the Tower of London [Map] by night, where he was in confinement, and went into Normandy; through whose contrivance and instigation mostly the Earl Robert (age 50) this year sought this land with hostility.

Around 1106 William Mortain Count Mortain 2nd Earl Cornwall (age 22) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1220 Stephen Segrave (age 49) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1241 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw (age 43) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 01 Mar 1244 Gruffydd ap Llewellyn Aberffraw (age 46) died at Tower of London [Map].

Liber de Antiquis Legibus 1255. 22 Nov 1255. In the same year, upon the Feast of Saint Cecilia [22 November], which was on a Monday, two-and-ninety Jews were brought to Westminster from Lincoln, and were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map], for the death of a certain male child, whom they purposely slew at Lincoln, in despite of the Christian faith. Eighteen of these, who, when the King was at Lincoln, had declined to put themselves upon the verdict of Christians, without Jews, as concerning that death, and had been then indicted for the same before the King, were on the same day drawn, and, after the hour of dinner, and towards the close of the day, hanged. The other 74 were taken back to the Tower.

After 27 Apr 1296 John "Empty Coat" I King Scotland (age 47) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

After 27 Apr 1296 John Strathbogie 9th Earl Atholl (age 30) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 12 Oct 1297 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas (age 57) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1298 William "Hardy" Douglas 2nd Lord Douglas (age 58) died at Tower of London [Map].

In 1321 Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 12) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1321 Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 8) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 05 Jul 1321 Joan of the Tower Queen Consort Scotland was born to King Edward II of England (age 37) and Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) at the Tower of London [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.16%.

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) was returning from Canterbury, Kent [Map] to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle, Kent [Map] which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (age 37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (age 37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros Helmsley (age 13), Maud Badlesmere Countess of Oxford (age 13), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere (age 6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot (age 6)), and her nephew Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 34), were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

After Oct 1321 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1322 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 03 Nov 1322 Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 35) was released at Tower of London [Map].

In Aug 1323 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 36) escaped to France and to Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 28) at Tower of London [Map].

After 19 Nov 1330 Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March (age 43) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Around Jan 1332 Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer of Chirk (age 76) and his nephew Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March surrendered to the King and were imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] with his nephews.

On 19 Dec 1333 Joan Plantagenet was born to King Edward III of England (age 21) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 19) at Tower of London [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

On 03 Aug 1336 Roger Mortimer 1st Baron Mortimer of Chirk (age 80) died at the Tower of London [Map] after four and a half years imprisonment. He was buried at either Wigmore Abbey [Map] or St Augustine's Priory, Bristol [Map]. His son Roger de Mortimer 2nd Baron Mortimer succeeded 2nd Baron Mortimer of Chirk although he was never summoned to Parliament.

In 1337 Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 50) was appointed Admiral of the Fleet from the mouth of the Thames westward, Constable of the Tower of London, Lord Chamberlain of the Household and Seneschal of Ponthieu.

In 1342 Blanche of the Tower was born to King Edward III of England (age 29) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 27) at the Tower of London [Map]. In 1342 she died. She was buried at the east side of the door to the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.00%.

Battle of Neville's Cross

On 17 Oct 1346 at the Battle of Neville's Cross near Durham, County Durham [Map] the English inflicted a heavy defeat on the Scottish army that had invaded England in compliance with their treaty with the French for mutual support against England.

The English army included: William Deincourt 1st Baron Deincourt (age 45), Henry Scrope 1st Baron Scrope Masham (age 34), Ralph Hastings (age 55), Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville of Raby (age 55), Archbishop William Zouche, Henry Percy 10th and 2nd Baron Percy (age 45) and John Mowbray 3rd Baron Mowbray (age 35).

Of the Scottish army King David II of Scotland (age 22), John Graham Earl Menteith and William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl (age 46) were captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Neil Bruce, John Randolph 3rd Earl Moray (age 40), David Hay 6th Baron Erroll (age 28) and Edward Keith of Sinton (age 66) were killed.

John Graham Earl Menteith was present.

After 17 Oct 1346 King David II of Scotland (age 22) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

After 17 Oct 1346 William "Flower of Chivalry and Knight Liddesdale" Douglas 1st Earl Atholl (age 46) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Release of King John II of France

On 30 Jun 1360 King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) left the Tower of London [Map] and proceeded to Eltham Palace, Kent [Map] where Queen Philippa (age 46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, Kent [Map], he continued towards Dover, Kent [Map], stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury [Map] on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (age 30) at Dover Castle [Map], and reached English-held Calais [Map] on 08 Jul 1360.

In 1361 Richard Vache was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Peasants' Revolt

On 11 Jun 1381 King Richard II of England (age 14) held council with his mother Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 52), Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 43), William Montagu 2nd Earl Salisbury (age 52), Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl Surrey 11th Earl Arundel (age 35), Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65) and Robert Hales (age 56) at the Tower of London [Map].

On 14 Jun 1381 the mob gained access to the Tower of London [Map] capturing Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 52), the future Henry IV King England (age 14), Joan Holland Duchess York (age 1) and Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65).

Archbishop Simon Sudbury (age 65) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. He was buried at Canterbury Cathedral [Map].

Lord Treasurer Robert Hales (age 56), who had only been appointed on the 1st February 1381, was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map].

Marriage of Richard II and Anne of Bohemia and her Coronation

On 20 Jan 1382 King Richard II of England (age 15) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 15) were married at Westminster Abbey [Map] by Bishop Robert Braybrooke. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Charles IV King Bohemia Holy Roman Emperor Luxemburg and Elizabeth Pomerania Holy Roman Empress Luxemburg (age 35). He the son of Edward "Black Prince" and Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales (age 53). They were fourth cousins. He a grandson of King Edward III of England.

It was the first royal wedding that including a Royal Procession from the Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map].

Arranged by Michael de la Pole 1st Earl Suffolk (age 52) the marriage not popular since it brought no dowry and little prospect of increased trade since Bohemia not a primary English trade partner.

Lords Appellant

In 1387 Bishop Richard Mitford was arrested by Lords Appellant and imprisoned in Bristol Castle, Gloucestershire [Map]. He was then imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. Thereafter he was released without charge.

On 28 Jan 1388 Nicholas Brembre was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Froissart. 1397. You have before seen, in the course of this history, that king Richard of England (age 29) would not longer conceal the great hatred he bore his uncle of Gloucester (age 41), but had determined to have him cut off, according to the advice given him, setting it forth to be more advisable to destroy than be destroyed. You have likewise heard how the king (age 29) had rode to the castle of Pleshy [Map], thirty miles from London, and with fair words had cajoled the duke (age 41) out of his castle [Map], and was accompanied by him to a lane that led to the Thames, where they arrived between ten and eleven o'clock at night; and how the earl-marshal (age 28), who there lay in ambush, had arrested him in the king's name, and forced him towards the Thames, in spite of his cries to the king (age 29) to deliver him. He was conscious, that from the moment of his being thus arrested, his end was resolved on, and it was confirmed to him by the king (age 29) turning a deaf ear to his complaints, and riding on full gallop to London, where he lodged that night in the Tower [Map]. The duke of Gloucester (age 41) had other lodgings; for, whether he would or not, he was forced into a boat that carried him to a vessel at anchor on the Thames, into which he was obliged to enter. The earl-marshal (age 28) embarked also with his men, and, having a favourable wind and tide, they fell down the river, and arrived, late on the morrow evening, at Calais [Map], without any one knowing of it except the king's officers. [The earl-marshal (age 28), as governor, could enter Calais [Map] at all hours, without any one thinking it extraordinary: he carried the duke (age 41) to the castle, wherein he confined him.]

Froissart. Before 19 Oct 1398. The earl of Derby (age 31) resided in London, for he had his house there, and kept up his state. The duke of Lancaster (age 58), the duke of York (age 57), the earl of Northumberland (age 56), and many other great lords, for he was much beloved, were his securities to appear and answer the challenge. The earl marshal (age 30) was sent to the Tower of London [Map], where he lived with his household. These two lords made ample provision of all things necessary for the combat; and the earl of Derby (age 31) sent off messengers to Lombardy to have armour from sir Galeas, duke of Milan. The duke complied with joy, and gave the knight, called sir Francis, who had brought the message, the choice of all his armour for the earl of Derby (age 31). When he had selected what he wished for in plated and mail armour, the lord of Milan, out of his abundant love to the earl, ordered four of the best armourers in Milan to accompany the knight to England, that the earl of Derby (age 31) might be more completely armed. The earl marshal (age 30), on the other hand, sent into Germany, whence he thought he should be ably assisted by his friends. Each provided himself most magnificently, to outshine the other; but the greater splendour was shown by the earl of Derby, for I must say that, when the earl marshal (age 30) undertook this business, he expected to have been better supported than he was by the king. It was hinted to the king, by those near his person, - "Sire, you have no occasion to interfere further in this matter: dissemble your thoughts, and leave them to themselves: they are fully capable of managing it. The earl of Derby is wondrous popular in the kingdom, but more especially in London; and, should the citizens perceive that you take part with the earl marshal (age 30) against the earl of Derby, you will irrecoverably lose their affection."

Abdication of Richard II

On 29 Sep 1399 King Richard II of England (age 32) Abdicated II King England at the Tower of London [Map]. William Ros 6th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 29), Thomas Grey (age 40), William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby (age 29), Hugh Burnell 2nd Baron Burnell (age 52) and Thomas Rempston were present.

On 07 Oct 1399 Thomas Rempston was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1400 Bishop Thomas Merke was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] and deprived of his Bishopric.

Epiphany Rising

On 04 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas (age 46) was tried, and condemned to death, by Thomas Fitzalan 10th Earl Surrey 12th Earl Arundel (age 18) at Tower of London [Map] for his role in the Epiphany Rising having been captured in Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 05 Feb 1400 Bernard Brocas (age 46) was beheaded at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at the Chapel of St Edmund, Westminster Abbey [Map].

In 1402 Philip Courtenay (age 47) was imprisoned for clerical abuses at Tower of London [Map].

In 1409 Catrin Mathrafal was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

After 24 Oct 1411 John Cockayne (age 41) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Around 1412 Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal (age 37) died at Tower of London [Map].

In 1413 John Abrichecourt was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1413. And that same yere Syr John Olde Castelle was a restyde [arrested] at Wynsore and sende to the Toure of London [Map] for poyntys of heresy that he was accusyd of; and at the Frere Prechourys he was examnyd by fore alle the clargy of thys realme, spyritualle and temporalle and relygyous, and he was sent unto the Toure a-yenne; and sone aftyr he brake owt of the Towre and wentte in to Walys; and aftyr he was take ayen by the Lorde Powes (age 43) in the tyme of Rychard Merlowe, as ye shalle hyre aftyr.

On 18 Jan 1414 John Cheyne of Drayton Beauchamp (age 24) and his father Roger Cheney (age 51) were sent to the Tower of London [Map] for their part in the Lollard Uprising. His brother Thomas Cheney of Chesham Blois (age 20) managed to stay at large and was specifically excluded from the amnesty offered to the lollards that March. Roger Cheney (age 51) died in prison two months later. John Cheyne of Drayton Beauchamp (age 24) remained in the Tower until 2 Nov., and only then did he receive a royal pardon for his 'treasons, felonies and insurrections'. Five days later, he was allowed to take possession of his paternal inheritance, which, for reasons unknown, had previously escaped the penalty of confiscation. His brother was admitted to pardon two months afterwards.

On 14 May 1414 Roger Cheney (age 51) died at Tower of London [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 17 Jul 1431. Ande the same yere, in the monythe of Juylle, the xvij day, the posterne be-syde the Towre [Map] sanke downe into the erthe vij [7] fote and more.

In 1433 Richard Woodville (age 48) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Trial and Punishment of Eleanor Cobham

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 27 Oct 1441. And on Syn Symon and Jude ys eve was the wycche (age 26) be syde Westemyster brent in Smethefylde [Map], and on the day of Symon and Jude the person of Syn Stevynnys in Walbroke, whyche that was one of the same fore sayde traytours, deyde in the Toure [Map] for sorowe.

Note 1. Necromancy.

On 28 Oct 1441 Thomas Southwell died whilst in the Tower of London [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 26 May 1445. And uppon Thorsday, the xxvj day of May, the kyng (age 23) made xlvj [46] Knyghtys of the Bathe yn the Towre of London. And uppon the morowe, that was the Fry day, lordys of the realme, whythe nobylle and grete and costelowe araye, the Mayre of London and the aldyrmen in scharlet, whythe alle the craftys of London in blewe, wythe dyvers dyvysyngys, every crafte to be knowe from othyr, rydyng agayne Quene Margarete (age 15) and brought hyr unto the Toure of London [Map], the quene (age 15) havynge whythe hyr xvij [17] charys with ladys.

On 28 Jan 1450 William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 53) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the hys mayny; that was Satyrday, and hyt was also a Synt Martyn ys day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry [Map], the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle [Map]; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (age 34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe owte Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton ys Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard [Map], Syr Jamys Fynes (age 55), beyng that tyme the Lorde Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London [Map] unto the Gylde Halle [Map], and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter. And thenne they brought hym unto the Standard in Cheppe [Map], and there he ressayvyd hys jewys and hys dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London [Map], and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

Note 1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

Around 1453 Thomas Courtenay 13th Earl Devon (age 39) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In Oct 1453 Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke Somerset (age 47) was imprisoned by Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 42) at Tower of London [Map].

Before Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) and Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns (age 29) were commissioned to hold London for the Lancastrians. They retreated to the Tower of London [Map] where they set the guns of the Tower towards the City; it isn't known whether they were fired or not. They eventually surrendered for lack of food. He was sent to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map].

On 20 Jul 1460 Thomas Scales 7th Baron Scales (age 63) was murdered by boatmen whilst travelling from the Tower of London [Map] to Sanctuary Westminster Abbey [Map]. His daughter Elizabeth Scales Countess Rivers succeeded 8th Baroness Scales. She was, or had been married to, Henry Bourchier (the year of his death may been 1458). She was in 1466 married to Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 20), brother of King Edward IV's (age 18) wife Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 23); an example of the Woodville family marrying rich heiresses.

In Nov 1461 Humphrey Neville (age 22) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Calendars. 02 Dec 1461. Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's (age 19) kinsman John, Earl of Worcester (age 34), of the office of the constable of the Tower of London, with the accustomed fees.

Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV

Chronicle of Gregory 1462. 26 Feb 1462. And thys same yere the Erle of Oxforde (age 53), the Lord Abbry, the Lorde of Oxforde ys sone, Syr Thomas Todenham (deceased) knyght, John Mongomery, and William Terelle (deceased) squyer, were takyn in Esex, and brought unto Lundon to the Towre [Map]. Ande thenne they were ledde to Westemyster to the Kynges palys, and there they were attaynte of hyghe and myghthy treson that they ymagenyd agayne þe Kynge. And thenn they were drawe to the Towre from Westemyster. And at the Towre hylle was made a schaffolde for them, and there hyr heddys were smetyn on, and hyr bodys beryd, as hyt plesyd them to be qwethe hyr bodys. See Vere Plot to Murder Edward IV.

In 1468 Thomas Tresham (age 48) was imprisoned for having taken part in the plots of John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 25) at Tower of London [Map].

After 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 41) was imprisoned at Wallingford Castle [Map] then the Tower of London [Map].

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

Chronicle of Robert Fabyan 1478. This yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the duke of Clarence (age 28) and .... 2brother to the kynge, thanne beyng prysoner in ye Tower [Map], was secretely put to deth & drowned in a barell of maluesye within the sayd Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it myght haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thynge whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to y begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and desyre of veyngiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

Croyland Chronicle 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke (age 28), except the king (age 35); not one individual made answer to the king except the duke (age 28). Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and offered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London [Map], it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and his brother Clarence.

Stonor Letters 06 Mar 1478. 06 Mar 1478. Elizabeth Croke (age 38) to William Stonor (age 28).

Ryght reverent and worschypffull and interely best belovyde husbonde, I recomaunde me unto you in the most harteyste wyse hever more desyryng to here off your goode wellfare, the wyche I pray God longe to contune unto your hartys desyr. Syr, I resayved a tokyn ffrom you by Tawbose, my lorde Lovellys (age 22) sarvant. And Syr, I have sent my lorde Lovell a tokyn and my ladys, as ye comaunde me to do, schuche as schalle plese them. Syr, ye schalle understonde that þe beschope off Bathe (age 58) ys browthe in to the Towre [Map] syne you departyd. Allso Syr, ye schalle understonde that þe wolle hooys departe, as to morw is, ffor as I understonde: I pray Jhesu by thayr goode spede: and Goodard. [Goddard Oxbryge.] departys allso: and I pray you that ye wylle sende me som off your sarvantys and myne to wayte upone me, ffor now I ame ryght bare off sarvantys, and þat ye know well. Syr, I sent you halffe a honder welkys by Gardenar, and I wollde have sent you som hoder desys, but truly I cowde not get none: but and I cane get hony to morow, syr Wylliam salle bryng hyt with hym. Syr, I pray you that I may be recomaundehyde unto my masterys your moder, and unto all goode ffrendys. No more unto you at thys tym, but þe blesyde Trenyte have you in hys kepyng now and hever. Amen. At London þe vj day off Marche.

Cossen, I was crasyd þat the makyng off thys letter, but I thanke God I am ryght well amendyd, blesyd by Jhesu.

By your owen wyff Elysabeth Stonore.

To my ryght reverent and worschypffull Cosyn, syr Wyllm. Stonor, knyght.

In 1483 Walter Hungerford (age 19) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the King (age 12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the Lord Richard Grey (age 26), the King's other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the Lord Marquis (age 28) his brother and the Lord Rivers (age 43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the Lord Marquis (age 28) had entered into the Tower of London [Map], and thence taken out the King's treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.

Unto which words, the King (age 12) answered, "What my brother marquis (age 28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle Rivers (age 43) and my brother (age 26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters.".

"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham, "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace.".

And forthwith they arrested the Lord Richard (age 26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan (age 73), knight, in the King's (age 12) presence, and brought the King (age 12) and all back unto Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (age 12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the Duke of Gloucester (age 30) sent a dish from his own table to the Lord Rivers (age 43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the Duke (age 30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the Lord Richard (age 26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the Duke of Gloucester (age 30), he sent the Lord Rivers (age 43) and the Lord Richard (age 26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan (age 73) into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait [Map], where they were, in conclusion, beheaded.

Calendars. 20 May 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's servant William Hastings (age 52), knight, of the office of master and worker of the king's moneys and keeper of the exchange within the Tower of London [Map], the realm of England and the town of Calais according to the form of certain indentures, receiving the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

On 13 Jun 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London [Map] attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63), Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (age 46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map] next to King Edward IV of England. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux, Hungerford and Moleyns (age 16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings.

Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) were arrested.

Richard of Shrewsbury Removed from Sanctuary

On 16 Jun 1483 Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 65) removed Edward IV's youngest son Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9) from Sanctuary in Westminster Abbey [Map] to the Tower of London [Map] so that he could join his brother in preparation for his Coronation. Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28) was present.

Robert Brackenbury appointed Constable of the Tower of London

On 17 Jul 1483 Robert Brackenbury was appointed Constable of the Tower of London for life. As Constable he was in direct care of The Princes in the Tower: King Edward V of England (age 12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9).

Disappearance of the Princes in the Tower

Around Aug 1483 King Edward V of England (age 12) and his brother Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke York (age 9) disappeared, presumably killed, from the Tower of London [Map]. Thomas More (age 5)writes, around 1515, that King Richard III of England (age 30) requested Robert Brackenbury undertake the murder of the children. Upon Brackenbury's refusal King Richard III of England (age 30) instructed Robert Brackenbury give the keys to the Tower to James Tyrrell (age 28) who would then undertake the task. Duke Norfolk, Duke York, Earl March, Earl Nottingham, Earl Norfolk and Earl Pembroke extinct.

Calendars. On 09 Mar 1484 King Richard III of England (age 31). Westminster Palace [Map]. Grant for life to the king's servant Robert Brackenbury of the office of Constable of the Tower of London and £100 yearly for his wages from the issues of the manors or lordships of Wrottell, Haveryng, Boyton, Hadlegh, Raylegh and Rocheford, co Essex, and Tunbrich, Penshurste, Middleton and Merdon and the hundred of Middleton, co Kent, with arrears from 17 July last, in lieu of a grant to him by letters patent of that date surrendered. By p.s.

Calendars. 26 Sep 1484. Grant, for the peace and tranquillity of the city, to the mayor and commonalty of London and their successors, that if the king should hereafter deal in mercy with the lives of John Norhampton, draper, late mayor of London, John More, mercer, and Richard Norbury, who with others lately made insurrection against the king's peace and Nicholas Brembre, the mayor, and the governors of the city and its government, for which they were indicted and, after acknowledging their misdeeds before the king and council in his presence and being separately arraigned before John de Monte Acuto, steward of the household and the other justices assigned to deliver the prison of the Tower of London [Map] of them, were condemned to be drawn and quartered, but execution, so far as their lives were concerned, was respited by the king's grace,-that they shall be sent to prisons in different counties 100 leagues distant from the city for ten years, and not then be released until they have found security that no evil or prejudice shall befall the city or any of the king's lieges thereby. If they should be released they are inhibited, under pain of losing their lives, from coming within 100 leagues of the city, and any one guilty of making suit or maintenance on their behalf is to be imprisoned and forfeit his goods. For the strengthening of good government in the city and for the punishinent of rioters and those who are guilty of such assemblies, congregations, covins or insurrections, this grant is to remain in force without revocation. By signet letter.

Battle of Bosworth

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers Sheriff of Yorkshire (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.

After 22 Aug 1485 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick (age 10) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Coronation of Henry VII

On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath was created 1st Earl Bath at Tower of London [Map] by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne.

On 29 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) processed from Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (age 37), almoner Christopher Urswick (age 37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50), John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53), created the day before, and John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 43).

On 17 Jun 1497 James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley, 4th Baron Tuchet (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

After 04 Oct 1497 Perkin Warbreck (age 23) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck (age 25) recaptured at Tower of London [Map].

Around Mar 1499 Perkin Warbreck (age 25) escaped at Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 23 Nov 1499. Perkin Werbeck (age 25) putt to death at Tyburne [Map]; and the Earle of Warwyke (age 24),b sonne to the Duke of Clarence, who had bene kept in the Tower [Map] from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill [Map].c A great pestilence throughout all England.

Note b. Edward Earl of Warwick (age 24) was the last remaining male of the honse of Plantagenet. He bore the title of Earl of Warwick, though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed.

Note c. Warbeck (age 25) was executed at Tyburn [Map] on the 23rd Norember, together with O'Water, Mayor of C!ork, and the Earl of Warwick on the following day, or, according to some anthorities, on the 28th.

Note. "though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed." Edward's (age 24) claim was from through his mother Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence, daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick, whose claim had come from her mother Anne Beauchamp, so his father's attainder was irrelevant.

In 1502 William Pole (age 24) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

After 26 Dec 1502 Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 31) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] with his brother William Pole (age 24). he remained there for eleven years.

Death of Elizabeth of York Queen Consort

On 02 Feb 1503 Katherine Tudor was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 46) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36) at the Tower of London [Map]. She died eight days later on 10 Feb 1503.

On 11 Feb 1503 (her birthday) Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36) died from childbirth.

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excellent and most Christen Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London [Map] the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.

Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.

Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.

Grafton's Chronicle. The next yere after Queene Elizabeth, livng within the Tower of London [Map], was brought abed of a fayre daughter on Candlemasse day, which was there christened and named Katheryn, and the xj. day of the same moneth, the sayde most vertuous Princes and gracious Queene there deceassed, and was with all funerall pompe caryed through the Citie of London to Westminster, and there buried, whose daughter also taryed but a small season after her mother.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 11 Feb 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died Queene Elizabeth (age 37) at the Towre of London [Map], lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster [Map];c

Note c. Elizabeth (age 37), the eldest child of Edward IV by Elizabeth Woodville his wife, was heiress of the house of York. She was born at Westminster [Map] on the 11th February, 1466, and died on her thirty-seventh birthday in the Tower of London [Map], having been delivered of a daughter on the second of the same month, who died soon after its mother.

In Feb 1504 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 29) was attainted and imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] for supposedly having supported Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 33), a Yorkist claimant, in his claim to the throne; William's wife was Catherine York Countess Devon (age 24).

Malus Intercursus aka Evil Treaty

Around Feb 1506 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile (age 27) was blown off course whilst travelling to Castile to claim his inheritance. He landed in England where he became the guest of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 49) who negociated the Malus Intercursus Treaty as part of the conditions of his release. The Treaty include favourable commercial terms by removing all duties on English exports, and the marriage of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 49) with Philip's sister Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias (age 26) (which didn't take place). Most importantly it secured the return of Edmund Pole 3rd Duke of Suffolk (age 35) who was Philip's (age 27) prisoner. Edmund Pole was immediately imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] and executed seven years later.

On 09 Nov 1506 Thomas Green (age 45) died at the Tower of London [Map]. His daughters Anne Green Baroness Vaux of Harrowden (age 17) and Maud Green Lady in Waiting (age 14) inherited his estate.

In 1516 Robert Sheffield (age 55) was imprisoned after complaining against Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (age 42) at Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 14 May 1517. The 14 day of May the Kinge satt in the Kinges Benche in Westminster Hall [Map], and there was brought before him all the prisoners which came from the Tower of London [Map],f in their shirtes with halters aboute their neckes, and there the King pardoned them, and the Major and citizens also which were there present in their liveries.

Note f. This event is more fully related by Arnold, who says, that, on the 16th May, 330 men and 11 women were bound in ropes, and led with cords from Guildhall to Westminster, the Sheriffs waiting on them, and every prisoner "a peyr of bedys [beads] in ther handys," and in the King's Street in Westminster were stripped to their shirts and halters placed about their necks.

On 10 Aug 1518 Robert Sheffield (age 57) died at Tower of London [Map].

Trial and Execution of the Duke of Buckingham

In Apr 1521 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was arrested and imprisoned at Tower of London [Map]. He was accused of listening to prophecies of the King's death and intending to kill the King. Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 48) presided at his trial. Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 43) and Henry Guildford (age 32) acted as judges. Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham (age 51), Anthony Poyntz (age 41) and Edmund Walsingham (age 41) as jurors.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 11 Feb 1522. The eleventh day of February, Sir George Neville (age 53) Lord Bergavenny, being then prisoner in the Tower [Map] was brought to Westminster, and there in the King’s Bench confessed his inditement of misprision, in the cause of Edward late Duke of Buckingham to be true, and after the open confession thereof, led again to the Tower.

The Lord Montacute (age 30) the King’s cousin, was about this time reconciled to his graces favour, which had been prisoner in the Tower, with Sir Edward Neville (age 51) knight, this Sir Edward Neville was forbidden the King’s presence, for bearing favour to the Duke of Buckingham.

On 28 May 1524 William Kingston (age 48) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

In 1527 Trinity Hall, Cambridge University preached a series of sermons to which serious objection was taken. He was dragged from the pulpit while preaching in St George's Chapel, Ipswich, arrested and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. He was arraigned Wolsey (age 53) and William Warham (age 77), Archbishop of Canterbury, among others, at the chapter-house at Westminster Abbey [Map]. He was convicted of heresy, sentence being deferred while efforts were made to induce him to recant, which eventually he did.

In 1529 Thomas Bilney (age 34) was released from the Tower of London [Map]. Churches being no longer open to him, he preached openly in the fields, finally arriving in Norwich, where the bishop, Richard Nix (age 82), caused him to be arrested.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 29 May 1533. Memorandum, Thursdaie, the 29th daie of Maie, 1533, Ladie Anne, Marques of Pembroke (age 32), was receayed as Queene of Englande by all the Lordes of Englande.c And the Majord and Aldermen, with all the craftes of the Cittie of London, went to Greenewych in their barges after the best fashion, with a barge also of Batchlers of the Majors crafte rytchlie behanged with cloath of golde and a foyste to wayte on her. And so all the Lordes, the Major, with all the craftes of London, brought her by water from Greenewych [Map] to the Tower of London [Map], and ther the Kinges grace (age 41) receaved her at her landinge; and then were shott at the Towre above a thousand gunnes, besides other shotts that were shott at Lymehowse, and in other shipps lying in the Thammes. And the morrowe after being Fridaief their were made divers Knightes of the Bath.

Note c. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was descended through both parents from the royal stock of King Edward I; paternally, from Elizabeth, daughter of that monarch, and, maternally, from Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, son of the same King.

Note d. Sir Stephen Pecocke

Note e. A light and fast-sailing ship.

Note f. May 30.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 31 May 1533. And on Saturdaie, the last daie of Maie, shee (age 32) rode from the Towre of London [Map] throwe the Cittie,a with a goodlie companye of Lordes, Knightes, and Gentlemen, with all the Peares of the Realme, rytchlie apparailed, and also eightene Knightes of the Bath newlie made, ridinge in blewe gownes with hoodes on their sholders purfeled with white, and white laces of silke knitt on the left sholders of their gownes. And she herself riding in a rytch chariott covered with cloath of silver, and a rich canapie of cloath of silver borne over her heade by the fower Lordes of the Portes,b in gownes of Scarlett, and fower chariotts, with ladies followinge after her rytchlie behanged; and also divers other ladies and gentlewomen riding on horscbacke all in gownes made of crymson velvett; and their was divers pageants made on skaffoldes in the Cittie; and all the craftes standing in their liveries everie one in order, the Major and Aldermen standinge in Cheepeside; and when she came before them the Recorder of London made a goodlie preposition to her, and then the Majorc gave her a purse of cloath of golde, with a thousand markes of angell nobles in it, for a presente for the whole bodie of the Cittie; and so the Lordes brought her to the Palace at Westminster, and their left her that night.

Note a. The City on this occasion appears to hare been decorated in a more somptaoos manner than at any time heretofore. — Maitland's "History of London," p. 188.

Note b. Cinque Ports.

Note c. According to Stow, it was Master Baker, the Recorder of London, who presented to Anne Boleyn (age 32) the City purse, containing one thousand marks of gold.

On 13 Apr 1534 Thomas More (age 56) was asked to appear before a commission and swear his allegiance First Act of Succession. He refused to take the oath and was duly imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. Whilst there Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 49) made several visits in an attempt to persuade More to comply.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 09 Jul 1534. Memorandum: the Lord Dakers (age 41),c of the North Countrie, was pechid of highe treason, and sett in prison in the Tower of London [Map], and all his goods and landes were seised into the Kinges handes, which was great riches, and the 9th of Julye, 1534, he was arreigned at Westminstre, the Duke of Northfolke (age 61) sittinge then as high judge,d and there he discharged himselfe of all that his accuserse coulde alledge againste him, and so there he was quitt by a jurie of Lordes, and by the lawe allso.

Note c. William Dacre (age 41), third Lord Dacre, of the North.

Note d. Being Lord High Steward.

Note e. Sir Ralph Fenwick (age 64) and Nicholas Musgrave (age 37), who brought in their false Scotes for witnesses. — Stow. [Note. Nicholas Musgrave proably a mistake for William Musgrave (age 37).]

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Sep 1534. This yeare allso the Lord Kildaye (age 47)g of Ireland was putt in prison in the Tower of London [Map], and there died in prison in the moneth of Septembre, and his sonne (age 21)h made an insurrection in Irelande, and there the Bishoppe of Divelyn (age 58)a was slayne. It was reported that he was upon the coste [coast] of Englande comminge out of Irelande, and then the winde turned, and so was dryven backe agayne to Irelande, where he was taken by the Lord Kildayes sonne and his head stricken of from the bodie, and after his bodie cutt in peeces, and as many as were with him that would not tume to the Lord Kildayes partie were slayne and his goodes taken and spoyled; his name was Doctor Aleyne.

Note g. Gerald Fitzgerald (age 47), ninth Earl of Kildare. After having thrice filled the office of Lord Deputy, he was accused of maladministration in 1533, and committed to the Tower of London, where he died of grief and confinement.

Note h. Lord Thomas Fitzgerald (age 21), afterwards tenth Earl of Kildare.

Note a. John Allen (age 58), LLD, Archbishop of Dublin.

On 12 Dec 1534, some sources say the 13th, Gerald Fitzgerald 9th Earl of Kildare (age 47) died whilst imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at the St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. His son Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl of Kildare (age 21) succeeded 10th Earl Kildare. His son, and five of his brothers were executed just over two years later - see Execution of the Fitzgeralds.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Jun 1535. This yeare the Bishop of Rochester (age 65)e and Sir Thomas More (age 57), sometime Chauncellor of Englande,a were put into the Tower of London [Map] for misprisonne,b and there to remajme at the Kinges pleasure, but all the Bishopp of Rochesters (age 65) goodes and bishopricke were taken into the Kings handes. Allso diverse priestes, religiouse men, and laymen, were sett in prison in the Tower of London becausse they would not be sworne.

Note e. Dr John Fisher (age 65), Chancellor of Cambridge University, and Master of Queen's College, was appointed to the see of Rochester 14th October, 1504; attainted in Parliament December, 1534; made Cardinal 1535; and beheaded 22nd June, 1535.

Note a. More became Chancellor in 1629 on the fall of Wolsey, bnt in May 1532 was deprived of the seals.

Note b. For refusing to take the new oath of allegiance. It would appear that they did not so much object to the part of the oath regulating the succession, as to the doctrinal points involved.

In Oct 1535 Thomas "Silken" Fitzgerald 10th Earl of Kildare (age 22) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In May 1536 the marriage of Thomas Howard (age 25) and Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 20) was discovered by King Henry VIII (age 44). She, Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 20) was next in line of the succession at the time of the discovery. Henry promptly enacted retrospective legislation and imprisoned both Thomas and Margaret in the Tower of London [Map]. Thomas was attainted and remained in the Tower of London [Map] until his death a year later.

In May 1536 Thomas Wyatt (age 33) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn (age 60).

Arrest of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 02 May 1536 ... who the next day was apprehended and brought from Greenwich to the Tower of London [Map], where after she was arraigned of high treason, and condemned. Also at the same time was likewise apprehended, the Lord Rochford (age 33) brother to the said Queen (age 35), and Henry Norrys (age 54), Marke Smeaton (age 24), William Brereton and Sir Francis Weston (age 25), all of the King’s Privy Chamber. All these were likewise committed to the Tower [Map] and after arraigned and condemned of high treason.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris (age 54) and my Lorde of Rochforde (age 33) were brought to the Towre of London [Map] as prisoners;

On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust'! She was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison:

Margaret Dymoke (age 36),

her aunt Anne Boleyn (age 60),

Mary Scrope (age 60), wife of the Lieutenant of the Tower of London William Kingston (age 60),

her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood aka Wode, wife of her uncle James Boleyn (age 71), and

Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso, wife of Serjeant-at-Arms Walter Stonor (age 59).

The day before her brother George Boleyn, Henry Norrys, William Brereton and Francis West had been arrested; they would be executed on the 17 May.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 02 May 1536. ... and the same daie, about five of the clocke at nighta, Anne Bolleine (age 35) was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (age 48)b, the Duke of Norfolke (age 63), Mr. Secretarie (age 51),c and Sir William Kingston (age 60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate,d entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her accusement,e and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner.f.

Note a. "In the afternoon." — Stow.

Note b. Sir Thomas Audley.

Note c. Sir Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex.

Note d. "Towergate" in Stow.

Note e. On her arrest she was informed of the accusation of adultery.

Note f. Anne's prison-chamber was that in which she had slept the night before her coronation.

Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 May 1536. After this, immediately the Lord of Rocheforde (age 33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower [Map] from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume [Map], and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Item, on Munday,c the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London [Map] Queene Anne (age 35),d for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London [Map], and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my Lord of Northfolke (age 63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the Earle of Surrey (age 20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (age 48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his left hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees.

Note c. Stow's account seems to hare been taken from this, with considerable verbal differences and some omissions.

Note d. There was no precedent for the trial of a Queen for treason, so Henry determined that she should be arraigned before a commission of Lords, as had been practised in the case of the Duke of Buckingham.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Around Jun 1536. In the Parliament season Lord Thomas Howard (age 25) without the King’s assent affianced the Lady Margarete Douglas (age 20) daughter to the Queen of Scottes (age 46)Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 46) and near to the King (age 44) for which presumptuous act he was attainted of treason, and an Act made for like offenders, and so he died in the Tower [Map], and she was long there as a prisoner.

Bigod's Rebellion

Hall's Chronicle 1537. Dec 1536. Also in the latter end of this yere, the lord Darcy (age 69), Aske (age 36), Sir Robert constable (age 58), Sir Jhon Bulmer and his wyfe (age 25), Sir Thomas Percie (age 32) brother to the Erie of Northumberland (age 34), Syr Stephen Hamelton, Nicholas Tempest (age 56) Esquire, William Lumley, son to the lord Lumley (age 44) began again to conspire, although they before had every one of them their pardons, and now they were all taken and brought to the Tower of London [Map].

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 14 May 1537. Also the 14th day of May was brought from the Tower [Map] to Westminster the Lord Darcy (age 70) and Lord Hussey (age 72), and there were condemned to death, but they were had in to the North and there sufferd with Aske (age 37).

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 13 Mar 1537. Also the 13th day of March sir Francis Bigod (age 29) was brought out of the North to the tower through Smithfield [Map] and in at Newgate [Map], riding so through Cheapside [Map] and so to the Tower [Map], and Sir Ralph Elderker leading him by the hand with that he was bound withal.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 25 May 1537. And the 25th day of the same month was drawn from the Tower of London [Map] unto Tyburn [Map] Sir John Bulmer knyght, Sir Stephen Hamertone knight, master Nicolas Tempest (age 57) squire, William Thurston Abbot of Fountains [Map] and Bachelor of Divinity, Doctor John Pekerynge Prior of the Blackfriars in York, Sir James Pekerelle Canon and Doctor of Divinity. And after Sir John Bowmer [and] Sir Stephen Hamertone ware but hanged and headed, and all the residue ware both hangyd, headed and quarted. And at that time was drawn from the Tower after, the Lady Margaret Bowmer (age 26) wife unto Sir John Bulmer, and he made her his wife, but she was the wife of one Cheney, for he sold her unto Sir Bowmer; and she was drawn when she came to Newgate into Smythfelde, and there burned the same fore-none. And that same day at Tyburn was a young Friar of the Blackfriars brought up, and for because he desired the heart of him that brought him up, to have it and to burn it, the Sheriff sent him to Newgate and there was a seneyt [?] or more.

On 31 Oct 1537 Thomas Howard (age 26) died at the Tower of London [Map]. His body was released to his mother Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 60). He was buried at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map].

In 1538 Ingelram Percy (age 32) died at Tower of London [Map].

Exeter Conspiracy

In Nov 1538 Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (age 65), her son Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 46), his son Henry Pole (age 18), and other Pole family members, and Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 42), his wife Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 35), their son Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 11) and Edward Neville (age 67) were arrested and imprisoned on charges of treason. Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he [Reginald Pole] is of their kin". They were committed to the Tower of London [Map].

In 1540 John Gage (age 60) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

On 19 May 1540 Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle (age 76) was arrested and imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map]. Several members of the Plantagenet household in Calais were arrested on suspicion of treason, on the charge of plotting to betray the town to the French. The actual conspirators were executed, but there was no evidence connecting Arthur with the plot. Nevertheless, he languished in the Tower of London for two years until the king decided to release him. However, upon receiving news that he was to be released he, apparently, suffered a heart attack and died two days later.

Arrest and Attainder of Thomas Cromwell

On 10 Jun 1540 Thomas Cromwell 1st Earl Essex (age 55) attended a Meeting of the Privy Council where he was arrested. It isn't entirely clear why he was arrested but his role in the King's recent failed marriage to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24) is likely to have played a part. Either Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 67) or William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 50) tore off Cromwell's (age 55) St George of the Order of the Garter; the source of this story unknown? He was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Earl Essex and Baron Cromwell of Wimbledon in Surrey forfeit.

Hall's Chronicle 1540. 19 Jul 1540. The xix. day of July, Thomas Lord Cromwell (age 55), late made Earl of Essex, as before you have hard, being in the counsel chamber, was suddenly apprehended, and committed to the Tower of London [Map], the which many lamented, but more rejoiced, and especially such, as ether had been religious men, or favoured religious persons, for they banqueted, and triumphed together that night, many wishing that that day had been seven years before, and some fearing least he should escape, although he were imprisoned, could not be merry. Other who knew nothing but truth by him, both lamented him, and heartily prayed for him. But this is true that of certain of the clergy, he was detestably hated, and specially of such as had borne swinge, and by his meanes was put from it, for in deed he was a man, that in all his doings, seemed not to favour any kind of Popery, nor could not abide the snoffing pride of some prelates, which undoubtedly whatsoever else was the cause of his death, did shorten his life, and procured the end that he was brought unto which was that the xix. day of the said month, he was attainted by Parliament, and never came to his answer, which law many reported, he was the causer of the making thereof, but the truth thereof I know not. The Articles for which he died, appear in the Record, where his attainder is written, which are too long to be here rehearsed, but to conclude he was there attainted of heresy, and high treason.

1541 Executions

Hall's Chronicle 1541. 27 May 1541. On the same day was Margaret Countess of Salisbury (age 67), which had been long prisoner in the Tower [Map], beheaded in the Tower, and she was the last of the right line and name, of Plantagenet.

Letters and Papers 1541. 29 May 1541. 868. Marillac to Francis I.

What has here happened since he wrote last, on the 22nd, gives matter to write. To begin with, a case more worthy of compassion than of long letters, the countess of Saalberi (deceased), mother of Cardinal Pol (age 41) and the late lord Montaigue, was yesterday morning, about 7 o'clock, beheaded in a corner of the Tower [Map], in presence of so few people that until evening the truth was still doubted. It was the more difficult to believe as she had been long prisoner, was of noble lineage, above 80 years old, and had been punished by the loss of one son and banishment of the other, and the total ruin of her house. Further reflections upon this. The manner of proceeding in her case and that of a lord who was executed at the same time (who is not yet named, but is presumed to be lord Leonard de Clidas (age 62), formerly the King's lieutenant in Ireland) seems to argue that those here are afraid to put to death publicly those whom they execute in secret. It may be added that yesterday all the heads which were fixed upon the bridge of the river which passes by this town were taken down; in order that the people may forget those whose heads kept their memory fresh, if it were not that this will people the place with new, for Marillac hears from a good place that, before St. John's tide, they reckon to empty the Tower of the prisoners now there for treason.

The talk of going to the North continues, and provisions are already being sent; which are the greater as the company will be 4,000 or 5,000 horse, as well because the King (age 49) wishes to go with more magnificence (as he has not yet been there) as to be secure against any seditious designs. They will be gentlemen of these quarters of King (Kent), whom he trusts most. The 50 gentlemen of the house will each have tent and war equipment, as also will several other young lords; so that it will be rather like following a camp than going to the chase.

As instructed in last packet of the 20th, will write to no one of affairs here. Would not have done it in the past had he known Francis's pleasure, but was only written to to address all he wrote to Francis, not that he should not write to others. Will write affairs concerning war or peace to Mons. de Vendosme, as long as he is in Picardy, and in his absence a word to M. du Bies, to prevent them thinking better or worse in the absence of news. Is not spoken to about the Cauchoide nor about the conversation he wrote last in cipher.

Letters and Papers 1541. 10 Jun 1541. 897. Chapuys (age 51) to the Queen of Hungary.

If the affair is mentioned, will follow her instructions in her letter of the 28th ult. Expects to be summoned before the King (age 49) two days hence. Is vexed at not having received the copy of her answer to the King, referred to in his despatch of 26 May. The news since that date is that on the 27th three of the chief conspirators in the North - an abbot and two gentlemen - were hung and quartered. About the same time took place the lamentable execution of the countess of Salisbury (deceased) at the Tower [Map] in presence of the Lord Mayor and about 150 persons. When informed of her sentence she found it very strange, not knowing her crime; but she walked to the space in front of the Tower, where there was no scaffold but only a small block. She there commended her soul to God, and desired those present to pray for the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess. The ordinary executioner being absent, a blundering "garçonneau" was chosen, who hacked her head and shoulders to pieces. A most virtuous lady nearly 90 years of age. When her death was resolved on her nephew (grandson) (age 21), the son of lord Montague, who had been allowed occasionally to go about within the Tower, was more strictly guarded. It is to be supposed he will soon follow his father and grandmother. London, 10 June 1541. Original at Vienna.

On 28 Jun 1541 Leonard Grey 1st Viscount Grane (age 62) was executed at the Tower of London [Map] for having allowed Gerald "Wizard Earl" Fitzgerald 11th Earl of Kildare (age 16), his sister Elizabeth's (age 44) son, to escape capture at Tower of London [Map].

Letters and Papers 1541. 02 Jul 1541. 954. Chapuys (age 51) to the Queen of Hungary.

Almost immediately after Chapuys's return the King (age 50) gave the people of Dunkirk permission to buy here a quantity of wood for their own use for curing herrings, and he has frequently reminded Chapuys of the favor, saying he was surprised that the town had not sent a deputation to say how much wood they required. The deputation has arrived, and now, after being kept 13 days without an answer, they have been told that it is mere loss of time to solicit such things till the Queen has promised to release the harness, copper, and war ammunition purchased by the King some time ago at Antwerp.

On St. Peter's eve lord Leonard (deceased), uncle of the Marquis of Osceter (age 24) (Dorset) and of the Chancellor's (age 53) wife, was beheaded in front of the Tower [Map]. Hears he was accused of letting his nephew (age 16), the young Earl of Kildare, escape to France and thence to Liege.

That afternoon two gentlemen were hung, one of whom had an income of over 12,000 ducats a year, and was the handsomest and best bred man in England [Note. Not clear as to who this is? If anyone has information on the identity of this person I'd be grateful if they would email Christopher Smith.], only 25 years old and married to a niece of the Duke of Norfolk (age 68). He was sentenced for having belonged to a set of eight rakish youths, one of whom had killed a poor old man in an unpremeditated fray. For the same cause lord Dacres (deceased) also, son1 of the Duke of Norfolk's (age 68) sister, and cousin of this Queen (age 18), 23 years old and possessing a property of about 5,000 ducats a year, was hung from the most ignominious gibbet, and for greater shame dragged through the streets to the place of execution, to the great pity of many people, and even of his very judges, who wept when they sentenced him, and in a body asked his pardon of the King. But the thing which astonished people most was, that, the same day lord Dacres was hung, another young man (age 28), son of the Treasurer of the Royal household (age 56), who was one of those present at the old man's death, was freely pardoned, though he had been already tried for some like misdemeanour.

At the same time in the North, Sir John Neville (deceased) and about 60 more, among whom at least 25 were ecclesiastics, were executed for the conspiracy of which Chapuys wrote some time ago. Has just heard of the arrival of a Polish gentleman with eight or ten servants. Will endeavour to discover who he is and what he comes for. London, 2 July 1541. Original at Vienna.

Note 1. Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (deceased), Lord Dacre, was the grandson of Anne Bourchier Baroness Dacre Gilsland who was the maternal half-sister of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 68); Anne and Thomas' mother was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey.

On 03 Mar 1542 Arthur Plantagenet 1st Viscount Lisle (age 77) died at the Tower of London [Map]. Viscount Lisle extinct.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Feb 1544. [The vij day of February, in the forenoon, Wyatt (age 23), with his army and ordnance, were at Hyde Park Corner. There the Queen's host met with, with a great number of men at arms on horseback, beside foot. By one of the clock the Quen['s men and Wyatt's had a skirmish;] ther wher mony slayn; butt master Wyatt toke the way don by Sant James with a grett company and so to Charyngcrosse [Map], and so forth, crying 'God save quen Mare!' tyll he cam to Ludgatt and [knocked there; thinking to have entered; but the gate being kept fast against him, he retired,] and bake agayne unto Tempull Bare, and folouyd hym mony man, and ther he yelded unto master Norray the harold of armes in ys cote of armes, and ther he lycted be-hynd a gentleman unto the cowrte; but by the way mony of them wher slayne by the way or thay cam to Charyng-crosse [Map], what with mores pykes and bylls; and mony of Wyatt('s) men, as they whent, wher the quens fryndes and Englys-men under a fallss pretens that he whent a-bowtt to .... way as thay whent, and cam for to make men beleyff that the quen('s) grace had gyffvyn them pardon; and dyvers of ys men toke the quen('s) men by the hand as thay whent toward Ludgatt. Thys was done on As-Wedynsday the furst yere of quen Mare of England; and the sam nyght to the Towre [Map] ser Thomas Wyatt (age 23), master Cobham (age 47), and master Vane, and ij Knewetes and odur captaynes.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 25 May 1544. Frydaye 25 Maii Sir Edward Courtney, Earle of Devonshire (age 17), was had out of the Tower [Map] at 3 of the clock in the morninge, Mr. Chamberlayne of Suffolke and Sir Tho. Tresham, knights, ridinge with him, with certeyne of the Queens garde and others, to Fodringay Castle [Map] in Northamptonshire, and he there to remayne under theyr custodie at the Queens pleasure.

This moneth allso divers persons both men and weomen were sett on the pillorie in Cheape for slaunderouse and seditiouse wordes speakinge against the Queene (age 28) and her Councell and had their eares nayled to the pillorie [Map].

On 12 Dec 1546 Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 73) and his son Henry Howard (age 30) were imprisoned at Tower of London [Map]. Henry was accused of having assuming the royal arms of Edward the Confessor as part of his personal heraldry; an act of treason.

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

Annales of England by John Stow. 28 Jan 1547. Edward (age 9) the first borne at Hampton court [Map] (by the decease of k. Henry (age 55) his father) began his raigne the 28 of January, and was proclaimed k. of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the churches of England and also of Ireland the supreme head immedlatly in earth under God, & on the last day of January, in the yere of Christ after the Church of England 1546 but after the accompt of them that begin the yere at Chatfimas 1547 being then of the age of nine yéeres. And the same day in the afternoone the saide young king came to the tower of London [Map] from Hertford, and rode into the City at Aldgate, and so along the wall by the crossed Friars [Map] to the Tower hill, & entred at the red bulwarke [Map], where be was received by sir John Gage (age 67) constable of the tower, and the lieutenant on horseback, the Earle of Hertford (age 47) riding before the king, and sir Anthony Browne (age 47) riding after him: and on the bridge next the warde gate, the archbishop of Canterbury (age 57), the lorde Chancellor (age 41), with other great lords of the Councell received him, and so brought him to his chamber of pretence, there they were sworne to his majesty.

Annales of England by John Stow. The first daie of February the earle of Hertford (age 47) lord protector in the tower of London [Map], endued King Edward (age 9) with the order of knighthod: and then immediatly the king standing up, under the cloth of estate, Henry Hoblethorne lord Major of London was called, who kneeling downe, the king toke the sword of the lord protector and made him knight, which was the first that ever he made. Then the lords called the judges and communed with them, and then every one of them came before the king, who put forth his hand,and every of them kissed it: then master William Porteman one of the judges of the kings bench was called forth, whom the king made knight, and then the king moving his cap departed to his privie chamber againe.

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

On 16 Jan 1549 Thomas Seymour (age 41), the King's (age 11) uncle, was caught trying to break in to the King's (age 11) apartments at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. He entered the privy garden and awoke one of the King's pet spaniels. In response to the dog's barking, he shot and killed it. He was arrested and taken to the Tower of London [Map].

Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 49) was arrested on various charges, including embezzlement at the Bristol mint.

On 13 Oct 1549 John Thynne (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In Nov 1549 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 29) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1551 Edward Seymour (age 22) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In Sep 1551 Edward Waldegrave (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] for refusing to carry out the Privy Council's ban on Princess Mary (age 35) her having mass said in her house.

Annales of England by John Stow. 16 Oct 1551. The 16, of October, Edward Seimer Duke of Somerset (age 51), the Lord Gray of Wilton (age 42), Sir Ralph Vane, Sir Thomas Palmer, Sir Myles Partridge, Sir Michael Stanhope (age 44), Sir Thomas Arundell (age 49) knightes, and divers other Gentlemen, were brought to the Tower of London [Map]. The next morrowe, the Dutchesse of Somerset (age 54) was also brought to the Tower [Map].

The liberties of the Stilpard [Map] were ceased into the kings hands for divers causes forfeited, contrarie to the enter-course.

On 16 Oct 1551 John Thynne (age 36) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 06 Nov 1551. The 6 of November the sayd Scottishe Quene departed toward Scotland, and rode from Pawles through all the high streates London and out at Bishops-gate [Map], accompanyed with diuers noble Scotland, men and women, to bringe her through the Citye to Shordich Church; the Duke of Northumberlande (age 47) havinge standinge of horsemen in Cheapsyde with jauelinges, iC [Note. One hundred] persons, wherof xl [Note. 40] gentlemen were apparayled in black velvet and white feathers, and chaines of gold about their neckes; next them stoode vixx [Note. 120 ie 6x20] horsmen of the Earle of Pembrookes (age 50), with blacke jauelinges and hattes with feathers; next them stoode ic. [Note. 100] of the Lord Treasurers gentlemen and yeomen with jauelinges allso, which 3 rankes of horsemen compassed from the Crosse in Cheape to Birchin Lane ende. And when the sayd nobles had brought hir to Shordich Church, there they tooke their leaue, and departed home againe. The Sheriffes of London had the conduction of her to Waltham townes ende, where the shires of Middlesex and Essex parteth; and harbingers [were] sent afore into euery shyre to the borders to Scotland, that every sheriffe in euery shyre, accompanyed with the gentlemen of the country, [should] receaue her, and make provision in euery shyre for hir meates, both for hirselfe, familie, and horses, till she come to the borders of Scotland, at the charges of the Kinges Maiestie the shyres that she should passe thorough till she be in Scotland, euery shire for theyr owne precinct; this first night she lodged in Waltham towne.

The Earle of Arundell and the Lord Pagett (age 45) sent to the Tower [Map].

Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 01 Dec 1551. Item the furst day of day of December was browte the deuke of Somersett (age 51) owte of the towre [Map] by watter at v. a clocke in the mornynge, and j. or ij. drownyd by the waye in the Tems betweene the tower and Westmester; and there he (was) araynyd before the cowncell, and so pletyd for hym selfe that he was qwytt for the treson, and corny tted unto the tower of London [Map] agayne.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 02 Dec 1551. Item the nexte day was the lorde Gray with dyvers other that ware in the tower [Map] was browte unto Westmester unto the starre chamber, and sent home agayne.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (age 51) was had from the Tower of London [Map] by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall [Map], and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (age 68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.

Note a. His judges were Northumberland (age 47), Northampton (age 39), Pembroke (age 50), and the other leading members of the government, - the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, - and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.

Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (age 47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 20 Dec 1551. The 20 of December, beinge Sonday, in the afternone Doctor Dunstall (age 77), Bishop of Durham, which had lyen longe at his place by Coldharber, in Thames Streete, was had to the Tower of London [Map].

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 20 Dec 1551. Item the xxth day of December was sorne [sworn] the byshoppe of Ely lorde [chancellor of Engla]nd.

Item that same day was the muster of the dewke of Somersettes servanttes before [the king at] Totylle [Map] also.

Item the same day was comytted unto the tower [Map] the byshopp [of Dur]hame Cudberte Tunstalle (age 77).

In Sep 1552 Anne Calthorpe 2nd Countess Sussex (age 31) was imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for practising sorcery

On 19 Dec 1552 John Seymour (age 25) died at Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1553. [The xj day of April the King (age 15) removed from Westminster by water to Greenwich; and passed by the] Towre [Map], and ther wher a [great shot of guns and] chamburs, and all the shypes shott of gonnes [all the way to] Ratclyff [Map], and ther the iij shypes that was rygyng [there, appointed to go] to the Nuw-fouland, and the ij pennons shott gunnes and chamburs a grett nombur.

Note. The king removed from Westminster. Strype, Memorials, ii. 397, has incorrectly placed this paragraph in a chapter dated 1552.

Death of Edward VI

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 06 Jul 1553. KING EDWARD (age 15) died at Greenwich, on the 6th July 1553, "towards night."a The event was kept perfectly secret during the next day;b but measures were taken to occupy and fortify the Tower of London [Map].c On "the 8. of July the lord maior of London was sent for to the court then at Greenwich, to bring with him sixe aldermen, as many merchants of the staple, and as many merchant adventurers, unto whom by the Councell was secretly declared the death of king Edward, and also how hee did ordaine for the succession of the Crowne by his letters pattents, to the which they were sworne, and charged to keep it secret."d

Note a. Letter of the council to sir Philip Hoby (age 48), ambassador with the emperor, printed in Strype's Memorials, 1721, ii. 430. It was not written until the 8th of the month, and is silent regarding the successor to the throne. Mary (age 37), in her letter to the lords of the council, dated from Kenynghall [Map] on the 9th of July (printed in Foxe's Actes and Monuments), also states that she had learned from some advertisement that the king her brother had died on Thursday (the 6th) at night last past.

Note b. Northumberland's (age 49) intention was to keep the death of the king (age 15) a secret, until he should have obtained possession of the person of the lady Mary (age 37), who had been summoned to visit her brother, and was at no further distance from London than the royal manor of Hunsdon in Hertfordshire. But there were not wanting about the court those who from attachment to Mary, or from self-interest, ventured to incur the hazard of conveying to her this momentous intelligence; whereupon she immediately took alarm, and rode off towards the eastern coast, from which she might have escaped to the continent, had such a step become necessary. Many writers assert that it was the earl of Arundel (age 41) who made a private communication to her. I have not found any contemporary authority for this statement; but sir Nicholas Throckmorton (age 38), in his poetical autobiography (MS. Cole, vol xl. p. 272, verses 111, 112, 113, 114), claims the credit of having been the officious person. He had been a favourite servant of king Edward; and on his royal master's death,

"Mourning, from Greenwich I didd strayt departe

To London, to an house which bore our name.

My bretheren guessed by my heavie hearte

The King was dead, and I confess'd the same:

The hushing of his death I didd unfolde,

Their meaninge to proclaime queene Jane I tolde.

And, though I lik'd not the religion

Which all her life queene Marye hadd profest,

Yett in my mind that wicked motion

Right heires for to displace I did detest.

Causeless to proffer any injurie,

I meant it not, but sought for remedie.

Wherefore from four of us the newes was sent,

How that her brother hee was dead and gone;

In post her goldsmith then from London went,

By whome the message was dispatcht anon.

Shee asked, ' If wee knewe it certainlie ? '

Whoe said, ' Sir Nicholas knew it verilie.'

The author bred the errand's greate mistrust:

Shee fear'd a traine to leade her to a trapp.

Shee saide, ' If Robert had beene there shee durst

Have gag'd her life, and hazarded the happ.'

Her letters made, shee knewe not what to doe:

Shee sent them oute, butt nott subscrib'd thereto."

By "Robert" the lady Mary meant sir Robert Throckmorton, one of the four brothers.

Note c. See the Diary of Henry Machyn, p. 35. for 07 July 1553.

Note d. It appears most probable that this was the first intimation which the citizens had received of the existence of the letters patent: and that it was on this occasion that, being "sworn to them," they affixed their signatures, although the document had been previously executed on the 21st of June. No fewer than thirty-two signatures follow that of the lord mayor, but the parties were perhaps not all citizens, and from the arrangement of their names in the existing transcript (mentioned in the following note b ) it would be difficult to distinguish which were the aldermen, which the merchants of the staple, and which the merchant adventurers.

Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 10 Jul 1553. The 10. of July, in the afternoone, about 3. of the clocke, lady Jane (age 17) was convayed by water to the Tower of London [Map], and there received as queene.a After five of the clocke, the same afternoone, was proclamation made of the death of king Edward the sixt, and how hee had ordained by his letters pattents bearing date the 21. of June last pastb that the lady Jane should be heire to the Crowne of England, and the heire males of her body, &c.

Note. a. Dr. Peter Heylyn, in his History of the Reformation, fol. 1674, p. 159, has described the interview supposed to have taken place between the dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk and their daughter the lady Jane, when they waited upon her on the morning of the 10th of July, and then first made known to her the fatal diadem to which she was destined. The scruples of the gentle heiress were overcome with much difficulty, and the whole course of argument, pro et contra, is stated at considerable length. I believe, however, that this is only one of those dramatic scenes in which historical writers formerly considered themselves justified in indulging, as I have not been able to trace it to any earlier authority. Its verisimilitude may indeed be justified by the passage of the duke of Northumberland's speech recorded by our present chronicler (p. 6), "Who, by your and our enticement, is rather of force placed therein, than by her own seeking and request." However, having been adopted by the writer of the Life of Lady Jane Grey in the Biographia Britannica, it is followed as authentic history by many subsequent writers. The more recent authors (including sir Harris Nicolas, Mr. P. F. Tytler, and Mr. Aungier the historian of Syon-house and Isleworth) have placed the scene of this interview at Syon; but Heylyn himself fixed it at Durham-house in the Strand: which was the duke of Northumberland's town mansion, and where the lady Jane's marriage had been celebrated only a few weeks before. Here Heylyn might well suppose she would be lodged at this critical period of her father-in-law's conspiracy. The fact, however, seems to have been otherwise. In the chronicle of the Grey Friars (which will be found in the Appendix) she is stated to have come down the river from Richmond to Westminster, and so to the Tower of London. If, then, she was supposed to have come from Richmond, she may very well have come from Syon, which was also at this time in the hands of the duke of Northumberland.

Note. b. Scarcely any of our historical writers show an acquaintance with these letters patent, though they have been conversant with the substance of them from the recital which is made in queen Jane's proclamation. A copy of the letters patent exists among Ralph Starkey's collections in the Harl. MS. 35, bearing this attestation: "This is a true coppie of Edward the Sixte his Will [this terme is misapplied], takene out of the original! undere the greate scale, which sir Robart Cottone delyvered to the King's Ma tie the xij th of Apprill 1611 at Roystorne to be canseled." From this source the document is printed, in connection with the lady Jane's trial, in Cobbett's State Trials; and Mr. Howard, in his Lady Jane Grey and her Times, pp. 213-216, has described its contents.

It is set forth in these letters patent that the king intended to complete this settlement of the crown by making a will, and by act of Parliament: thus following the precedent of his father Henry the Eighth's settlement, which this was to supersede (see an essay by the present writer in the Archaeologia, vol. xxx. p. 464). But the rapid termination of king Edward's illness prevented these final acts of ratification; and Northumberland, in consequence, could only rely upon the validity of the letters patent, which had passed the great seal upon the 21st of June.

There are, besides the letters patent, two other documents extant, marking the earlier stages of this bold attempt to divert the succession.

Note. 1. The king's "own devise touching the said succession." This was "first wholly written with his most gracious hand, and after copied owt in his Majesties presence, by his most high commandment, and confirmed with the subscription of his Majesties owne hand, and by his highnes delivered to certain judges and other learned men to be written in full order." It was written in six paragraphs, to each of which Edward attached his signature. Burnet has printed the whole in his History of the Reformation, Documents, book iv. no. 10, from the MSS. of Mr. William Petyt, now in the Inner Temple Library. Strype, in the Appendix to his Life of Cranmer, has printed the first four clauses only, from the same manuscript, the fifth and sixth having, as Burnet remarks, been erased with a pen, but not so as to render them illegible nor was it intended to cancel them, for they are followed in the letters patent.

Note. 2. An instrument of the Council, undated, but signed at the head by the King, and at its close by twenty-four councillors, &c. in which they "promise by their oaths and honors to observe, fully perform, and keep all and every article, branch, and matter contained in the said writing delivered to the judges and others." This also is printed both by Burnet and Strype.

Besides these documents, three very important papers in reference to this transaction are, 1. the narrative of chief justice Montagu, printed in Fuller's Church History; 2. sir William Cecill's submission to queen Mary, printed in Howard's Lady Jane Grey and Tytler's Reigns of Edward VI. and Mary; and 3. his servant Alford's statement as to Cecill's conduct at this crisis, written in 1573, and printed in Strype 's Annals, vol. iv. p. 347.

After 10 Jul 1553 Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Jul 1553. The xij day [of] July by nyght, was cared to the Towre [Map] iij carts [full of all] maner of ordenans, as gret gune and smalle, bowes, bylls, speres, mores-pykes, arnes, arowes, gunpowther, and wetelle, monay, tentes, and all maner of ordenans, gunstones a gret nombur, and a grett nombur of men of armes; and yt had been for a gret army toward Cambryge [Map]; and ij days after the duke, and dyvers lordes and knyghts whent with him, and mony gentylmen and gonnars, and mony men of the gard and men of armes toward my lade Mare grace, to destroye here grace, and so to Bury [Map], and alle was agayns ym-seylff, for ys men forsok hym .... and of dyvers maters, and so in dyvers plases .... contres was her grace proclamyd quen of [England.]

Note. Political placard. The paragraph now imperfect seems to have been that which furnished the following in Strype: "On the same 16th day, in the morning, some, to shew their good will to the lady Mary, ventured to fasten up upon Queenhithe church wall, a writing in way of a declaration, importing that the lady Mary was proclaimed in every country 'Queen of England, France, and Ireland,' (being an officious lye to do her service,) and likewise treating of divers matters relating to the present state of affairs."

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The 12. of July word was brought to the Councell, being then at the Tower [Map] with the lady Jane (age 17), that the lady Mary was at Keninghall castle [Map] in Norfolk, and with her the earle of Bath (age 54), sir Thomas Wharton (age 33) sonne to the lord Wharton (age 58), sir John Mordaunt (age 45) sonne to the lord Mordaunt (age 73), sir William Drury (age 3),a sir John Shelton (age 50), sir Henry Bedingfield (age 44), master Henry Jerningham (age 41), master John Sulierde, master Richard Freston, master sergeant Morgan, master Clement Higham of Lincolnes inne, and divers others; and also that the earle of Sussex and master Henry Ratcliffe his sonne were comming towards her: whereupon by speedy councell it was there concluded, that the duke of Suffolk, with certaine other noblemen, should goe towards the lady Mary, to fetch her up to London. This was first determined; but by night of the same day the said voyage of the duke of Suffolke was cleane dissolved by the speciall meanes of the lady Jane his daughter, who, taking the matter heavily, with weeping teares made request to the whole councell that her father might tarry at home in her company: whereupon the councell perswaded with the duke of Northumberland to take that voyage upon him, saying that no man was so fit therefor, because that he had atchieved the victory in Norfolke once already,b and was therefore so feared, that none durst once lift up their weapon against him: besides that, he was the best man of warre in the realme; as well for the ordering of his campes and souldiers both in battell and in their tents, as also by experience, knowledge, and wisedome, he could animate his army with witty perswasions, and also pacific and alay his enemies pride with his stout courage, or else to disswade them if nede were from their enterprise. "Well (quoth the duke then) since ye thinke it good, I and mine will goe, not doubting of your fidelity to the quenes majestie, which I leave in your custodie." So that night hee sent for both lords, knights, and other that should goe with him, and caused all things to be prepared accordingly. Then went the councell in to the lady Jane and told her of their conclusion, who humbly thanked the duke for reserving her father at home, and beseeched him to use his diligence, whereto he answered that hee would doe what in him lay.

Note a. Sir William Drury, for his services "at Framlingham," received, by patent dated the 1st Nov. following, an annuity of 100 marks: see it printed in Rymer's Foedera, xv. 352. A like annuity of 200 marks was granted on the 14th Nov. to Thomas West lord la Warre for his services against the duke (ibid. p. 352); one of 100. on the 4th Dec. to sir Richard Southwell (ibid. p. 355); and one of 501. on the 10th Feb. to Francis Purefay for his services at Framlingham (ibid. p. 365). Probably many others, unnoticed by Rymer, are recorded on the Patent Rolls.

Note b. In the suppression of Kett's rebellion.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. By this tyme worde was broughte to the quene (age 17) at the Tower [Map] that sir Edmonde Peckham (age 58), sir Edward Hastings (age 32), and the lorde Windsore (age 54), with others, were upp proclayming quene Mary (age 37) in Buckinghamshire.a

Note a. See the commissions addressed to several commanders to suppress the rebellion in Buckinghamshire, in the Catalogue of State Papers of the reign of queen Jane in the Appendix.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. About this tyme or therabouts the vj. shippes that were sent to lie befor Yarmothe [Map], that if she had fled to have taken hir, was by force of wether dreven into the haven, w(h)er about that quarters one maister Gerningham was ray sing power on quene Maryes (age 37) behalfe, and hering therof came thether. Wherupon the captaynes toke a bote and went to their shipes. Then the marynours axed maister Gernyngham what he wolde have, and wether he wolde have their captaynes or no; and he said, "Yea, mary." Saide they, "Ye shall have theym, or els we shall throwe theym to the bottom of the sea." The captaynes, seing this perplexity, saide furthwith they wolde serve quene Mary gladlie; and so cam fourthe with their men, and convayed certeyn great ordenaunce; of the which comyng in of the shipes the lady Mary and hir company were wonderfull joyous, and then afterwarde doubted smaly the duke's puisance. And as the comyng of the shipes moche rejoyced quene Mary's party, even so was it as great a hart-sore to the duke (age 49), and all his campe, whose hartes wer all-redy bent agaynst him. But after once the submyssyon of the shipes was knowne in the Tower [Map]a eche man then began to pluck in his homes; and, over that, worde of a greater mischief was brought to the Tower the noblemen's tenauntes refused to serve their lordes agaynst quene Mary. The duke he thought long for his succours, and writ somewhat sharplie to the counsayll here in that behalfe, aswell for lacke of men as munytion: but a slender answer he had agayn.

Note a. This passage, together with those that follow, shows that the Chronicler was still writing in the Tower of London.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 16 Jul 1553. The xvj th daye of July the lorde highe treasurer (age 70)c was going to his howse in London at night, and about vij. of the clocke the gates of the Tower [Map] upon a sudden was shut, and the keyes caryed upp to the quene Jane (age 17); but what the cause was I knowe not. The noyes in the Tower was that ther was a seale lackinge; but many men thought they surmysed that but the truthe was she feared some packinge in the lorde treasurer, and so they dyd fetch him at xij. of the clocke in the night from his house in London into the Tower.

Note c. The marquess of Winchester (age 70).

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 25 Jul 1553 John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49), John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 21), Guildford Dudley (age 18), Andrew Dudley (age 46), Henry Dudley (age 22) and Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) were imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for supporting Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 Jul 1553. The xxvij day of July the duke of Suffoke (age 36), maister [Cheke] (age 39) the kynges scolmaster, maister Coke, (and) ser John Yorke (age 43), to the Towre [Map].

Note. Sir John Yorke had been under-treasurer of the mint. Together with other officers of the same he had a pardon for all manner of trangressions, &c. July 21, 1552. (Strype.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1553. The xxxj day of July was delevered owt of the Towre [Map] the duke of Suffoke (age 36); and the sam day rod thrugh London my lade Elssabeth (age 19) to Algatt, and so to the qwens (age 37) grace her sester, with a M1. hors with a C. velvett cotes.

Note. Rode through London my lady Elizabeth. Stowe relates that the lady Elizabeth went to meet the queen on the 30th, the day after her arrival in London: he states that she was accompanied with a thousand horse, as says our diarist, but "Camden 500, and so I have heard my mother from her grandmother, who was one of them, relate, and that queen Mary then kissed every gentlewoeman [that] came with her sister." MS. note by the Rev. John Lynge, vicar of Yalding in Kent, in a copy of Stowe's Annals; Retrospective Review, 2d Series, i. 341.

Note. P. 37. The royal livery. The passage relating to the princess Elizabeth's entry should conclude thus,—"all in green guarded with white, velvet, satin, taffety, and cloth, according to their qualities." Green and white formed the livery of the Tudors. At the marriage of Arthur prince of Wales the yeomen of the guard were in large jackets of damask, white and green, embroidered before and behind with garlands of vine leaves, and in the middle a red rose. In the great picture at Windsor castle of the embarkation at Dover in 1520, the Harry Grace à Dieu is surrounded with targets, bearing the various royal badges, each placed on a field party per pale white and green. The painting called king Arthur's round table at Winchester castle, supposed to have been repainted in the reign of Henry VII. is divided into compartments of white and green. The "queenes colours" are also alluded to in the following story of a rude jest passed on the new Rood in Saint Paul's:

"Not long after this (in 1554) a merry fellow came into Pauls, and spied the Rood with Mary and John new set up; whereto, among a great sort of people, he made low curtesie, and said: Sir, your Mastership is welcome to towne. I had thought to have talked further with your Mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the Queenes colours. I hope ye be but a summer's bird, in that ye be dressed in white and greene." (Foxe, Actes and Monuments, iii. 114.)

Among the attendants on queen Mary in p. 38, three liveries are mentioned, green and white, red and white, and blue and green. The men in red and white were the servants of the lord treasurer (see p. 12, where several other liveries are described), and the blue and green would be those of the earl of Arundel or some other principal nobleman. Blue and white was perhaps king Philip's livery (p. 79).

In p. 59 we find that in 1554 even the naval uniform of England was white and green, both for officers and mariners. In noted in that page for "wearing" read "were in," which, without altering the sense, completes the grammar.

The city trained bands were, in 1557, ordered to have white coats welted with green, with red crosses (see p. 164).

The lady Elizabeth, however, did not give green and white to her own men. From two other passages (pp. 57, 120) we find her livery was scarlet or fine red, guarded with black velvet; and from the description of her coronation procession in p. 186, it seems that red or "crimson" was retained for her livery when queen.

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1553. [The iij day of August the Queen (age 37) came riding to London, and so to the Tower [Map]; making her entrance at Aldgate, which was hanged,] and a grett nombur of stremars ha[nging about the said gate;] and all the strett unto Ledynhalle and unto the [Tower were laid with] graffvell, and all the crafts of London stood [in a row, with] ther banars and stremars hangyd over ther heds. Her grace cam, and a-for her a M1. velvet cotes and [cloaks] in brodere, and the mar of London bare the mase [mace], and the erle of Arundell (age 41) bare the sworde, and all the trumpets [blowing]; and next her my lade Elssabeth (age 19), and next her the duches of Norffoke (age 56), and next her the marqwes of Exseter (age 50), [and other] lades; and after her the aldermen, and then the gard with bowes and gaffylens, and all the reseduw departyd [at Aldgate] in gren and whyt, and red and whyt, and bluw and gren, to the nombur of iij M1. horse and speres and gaffelyns.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Aug 1553. The v day of August cam to the Towre [Map] doctur dene of Westmynster, master Cokes (age 60).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Aug 1553. The vj day of August cam in-to the Towre [Map], from [Calais, ser] Hare Dudley (age 27), that was gohyng in-to Franse.

Coronation of Mary I

On 30 Sep 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal journey from the Tower of London [Map] to Westminster Abbey [Map]. She was accompanied by Mary Roper (age 30).

Bishop George Day (age 52) preached.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Oct 1553. The iiij day of October was cared to the Towre [Map] the archebysshope of Yorke (age 71), and dyvers odur to (blank)

In 1554 Edward Rogers (age 56) was imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for his Protestant beliefs. He was released in January 1555 and pardoned in July on payment of £1,000 to keep the peace.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Jan 1554. The xiij day of January ther was a man drane from the Towre [Map] thrugh London a-pone a sled unto Tyborne [Map], and ther hangyd, dran, and quartered, for conterffeytyng the quen('s) senett [signet].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jan 1554. The xiiij day of January was had to the Towre [Map] master Hadyntun, dwellyng in Bouge-rowe, and all ys goods seysenyd for the quen and in the contrey for proffessyng of serten [heretical doctrines.]

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.

Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (deceased) and her husband (deceased), the Duke of Suffolk's (age 37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (age 27) has been sent back to the Tower [Map], where are also the Duke of Suffolk (age 37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey and John Grey (age 30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (age 81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (age 53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.

They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (age 47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.

Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.

Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 Mar 1554. The xv of Marche Wyatt (age 33), capteyn of the rebells, was arregned at Westminster and there condemned of highe treason.

And the same daye the Earle of Devonshire (age 27) was committed agayne to the Tower [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Mar 1554. The xiiij day of Marche was in Aldergat-stret a woy[ce heard] in a walle that dyd spyke unto serten pepull, the wyche .... was complenyd unto my lord mayre, and so after yt was [made] knowen by dyvers what ther wher, and after cared unto [prison,] as Nugatt [Map] contur and the Towre [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Mar 1554. The xviij day of Marche was kared to the Towre of London [Map] my lade Elsabeth('s) (age 20) grace, the quen('s) (age 38) syster, a-for none.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Mar 1554. The xxiiij day of Marche was delevered owt of the Towre [Map] and had the quen('s) (age 38) pardon the lord marques of Northamtun (age 42), my lord Cobham (age 57), and ij of ys sunes, and dyvers odur mo.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 25 Apr 1554. The 25 of Aprill the jurie that quitt Sir Nicholas Throckmorton appeared before the Lord Chauncellor and the Queens Councell in the Starre Chamber at Westminster and were committed to warde. Thomas Whetstone, haberdasher, which was the foreman of the jurie, and Emanuell Lucare, marchant taylor, were sent to the Tower of London [Map], and all the rest of the jurie were sent to the Fleete [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 May 1554. The xviij day of May was drane a-pone a sled a proper man namyd Wylliam Thomas from the Towre [Map] unto Tyborne [Map]; the .. he was clarke to the consell; and he was hangyd, and after ys hed stryken of, and then quartered; and the morow after ys hed was sett on London bryge, and iij quarters set over Crepullgate.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 18 May 1554. Fridaye the xviiith of May William Thomas was drawne from the Tower of London [Map] to Tiburne [Map], and there hanged, headed, and quartered, and after his head sett on London Bridge [Map], and his quarters sett in 4 severall places, one myle out of the Cittie of London.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 19 May 1554. The xixth of May, beinge Saterday and the eeven of the feast of the Holie Trinitie, Ladye Elizabeth (age 20) was had out of the Tower [Map] and went thorowe London Bridge in her barge at 3 of the clock in the afternoone, lyeinge at Richmond [Map] that night; and from thence conveyed to Woodstock [Map], Mr. Benyfield (age 45)b, Lorde Williams of Tame, and Sir Leonard Chamberlayne, waytinge on her, with iic horsemen, there to remayne at the Queenes pleasure.

Note b. Sir Henry Bedingfield (age 45), the recently appointed Constable of the Tower.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 May 1554. The xxv day of May, wyche was the sam day, whent owt of the Towre [Map] northwarde the yerle of Devonshyre (age 27), and cared into Northhamtunshyre to a castyll called Fotheringay [Map] with serten of the gard, and dyvers knyghtes, by iij and iiij of the cloke in the mornyng.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 May 1554. The xxvij day of May whent owt of the Towre [Map] unto Westmynster hall by land, and cam my lord John Gray (age 30), the duke of Suffoke['s] brodur latt beheddyd.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1554. The ij day October whent from Westmynster xx carres with veges [wedges] of gold and sylver to the Towre [Map] to be quennyd [coined].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Jan 1555. The sam day whent to the Towre [Map] my lord chansseler (age 72), and dyvers odur lordes and of the conselle, and delyvered a nomber presonars, as ther names folowes-ser James a Croft (age 37), ser Gorge Harper, ser Gawynn Carow, ser Necolas Frogmortun (age 40), master Vaghan, ser Edward Varner, Gybbs, the bysshope of Yorke, master Rogers (age 50), and dyvers odur presonars, and after ther was a gret shottyng of gones.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Mar 1555. The xviij day of Marche was browth to the Towre [Map] owt of Cambryge-shyre master Bowes, master Cutt, and master Hynd, and dyvers odur, for a nuw conspyrase, the wyche shuld have byne don in Suffoke and odur plases.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Dec 1555. The x day of Desember was had to the Towre [Map] ser Anthony Kyngston (age 47) knyght, and to the Flett [Map], and cam owt a-gayn shortely aft

Note. P. 98. Committal of sir Anthony Kingston to the Tower. This was for his "contemptuous behaviour and greate disorder by him lately comytted in the Parlemente house." He was discharged on the 24th Dec. See the minutes of the privy council, Dec. 10, 11, 18, 24. (MS. Harl. 353, ff. 146, 147.) He soon after again got into disgrace, and, being summoned to attend the privy council, died on his road to London. See Bayley's History of the Tower, pp. 449, 450.

In 1557 Robert Oxenbridge (age 49) was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Jan 1557. The xxviij day of January was had to the Towre [Map] my lorde Sturton (age 37) for murder of ij gentyllmen, the father and the sune and ere [heir], master Argylles[Hartgill] and ys sune, the wyche was shamfully murdered in ys own plasse.

Note. P. 125. Lord Stourton's murder of the Hartgills. Some account of this tragedy will be found in Holinshed, Stowe, Strype, and the other historians of the period: but Sir R. C. Hoare, in his History of Modern Wiltshire (Hundred of Mere, pp. 152–157) has collected at considerable length the particulars preserved of it—the first page and a half derived from various passages of our own diarist, but the narrative of the crime itself from an authentic MS. of the time. Some years before, lord Stourton's arbitrary violence had attracted the censure of the privy council: see its minutes under July 17, 21, 28, 1551. (MS. Harl. 353.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Feb 1557. The xvij day of Feybruary was my lord Sturton (age 37) cam from the Towre [Map], and one of ys men, unto Westmynster a-for the consell and juges, and ther the evydens was declared a-for ys owne face that he cold nott deny ytt.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Feb 1557. The xviij day of Feybruary cam from the Towre [Map] unto my lord of Preve-selle a-for serten of the consell, iiij of my lord Sturtun('s) (age 37) servandes, and ther thay where examynyd of the deth of master Argyll and ys sune; and after they wher cared bake a-gayne by iiij of the gard unto the (Tower [Map]).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1557. The xxvj day of Feybruary was rayned at Westmynster halle my lord Sturton (age 37), and for the juges and dyvers of the consell, as lord justes Broke, and the lord stuard, and my lord tresorer (age 74), and dyvers odur lordes and knyghtes; and longe yt wher or he wold answer, and so at last my lord justes stod up and declaryd to my lord and he wold nott answer to the artyculles that was led [laid] to hym, that he shuld be prast [pressed] to deth by the law of the rayme [realm]; and after he dyd answer, and so he was cast by ys owne wordes to be hangyd, and ys iiij men, and so to be cared to the Towre [Map] a-gayne tyll thay have a furder commondement from the consell.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Mar 1557. The ij day of Marche rod from the Towre [Map] my lord Sturtun (age 37) with ser Robart Oxinbryge (age 49) the leyff-tenantt, and iiij of my lordes servandes, and with serten of the gard, thrugh London, and so to Honsley, and ther thay lay alle nyght at the seyne of the Angell, and the morow after to Staynes, and so to Bassyng-stoke, and so to Sturtun, to sufer deth, and ys iiij men; and to more men for robyng of a ryche farmer in that contrey, to be hangyd, for ther was layd by the sam farmer a-for the consell that a knyght and ys men dyd rob him, and the knyght was layd in the Flett tylle yt plessyd God that the theyff was taken; the knyght ys nam ys callyd ser [blank] Wrothun knyght.

Note. P. 127. last line. For Sturton read Salisbury, as in the next page.

Scarborough Castle Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 May 1557. [The iij day of May came five persons to the Tower [Map], the chief of those that had taken the] castylle of Skarborow [Map] in Yorke-shyre, [viz. Stafford (age 24), Saund]urs, Seywelle, and Prowtter, and a Frenche man.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 May 1557. The xxij day of May cam owt of the Towre [Map] .... vj presonars, on Thomas Stafford (age 24), and captayn Sanders, Seywell and Prowther, and a Frencheman, and one othur; wher cast v, and so cared to the Towre agayn [through] London by land, the wyche thay cam from ...

Before 28 May 1557 Thomas Stafford (age 24) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1558. [The xxviijth day of November the Queen (age 25) removed to the Tower from the lord North's] plasse, (which) was the Charter Howsse. [All] the stretes unto the towre of London was newe gravelled. Her grace rod thrugh Barbecan and Crepulgat [Map], by [London-wall] unto Bysshope-gate [Map], and up to Leden-halle [Map] and thrugh Gracyus strett [Map] and Fanchyrchestrett [Map]; and a-for rod gentyllmen and [many] knyghtes and lordes, and after cam all the trumpetes blohyng, and then cam all the haroldes in a-ray; and my lord of Penbroke (age 57) [bare the] the quen('s) sword; then cam here Grace (age 25) on horsbake, [apparelled] in purpull welvett with a skarpe [scarf] abowt her neke, and [the serg]anttes of armes abowt here grace; and next after rod [sir] Robart Dudley (age 26) the master of her horse; and so the gard with halbards. [And] ther was shyche shutyng of gunes as never was hard a-for; so to the towre, with all the nobulles. And so here Grace lay in the towre [Map] unto the v day of Dessember, that was sant Necolas evyn. And ther was in serten plasses chylderyn with speches and odur places, syngyng and playing with regalles.

Coronation of Elizabeth I

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jan 1559. [The xiv day of January the Queen (age 25) came in a chariot from] the Towre [Map], with all the lordes and ladies [in crimson] velvet, and ther horses trapyd with the sam, and [trumpeters in] red gownes blohyng, and all the haroldes in ther cottes armur, and all the strettes stroyd with gravell; and at Grasyus strett [Map] a goodly pagantt of kyng [Henry] the viij and quen Ane ys wyff and of ther lenege, and in Cornelle [Map] a-nodur goodly pagantt of kyng Henry and kyng Edward the vjth; and be-syd Soper lane in [Cheap a]nodur goodly pagantt, and the condyth pentyd; [and] at the lytylle condutt a-nodur goodly pagant of a qwyke tre and a ded, and the quen had a boke gyffyn her ther; and ther the recorder of London and the chamburlayn (age 38) delevered unto the quen a purse of gold fulle to the waluw of (blank); and so to the Flett strett to the condyt, and ther was a-nodur goodly pagantt of the ij chyrchys; and at Tempylle bare was ij grett gyanttes, the one name was Goott-magott [Gogmagog] a Albaon and the thodur Co(rineus.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Apr 1559. The iij day of Aprell the bysshopes and the nuw prychers mett at the abbay a-for my lord keper of the brod seylle, and dyvers of the consell, and ther to gyff a answer of the matter; the sam nyght, my lord bysshope of Wynchester (age 49) and my lord of Lynkolne (age 44) was send to the towre of London [Map] by the gard by water, to the Old Swane, and to Belynsgatt after.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Jun 1559. The sam day was deprevyd of ther bysshoprykes the bysshope of Wynchestur (age 49) and the bysshope of Lynckolne (age 44) at master Hawse the kyng('s) shreyff in Mynsyon lane, and the bysshope of Wynchester (age 49) to the Towre [Map] agayne, and the bysshope of Lynckolne (age 44) delevered a-way.

Note. P. 201. Bishops deprived. Mr. Bruce has given a list of the deprived bishops, founded upon documents in Rymer's Fœdera, in Hayward's Annals of Q. Eliz. p. 27.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jul 1559. The vij day of July, was sant Thomas of Cantebere day, my good lord of Wynchastur doctur Whytt (age 49) came owt of the Towre [Map], with the leyftenantt ser Edward Warner (age 48), by vj [6] in mornyng, and so to my lord keper of the brod selle, and from thens unto master Whyt, John, [possibly Thomas] altherman, and ther he lys.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1559. The sam day was browth to the Towre [Map] Sthrangwys, the rover of the see, and serten odur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1559. The ij day of October master Strangwys and v [of his men were] lad from the Towre [Map] unto the Masselsay [Map].

In 1560 John de Feckenham aka Howman (age 45) was imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for opposing religious change. He spent the rest of his life imprisoned.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 May 1560. The sam day was serten qwynners [coiners] taken and browht a-for the consell, and from thens cared to the Towre [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 May 1560. The xx day of May was send to the Towre [Map] master Fecknam (age 45), docthur Wattsun (age 45) latt byshope of Lynkolne, and docthur Colle (age 60) latt dene of Powlles, and docthur Chadsay; and at nyght abowtt viij of the cloke was send to the Flett [Map] docthur Score (age 50), and master Fecknam (age 45) the last abbot of Westmynster, to Towre [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Jun 1560. The iij day of June at nyght whent to the Towre [Map] my old lord the byshope of Ely, doctur Thurlbe (age 54).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1560. The sam day was had to the Towre [Map] the (arch-)byshope of (York) docthur Heth (age 59), latt chanseler of Engeland by quen Mare('s) days, and part by quen Elesabeth('s) days.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Jun 1560. The xviij day of June was sent to the Towre [Map] secr[etary] Boxhalle unto quen Mare, and doctur Borne latt byshope of Bayth, and docthur Trobullfeld latt byshope of Excetur.

Note. P. 238. Secretary Boxall. John Boxall, secretary of state to queen Mary: see notices of him in the Zurich Letters, 1st Series, p. 255.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Aug 1560. The x day of August was bered within the Towre [Map] withowt a offeser of armes, and (with) master Alley (age 50) the nuw byshope of Excetur, and the chyrch hangyd with blake and armes, my lade Warner (deceased), the wyff of ser Edward Warner (age 49).

Note. P. 241. Funeral of lady Warner. "Elizabeth, late wiff to sir Edward Warner knight, lieutenaunte of the tower of London; she was doter of Thomas Cobham, and dysceased the 8. of August 1560, and left issue a [son] whosse name is Edward." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 19.)

After 25 Dec 1560 Catherine Grey Countess Hertford (age 20) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for having married Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford (age 21).

In 1561 Thomas Wharton 2nd Baron Wharton (age 41) was imprisoned for celebrating the Catholic mass at Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. Feb 1561. [The day of February was excommunicated Hethe (age 60),] latt chanseler of England and [arch] byshope of Yorke, he lyung in the Towre [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1561. The xxij day of Aprell was had to the Towre [Map] ser Edward WalgrafF and my lade ys wyff, as good almes-foke as be in thes days, and odur cared thethur.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (age 27) came by water] unto the Towre of London [Map] by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (age 35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (age 49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll [Map] unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [Map] [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (age 65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (age 35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Jun 1561. The xiiij day of June was bered in Essex my lade Wartun, the wyff of ser Thomas Wartun (age 66), behyng presoner in the towre of London [Map] at here deth and berehyng, and master Somersett the harold of armes, a gret baner of armes, and iiij dosen of skochyons of armes, the wyche the good lade ded of a thowgh [cough], and she was as fayre a lade as be, and mony mornars in blake, and grett mone mad for her in the contrey.

Note. P. 259. Funeral of lady Wharton. "Lady Anne Ratclyff, daughter to Robert erl of Sussex and lady Margaret his wyff daughter of Thomas erl of Darby, late wyff to sir Thomas Wharton (age 66) knight, son and heyr to Thomas lord Wharton, dyed the 7. of June, 1561, at the honner of Bewlew, otherwysse called Newhall, in Essex, and was beryed in the parishe churche of Boreham the xiiijth of the mounthe aforesaid: leaving issue Phelyp Wharton son and heyre, Thomas Wharton 2 son, Mary Wharton, Anne." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 18.)

On 01 Sep 1561 Edward Waldegrave (age 44) died at the Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Sep 1561. The furst day of September ded the good and gentylle knyght ser Edward Walgraff (age 44) whyle in the Towre [Map], the wyche he was put for herryng of masse and kepyng a prest in ys howse that dyd say masse, and was putt to hys fyne.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1561. The sam day was bered with-in the Towre [Map], with[-in] the quer be-syd the he [high] auter, by torche lyght, the wyche (confinement) kyld hym, for he was swone vere grett, ser Edward [Walgrave] (deceased).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1561. The v day of September was browth to the Towre [Map] the yonge yerle of Harford (age 22) from the cowrte, a-bowtt ij of the cloke at afternone he cam in-to the Towre.

Note. P. 266. The young earl of Hertford brought to the Tower. This was on account of his marriage with lady Katharine Grey, sister to the late queen Jane. Respecting this stolen alliance see several letters in Ellis's Second Series, vol. ii. pp. 272, et seq. and Bayley's History of the Tower of London, pp. 458–460.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Sep 1561. The viij day of September cam owt of the Towre [Map] my good lade Walgraff (age 42), and in Red-cross stret she lys.

On 21 Sep 1561 Edward Seymour was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford (age 22) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford (age 21) at Tower of London [Map]. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Sep 1561. The xxv day of September was cristened with-in the Towre [Map] my lorde Harford('s) (age 22) sune by my lade Katheryn Gray (age 21), late dowther of the duke of Suffoke-Gray.

Note. P. 268. Christening of the earl of Hertford's son. This was the first offspring of the stolen alliance noticed in the preceding page. The son was christened Edward, but died in infancy; and the second son, whose birth is afterwards mentioned in p. 300, received the same name.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1561. The xiiij day of November ther was a procla[mation] of gold and sylver that none shuld be take[n be]twyn man and man butt the Frenche crowne and the Borgo[ndian] crowne and the Flemyche, and that phystelars and Spa[nish] ryalles shuld not goo, butt to cum to the Towre [Map] ther to have wheth for wheth [weight for weight], gold and sylver.

Note. P. 272. Proclamation on foreign coins. This proclamation was dated the 15th of Nov. 1561, and is extant among the collection in the Society of Antiquaries' library. It is curious as representing in woodcuts the counterfeit angels of Tournay and Holland, in comparison with a genuine angel of Henry VIII. (See Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, sub anno.) The same proclamation is noticed in a Norwich Chronicle as follows:

"This year, upon sunday the 23d of November, there was sent from the Queen a Proclamation to be published, that pistoles and other foreign crowns of gold and silver, only French crowns excepted, should not pass from man to man as current money, but as bullion be brought into the Tower, there to have as much as they are worth." Papers of the Norwich and Norfolk Archæol. Soc. vol. i. p. 145.

Before 18 Nov 1561 Eleanor Stapleton Baroness Wharton died at the Tower of London [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Jun 1562. The v day of June the Quen('s) (age 28) grace removyd from Westmynster unto Grenwyche [Map] by water, and ther was grett shutyng of gones at the Tower [Map] as her grace whentt, and in odur places.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1562. The xxviij day of June grett wache at the Towre [Map] and at Towrehylle [Map] and sant Katharyn's, a C [100] hagabuttes and a C [100] in cossellettes, vj drumes and iiij flages, on sant Peter's evyn last past, and a castylle and sqwybys.

In Oct 1562 or Oct 1563 Arthur Pole of Lordington in Sussex (age 32) was imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] with his brothers Edmund Pole of Lordington in Sussex (age 21) and Geoffrey Pole of Lordington in Sussex (age 16) for conspiring to advance his own or Mary Queen of Scots' (age 19) claims to the throne of England.

On 10 Feb 1563 Thomas Seymour was born to Edward Seymour 1st Earl Hertford (age 23) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford (age 22) at Tower of London [Map]. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Jun 1563. The sam day was browth to the Towre [Map] serten .... for ther was capten callyd .... conveyed them away for they [were gone to] Grayff-ende [Map] and browth bake to the Towre [Map] agayne.

On 11 Aug 1564 Richard Blount of Mapledurham in Oxfordshire (age 54) at the Tower of London [Map].

Between Jan 1570 and 12 Aug 1570 Edmund Pole of Lordington in Sussex (age 29) died whilst imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map].

Between Jan 1570 and 12 Aug 1570 Arthur Pole of Lordington in Sussex (age 39) died whilst imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map].

Ridolphi Plot

On 07 Sep 1571 Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 35) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] for his involvement in the Ridolphi Plot.

Around Sep 1571 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 43) was implicated in the Ridolphi Plot and imprisoned at home for months.

In Nov 1575 Egremont Radclyffe was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 23 Mar 1581 Edward de Vere was born illegitimately to Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 30) and Anne Vavasour (age 21). Both parents were imprisoned in Tower of London [Map] the by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 47) as a consequence. Edward de Vere 17th Earl of Oxford (age 30) was released several months later but banished from court until 1583.

On 13 Aug 1584 Edward Waldegrave (age 70) died at the Tower of London [Map].

In Dec 1584 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland (age 52) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for a third time.

In Apr 1585 William Dix was imprisoned for a short time when Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel (age 27) was sent to the Tower of London [Map]. Following his release William Dix continued to visit Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel (age 27), sometimes in the presence of the lieutenant of the Tower, Owen Hopton (age 66).

On 25 Apr 1585 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel (age 27) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 21 Jun 1585 Henry Percy 8th Earl of Northumberland (age 53) committed suicide at Tower of London [Map]. He was found dead in his bed in his cell, having been shot through the heart. A jury was at once summoned, and returned a verdict of suicide. He was buried in St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. His son Henry "Wizard Earl" Percy 9th Earl of Northumberland (age 21) succeeded 9th Earl of Northumberland, 12th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 20th Baron Percy of Topcliffe, 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick, 11th Baron Poynings. Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland (age 21) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

On 27 Feb 1587 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet (age 39) was imprisoned for presenting the Speaker of the House of Commons with a Puritan revision of the Book of Common Prayer and a bill abrogating existing ecclesiastical law at Tower of London [Map].

On 01 Mar 1587 John Puckering (age 43) was asked by Peter Wentworth (age 58) to answer some questions regarding the liberties of the House. Puckering refused, but showed one of the questions to Thomas Heneage (age 55). Wentworth (age 58), and four other members of parliament who seconded his motion were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

In 1591 Walter Raleigh (age 37) and Elizabeth Throckmorton (age 25) were married in secret she probably being pregnant with their first child. When Queen Eizabeth (age 57) found out they had married without permission she placed them underhouse arrest then sent them to Tower of London [Map].

On 02 Oct 1591 Thomas Fitzherbert (age 77) died at Tower of London [Map].

In Aug 1592 Walter Raleigh (age 38) was released from the Tower of London [Map].

On 03 Nov 1592 John Perrot (age 63) died at Tower of London [Map] whilst awaiting execution.

In 1593 Peter Wentworth (age 64) was imprisoned for presenting a petition on the subject of the royal succession at Tower of London [Map].

In 1593 Edward Seymour (age 64) died at Tower of London [Map].

On 19 Oct 1595 Philip Howard 20th Earl Arundel (age 38) died of dysentery at Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map], reburied at Arundel Cathedral, Sussex [Map] and then reburied in the Fitzalan Chapel, Arundel Castle [Map]. Earl Arundel Sussex, Earl Surrey, Baron Maltravers, Baron Arundel, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

He had been imprisoned for ten years and had never seen his son and heir Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk (age 10) who had been born three months after he was imprisoned.

On 10 Nov 1596 Peter Wentworth (age 67) died at Tower of London [Map].

In 1598 Edward Dering 1st Baronet was born to Anthony Dering of Surrenden Dering in Pluckley in Kent and Frances Bell at the Tower of London [Map] where his father was Deputy-Lieutenant.

Henry Machyn's Diary. After 20 Apr 1599. The (blank) day of Aprell was browth from the Towre [Map] unto Westmynster Hall [Map] to be reynyd, my lord Wentworth, last depute of Calles, for the lossyng of Calles; and ther wher serten of ys a-cussars; but he quytt hym-seylff, thanke be God, and clen delevered, and whent in-to Wytyngtun colege, and ther he lys.

Letters from Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew Section 8 XVII. 05 Feb 1600. Court. To George Carew 1st Earl Totnes (age 44).

We have no news but that there is a misfortune befallen Mistris Fitton (age 21) for she is proved with child, and the E. of Pembroke (age 19) being examyned confesseth a ffact, but utterly renounceth all marriage. I fear they will both dwell in the Tower [Map] awhyle, for the Queen (age 66) have vowed to send them thether.

When you thing fit you may send over 1076 [Desmond] but retain his patent with yourself. You shall not need to send to know her Ma'ties further pleasure. In many wayes lett not Cashell come over. The more excpectation which 1076 leaveth behynd him o returne the better construction wilbe made of his departure.

Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury (age 36).

Gowrie Conspiracy

On 05 Aug 1600. The Gowrie Conspiracy was an attempt by John Ruthven 3rd Earl Gowrie (age 23) and his brother Alexander Ruthven (age 20) to kill King James I (age 34). He, King James, had had their father William Ruthven 1st Earl Gowrie executed for his part in the Raid of Ruthven eighteen years earlier.

The attempt was botched. John Ruthven 3rd Earl Gowrie (age 23) and Alexander Ruthven (age 20) were killed, the former by John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness (age 20).

William Ruthven fled to France.

Patrick Ruthven was imprisoned for nineteen years at the Tower of London [Map].

Essex Rebellion

On 08 Feb 1601 Thomas Smythe (age 43) was visited by Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 35) at his house Gracechurch Street [Map]. Smythe was later accused of complicity in the Essex Rebellion, he was examined before the Privy Council. He was fired from his office of Sheriff of and committed to the Tower of London [Map].

Main and Bye Plots

In Jul 1603 the Main and Bye Plots led by Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham (age 38) and Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 27) sought to replace King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 37) with Arabella Stewart (age 28).

Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 27) was sentenced to death, attainted, and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

On 09 Jul 1614 Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey of Wilton (age 38) died at Tower of London [Map] having been imprisoned for eleven years for his involvement in the Bye Plot. Baron Grey of Wilton extinct.

On 15 Mar 1604 John Acland (age 52) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 37) at the Tower of London [Map].

In 1605 Anthony Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montagu (age 30) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1605 Carew Raleigh was born to Walter Raleigh (age 51) and Elizabeth Throckmorton (age 39) in the Tower of London [Map].

Gunpowder Plot

Around Oct 1605 Edward Stourton 10th Baron Stourton (age 50) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for having received a letter from his cousin and brother-in-law Francis Tresham telling him not to attend Parliament. Nothing was proved against Edward and it emerged that several other Catholic peers had received similar warnings. He was released without charge.

On 22 Jun 1610 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset (age 22) and Arabella Stewart (age 35) were married in secret at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. For having married without permission King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 44) had Arabella Stewart (age 35) imprisoned in Sir Thomas Perry's House Lambeth, Surrey and he in the Tower of London [Map]. She the daughter of Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox and Elizabeth Cavendish Countess Lennox. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of King Henry VII of England and Ireland. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In May 1613 Thomas Killigrew (age 1) was caught talking to Thomas Overbury, a prisoner in the Tower of London [Map], and sent to the Fleet Prison [Map] for a short time. He was later accused of involvement in Overbury's murder, because he had supplied white powder to his patron, the Earl of Somerset (age 26), but exonerated.

Letters of the Court of James I 1613 Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering Baronet 22 Jul 1613. 22 Jul 1613. London. Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Thomas Puckering 1st Baronet (age 21).

In this absence of the court, his majesty being now in progress, I find it [so much lost] time here, as were it not rather out of a will I have to keep my custom of writing weekly, than any store of matter I meet with, to furnish out a just letter, I should altogether rest silent for the present, having no further subject than to let you understand how, upon Saturday last, one Talbot, an Irish doctor in the civil law, was committed prisoner to the Tower [Map], for some bad practices of his in Ireland apon that late dissen- sion which there happened between the English and Irish, touching the choice of a speaker. Though I hear he hath thereunto added this further offence, that being the same day of his imprisonment sent for by the king and [the council], and asked whether he thought it lawful upon any occasion whatsoever, and upon [any cause] to kill, or otherwise consent to the killing of his sovereign? answered, that he held no warrant sufficient for so vile an act. But being thereupon [asked a second] time whether he held it lawful for the subject to depose his prince? made answer in the affirmative, in his majesty's own presence; which is like to aggravate [those] that are against him, whereof I cannot yet learn the particulars.

David Ramsay is a great suitor to be captain of a company in the Low Countries, but withal that his debts may be charged and paid here. In the former, he may haply find good success; but he is like to meet with some difficulty in the latter, the rather for that the king's wants are great at this present.

Sandilands hath been offered a place of equerryship to the prince, and, as is said, refusedi it; but he may wait longer, and succeed worse.

Mr. Csesar (age 23) hath this last act at Oxford taken the degree of doctor in the civil law, that he might not any longer anticipate so reverend a title. He now holdeth lumself a knight's fellow at least, and that upon sure ground of yea, though his father's condition should nothing advantage him; which I therefore write, that you may see that, howsoever the quintessence of vnts reside chiefly in your quarter, we are not so barren here, but that we can find men capable of sch[olastic] dignities.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 14 Sep 1613 Thomas Overbury (age 32) died from poisoning at the Tower of London [Map].

On 01 Oct 1615 Gervase Helwys (age 54) was arrested and imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map].

Before 09 Dec 1614 Edmond Peacham was arrested on a complaint of Bishop James Montagu (age 46) by order of the court of high commission. On 09 Dec 1614 he was transferred to the Tower of London [Map]. On the 19 Dec 1614 he was brought to trial before the high commission court at Lambeth on a charge of libelling Montagu. He was found guilty, and was deprived of his orders.

On 25 Sep 1615 Arabella Stewart (age 40) died at Tower of London [Map] from illnesses exacerbated by her refusal to eat.

Diary of Anne Clifford 1616. 08 Jan 1616. Upon the 8th went to see Lady Raleigh (age 50) at the Tower [Map].

On 30 Dec 1617 Gervase Clifton 1st Baron Clifton (age 47) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for having threatened Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban (age 56) when Francis ordered a survey of Gervase's lands.

Diary of Anne Clifford 1617. 15 Feb 1619. The 15th Sir Thomas Lake (age 51), his Lady (age 44), and Lady Ross (age 19), were sent to the Tower [Map]. There was nothing heard all this term but the matter between the Countess of Exeter (age 39) and them, at which the King sat [five] several days. It was censured on my Lady Exeter’s (age 39) side against them, who were fined great fines both to the King and her, there was spoken extraordinary foul matters of my Lady Ross (age 19) and reports went that amongst others she lay with her own brother, so as their foul matters did double the miseries of my Lady Lettice (age 30) Lake in her unfortunate marriage. Sarah Swarton was fined and censured to be whipt, which censure was not executed, the reason she confessed all that she knew.

In Sir Thomas Lake’s (age 51) place Sir George Calvert (age 39) was sworn secretary.

Autobiography Simon D'Ewes. 03 May 1621. Upon Thursday, May the 3rd, Sir Francis Bacon (age 60), Lord Verulam and Viscount St. Alhan, who had been exuted of the Lord Chancellor's place the Tuesday foregoing, by the taking of the great seal of England from him, was, for his notorious and base bribery in that place, censured by the Upper House of Parliament, to pay 40,000/. fine1 to the King, to be imprisoned, during his Majesty's pleasure, in the Tower of London [Map], never again to be capable of any place of judicature under his Majesty, or to sit amongst the Peers in the Upper House.

Note 1. Meade, in a note dated May 4th, 1621, says: - "On Monday divers lords were with the Lord Chancellor. The next morning the seal was taken from him, who, at delivering of it up, said, Deus dedit, culpa mea perdidit. Yesterday he was censured to pay to the King for his fine and ransom forty thousand pounds, imprisonment in the Tower during the King's pleasure, and never to sit again in Parliament, not in any court of justice, or be in commission, or ever come within the verge, or within twelve miles of the Court; and escaped degradation narrowly." - MS. Barl. 389. Meade adds, "Sir John Bennet and othen are like to follow. Fiat justitia!"

Autobiography Simon D'Ewes. 09 Jan 1622. Sir Edward Coke (age 69), who had been of the House of Commons in the late Parliament and since about the end of December last foregoing, imprisoned in the Tower [Map], was now granted liberty of walking in any part of it. He was a great common lawyer, had been Attorney General, afterwards Lord Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and lastly Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, out of which place he had been put divers years before upon his attempting to bring the old Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Egerton, Lord Ellesmere, within the compass of a premunire. He did notable good service in the House of Commons during the last Parliament, and thereby won much love and credit.

Autobiography Simon D'Ewes. 04 Sep 1623. On Thursday, the 4th day of September, in the afternoon, I first began studying records at the Tower of London [Map], happening at first upon the charter by which Edward the Confessor confirmed Earl Harold's foundation of Waltham Abbey [Map]. From this day forward, I never wholly gave over the study of records; but spent many days and months about it, to my great content and satisfaction; and at last grew so perfect in it, that when I had sent for a copy or transcript of a record, I could, without the view of the original, discover many errors which had slipped from the pen of the clerk. I at first read records only to find out the matter of law contained in them; but afterwards perceiving other excellences might be observed from them, both historical and national, I always continued the study of them after I had left the Middle Temple and given over the study of the common law itself. I especially searched the records of the Exchequer; intending, if God shall permit, and that I be not swallowed up of evil times, to restore to Great Britain its true history, - the exactest that ever was yet penned of any nation in the Christian world. To which pupoae, and for the finishing of divers other lesser works, I have already made many collections, and joined some imperfect pieces of them together.

On 02 Mar 1629 Miles Hobart (age 33) locked the door of the House of Commons, against the King's Messenger and was accordingly imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

After 18 Dec 1640 Archbishop William Laud (age 67) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1642 Isaac Penington (age 58) was appointed Lieutentant of the Tower of London [Map].

On 15 Aug 1642 Henry Bourchier 5th Earl Bath (age 55) rejected a summons from the House of Lords which required his attendance at Parliament. On 23 Aug 1642 his arrest was ordered. On 28 Sep 1642 he was arrested at Tawstock Court, Devon and imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1643. This is a double town, one part of it situate on a high rock, or downs; the other, called the lower town, is yet with a great declivity toward the sea; both of them defended by a strong castle, which stands on a notable eminence. Under the town runs the river, which is yet but an inconsiderable brook. Henry VIII, in the siege of this place is said to have used those great leathern guns which I have since beheld in the Tower of London [Map], inscribed, "Non Marte opus est cui non deficit Mercurius"; if at least the history be true, which my Lord Herbert doubts.

On 05 Dec 1643 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 34) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1644 Anthony Hungerford (age 36) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

After Aug 1644 Giles Strangeways (age 29) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

In 1645 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 59) was imprisoned although his son Giles Strangeways (age 29) remained as a hostage until his fine was paid at Tower of London [Map].

In 1646 John Stawell (age 45) was captured at Exeter, Devon [Map] and imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] until 1653.

In 1648 John Melbury Sampford Strangeways (age 62) was released at Tower of London [Map].

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at Worcester, Worcestershire [Map] the Battle of Worcester Oliver Cromwell (age 52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle (age 22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 28), Thomas Blagge (age 38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll (age 22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 60) was captured. Giles Strangeways (age 36) provided 300 gold pieces to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 21) following his defeat to aid his escape.

Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet (age 27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet (age 44) fought for th Royalists.

On 06 Jun 1655 Geoffrey Palmer 1st Baronet (age 57) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] on suspicion of raising forces against Oliver Cromwell (age 56)..

Before 07 Aug 1655 Thomas Peyton 2nd Baronet (age 41) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for being a Royalist.

In 1656 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland (age 65) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 06 Nov 1656 Robert Shirley 4th Baronet (age 27) died from poisoning, probably, in the Tower of London [Map]. His son Seymour Shirley 5th Baronet (age 9) succeeded 5th Baronet Shirley of Staunton Harold in Leicestershire.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Jan 1657. Came Mr. Matthew Wren (age 28) (since secretary to the Duke (age 23)), slain in the Dutch war, eldest son to the Bishop of Ely (age 71), now a prisoner in the Tower [Map]; a most worthy and honored gentleman.

In 1658 Philip Stanhope 2nd Earl Chesterfield (age 24) was imprisoned for wounding Captain John Whalley in a duel at Tower of London [Map].

Royalist Conspiracy

Evelyn's Diary. 31 May 1658. I went to visit my Lady Peterborough (age 55), whose son, Mr. Mordaunt (age 31), prisoner in the Tower [Map], was now on his trial, and acquitted but by one voice; but that holy martyr, Dr. Hewer, was condemned to die without law, jury, or justice, but by a mock Council of State, as they called it. A dangerous, treacherous time!

On 18 Jun 1660 John Downes (age 51) was arrested for being a signatory of the death warrant of Charles I. On being found guilty of regicide, John Downes was condemned to death in October 1660, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment because he had tried to intervene on the King's behalf and only signed the death warrant after being intimidated by the other commissioners. He spent the rest of his life a prisoner at the Tower of London [Map].

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) rode from the Tower of London [Map] to Whitehall Palace [Map]. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".

Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street [Map], that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.

At the Conduit in Cornhill [Map] a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.

The procession included the Duke of York (age 27), the Lord High Constable (age 58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (age 53).

The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (age 30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster [Map]; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (age 30) and his Nobility went to the Tower [Map], I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (age 34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (age 30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:

On 01 Jul 1661 Henry Mildmay (age 68) was sentenced and degraded from his honours and titles and to be drawn every year on the anniversary of the king's sentence (27 Jan) upon a sledge through the streets to and under the gallows at Tyburn [Map], with a rope about his neck, and so back to the Tower of London [Map], there to remain a prisoner during his life.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Oct 1661. I sailed this morning with his Majesty (age 31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (age 31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the Duke of York's (age 27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich, Kent [Map] to Gravesend, Kent [Map] and back. The King (age 31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (age 31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (age 31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (age 31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (age 36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (age 31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (age 31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower [Map], Sir William Compton (age 36), Sir Charles Berkeley (age 31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (age 31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.

Before 16 Dec 1661 Isaac Penington (age 77) was tried for High Treason and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

On 16 Dec 1661 Isaac Penington (age 77) died at the Tower of London [Map].

On 07 Jan 1662 Arthur Haselrigge 2nd Baronet (age 61) died at the Tower of London [Map]. His son Thomas Haselrigge 3rd Baronet (age 37) succeeded 3rd Baronet Haselrigge of Noseley Hall in Leicestershire.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jan 1662. This solemn fast was held for the House of Commons at St. Margaret's [Map]. Dr. Reeves, Dean of Windsor, preached on Joshua vii. 12, showing how the neglect of exacting justice on offenders (by which he insinuated such of the old King's murderers as were yet reprieved and in the Tower [Map]) was a main cause of God's punishing a land. He brought in that of the Gibeonites, as well as Achan and others, concluding with an eulogy of the Parliament for their loyalty in restoring the Bishops and Clergy, and vindicating the Church from sacrilege.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1662. To dinner to my Lady Sandwich (age 37), and Sir Thomas Crew's (age 38) children coming thither, I took them and all my Ladys to the Tower [Map] and showed them the lions1 and all that was to be shown, and so took them to my house, and there made much of them, and so saw them back to my Lady's. Sir Thomas Crew's (age 38) children being as pretty and the best behaved that ever I saw of their age.

Note 1. The Tower Menagerie was not abolished until the reign of William IV.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Aug 1663. I dined at the Comptroller's [of the Household] with the Earl of Oxford (age 36) and Mr. Ashburnham; it was said it should be the last of the public diets, or tables, at Court, it being determined to put down the old hospitality, at which was great murmuring, considering his Majesty's (age 33) vast revenue and the plenty of the nation. Hence, I went to sit in a Committee, to consider about the regulation of the Mint at the Tower [Map]; in which some small progress was made.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1663. So home to supper to my wife, myself finding myself by cold got last night beginning to have some pain, which grieves me much in my mind to see to what a weakness I am come. This day being our Queene's (age 53) birthday, the guns of the Tower [Map] went all off; and in the evening the Lord Mayor (age 47) sent from church to church to order the constables to cause bonfires to be made in every streete, which methinks is a poor thing to be forced to be commanded. After a good supper with my wife, and hearing of the mayds read in the Bible, we to prayers, and to bed.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Mar 1664. I went to the Tower [Map], to sit in commission about regulating the Mint; and now it was that the fine new-milled coin, both of white money and guineas, was established.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1664. Thence not staying, the wind blowing hard, I made use of the Jemmy yacht and returned to the Tower [Map] in her, my boy being a very droll boy and good company.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1665. Thence I to Westminster, to my barber's, and found occasion to see Jane, but in presence of her mistress, and so could not speak to her of her failing me yesterday, and then to the Swan [Map] to Herbert's girl, and lost time a little with her, and so took coach, and to my Lord Crew's (age 67) and dined with him, who receives me with the greatest respect that could be, telling me that he do much doubt of the successe of this warr with Holland, we going about it, he doubts, by the instigation of persons that do not enough apprehend the consequences of the danger of it, and therein I do think with him. Holmes was this day sent to the Tower [Map]1, but I perceive it is made matter of jest only; but if the Dutch should be our masters, it may come to be of earnest to him, to be given over to them for a sacrifice, as Sir W. Rawly [Raleigh] was.

Note 1. For taking New York from the Dutch.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1665. Up before six, to the office, where busy all the morning. At noon dined with Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir J. Minnes (age 66), at the Tower [Map], with Sir J. Robinson (age 50), at a farewell dinner which he gives Major Holmes (age 43) at his going out of the Tower [Map], where he hath for some time, since his coming from Guinny, been a prisoner, and, it seems, had presented the Lieutenant with fifty pieces yesterday. Here a great deale of good victuals and company. Thence home to my office, where very late, and home to supper and to bed weary of business.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1665. Thence to my Lady Sandwich's (age 40), where, to my shame, I had not been a great while before. Here, upon my telling her a story of my Lord Rochester's (age 18) running away on Friday night last with Mrs. Mallett (age 14), the great beauty and fortune of the North, who had supped at White Hall with Mrs. Stewart (age 17), and was going home to her lodgings with her grandfather, my Lord Haly (age 57), by coach; and was at Charing Cross [Map] seized on by both horse and foot men, and forcibly taken from him, and put into a coach with six horses, and two women provided to receive her, and carried away. Upon immediate pursuit, my Lord of Rochester (age 18) (for whom the King (age 34) had spoke to the lady often, but with no successe) was taken at Uxbridge; but the lady (age 14) is not yet heard of, and the King (age 34) mighty angry, and the Lord (age 18) sent to the Tower [Map]. Hereupon my Lady did confess to me, as a great secret, her being concerned in this story. For if this match breaks between my Lord Rochester (age 18) and her, then, by the consent of all her friends, my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) stands fair, and is invited for her. She is worth, and will be at her mother's (age 35) death (who keeps but a little from her), £2500 per annum. Pray God give a good success to it! But my poor Lady, who is afeard of the sickness, and resolved to be gone into the country, is forced to stay in towne a day or two, or three about it, to see the event of it.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1665. Up, in a boat among other people to the Tower [Map], and there to the office, where we sat all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1665. Up betimes, and called upon early by my she-cozen Porter, the turner's wife, to tell me that her husband was carried to the Tower [Map], for buying of some of the King's powder, and would have my helpe, but I could give her none, not daring any more to appear in the business, having too much trouble lately therein.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1665. Up by 5 of the clock, mighty full of fear of an ague, but was obliged to go, and so by water, wrapping myself up warm, to the Tower [Map], and there sent for the Weekely Bill, and find 8,252 dead in all, and of them 6,878 of the plague; which is a most dreadfull number, and shows reason to fear that the plague hath got that hold that it will yet continue among us.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1665. This night I hear that of our two watermen that use to carry our letters, and were well on Saturday last, one is dead, and the other dying sick of the plague. The plague, though decreasing elsewhere, yet being greater about the Tower [Map] and thereabouts.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Thence I walked to the Tower [Map]; but, Lord! how empty the streets are and melancholy, so many poor sick people in the streets full of sores; and so many sad stories overheard as I walk, every body talking of this dead, and that man sick, and so many in this place, and so many in that. And they tell me that, in Westminster, there is never a physician and but one apothecary left, all being dead; but that there are great hopes of a great decrease this week: God send it!

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1665. Thence took leave, leaving my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to go visit the Bishop of Canterbury (age 67), and I and Sir W. Batten (age 64) down to the Tower [Map], where he went further by water, and I home, and among other things took out all my gold to carry along with me to-night with Captain Cocke (age 48) downe to the fleete, being £180 and more, hoping to lay out that and a great deal more to good advantage.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. At the Tower [Map] found my Lord Duke (age 56) and Duchesse (age 46) at dinner; so I sat down. And much good cheer, the Lieutenant (age 50) and his lady (age 53), and several officers with the Duke. But, Lord! to hear the silly talk that was there, would make one mad; the Duke having none almost but fools about him. Much of their talke about the Dutch coming on shore, which they believe they may some of them have been and steal sheep, and speak all in reproach of them in whose hands the fleete is; but, Lord helpe him, there is something will hinder him and all the world in going to sea, which is want of victuals; for we have not wherewith to answer our service; and how much better it would have been if the Duke's advice had been taken for the fleete to have gone presently out; but, God helpe the King (age 35)! while no better counsels are given, and what is given no better taken.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Here I took boat (leaving him there) and down to the Tower [Map], where I hear the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) is, and I to Lombard Street [Map], but can get no money. So upon the Exchange [Map], which is very empty, God knows! and but mean people there. The newes for certain that the Dutch are come with their fleete before Margett [Map], and some men were endeavouring to come on shore when the post come away, perhaps to steal some sheep.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1665. Thence after dinner receiving many commands from the Duke (age 56), I to our office on the Hill, and there did a little business and to Colvill's again, and so took water at the Tower [Map], and there met with Captain Cocke (age 48), and he down with me to Greenwich, Kent [Map], I having received letters from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to-day, speaking very high about the prize goods, that he would have us to fear nobody, but be very confident in what we have done, and not to confess any fault or doubt of what he hath done; for the King (age 35) hath allowed it, and do now confirm it, and sent orders, as he says, for nothing to be disturbed that his Lordshipp hath ordered therein as to the division of the goods to the fleete; which do comfort us, but my Lord writes to me that both he and I may hence learn by what we see in this business. But that which pleases me best is that Cocke (age 48) tells me that he now understands that Fisher was set on in this business by the design of some of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) people, Warcupp and others, who lent him money to set him out in it, and he has spent high. Who now curse him for a rogue to take £100 when he might have had as well £1,500, and they are mightily fallen out about it. Which in due time shall be discovered, but that now that troubles me afresh is, after I am got to the office at Greenwich, Kent [Map] that some new troubles are come, and Captain Cocke's (age 48) house is beset before and behind with guards, and more, I do fear they may come to my office here to search for Cocke's (age 48) goods and find some small things of my clerk's. So I assisted them in helping to remove their small trade, but by and by I am told that it is only the Custome House men who came to seize the things that did lie at Mr. Glanville's (age 47), for which they did never yet see our Transire, nor did know of them till to-day. So that my fear is now over, for a transire is ready for them. Cocke (age 48) did get a great many of his goods to London to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Oct 1665. Up, and, leaving my guests to make themselves ready, I to the office, and thither comes Sir Jer. Smith and Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) to see me, being just come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and going down to the Fleete. Here I sat and talked with them a good while and then parted, only Sir Christopher Mings (age 39) and I together by water to the Tower [Map]; and I find him a very witty well-spoken fellow, and mighty free to tell his parentage, being a shoemaker's son, to whom he is now going, and I to the 'Change [Map], where I hear how the French have taken two and sunk one of our merchant-men in the Streights, and carried the ships to Toulon; so that there is no expectation but we must fall out with them.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1665. After dinner who comes in but my Lady Batten, and a troop of a dozen women almost, and expected, as I found afterward, to be made mighty much of, but nobody minded them; but the best jest was, that when they saw themselves not regarded, they would go away, and it was horrible foule weather; and my Lady Batten walking through the dirty lane with new spicke and span white shoes, she dropped one of her galoshes in the dirt, where it stuck, and she forced to go home without one, at which she was horribly vexed, and I led her; and after vexing her a little more in mirth, I parted, and to Glanville's (age 47), where I knew Sir John Robinson (age 50), Sir G. Smith (age 50), and Captain Cocke (age 48) were gone, and there, with the company of Mrs. Penington, whose father, I hear, was one of the Court of justice, and died prisoner, of the stone, in the Tower [Map], I made them, against their resolutions, to stay from houre to houre till it was almost midnight, and a furious, darke and rainy, and windy, stormy night, and, which was best, I, with drinking small beer, made them all drunk drinking wine, at which Sir John Robinson (age 50) made great sport.

1666 Great Storm

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1666. By agreement my Lord Bruncker (age 46) called me up, and though it was a very foule, windy, and rainy morning, yet down to the waterside we went, but no boat could go, the storme continued so. So my Lord to stay till fairer weather carried me into the Tower [Map] to Mr. Hore's and there we staid talking an houre, but at last we found no boats yet could go, so we to the office, where we met upon an occasion extraordinary of examining abuses of our clerkes in taking money for examining of tickets, but nothing done in it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1666. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, there met Mr. Coventry (age 38) coming out, going along with the Commissioners of the Ordnance to the water side to take barge, they being to go down to the Hope. I returned with them as far as the Tower [Map] in their barge speaking with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) and so home and to church, and at noon dined and then to my chamber, where with great pleasure about one business or other till late, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Mar 1666. Our [meeting] being done, my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I to the Tower [Map], to see the famous engraver (age 34), to get him to grave a seale for the office. And did see some of the finest pieces of work in embossed work, that ever I did see in my life, for fineness and smallness of the images thereon, and I will carry my wife thither to shew them her. Here I also did see bars of gold melting, which was a fine sight.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jul 1666. Came Sir John Duncomb (age 44) and Mr. Thomas Chicheley (age 52), both Privy Councillors and Commissioners of His Majesty's (age 36) Ordnance, to visit me, and let me know that his Majesty (age 36) had in Council, nominated me to be one of the Commissioners for regulating the farming and making of saltpetre through the whole kingdom, and that we were to sit in the Tower [Map] the next day. When they were gone, came to see me Sir John Cotton (age 45), heir to the famous antiquary, Sir Robert Cotton: a pretended great Grecian, but had by no means the parts, or genius of his grandfather.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jul 1666. I went to sit with the Commissioners at the Tower [Map], where our commission being read, we made some progress in business, our Secretary being Sir George Wharton (age 49), that famous mathematician who wrote the yearly Almanac during his Majesty's (age 36) troubles. Thence, to Painters' Hall, Queenhithe, to our other commission, and dined at my Lord Mayor's.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1666. But was up again by five o'clock, and was forced to rise, having much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs. Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the Tower [Map], and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want of sleep, I by coach to St. James's, to Goring House [Map], there to wait on my Lord Arlington (age 48) to give him an account of my night's worke, but he was not up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house below,-being the house I was once at Hartlib's sister's wedding, and is a very fine house and finely furnished,-and then thinking it too much for me to lose time to wait my Lord's rising, I away to St. James's, and there to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington (age 48) giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and his people about him, saying, that he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke (deceased), and Riggs, and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at, that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have been borne with from the King (age 36), nor Duke (age 32), nor any man else in England, and I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did further say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that the Duke (age 32) did intend to go to sea and to leave him his agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W. Coventry (age 38), I did believe but the Duke of Yorke (age 32) would expect to be his agent on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say, that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple; and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse (age 29) bid him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in the world, by which his lie was found at then.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Jul 1666. Sat at the Tower [Map] with J. Duncomb (age 44) and Lord Berkeley (age 38), to sign deputations for undertakers to furnish their proportions of saltpetre.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. In the evening comes W. Batelier and his sister, and my wife, and fair Mrs. Turner (age 43) into the garden, and there we walked, and then with my Lady Pen (age 42) and Pegg (age 15) in a-doors, and eat and were merry, and so pretty late broke up, and to bed. The guns of the Tower [Map] going off, and there being bonefires also in the street for this late good successe.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. By and by Jane comes and tells me that she hears that above 300 houses have been burned down to-night by the fire we saw, and that it is now burning down all Fish-street [Map], by London Bridge [Map]. So I made myself ready presently, and walked to the Tower [Map], and there got up upon one of the high places, Sir J. Robinson's (age 51) little son going up with me; and there I did see the houses at that end of the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great fire on this and the other side the end of the bridge; which, among other people, did trouble me for poor little Michell and our Sarah on the bridge. So down, with my heart full of trouble, to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 51), who tells me that it begun this morning in the King's baker's' house in Pudding-lane, and that it hath burned St. Magnus's Church [Map] and most part of Fish-street [Map] already.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1666. It crossed toward Whitehall [Map]; but oh! the confusion there was then at that Court! It pleased his Majesty (age 36) to command me, among the rest, to look after the quenching of Fetter-lane end, to preserve (if possible) that part of Holborn, while the rest of the gentlemen took their several posts, some at one part, and some at another (for now they began to bestir themselves, and not till now, who hitherto had stood as men intoxicated, with their hands across), and began to consider that nothing was likely to put a stop but the blowing up of so many houses as might make a wider gap than any had yet been made by the ordinary method of pulling them down with engines. This some stout seamen proposed early enough to have saved near the whole city, but this some tenacious and avaricious men, aldermen, etc., would not permit, because their houses must have been of the first. It was, therefore, now commended to be practiced; and my concern being particularly for the Hospital of St. Bartholomew, near Smithfield, where I had many wounded and sick men, made me the more diligent to promote it; nor was my care for the Savoy less. It now pleased God, by abating the wind, and by the industry of the people, when almost all was lost infusing a new spirit into them, that the fury of it began sensibly to abate about noon, so as it came no farther than the Temple westward, nor than the entrance of Smithfield, north: but continued all this day and night so impetuous toward Cripplegate [Map] and the Tower [Map], as made us all despair. It also broke out again in the Temple [Map]; but the courage of the multitude persisting, and many houses being blown up, such gaps and desolations were soon made, as, with the former three days' consumption, the back fire did not so vehemently urge upon the rest as formerly. There was yet no standing near the burning and glowing ruins by near a furlong's space.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall [Map] as far as London Bridge [Map], through the late Fleet Street [Map], Ludgate hill by St. Paul's [Map], Cheapside [Map], Exchange, Bishops-gate [Map], Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields [Map], thence through Cornhill [Map], etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (age 36) got to the Tower [Map] by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower [Map], where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

In 1667 Robert Wallop (age 65) died in the Tower of London [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1667. After dinner with my wife by coach abroad, and set Mr. Hunt down at the Temple [Map] and her at her brother's (age 27), and I to White Hall to meet Sir W. Coventry (age 39), but found him not, but met Mr. Cooling, who tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) being sent for last night, by a Serjeant at Armes, to the Tower [Map], for treasonable practices, and that the King (age 36) is infinitely angry with him, and declared him no longer one of his Council. I know not the reason of it, or occasion.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1667. From them I walked into the Parke, it being a fine but very cold day; and there took two or three turns the length of the Pell Mell [Map]: and there I met Serjeant Bearcroft, who was sent for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), to have brought him prisoner to the Tower [Map]. He come to towne this day, and brings word that, being overtaken and outrid by the Duchesse of Buckingham (age 28) within a few miles of the Duke's house of Westhorp [Map], he believes she got thither about a quarter of an hour before him, and so had time to consider; so that, when he come, the doors were kept shut against him. The next day, coming with officers of the neighbour market-town to force open the doors, they were open for him, but the Duke (age 39) gone; so he took horse presently, and heard upon the road that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) was gone before him for London: so that he believes he is this day also come to towne before him; but no newes is yet heard of him. This is all he brings.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. I proposed to my Lord Chancellor (age 58), Monsieur Kiviet's (age 40) undertaking to wharf the whole river of Thames, or quay, from the Temple [Map] to the Tower [Map], as far as the fire destroyed, with brick, without piles, both lasting and ornamental.-Great frosts, snow and winds, prodigious at the vernal equinox; indeed it had been a year of prodigies in this nation, plague, war, fire, rain, tempest and comet.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall by coach, and by the way agreed to acquaint Sir W. Coventry (age 39) with the business of Mr. Carcasse, and he and I spoke to Sir W. Coventry (age 39) that we might move it to the Duke of York (age 33), which I did in a very indifferent, that is, impartial manner, but vexed I believe Lord Bruncker (age 47). Here the Duke of York (age 33) did acquaint us, and the King (age 36) did the like also, afterwards coming in, with his resolution of altering the manner of the war this year; that is, we shall keep what fleete we have abroad in several squadrons: so that now all is come out; but we are to keep it as close as we can, without hindering the work that is to be done in preparation to this. Great preparations there are to fortify Sheernesse [Map] and the yard at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and forces are drawing down to both those places, and elsewhere by the seaside; so that we have some fear of an invasion; and the Duke of York (age 33) himself did declare his expectation of the enemy's blocking us up here in the River, and therefore directed that we should send away all the ships that we have to fit out hence. Sir W. Pen (age 45) told me, going with me this morning to White Hall, that for certain the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is brought into the Tower [Map], and that he hath had an hour's private conference with the King (age 36) before he was sent thither. To Westminster Hall [Map]. There bought some news books, and, as every where else, hear every body complain of the dearness of coals, being at £4 per chaldron, the weather, too, being become most bitter cold, the King (age 36) saying to-day that it was the coldest day he ever knew in England.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. So home and to the office, where did business, and so home to my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. Landing at the Tower [Map] to-night I met on Tower Hill [Map] with Captain Cocke (age 50) and spent half an hour walking in the dusk of the evening with him, talking of the sorrowful condition we are in, that we must be ruined if the Parliament do not come and chastize us, that we are resolved to make a peace whatever it cost, that the King (age 36) is disobliging the Parliament in this interval all that may be, yet his money is gone and he must have more, and they likely not to give it, without a great deal of do. God knows what the issue of it will be. But the considering that the Duke of York (age 33), instead of being at sea as Admirall, is now going from port to port, as he is at this day at Harwich [Map], and was the other day with the King (age 36) at Sheernesse [Map], and hath ordered at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] how fortifications shall be made to oppose the enemy, in case of invasion, [which] is to us a sad consideration, and as shameful to the nation, especially after so many proud vaunts as we have made against the Dutch, and all from the folly of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), who made nothing of beating them, and Sir John Lawson he always declared that we never did fail to beat them with lesser numbers than theirs, which did so prevail with the King (age 36) as to throw us into this war.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Apr 1667. After dinner I away to take water at the Tower [Map], and thence to Westminster, where Mrs. Martin was not at home.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1667. In the morning, his Majesty (age 36) went to chapel with the Knights of the Garter, all in their habits and robes, ushered by the heralds; after the first service, they went in procession, the youngest first, the Sovereign last, with the Prelate of the Order and Dean, who had about his neck the book of the Statutes of the Order; and then the Chancellor of the Order (old Sir Henry de Vic (age 68)), who wore the purse about his neck; then the Heralds and Garter King-at-Arms, Clarencieux, Black Rod. But before the Prelate and Dean of Windsor went the gentlemen of the chapel and choristers, singing as they marched; behind them two doctors of music in damask robes; this procession was about the courts at Whitehall [Map]. Then, returning to their stalls and seats in the chapel, placed under each knight's coat-armor and titles, the second service began. Then, the King (age 36) offered at the altar, an anthem was sung; then, the rest of the Knights offered, and lastly proceeded to the banqueting-house [Map] to a great feast. The King (age 36) sat on an elevated throne at the upper end at a table alone; the Knights at a table on the right hand, reaching all the length of the room; over against them a cupboard of rich gilded plate; at the lower end, the music; on the balusters above, wind music, trumpets, and kettle-drums. the King (age 36) was served by the lords and pensioners who brought up the dishes. About the middle of the dinner, the Knights drank the King's (age 36) health, then the King (age 36), theirs, when the trumpets and music played and sounded, the guns going off at the Tower [Map]. At the Banquet, came in the Queen (age 28), and stood by the King's (age 36) left hand, but did not sit. Then was the banqueting-stuff flung about the room profusely. In truth, the crowd was so great, that though I stayed all the supper the day before, I now stayed no longer than this sport began, for fear of disorder. The cheer was extraordinary, each Knight having forty dishes to his mess, piled up five or six high; the room hung with the richest tapestry.

Pepy's Diary. 05 May 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and going down to the water side, I met Sir John Robinson (age 52), and so with him by coach to White Hall, still a vain, prating, boasting man as any I know, as if the whole City and Kingdom had all its work done by him. He tells me he hath now got a street ordered to be continued, forty feet broad, from Paul's through Cannon Street to the Tower [Map], which will be very fine.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1667. So away home, and then, I, it being a broken day, and had power by my vows, did walk abroad, first through the Minorys, the first time I have been over the Hill [Map] to the postern-gate, and seen the place, since the houses were pulled down about that side of the Tower [Map], since the fire, to find where my young mercer with my pretty little woman to his wife lives, who lived in Lombard Street [Map], and I did espy them, but took no notice now of them, but may do hereafter.

1667 Raid on the Medway

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1667. This night, about two o'clock, some chips and combustible matter prepared for some fire-ships, taking flame in Deptford-yard [Map], made such a blaze, and caused such an uproar in the Tower [Map] (it being given out that the Dutch fleet was come up, and had landed their men and fired the Tower), as had liked to have done more mischief before people would be persuaded to the contrary and believe the accident. Everybody went to their arms. These were sad and troublesome times.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1667. So to the office, and by and by word was brought me that Commissioner Pett (age 56) is brought to the Tower [Map], and there laid up close prisoner; which puts me into a fright, lest they may do the same with us as they do with him. This puts me upon hastening what I am doing with my people, and collecting out of my papers our defence. Myself got Fist, Sir W. Batten's (age 66) clerk, and busy with him writing letters late, and then home to supper and to read myself asleep, after piping, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1667. Up, without any respect to my wife, only answering her a question or two, without any anger though, and so to the office, where all the morning busy, and among other things Mr. Barber come to me (one of the clerks of the Ticket office) to get me to sign some tickets, and told me that all the discourse yesterday, about that part of the town where he was, was that Mr. Pett (age 56) and I were in the Tower [Map]; and I did hear the same before.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1667. So to the office, and there Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I did some business, and then home to dinner, where my wife pleases me mightily with what she can do upon the flageolet, and then I to the office again, and busy all the afternoon, and it is worth noting that the King (age 37) and Council, in their order of the 23rd instant, for unloading three merchant-ships taken up for the King's service for men-of-war, do call the late coming of the Dutch "an invasion". I was told, yesterday, that Mr. Oldenburg (age 48), our Secretary at Gresham College, is put into the Tower [Map], for writing newes to a virtuoso in France, with whom he constantly corresponds in philosophical matters; which makes it very unsafe at this time to write, or almost do any thing. Several captains come to the office yesterday and to-day, complaining that their men come and go when they will, and will not be commanded, though they are paid every night, or may be. Nay, this afternoon comes Harry Russell from Gravesend, Kent [Map], telling us that the money carried down yesterday for the Chest at Chatham had like to have been seized upon yesterday, in the barge there, by seamen, who did beat our watermen: and what men should these be but the boat's crew of Sir Fretcheville Hollis (age 25), who used to brag so much of the goodness and order of his men, and his command over them.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1667. Thence with him to the Treasury Chamber, and then to the Exchequer to inform ourselves a little about our warrant for £30,000 for Tangier, which vexes us that it is so far off in time of payment. Having walked two or three turns with him in the Hall we parted, and I home by coach, and did business at the office till noon, and then by water to White Hall to dinner to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), but he not at home, but I dined with my Lady and good company, and good dinner. My Lady and the family in very good humour upon this business of his parting with his place of Treasurer of the Navy, which I perceive they do own, and we did talk of it with satisfaction. They do here tell me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) hath surrendered himself to Secretary Morrice (age 64), and is going to the Tower [Map]. Mr. Fenn, at the table, says that he hath been taken by the watch two or three times of late, at unseasonable hours, but so disguised that they could not know him: and when I come home, by and by, Mr. Lowther (age 26) tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do dine publickly this day at Wadlow's, at the Sun Tavern; and is mighty merry, and sent word to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 52), that he would come to him as soon as he had dined. Now, how sad a thing it is, when we come to make sport of proclaiming men traitors, and banishing them, and putting them out of their offices, and Privy Council, and of sending to and going to the Tower: God have mercy on us!

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. But presently comes down the House of Commons, the King (age 37) having made then a very short and no pleasing speech to them at all, not at all giving them thanks for their readiness to come up to town at this busy time; but told them that he did think he should have had occasion for them, but had none, and therefore did dismiss them to look after their own occasions till October; and that he did wonder any should offer to bring in a suspicion that he intended to rule by an army, or otherwise than by the laws of the land, which he promised them he would do; and so bade them go home and settle the minds of the country in that particular; and only added, that he had made a peace which he did believe they would find reasonable, and a good peace, but did give them none of the particulars thereof. Thus they are dismissed again to their general great distaste, I believe the greatest that ever Parliament was, to see themselves so fooled, and the nation in certain condition of ruin, while the King (age 37), they see, is only governed by his lust, and women, and rogues about him. The Speaker, they found, was kept from coming in the morning to the House on purpose, till after the King (age 37) was come to the House of Lords, for fear they should be doing anything in the House of Commons to the further dissatisfaction of the King (age 37) and his courtiers. They do all give up the Kingdom for lost that I speak to; and do hear what the King (age 37) says, how he and the Duke of York (age 33) do do what they can to get up an army, that they may need no more Parliaments: and how my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath, before the late breach between her and the King (age 37), said to the King (age 37) that he must rule by an army, or all would be lost, and that Bab. May (age 39) hath given the like advice to the King (age 37), to crush the English gentlemen, saying that £300 a-year was enough for any man but them that lived at Court. I am told that many petitions were provided for the Parliament, complaining of the wrongs they have received from the Court and courtiers, in city and country, if the Parliament had but sat: and I do perceive they all do resolve to have a good account of the money spent before ever they give a farthing more: and the whole kingdom is everywhere sensible of their being abused, insomuch that they forced their Parliament-men to come up to sit; and my cozen Roger (age 50) told me that (but that was in mirth) he believed, if he had not come up, he should have had his house burned. The Kingdom never in so troubled a condition in this world as now; nobody pleased with the peace, and yet nobody daring to wish for the continuance of the war, it being plain that nothing do nor can thrive under us. Here I saw old good Mr. Vaughan (age 63), and several of the great men of the Commons, and some of them old men, that are come 200 miles, and more, to attend this session-of Parliament; and have been at great charge and disappointments in their other private business; and now all to no purpose, neither to serve their country, content themselves, nor receive any thanks from the King (age 37). It is verily expected by many of them that the King (age 37) will continue the prorogation in October, so as, if it be possible, never to have [this] Parliament more. My Lord Bristoll (age 54) took his place in the House of Lords this day, but not in his robes; and when the King (age 37) come in, he withdrew but my Lord of Buckingham (age 39) was there as brisk as ever, and sat in his robes; which is a monstrous thing, that a man proclaimed against, and put in the Tower [Map], and all, and released without any trial, and yet not restored to his places.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg (age 48), a close prisoner in the Tower [Map], being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an order from Lord Arlington (age 49), Secretary of State, which caused me to be admitted. This gentleman was secretary to our Society, and I am confident will prove an innocent person.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Dec 1667. To visit the late Lord Chancellor. I found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting in his gout wheel-chair, and seeing the gates setting up toward the north and the fields. He looked and spake very disconsolately. After some while deploring his condition to me, I took my leave. Next morning, I heard he was gone; though I am persuaded that, had he gone sooner, though but to Cornbury, and there lain quiet, it would have satisfied the Parliament. That which exasperated them was his presuming to stay and contest the accusation as long as it was possible: and they were on the point of sending him to the Tower [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon comes Knepp and Mrs. Pierce, and her daughter, and one Mrs. Foster, and dined with me, and mighty merry, and after dinner carried them to the Tower [Map], and shewed them all to be seen there, and, among other things, the Crown and Scepters and rich plate, which I myself never saw before, and indeed is noble, and I mightily pleased with it.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Sep 1668. I entertained Signor Muccinigo, the Venetian Ambassador, of one of the noblest families of the State, this being the day of making his public entry, setting forth from my house [Map] with several gentlemen of Venice and others in a very glorious train. He staid with me till the Earl of Anglesea (age 54) and Sir Charles Cotterell (age 53) (Master of the Ceremonies) came with the King's (age 38) barge to carry him to the Tower [Map], where the guns were fired at his landing; he then entered his Majesty's (age 38) coach, followed by many others of the nobility. I accompanied him to his house, where there was a most noble supper to all the company, of course. After the extraordinary compliments to me and my wife (age 33), for the civilities he received at my house, I took leave and returned. He is a very accomplished person. He is since Ambassador at Rome.

In 1669 Henry Savile (age 27) was sent to the Tower of London [Map] for a few days for having carried Thomas Coventry's (age 40) challenge to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (age 55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and so was also Harry Saville (age 27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (age 35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (age 35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (age 38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower [Map], this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (age 58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, the King (age 38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (age 35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (age 54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (age 41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (age 41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (age 27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did bid Holmes (age 47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (age 27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (age 41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (age 67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) to come to the King (age 38), Holmes (age 47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (age 38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (age 41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (age 38) asking W. Coventry (age 41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (age 38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (age 38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower [Map]2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (age 35) and his brother (age 50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (age 38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (age 41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe [Map], and so walked to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (age 35) is, and his Duchess (age 31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (age 31), the Countess of Falmouth (age 24), Castlemayne (age 28), Henrietta Hide (age 23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (age 24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (age 47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (age 17), Blake (age 16), and Howard (age 18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (age 43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (age 28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (age 48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny (age 46), and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (age 28) how angry the Duke of York (age 35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (age 31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (age 24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (age 41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower [Map] stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1670. Receiving a letter from Mr. Philip Howard (age 41), Lord Almoner to the Queen, that Monsieur Evelin, first physician to Madame (age 25) (who was now come to Dover to visit the King (age 39) her brother), was come to town, greatly desirous to see me; but his stay so short, that he could not come to me, I went with my brother (age 52) to meet him at the Tower [Map], where he was seeing the magazines and other curiosities, having never before been in England: we renewed our alliance and friendship, with much regret on both sides that, he being to return toward Dover, Kent [Map] that evening, we could not enjoy one another any longer. How this French family, Ivelin, of Evelin, Normandy, a very ancient and noble house is grafted into our pedigree, see in the collection brought from Paris, 1650.

Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

On 09 May 1671 Colonel Thomas Blood (age 53) attempted to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London [Map]. He was captured whilst trying to escape the Tower of London [Map] with the Crown. Following his capture he refused to to answer to anyone but the King (age 40). He was questioned by the King (age 40) and Prince Rupert Palatinate Simmern 1st Duke Cumberland (age 51). For unknown reasons he was pardoned by the King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and rewarded with land in Ireland worth £500 per year much to the irritation of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde (age 60), Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom Blood had attempted to kidnap twice before.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (age 40), in company with Monsieur De Grammont (age 50) and several French noblemen, and one Blood (age 53), that impudent, bold fellow who had not long before attempted to steal the imperial crown itself out of the Tower of London [Map], pretending only curiosity of seeing the regalia there, when, stabbing the keeper, though not mortally, he boldly went away with it through all the guards, taken only by the accident of his horse falling down. How he came to be pardoned, and even received into favor, not only after this, but several other exploits almost as daring both in Ireland and here, I could never come to understand. Some believed he became a spy of several parties, being well with the sectaries and enthusiasts, and did his Majesty (age 40) services that way, which none alive could do so well as he; but it was certainly the boldest attempt, so the only treason of this sort that was ever pardoned. This man had not only a daring but a villanous, unmerciful look, a false countenance, but very well-spoken and dangerously insinuating.

On 02 Feb 1675 John Flamsteed (age 28) arrived in London. He stayed at the Tower of London [Map] with Jonas Moore (age 57). He was taken by Silius Titus (age 52) to meet King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 44).

Around 1678 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 44) was imprisoned being under suspiscion of supporting a Popish Plot at Tower of London [Map].

On 28 Jan 1678 Philip "Infamous Earl" Herbert 7th Earl Pembroke 4th Earl Montgomery (age 26) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map] by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 47) "for uttering such horrid and blasphemous words, and other actions proved upon oath, as are not fit to be repeated in any Christian assembly". He was released two days later on 30 Jan 1678.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jul 1678. I went to the Tower [Map] to try a metal at the Assay-master's, which only proved sulphur; then saw Monsieur Rotière (age 47), that excellent graver belonging to the Mint, who emulates even the ancients, in both metal and stone; he was now molding a horse for the King's (age 48) statue, to be cast in silver, of a yard high. I dined with Mr. Slingsby (age 57), Master of the Mint.

Popish Plot

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Nov 1678. The Queen's (age 39) birthday. I never saw the Court more brave, nor the nation in more apprehension and consternation. Coleman (age 42) and one Staly had now been tried, condemned, and executed. On this, Oates grew so presumptuous as to accuse the Queen (age 39) of intending to poison the King (age 48); which certainly that pious and virtuous lady abhorred the thoughts of, and Oates's circumstances made it utterly unlikely in my opinion. He probably thought to gratify some who would have been glad his Majesty (age 48) should have married a fruitful lady; but the King (age 48) was too kind a husband to let any of these make impression on him. However, divers of the Popish peers were sent to the Tower of London [Map], accused by Oates; and all the Roman Catholic lords were by a new Act forever excluded the Parliament; which was a mighty blow. the King's (age 48), Queen's, and Duke's servants, were banished, and a test to be taken by everybody who pretended to enjoy any office of public trust, and who would not be suspected of Popery. I went with Sir William Godolphin (age 38), a member of the Commons' House, to the Bishop of Ely (Dr. Peter Gunning (age 64)), to be resolved whether masses were idolatry, as the text expressed it, which was so worded, that several good Protestants scrupled, and Sir William, though a learned man and excellent divine himself, had some doubts about it. The Bishop's opinion was that he might take it, though he wished it had been otherwise worded in the text.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jun 1679. I dined with Mr. Pepys (age 46) in the Tower of London [Map], he having been committed by the House of Commons for misdemeanors in the Admiralty when he was secretary; I believe he was unjustly charged. Here I saluted my Lords Stafford (age 64) and Petre (age 53), who were committed for the Popish plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1683. After the Popish Plot, there was now a new and (as they called it) a Protestant Plot discovered, that certain Lords and others should design the assassination of the King (age 53) and the Duke (age 49) as they were to come from Newmarket, with a general rising of the nation, and especially of the city of London, disaffected to the present Government. Upon which were committed to the Tower [Map], the Lord Russell (age 43), eldest son of the Earl of Bedford (age 66), the Earl of Essex, Mr. Algernon Sidney (age 60), son to the old Earl of Leicester, Mr. Trenchard, Hampden, Lord Howard of Escrick, and others. A proclamation was issued against my Lord Grey, the Duke of Monmouth (age 34), Sir Thomas Armstrong, and one Ferguson, who had escaped beyond sea; of these some were said to be for killing the King (age 53), others for only seizing on him, and persuading him to new counsels, on the pretense of the danger of Popery, should the Duke live to succeed, who was now again admitted to the councils and cabinet secrets. The Lords Essex (age 60) and Russell (age 43) were much deplored, for believing they had any evil intention against the King (age 53), or the Church; some thought they were cunningly drawn in by their enemies for not approving some late counsels and management relating to France, to Popery, to the persecution of the Dissenters, etc. They were discovered by the Lord Howard of Escrick and some false brethren of the club, and the design happily broken; had it taken effect, it would, to all appearance, have exposed the Government to unknown and dangerous events; which God avert!

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Feb 1684. The Earle of Danby (age 51), late Lord Treasurer, together with the Roman Catholic Lords impeach'd of High Treason in the Popish Plot, had now their Habeas Corpus, and came out upon baile, after five yeares imprisonment in the Tower [Map]. Then were also tried and deeply fin'd Mr. Hampden and others for being suppos'd of the late Plot, for which Lord Russell and Col. Sidney suffer'd; as also the person who went about to prove that the Earle of Essex had his throat cut in the Tower by others; likewise Mr. Johnson, the author of that famous piece called Julian.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jan 1685. I was invited to my Lord Arundel of Wardour (age 52), (now newly released of his 6 yeares confinement in ye Tower [Map] on suspicion of the Plot call'd Oates's Plot), where after dinner the same Mr. Pordage entertain'd us with his voice, that excellent and stupendous artist Sign' Jo. Baptist playing to it on the harpsichord. My daughter Mary (age 20) being with us, she also sung to the greate satisfaction of both the masters, and a world of people of quality present. She did so also at my Lord Rochester's (age 42) the evening following, where we had the French Boy so fam'd for his singing, and indeede he had a delicate voice, and had ben well taught. I also heard Mrs. Packer (daughter to my old friend) sing before his Ma* and the Duke, privately, that stupendous basse Gosling accompanying her, but hers was so loud as tooke away much of the sweetnesse. Certainly never woman had a stronger or better eare, could she possibly have govern'd it. She would do rarely in a large church among the nunns.

Rye House Plot

Before Jul 1683 Ford Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 27) was arrested for his involvement in the Rye House Plot. He ecasped from the Tower of London [Map] in Jul 1683.

On 08 Jul 1683 John Hampden of Great Hampden (age 30) was sent to the Tower of London [Map] on the discovery of the Rye House Plot.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1683. As I was visiting Sir Thomas Yarborough and his Lady, in Covent Garden [Map], the astonishing news was brought to us of the Earl of Essex (age 51) having cut his throat, having been but three days a prisoner in the Tower [Map], and this happened on the very day and instant that Lord Russell (age 43) was on his trial, and had sentence of death [See Rye House Plot.]. This accident exceedingly amazed me, my Lord Essex (age 51) being so well known by me to be a person of such sober and religious deportment, so well at his ease, and so much obliged to the King (age 53). It is certain the King (age 53) and Duke (age 49) were at the Tower, and passed by his window about the same time this morning, when my Lord (age 51) asking for a razor, shut himself into a closet, and perpetrated the horrid act. Yet it was wondered by some how it was possible he should do it in the manner he was found, for the wound was so deep and wide, that being cut through the gullet, windpipe, and both the jugulars, it reached to the very vertebræ of the neck, so that the head held to it by a very little skin as it were; the gapping too of the razor, and cutting his own fingers, was a little strange; but more, that having passed the jugulars he should have strength to proceed so far, that an executioner could hardly have done more with an ax. There were odd reflections upon it.

On 10 Jul 1683 Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 51) was committed to the Gentleman Gaolers House, number 5 Tower Green at the Tower of London [Map] for his involvement in the Rye House Plot.

On 13 Jul 1683 Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex (age 51) committed suicide at the Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. He was said to have been discovered in his chamber with his throat cut whilst awaiting execution for treason. His son Algernon Capell 2nd Earl Essex (age 12) succeeded 2nd Earl Essex.

On 05 Jan 1684 William Petre 4th Baron Petre (age 58) died at the Tower of London [Map] having been confined after having been impeached by the Commons of high treason. His brother John Petre 5th Baron Petre (age 54) succeeded 5th Baron Petre.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Jul 1685. Monmouth (age 36) was this day brought to London and examin'd before the King (age 51), to whom he made greate submission, acknowledg'd his seduction by Ferguson the Scot (age 48), whom he nam'd ye bloudy villain. He was sent to ye Tower [Map], had an interview with his late Dutchesse (age 34), whom he receiv'd coldly, having liv'd dishonestly with ye Lady Henrietta Wentworth (age 24) for two yeares. He obstinately asserted his conversation with that debauch'd woman to be no in, whereupon, seeing he could not be persuaded to his last breath, the divines who were sent to assist him thought not fit to administer the Holy Communion to him. For ye rest of his faults he profess'd greate sorrow, and so died without any apparent feare; he would not make use of a cap or other circumstance, but lying downe, bid the fellow do his office better than to the late Lord Russell, and gave him gold; but the wretch made five chopps before he had his head off; wch so incens'd the people, that had he not been guarded and got away, they would have torn him to pieces. The Duke (age 36) made no speech on the scaffold (wch was on Tower Hill [Map]) but gave a paper containing not above 5 or 6 lines, for the King (age 51), in which he disclaims all title to ye Crown, acknowledges that the late King, his father, had indeede told him he was but his base sonn, and so desir'd his Ma* to be kind to his wife and children. This relation I had from Dr. Tenison (Rector of St. Martin's) (age 48), who, with the Bishops of Ely (age 47) and Bath and Wells (age 48), were sent to him by his Ma*, and were at the execution.

Combermere Papers. In 1685 Sir Robert (age 50) was committed to the Tower [Map] on a charge of treasonable correspondence with the Electress Sophia (age 54). The following is a copy of the warrant for his committal:

Robert Earl of Sunderland Baron Spencer & c & c

These are in His Majesty's name to authorize and require you to receive into your custodie the bodie of Sir Robert Cotton of Cheshire (age 50) herewith sent to you for dangerous and treasonable practices !Keep him safe and close till he be discharged by due course of law for which this shall be your warrant.

Given at the Court at Windsor the 23rd daye of September 1685

SUNDERLAND [Robert Spencer 2nd Earl of Sunderland (age 44)]

To the Lieutenant of the Tower

Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1688. This day, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 71), with the Bishops of Ely (age 50), Chichester (age 64), St. Asaph (age 60), Bristol (age 38), Peterborough (age 60), and Bath and Wells (age 50), were sent from the Privy Council prisoners to the Tower [Map], for refusing to give bail for their appearance, on their not reading the Declaration for liberty of conscience; they refused to give bail, as it would have prejudiced their peerage. The concern of the people for them was wonderful, infinite crowds on their knees begging their blessing, and praying for them, as they passed out of the barge along the Tower wharf.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jun 1688. I went to the Tower [Map] to see the Bishops, visited the Archbishop (age 71) and the Bishops of Ely (age 50), St. Asaph (age 60), and Bath and Wells (age 50).

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1688. About two o'clock, we heard the Tower [Map] ordnance discharged, and the bells ring for the birth of a Prince of Wales. This was very surprising, it having been universally given out that her Majesty did not look till the next month.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jun 1689. News of A PLOT discovered, on which divers were sent to the Tower [Map] and secured.

Battle of the Boyne

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jun 1690. Dined with Mr. Pepys (age 57), who the next day was sent to the Gatehouse, and several great persons to the Tower [Map], on suspicion of being affected to King James (age 56); among them was the Earl of Clarendon, the Queen's (age 28) uncle. King William (age 39) having vanquished King James (age 56) in Ireland, there was much public rejoicing. It seems the Irish in King James's (age 56) army would not stand, but the English-Irish and French made great resistance. Schomberg (age 74) was slain, and Dr. Walker, who so bravely defended Londonderry. King William (age 39) received a slight wound by the grazing of a cannon bullet on his shoulder, which he endured with very little interruption of his pursuit. Hamilton (age 55), who broke his word about Tyrconnel (age 60), was taken. It is reported that King James (age 56) is gone back to France. Drogheda [Map] and Dublin [Map] surrendered, and if King William (age 39) be returning, we may say of him as Cæsar said, "Veni, vidi, vici". But to alloy much of this, the French fleet rides in our channel, ours not daring to interpose, and the enemy threatening to land.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Aug 1690. I was desired to be one of the bail of the Earl of Clarendon, for his release from the Tower [Map], with divers noblemen. The Bishop of St. Asaph (age 62) expounds his prophecies to me and Mr. Pepys (age 57), etc. The troops from Blackheath [Map] march to Portsmouth [Map]. That sweet and hopeful youth, Sir Charles Tuke (age 19), died of the wounds he received in the fight of the Boyne, to the great sorrow of all his friends, being (I think) the last male of that family, to which my wife (age 55) is related. A more virtuous young gentleman I never knew; he was learned for his age, having had the advantage of the choicest breeding abroad, both as to arts and arms; he had traveled much, but was so unhappy as to fall in the side of his unfortunate King (age 56).

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1690. I went to visit some friends in the Tower [Map], when asking for Lord Clarendon, they by mistake directed me to the Earl of Torrington (age 42), who about three days before had been sent for from the fleet [Map], and put into the Tower [Map] for cowardice and not fighting the French fleet, which having beaten a squadron of the Hollanders, while Torrington (age 42) did nothing, did now ride masters of the sea, threatening a descent.

On 09 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone (age 60) was sent to the Tower of London [Map] having accussed of treason.

On 14 Oct 1690 Richard Power 1st Earl Tyrone (age 60) died in the Tower of London [Map]. His son John Power 2nd Earl Tyrone (age 25) succeeded 2nd Earl Tyrone.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Nov 1690. Went to the Countess of Clancarty (age 48), to condole with her concerning her debauched and dissolute son (age 22), who had done so much mischief in Ireland, now taken and brought prisoner to the Tower [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Jan 1691. This week a PLOT was discovered for a general rising against the new Government, for which (Henry) Lord Clarendon and others were sent to the Tower [Map]. The next day, I went to see Lord Clarendon. The Bishop of Ely (age 53) searched for. Trial of Lord Preston (age 41), as not being an English Peer, hastened at the Old Bailey.

John Ashton Edmund Elliot Richard Graham 1691. On Fryday, the 2d day of this Sessions, my Lord Preston (age 41), John Ashton and Edmund Elliot, were all Arrained for High Treason, my Lord Preston (age 41) was Tryed on Saturday by the name of Sir Richard Graham, Mr. Ashton on Monday. The Indictments against them consisted of Two Parts, the First of which set forth, That they had a Treasonable Design carrying on to Depose the King and Queen, and to Subvert and Alter the Government of the Kingdom of England, and to raise War and Rebellion in the same; which said Traiterous and Wicked Designs and Purposes to bring to pass, they did, on the 29th of December last, Meet and Conspire together, with several other Traitors not yet discovered, and did Compose several Treasonable Letters, Notes and Memorandums in writing, which set forth the most effectual way and means how they might Dethrone and Depose our Most Gracious Sovereign Lord and Lady the King (age 40) and Queen (age 28), and further describing therein how the Affairs of this Kingdom stood, and of what Strength and Force our Shipping was; as also the Fortifications of several Sea-Port-Towns within this Kingdom. The Second Part was their adhering to the Kings's Enemies: And to that end, that they might Acquaint Lewis the French King of the same, they did hire a Boat and Embarque themselves in order to Transport themselves and Pacquet of Treasonable Letters into France, agreeing to pay for their said Passages the Sum of One hundred Pound; and, in order to their Treasonable Voyage, they had made their Passage as far as below Gravesend [Map], but were then Taken by Captain Billop, who Cruised abroad to search for them.

After this the Evidence for the King (age 40) being called, gave an Account particularly from Step to Step, how cunningly and subtilly they managed this horrid Conspiracy, by hiring the Smack called the Thomas and Elizabeth, to convey them secretly into France; in order to which they took Water in a Skuller at Surrey-Stairs, and went on Board the aforesaid Vessel, which lay in the River of Thames over against the Tower [Map]: From thence they set Sail down the River, till coming within the View of the George Frigate, lying in Long-reach, they desired the Master of the Smack to hide them under the Quarter-Hatches; which was done, they having some Fear of being discovered: There they remained till past that Danger, and then came up; but when they were within Sight of Gravesend [Map] they hid again, and a little below it Captain Billop came aboard them, under Pretence of Pressing the Masters two Men, who were assistants to him; but indeed his Design and real Intention was to find out those Traytors, which, upon Search, he found lying along under the Hatches; and after their being haled up he search'd them, and found a Pacquet of Treasonable Papers in Mr. Ashton's Bosom: which he with the Prisoners carried before my Lord Nottingham; who examined the Papers, and after being examined by the Cabinet Council they were committed to the Tower. The Evidence was very full and plain against them both, much to the same effect and purport: The Letters being also Read against them in Court, were adjudged to be of no less Import than High-Treason. Upon the whole they had nothing material to offer in their Defence; so after a very long hearing, they were both found Guilty of High Treason. Edmond Elliot was ordered to remain till further order.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1691. I dined with Lord Clarendon in the Tower [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1691. I went to visit Lord Clarendon, still prisoner in the Tower [Map], though Lord Preston (age 41) being pardoned was released.

In Jul 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 44) was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

On 25 Oct 1691 George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 44) died at Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at Holy Trinity Church, Minories [Map].

In 1692 Charles Middleton 2nd Earl Middleton (age 42) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for plotting to restore King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 58). After his release his joined the exiled court in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.

In Mar 1694 Anthony Carey 5th Viscount Falkland (age 38) was imprisoned on charges of peculation at Tower of London [Map].

In 1703 John Roettiers (age 71) died and was buried in the Tower of London [Map].

On 10 Nov 1710 Edward Griffin 1st Baron Griffin (age 59) died having been imprisoned for being a Jacobite at Tower of London [Map]. He was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].His son James Griffin 2nd Baron Griffin (age 42) succeeded 2nd Baron Griffin of Braybrooke.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston [Map]. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton (age 37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London [Map] on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.


On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

On 09 Feb 1716 William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (age 35) effected his escape from the Tower of London [Map] by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart (age 26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater (age 23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave (age 20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond (age 44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 54) in person without success.

On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map]. Earl Derwentwater, Baronet Radclyffe of Derwentwater in Cumberland forfeit.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

General Thomas Forster of Adderstone (age 31) was attainted. He was imprisoned at Newgate Prison, London [Map] but escaped to France.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper (age 50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

On 29 Oct 1722 Thomas Howard 8th Duke of Norfolk (age 38) was arrested under suspicion of involvement in a Jacobite plot, and was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

In 1725 Thomas Parker 1st Earl Macclesfield (age 58) was imprisoned until payment of his £30,000 fine was received at Tower of London [Map].

Vesta Monumenta. 1741. Plate 1.63. Plan of the Liberties of the Tower of London [Map].

Trial and Execution of Earl Ferrers

Diary of Caroline Girlie. 06 May 1760. Earl Ferrers (deceased) was carried from the Tower [Map] to Tyburn [Map] executed by a party of Horse and Foot Guards, a Clergyman and the two Sherifs were in the Coach with him he poor unhappy man was drest in his wedding suit, dating as he himself said his whole unhappy conduct from a forced marriage. He observed that the apparatus, and being made a spectacle of to so vast a multitude was greatly worse than death itself the procession was two hours & 3/4 from setting out, the Landau & six in which he was ye Sheriffs each in their Chariots one mourning Coach and a Hearse attended, and return'd thro' Lincoln's Inn Fields about one, I think I never shall forget a procession so moving, to know a man an hour before in perfect health then a Lifeless course, yet a just victim to his Country, for the abuse of of that power his rank in Life had given him a Title too, his rank indeed caused his punishment, as the good Old King, in answer to numerous petitions of his greatly to be pitied Family made this memorable speech, "That for the last years of his Life, he had been beyond his most Sanguine hopes successful, for which he should ever return thanks to God, and on his part he had and always would endeavor to Administer justice as he ought, as Events had shown by the punishment of his most exalted Subjects". This was a noble answer. yet none could help pitying this unhappy Lord, his intellects most probably was rather more in fault than his heart in the murder for which he Suffer'd, and had he been low born his majesty would have shewn more Mercy without such strict Justice.

In Jun 1798 Valentine Lawless 2nd Baron Cloncurry (age 24) was imprisoned on suspicion of treason in London, released, re-arrested and held in the Tower of London [Map] until March 1801.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. Sir Thomas, who was a hospitable and generous man, died in 1549, and Deene [Map] passed to his son Edmund, who married Agnes Bussey, a member of the great Lincolnshire family. Sir Edmund Brudenell carried out extensive building operations at Deene, and the numerous initials of E. and A. and the many shields with the Brudenell and Bussey arms show that he considered his alliance with their family an important one. Camden mentions that Sir Edmund had literary and antiquarian tastes, which were also possessed by his nephew Thomas, who succeeded to the estates in 1606. He also built largely, but the great Tower was not finished until about 1628. Sir Thomas was a staunch cavalier, who raised soldiers for the King's garrisons, and he was made a Baron by Charles I. After the Royal cause was lost he suffered the penalty of his loyalty and was imprisoned in the Tower [Map] for twenty years. The brave old cavalier kept a most interesting diary during his imprisonment, which is still preserved in the library at Deene; it consists of about 30 or 40 volumes of MS., which give interesting details of his confinement and the principal events of the time.

Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Wriothesley's Chronicle. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde, Mr. Norys, Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston, and Markys, were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill [Map]; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London [Map]; the Lord of Rochfordes bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower [Map], Mr. Weston and Norys in the church yeard of the same [Map] in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. About this time a rover or thief of Scotland, called Duncan Camell, was after long fight taken on the sea, by a Squire of Cornwall called Master John Arundell, and presented to the King’s Highness, who committed him to the Tower of London [Map], where he remained prisoner a long season after.

John Seymour was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Chronica Majora. Incited by these promises, the king made arrangements to enter Wales, He therefore issued royal letters, ordering all throughout England who owed him military service to assemble at Gloucester, in the beginning of autumn, equipped with horses and arms, to set out on an expedition which he had determined on. He next held a council at Shrewsbury, on the morrow of the feast of St. Peter "ad vincula," and within a fortnight he raised his standard, and turned his arms against his nephew David, as he had discovered him to be a traitor and rebel in every respect, and as he refused to come at any time to a peaceable conference at his, the king's, summons, even under a promise of safe-conduct; for in a stiff-necked and obstinate way he replaied that he would not, on any account, release his brother Griffin. The king then led his army, which was numerous and of great strength, in good order, towards Chester, as if about to make war immediately. David, however, feared to encounter his violence, both because the heat, which had continued intense for four months, had dried up all the lakes and marshy places of Wales, and because many of the Welsh nobles, especially the powerfid and prudent Griffin, the son of Madoch, who had become a great ally of the king's, loved Griffin more than him, David, and also because he was lying under an anathema, and feared lest he should become still worse off; he therefore sent word to the king that he would set Griffin at liberty, at the same time informing him with many reasonings, that if he did release him, he would excite renewed wars against him. David also imposed on the king the condition that he should receive him peaceably, on his binding himself by oath, and by giving hostages, and that he would not deprive him of his inheritance. This the king kindly conceded, and David thereupon released his brother Griffin, and sent him to the king, who, trusting to prudent advice, sent him, on his arrival, to London, under the protection and conduct of John of Lexington, to be there kept in the Tower [Map], with some other nobles of Wales, the hostages of David and other Welsh princes. All these events occurred between the day of the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas-day.

Ingelram Percy was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Froissart. On Corpus Christi day king Richard heard mass, in the tower of London [Map], with all his lords, and afterwards entered his barge, attended by the earls of Salisbury, Warwick and Suffolk, with other knights. He rowed down the Thames towards Rotherhithe [Map], a manor belonging to the crown, where were upwards of ten thousand men, who had come from Blackheath to see the king and to speak to him: when they perceived his barge approach, they set up such shouts and cries as if all the devils in hell had been in their company. They had their knight, sir John Newtoun, with them ; for, in case the king had not come and they found he had made a jest of them, they would, as they had threatened, have cut him to pieces.

Gruffudd ab Owain Glyndŵr Mathrafal was imprisoned at Tower of London [Map].

Froissart. The king of England left the Tower of London [Map] at a very early hour, and rode to Eltham [Map], where he remained. The same day, towards evening, the earls of Arundel and Warwick were brought to the Tower [Map] by the king's officers, and there confined, to the great surprise of the citizens. Their imprisonment caused many to murmur, but they were afraid to act, or do anything against the king's pleasure, lest they might suffer for it. It was the common conversation of the knights, squires, and citizens of London, and in other towns, - "It is useless for us to say more on this matter, for the dukes of Lancaster and of York, brothers to the duke of Gloucester, can provide a remedy for all this whenever they please: they assuredly would have prevented it from happening, if they had suspected the king had so much courage, or that he would have arrested their brother; but they will repent of their indolence: and, if they are not instantly active, it will end badly."

On 22 Apr 1613, before Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset and Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset were married, the Howard family sought to undermine Thomas Overbury's influence over Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland offered Thomas Overbury an ambassadorship, possibly on the Howard's advice, which Overbury declined to James' annoyance who put Overbury in the Tower of London [Map].

Hall's Chronicle 1540. In this yere the lord Leonard Gray, brother to Thomas lord Marques Dorset, being the King’s Lieutenant in Ireland, practised sundry feats for his profit, as in delivering traitors being hostages, and especially his nephew Fitzgerald, brother to Thomas Fitzgerald before executed, and also caused such of the Irishe men, as he had intelligence with all, to invade such of the King’s friends, which he favoured not. Wherefore the king sent for him, and he mistrusting and seeing no refuge wrote to the King’s enemies, to invade the English pale after his departure. And also he kept the King’s treasure, to his own use, without retaining soldiers, according to his commission whereupon, when he came to London, he was sent to the Tower [Map].

Calendars. 20. The king to the mayor and sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament it was ordained, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizen as alien, who shall wish to take any wool, hides, or woolfells out of our kingdom of England, should deliver and bring one ounce of gold in foreign coinage for each sack of wool, and a similar ounce for every last of hides, and a similar ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to our bullion in our Tower of London [Map], within half a year from the time of customing and cocketing the wool, hides and woolfells, in and under the name of him by whom they were thus customed and cocketed; and that the said merchants, if they did not pay one ounce of this kind of foreign coinage for each sack of wool and each half last of hides and every two hundred and forty woolfells to our aforesaid bullion in the above manner, should pay us for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence; and for every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence; in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that all and singular such merchants before exporting the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from any port of the kingdom of England should find surety to our customs officers in the same ports to pay and deliver the ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form. We order you publicly to proclaim all and singular the aforesaid things in the said city and suburbs of the same wheresoever shall seem best to you, and cause them to be firmly kept as best you can. Witnessed by the king at Westminster on 20 February 1397.

Similar writs were sent to all the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are.

Writs for taking surety.

The king to the collectors of customs and subsidies on wool, hides, and woolfells in the port of our city of London, greeting. Whereas in our last parliament, etc., as above, as far as to deliver and bring, and then thus - We order you that from every such merchant, before they take the aforesaid wool, hides, and woolfells from the said port of London, you take sufficient surety, for which you will answer to us at your peril, that they will deliver such ounces of gold to our aforesaid bullion in the aforesaid form, from time to time under your seal clearly and distinctly notifying the keeper and master of our mint in the aforesaid Tower of the surety thus taken, and of the names of the aforesaid merchants, and of the number of sacks of wool and hides and woolfells which are taken out of the said port. Witnessed as above.

Similar writs are sent to the king's collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are under the same date.

Geoffrey Mandeville was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Calendars. 19. Be it remembered that it was ordained in this parliament, with the assent of the same parliament, that each and every merchant, as well denizens as aliens, who should wish to take out of England wool, hides or woolfells, should pay one ounce of gold in foreign coin for every sack of wool, and one such ounce for every half last of hides, and one such ounce for every two hundred and forty woolfells, to the king's bullion in the Tower of London [Map], within half a year from the time of the custom and cocketing of the same wool, hides and woolfells, and in and under the name of him from whom they shall thus be customed and cocketed. And that the said merchants, if they do not pay one such ounce of foreign coin for every sack of wool and for every half last of hides, and for every two hundred and forty woolfells to the said bullion, in the aforesaid form, should pay the king for every sack of wool thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every last of hides thirteen shillings and four pence, and on every four hundred and eighty woolfells thirteen shillings and four pence, in addition to the customs and subsidies and other dues owed thereon. And that each and every such merchant, before they take the said wool, hides, and woolfells out of any ports of the kingdom of England, should find sufficient surety to the king's customs officers in the same ports to pay the said ounces of gold to the said bullion in the aforesaid form.

Whereupon writs of proclamation were directed to the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and towns where the staples are. Also, writs to the collectors of customs and subsidies in the ports where the staples are, to take surety from the said merchants, and to notify thereof the keeper and master of the mint in the said Tower of London, as appears from the tenor of the said writs transcribed below:

Writs made thereon.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, the third son, of whom we now treat, was in wit and courage equal with either of them, in body and prowess far under them both: little of stature, ill featured of limbs, crooked-backed, his left shoulder much higher than his right, hard-favored in appearance, and such as is in the case of lords called warlike, in other men called otherwise. He was malicious, wrathful, envious, and from before his birth, ever perverse. It is for truth reported that the Duchess his mother had so much ado in her travail to birth him that she could not be delivered of him uncut, and he came into the world with the feet forward, as men be borne outward, and (as the story runs) also not untoothed. Either men of hatred reported the above for truth or else nature changed her course in his beginning-in the course of whose life many things were unnaturally committed. No unskilled captain was he in war, for which his disposition was more suited than for peace. Sundry victories had he, and sometimes overthrows, but never by fault of his own person, either of hardiness or political order. Free was he called when dispensing gifts, and somewhat above his power liberal; with large gifts he got for himself unsteadfast friendship, for which he was glad to pillage and spoil in other places, and get for himself steadfast hatred. He was close and secret, a deep dissembler, lowly of countenance, arrogant of heart, outwardly friendly where he inwardly hated, not omitting to kiss whom he thought to kill; pitiless and cruel, not for evil will always, but for ambition, and either for the surety or increase of his estate. Friend and foe was much the same; where his advantage grew, he spared no man death whose life withstood his purpose. He slew with his own hands King Henry the Sixth, being prisoner in the Tower [Map], as men constantly say, and that without commandment or knowledge of the King, who would, undoubtedly, if he had intended such a thing, have appointed that butcherly office to some other than his own born brother.

William Mandeville was appointed Constable of the Tower of London.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Beauchamp Tower [Map]

In 1397 Thomas Beauchamp 12th Earl Warwick (age 58) was imprisoned at Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London [Map] during the Lords Appellant.

On 12 May 1537 Abbot Adam Sedbar (age 35) was captured. He was imprisoned in the Beauchamp Tower, Tower of London [Map] where his inscribed name on the wall "ADAM SEDBAR. ABBAS JOREVALL 1537" can still be seen.

On 26 Feb 1563 Arthur Pole of Lordington in Sussex (age 32) was found guilty of treason. He was imprisoned in the Beauchamp Tower [Map], where an inscription can be found that reads: "Deo Servire / Penitentiam Inire / Fato Obedire / Regnare Est / A Poole / 1564 / IHS" ("To be subject to God, to enter upon penance, to be obedient to fate, is to reign, A Poole, 1564, Jesus").

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Bowyer Tower [Map]

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London [Map]. Duke Clarence, Earl Salisbury extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey (age 35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

Richard, Duke of Gloucester (age 25) succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb [Map].

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Brick Tower [Map]

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (age 55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and so was also Harry Saville (age 27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (age 35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (age 35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (age 38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower [Map], this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (age 58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, the King (age 38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (age 35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (age 54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (age 41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (age 41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (age 27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did bid Holmes (age 47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (age 27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (age 41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (age 67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) to come to the King (age 38), Holmes (age 47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (age 38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (age 41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (age 38) asking W. Coventry (age 41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (age 38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (age 38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower [Map]2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (age 35) and his brother (age 50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (age 38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (age 41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe [Map], and so walked to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (age 35) is, and his Duchess (age 31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (age 31), the Countess of Falmouth (age 24), Castlemayne (age 28), Henrietta Hide (age 23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (age 24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (age 47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (age 17), Blake (age 16), and Howard (age 18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (age 43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (age 28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (age 48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny (age 46), and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (age 28) how angry the Duke of York (age 35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (age 31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (age 24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (age 41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower [Map] stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Iron Gate [Map]

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who though he has been abroad again two or three days is falling ill again, and is let blood this morning, though I hope it is only a great cold that he has got. It was a great trouble to me (and I had great apprehensions of it) that my Lord desired me to go to Westminster Hall [Map], to the Parliament-house door, about business; and to Sir Wm. Wheeler (age 52), which I told him I would do, but durst not go for fear of being taken by these rogues; but was forced to go to White Hall and take boat, and so land below the Tower at the Iron-gate [Map]; and so the back way over Little Tower Hill [Map]; and with my cloak over my face, took one of the watermen along with me, and staid behind a wall in the New-buildings behind our garden, while he went to see whether any body stood within the Merchants' Gate, under which we pass to go into our garden, and there standing but a little dirty boy before the gate, did make me quake and sweat to think he might be a Trepan1. But there was nobody, and so I got safe into the garden, and coming to open my office door, something behind it fell in the opening, which made me start. So that God knows in what a sad condition I should be in if I were truly in the condition that many a poor man is for debt: and therefore ought to bless God that I have no such reall reason, and to endeavour to keep myself, by my good deportment and good husbandry, out of any such condition.

Note 1. TT. Trickster.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Ordnance Office

In 1664 Samuel Martin worked at the Ordnance Office, Tower of London.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Red Bulwarke [Map]

The Red Bulwarke, Tower of London [Map], or The Bulwarke Gate, was a brick extension to the entrance of the Tower of London [Map] built during the reign of King Edward IV of England. It is now longer extant being demolished before 1668.

Annales of England by John Stow. 28 Jan 1547. Edward (age 9) the first borne at Hampton court [Map] (by the decease of k. Henry (age 55) his father) began his raigne the 28 of January, and was proclaimed k. of England, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, and of the churches of England and also of Ireland the supreme head immedlatly in earth under God, & on the last day of January, in the yere of Christ after the Church of England 1546 but after the accompt of them that begin the yere at Chatfimas 1547 being then of the age of nine yéeres. And the same day in the afternoone the saide young king came to the tower of London [Map] from Hertford, and rode into the City at Aldgate, and so along the wall by the crossed Friars [Map] to the Tower hill, & entred at the red bulwarke [Map], where be was received by sir John Gage (age 67) constable of the tower, and the lieutenant on horseback, the Earle of Hertford (age 47) riding before the king, and sir Anthony Browne (age 47) riding after him: and on the bridge next the warde gate, the archbishop of Canterbury (age 57), the lorde Chancellor (age 41), with other great lords of the Councell received him, and so brought him to his chamber of pretence, there they were sworne to his majesty.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Tower Green [Map]

On 18 Oct 1470 John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 43) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. On 14 Apr 1471 His son Edward Tiptoft 2nd Earl of Worcester succeeded 2nd Earl Worcester, 3rd Baron Tiptoft.

On 13 Jun 1483 King Richard III of England (age 30) arranged a Council meeting at the Tower of London [Map] attended by William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63), Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) and Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 28). During the course of the evening Richgard accused William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52), Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) of treasonable conspiracy with the Queen (age 46).

William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 52) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. He was buried in North Aisle St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle [Map] next to King Edward IV of England. His son Edward Hastings 2nd Baron Hastings Baron Botreaux, Hungerford and Moleyns (age 16) succeeded 2nd Baron Hastings.

Cardinal John Morton (age 63) and Archbishop Thomas Rotherham (age 59) were arrested.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (age 60)e and the Lieutenant (age 56) brought forthe the Queene (age 35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her,g whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same,a and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after they had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the Duke of Northfolke (age 63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge: Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene [Map], els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (age 60) and the Ladie Boleyn (age 56), her aunte.

Note e. Sir William Kingston (age 60).

Note f. Sir Edmond Walsingham (age 56).

Note g. Her indictment, which comprised six sereral charges, is preserred in the Public Record Office, with the subsequent proceedings thereon.

Note a. Upon her examination she positively denied she had ever been false to the King; but, being told that Norris, Weston, Brereton, and Smeton had accused her, she said she ought not to conceal certain things which had passed between her and them. See Burnet, tom, i. pp. 191, 280, &c.

On 19 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map].

On 27 May 1541, after some two and a half years of imprisonment, Margaret Pole Countess Salsbury (age 67) was executed at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map] for her role in the Exeter Conspiracy.

Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu forfeit.

On 13 Feb 1542 Queen Catherine Howard (age 19) and Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 37) were beheaded at Tower Green [Map]. Henry Howard (age 26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Mary Boleyn (age 43) was the heir of Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 37) being the sister of her deceased husband George Boleyn Viscount Rochford.

On 12 Feb 1554 Guildford Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (age 18) was beheaded at Tower Green [Map] by order of Queen Mary I (age 37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Feb 1554. The 12 of Februarie Guilforde Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at the Tower hill [Map]. And Ladie Jane (age 18) his wife was immediatlie after his death beheaded within the Tower upon the greene [Map].

On 25 Feb 1601 Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map] during the Essex Rebellion. Earl Essex forfeit. It isn't cleaer whether his other titles Viscount Hereford, Baron Ferrers of Chartley and Baron Bourchier were forfiet.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, Wakefield Tower [Map]

On 21 May 1471 Henry VI (age 49) died (possibly murdered) in the Wakefield Tower in the Tower of London [Map].

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, White Tower [Map]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Oct 1561. The furst day of October was a fyre whet-in [within] the Towre of London be-yond the Whyt Towre [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall [Map] as far as London Bridge [Map], through the late Fleet Street [Map], Ludgate hill by St. Paul's [Map], Cheapside [Map], Exchange, Bishops-gate [Map], Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields [Map], thence through Cornhill [Map], etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (age 36) got to the Tower [Map] by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower [Map], where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

Europe, British Isles, England, Tower of London, White Tower, Chapel of St John the Evangelist [Map]

The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. And after that the corps (deceased) was could the Serjeant of the Chandry with such officers that belong to that Office had the Charge of baumeing with other serimonies theirto belonging and were allowed xl. Ells of lynning holland Cloth of Ell bredth with there gomes baumes Spices sweet wines and other as thereto belongeth and was thereto according.

Item after that she was sered by the Kings Plumer Closed her in lead with an Epitaph of lead what she was and then all that was Chested in borcle sufficiently Coverd for bearing of the same which was covered with white and black velvet with a Crosse of white damaske.

Item in the quire of the Chappell of the Tower [Map] was ordeyned a hearse of fine prncipills with Renninge lights about the Church and all the windowes rayled about a good heighte furnish'd with burninge tapers and also hanged with black Cloth furnish'd with scochins of her Armes.

The Sunday next following the corps (deceased) was removed from her Chamber to the Chappcll [Map] in manner that followeth.

First there was The Abbott of Westminster (age 39) in pontificalibus with the Dean of the kings Chappell (age 63) and the whole company of the same fowr knights bearing the Canapye with great Number of Gentlemen which went two and two together on every syde of the prossion great Number of torches brening borne by the Kings and the Queens servants after them the Officers of Armes and the Greatest estates and other Lords their present layd their hands to the Corps the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (age 24) was that day principall Mourner and all the other Laides followed her two and two together in such most sadd and simplest Clothing that they had on their heads thredden kierchiefs hanging on their shoulders and close under their Chins and this daily until their slopps mantells hoodes and paris were made and Ordyned. And when the Corps was sett under the hearse in the Chapell [Map] Coverd with a rich Cloth of black velvet with a Crosse of Cloth of Gold. And an Officer of Armes in an high voice said for Queen EHzebeth soule and all Xtn souls Pater noster and every ...... and atoremus before the Collect Aminabus inlykewise.

That night and every Night following was ordyned a goodly watch both of men and Gentlewomen at the lest iiij gentlewomen ij officers of Armes and vij yeomen and grooms. The gentlewomen were relieved with vj ladies which continually did knele about the Corps.

Then the kings Chaplin began and Redd the sawter that done to the laudes and Commendations.

After that the Deane of the kings Chappell (age 63) all the nobles officers of Armes other gentle and honest persons went to the great chamber for the Ladys to the Masse of Requiem.

Then was the Lady Catherin (age 23) sister of the noble Queene (deceased) Cheif mourner led by the Earle of Surry (age 60) and Earle of Essex her train borne by the Lady Elizabeth Stafford (age 24) accompanied also with all the other Laidies and Gentlewomen of the Court And when they were comen to the quier the foresaid vj Laides gave roome to there betters in tyme masse was done after which they continued their watch.

The Cheif Mourner (age 23) kneled at the heade alone then an officer of Arms began for the Queene &c And so began the masse songen by the Abbot of Westminster (age 39) at the Offringe the Lady was led by ij of the greatest Estates there present and the lest gave her the offring having before her the Chamberlain and the Officers of Arms passing always by the Corps did their obeysance as before.

Then offered the other six Laides before any Estate ij and ij together then the greatest estates and all the Laides and Gentlewomen then all the other Laides and knights and squires with other Gentlemen So this order as before was dayly kept as long as she was in the Tower every day in pontificalibus by a Bishop or an Abbott at the least as the next day by the Abbott of Barmsey The iij11 by the Abbott Albones The iiijth by the Abbott of Winchcomb The vth by the Abbott of Towerhill The vj'h by the Abbott of Stratford The vij"1 day there was iij solempne masses The first of our lady sungen by the Abbott of Redyng att that masse offered a piece of Gold of xld for the masse pennye the principle Mourner and no other person The second masse songen by the bishop Landaffe and Likewise at the masse none offered but she and then offered a piece of Gold of 5s. The iijd Masse songen by the bishop of Norwigge and att that Masse she offered a Noble Then offered the Laides and the Nobles as before The viijth day the service was done by the Bishop of Bangor The ixth day by the Bishop of Exeter the xll> day by the Bishop of Lincolne.

That Masse done the Lords and Laides went to breakfast and in meane tyme the Corps was conveyd into the Chaire which was eniparralled as followeth:

First all the bayles sydes and Coffers were covered with black velvett and over all along of a prety depnes a Cloth of black velvett with a Crosse of White Cloth of gould well frindged drawn with vi horses traped with black velvett and all the draught of the same.

And when the Corps was in the Chest there was Ordeyned an Image or a personage like a Queene Clothed in the very Roabes of Estate of the Queene having her very rich Crowne on her Head her heire about her shoulders her septer in her right Hand and her fingers well garnished with Gould and precious Stones.

Europe, British Isles, England, White Tower, King's Hall Tower of London [Map]

The King's Hall [Map] at the Tower of London was located on the first floor of the White Tower.

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London [Map].

Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel (age 24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).

Edward Powers Lord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.